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UNIT VI

Digital cellular networks


Topics
GSM architecture
GSM channels
Multiple access schemes
- TDMA
- CDMA
- WCDMA
GSM: Overview
GSM
formerly: Groupe Spciale Mobile (founded 1982)
now: Global System for Mobile Communication
Pan-European standard (ETSI, European
Telecommunications Standardisation Institute)
simultaneous introduction of essential digital
cellular services in three phases (1991, 1994,
1996) by the European telecommunication
administrations, seamless roaming within Europe
possible
today many providers all over the world use GSM
(more than 130 countries in Asia, Africa, Europe,
Australia, America)
more than 100 million subscribers
Performance characteristics of GSM
Communication
mobile, wireless digital communication; support for voice
and data services
Total mobility
international access, chip-card enables use of access points
of different providers
Worldwide connectivity
one number, the network handles localization
High capacity
better frequency efficiency, smaller cells, more customers
per cell
High transmission quality
high audio quality
uninterrupted phone calls at higher speeds (e.g., from cars,
trains) better handoffs and
Security functions
access control, authentication via chip-card and PIN
Cont.
The GSM system is a frequency- and time-division cellular
system, each physical channel is characterized by a carrier
frequency and a time slot number
Cellular systems are designed to operate with groups of low-
power radios spread out over the geographical service area.
Each group of radios serve MSs presently located near them.
The area served by each group of radios is called a CELL
Uplink and downlink signals for one user are assigned
different frequencies, this kind of technique is called
Frequency Division Duplex (FDD)
Data for different users is conveyed in time intervals called
slots , several slots make up a frame. This kind of technique is
called Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)
OBJECTIVES OF A GSM
To provide the subscriber a wide range of services and facilities, both
voice and nonvoice, that are compatible with those offered by existing
networks (e.g., PSTN, ISDN)

To introduce a mobile radio system that is compatible with ISDN

To provide certain services and facilities exclusive to mobile situations

To give access to the GSM network for a mobile subscriber in a country


that operates the GSM system

To provide facilities for automatic roaming, locating, and updating of


mobile subscribers

To provide service to a wide range of MSs, including vehicle-mounted stations,


portable stations, and handheld stations

To provide for efficient use of the frequency spectrum

To allow for a low-cost infrastructure and terminal and to keep cost of


service low
CELLULAR TELEPHONY
A cellular telephone system links mobile subscribers into
the public telephone system or to another cellular
subscriber.
Information between the mobile unit and the cellular
network uses radio communication. Hence the subscriber
is able to move around and become fully mobile.
Each cell has the equipment to transmit and receive calls
from any subscriber located within the borders of its radio
coverage area.
GSM History and Overview
1989 Standard Protocol for GSM take effect

1991 GSM system began to provide service in Europe(2G)

1992 System was named as Global System for


Mobile Communication

1994 Provide services for the whole world

1996 Micro Cell Technique is used in GSM system


GSM ARCHITECTURE
PSTN
MSC/VLR GMSC ISDN
GSM /GPRS BSS
A
Abis BSC
MS HLR/AUC
BTS C/D/Gs

PCU
SS7
BSC Gb SMS system
MS Um Gr/Gs/Gd/Ge Gc
BTS
GPRS backbone Internet,
SGSN Gi Intranet
Ga GGSN

OMC CG BG
Gp Other PLMN
Contd
GSM consists of many subsystems, such as the mobile station (MS),
the base station subsystem(BSS), the network and switching
subsystem(NSS), and the operation subsystem(OSS).
Mobile Station(MS): An MS is used by a mobile subscriber to
communicate with the mobile network. Several types of MSs exist,
each allowing the subscriber to make and receive calls.
The range or coverage area of an MS depends on the output power
of the output. Different types of MSs have different output power
capabilities and consequently different ranges.
GSM MSs consist of
A mobile terminal
A Subscriber Identity Module (SIM)
In GSM the subscriber is separated from the mobile terminal. Each
subscribers information is stored as a smart card SIM. The SIM
can be plugged into any GSM mobile terminal. This brings the
advantages of security and portability of subscribers.
Base Station Subsystem-BSS
MSC

The Base Station


Controller BSC BSS
The Base Transceiver TC/SM
Station BTS
The Trans-coder TC and BSC
Sub multiplexer (SM)

BTS
Contd.

The BSS is the fixed end of the radio interface that provides control
and radio coverage functions for one or more cells and their
associated MSs.
It is the interface between the MS and the MSC.
The BSS comprises one or more Base Transceiver Stations (BTSs),
each containing the radio components that communicate with MSs
in a given area, and a Base Site Controller (BSC) which supports
call processing functions and the interfaces to the MSC.
Digital radio techniques are used for the radio communications
link, known as the Air Interface, between the BSS and the MS.
EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT OF THE BSS
Control flow
User data flow

OSS

MS BSS NSS
EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT OF NSS
Control flow
User data flow
OSS

BSS NSS PSTN

BSS
Mobile-service Switching Center - MSC

The Mobile services Switching Centre (MSC) co-ordinates


the setting up of calls to and from GSM users.
It is the telephone switching office for MS originated or
terminated traffic and provides the appropriate bearer
services, teleservices and supplementary services.
It controls a number of Base Station Sites (BSSs) within a
specified geographical coverage area and gives the radio
subsystem access to the subscriber and equipment databases.
The MSC carries out several different functions depending on
its position in the network.
Contd.

When the MSC provides the interface between PSTN and the
BSS in the GSM network it is called the Gateway MSC.
Some important functions carried out by MSC are Call
processing including control of data/voice call setup, inter
BSS & inter MSC handovers, control of mobility
management, Operation & maintenance support including
database management, traffic metering and man machine
interface & managing the interface between GSM & PSTN
N/W.
Home Location Register - HLR

The HLR contains the master database of all subscribers in the


PLMN.
This data is remotely accessed by the MSCs and VLRs in the
network. The data can also be accessed by an MSC or a VLR in a
different PLMN to allow inter-system and inter-country roaming.
A PLMN may contain more than one HLR, in which case each
HLR contains a portion of the total subscriber database. There is
only one database record per subscriber.
The subscribers data may be accessed by the IMSI or the MSISDN.
Contd.
The parameters stored in HLR are

Subscribers ID (IMSI and MSISDN )


Current subscriber VLR.
Supplementary services subscribed to.
Supplementary services information (eg. Current
forwarding address ).
Authentication key and AUC functionality.
TMSI and MSRN
Visitor Location Register -VLR

The Visited Location Register (VLR) is a local subscriber database,


holding details on those subscribers who enter the area of the
network that it covers.
The details are held in the VLR until the subscriber moves into the
area serviced by another VLR.
The data includes most of the information stored at the HLR, as
well as more precise location and status information.
The VLR provides the system elements local to the subscriber, with
basic information on that subscriber, thus removing the need to
access the HLR every time subscriber information is required.
Contd.

The additional data stored in VLR are

Mobile status ( Busy / Free / No answer etc. )


Location Area Identity ( LAI )
Temporary Mobile Subscribers Identity ( TMSI )
Mobile Station Roaming Number ( MSRN
Authentication Centre - AUC

The AUC is a processor system that perform


authentication function.
It is normally co-located with the HLR.

The authentication process usually takes place each time


the subscriber initializes on the system.
Each subscriber is assigned an authentication key (Ki)
which is stored in the SIM and at the AUC.
OPERATION SUBS YSTEM
Subscription
management and Network Operation and
charging maintenance
NSS

BSS

Mobile equipment
management
ME

SIM
Contd.
There are three areas of OSS

1. Network operation and maintenance functions


2.Subscription management, including charging and
billing
3.Mobile equipment management

These tasks require interaction between some or all of the


infrastructure equipment.
Layer modeling (OSI model)

The open system interconnection (OSI) of GSM consists of five


layers.
Transmission (TX)
Radio resource management (RR)
Mobility management (MM)
Communication management (CM)
Operation, administration, and maintenance (OAM)

The transmission layer sets up a connection between MS and BTS.


The RR layer refers to the protocol for management of the
transmission over the radio interface and provides a stable link
between the MS and BSC.
Contd.
The Functions of MM layer:

Manages the subscriber databases, including data and


manages authentication activities, SIM, HLR, and AUC.

The following functions are parts of the CM layer:


1. Call control

2.Supplymentary services management

3. short message service(SMS)


FUNCTIONAL PLANES OF GSM
OPEARTOR
user

OAM

CM

MM

RR

Transmission
Transmission-Data services

level1 Personal Personal computer


computer

TAF IWF
level2
MSC
VLR

Level 3
Contd.
Data can transmit over these planes

1. End-to- end transmission-direct transmission through


hardwire.
2. TAF to IWF transmission through subscriber units.
3. GSM radio transmission through subscriber units; acts like a
voice call in the air.
Modulation: Gaussian minimum shift keying (GMSK) is
the modulation scheme of GSM.
GMSK utilizes a small spectrum bandwidth to send a GSM
carrier channel.
The modulation rate of a GSM carrier channel is 270.
GSM channels and channel modes
PSTN user to ISDN user

Personal Personal
computer PSTN ISDN computer

GSM user to ISDN user


Personal Personal
computer GSM ISDN computer
PHYSICAL CHANNELS
GSM is a Hybrid FDMA/TDMA system

Each GSM band is partitioned into 125 carriers, each


spaced at 200 kHz
Only 124 carriers are used.
The remaining one serves as a guarded band between
existing service and GSM.

Each carrier is framed, and each frame contains 8 time


slots.
The frame duration is 4.62 ms (= 120/26)
This equals 26 frames with a duration of 120 ms.
GSM FRAMES AND SLOTS
GSM PHYSICAL CHANNEL
Contd.

Thus, each physical channel is specified by a


(carrier, time_slot).

In order to make it unnecessary for a terminal


to transmit and receive simultaneous, time slot
i at the downlink is coupled with time slot i+3
at the uplink.
Logical Channels
Logical channels
Traffic channels (two-way)
Signaling Channels:
Broadcast channels (base-to-mobile)
Common control channels (base-to-mobile or mobile-
to-base): available to ALL terminals
Dedicated control channels (two-way): available to
specific terminals
GSM Logical Channels
Contd.
Frequency Correction Channel (FCCH)
The FCCH simply transmits 148 0s.
A terminal without a call in progress searches for a FCCH.

Synchronization Channel (SCH)


A BS transmits a SCH in time slot 0 of every frame that
follows a frame containing an FCCH.
The SCH contains a TRAINING sequence.
The DATA fields contain BS identity code and the present
frame number.
Synchronization Channel (SCH)
Brroadcast Control Channel (BCCH)
Contd.
Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH)
BS use the BCCH to transmit the information that terminals
need to set up a call, including the control channel
configuration and the access protocol.

The message length is 184 bits.


which is encoded to 224 bits (error-checking)
and then to 456 bits (1/2 convolution code) occupying 4
time slots.
Paging Channel (PCH) and Access Grant
Channel (AGCH)

Paging Channel (PCH) and Access Grant Channel (AGCH)


PCH: to notify terminals of arriving calls
AGCH: to direct a terminal to a stand-alone dedicated control
channel (SDCCH)
A terminal is allowed to enter a sleep mode.

Then it will only monitor the PCH and AGCH frames that are
assigned to it for newly arrival calls.

They together occupy 36 frames per multiframe.


Random Access Channel (RACH)

Random Access Channel (RACH)


Terminals send messages on the RACH to originate phone calls,
initiate transmissions of short messages, respond to paging
messages, and register their locations.
Terminals with information to transmit use the slotted ALOHA
protocol to gain access to the time slot.

The Ack directs the terminal to a stand-alone dedicated control


channel (SDCCH) to be used for further communications.
RACH is located in 1 time slot in each frame of the 51-frame
control multiframe (in the direction from terminals to base
stations).
Contd.
The 36-bit DATA field simply carries a 8-bit message.
This message is protected by error-detecting code and error-
correcting code.

3 of the 8 bits indicate the purpose of the access attempt.


5 of the 8 bits contains a random number.
Stand-Alone Dedicated Control Channel
(SDCCH)

Stand-Alone Dedicated Control Channel (SDCCH)


SDCCH is a two-way channel assigned to a specific
terminal.
The physical channel used by an SDCCH is a set of four
time slots in each 51-frame control multiframe.
With 114 data bits per time slot, the data rate of the
SDCCH is 1937.25 b/s
Each SDCCH has a slow associated control channel called
SACCH.
Contd.
Traffic Channels (TCH)
two kinds:
a full-rate channel occupies 24 time slots
The bit rate of a full-rate traffic channel is 22,800 b/s
a half-rate channel occupies 12 time slots
SACCH occupies time slots in frames 12 or 25 of each 26-frame
traffic multiframe.
S means slow.
The transmission rate of a traffic SACCH is 950 b/s
Fast Associated Control Channel (FACCH)
If SACCH is too slow, we can use the traffic channel to transmit
control information.
Each FACCH message is multiplexed with user information.
Burst:

Unit of transmission ( about hundred modulated bits )


Have finite duration
Occupy a finite number of spectrum
Sent in time and frequency windows ( Slots )
Burst Types:
Normal Burst
Frequency Correction
Synchronization Burst
Access Burst
Dummy Burst
Normal Burst
FRAME1(4.615ms)
FRAME2

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

0.577ms
0.546ms
3 57 bits 26 bits 57 bits 3

Guard Tail Flag Training Flag Tail


Data Data
Period Bits Bit sequence Bit Bits

Carries traffic channel and control channels BCCH, PCH, AGCH, SDCCH, SACCH and
FACCH.
Contd.

Data - Two blocks of 57 bits each. Carries speech, data or


control info.
Tail bits - Used to indicate the start and end of each burst.
Three bits always 000.

Guard period - 8.25 bits long. The receiver can only receive
and decode if the burst is received within the timeslot
designated for it.Since the MS are moving. Exact
synchronization of burst is not possible practically. Hence
8.25bits corresponding to about 30us is available as guard
period for a small margin of error.
Contd.

Flag bits - This bit is used to indicate if the 57 bits data block
is used as FACCH.

Training Sequence - This is a set sequence of bits known by


both the transmitter and the receiver( BCC of BSIC). When a
burst of information is received the equalizer searches for the
training sequence code. The receiver measures and then
mimics the distortion which the signal has been subjected to.
The receiver then compares the received data with the
distorted possible transmitted sequence and chooses the most
likely one.
Frequency Correction Burst

FRAME1(4.615ms) FRAME2

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

0.577ms
0.546ms
3 142 bits 3

Tail Tail
Fixed Data
Bits Bits
Carries FCCH channel.
Made up of 142 consecutive zeros. Enables MS to correct its local oscillator locking it
to that of the BTS .
Synchronisation Burst
FRAME1(4.615ms) FRAME2

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

0.577ms
0.546ms
3 39 bits 64 bits 39 bits 3

Guard Tail Encrypted Synchronisation Encrypted Tail Guard


Period Bits Bits Sequence Bits Bits Period
(8.25 bits)
Access Burst
FRAME1(4.615ms) FRAME2

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

0.577ms

8 41 bits 36 bits 3 68.25 bits

Tail Synchronization Encrypted Tail Guard


Bits Bits Sequence Bits Period
Dummy Burst
FRAME1(4.615ms) FRAME2

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

0.577ms
0.546ms
3 57 bits 26 bits 57 bits 3

Guard Tail Flag Training Flag Tail Guard


Data Data
Period Bits Bit sequence Bit Bits Period
Handover Sequence
oBSS nBSS MSC
Inter - BSS handover sequence
1 Periodic Measurement
MS <SACCH>

reports

2 Handover required

3 Handover Request TMSI cct. code

multiplex access scheme HO Ref. No.


4 Handover REQ ACK
5 Handover Command <FACCH> HO Ref. No.

6 Information Interchange <FACCH>

7 Handover Complete
8 Clear Command

9 Periodic Meas. reports <SACCH>


Multiple-access protocols
Time Division Multiple Access ( TDMA)
Shares a single carrier frequency with several
users.
divides the radio spectrum into time slots
one user per slot

Code
buffer and burst method
Each user occupies a CYCLICALLY REPEATING
TIME SLOT.
noncontinuous transmission
digital data and digital modulation must be Time
used
Requires time synchronization.
A channel can be thought of as a particular
time slot that recur every frame, where N time
slots comprise a frame

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Repeating Frame Structure

One TDMA Frame

Preamble Information Message Trail Bits

Slot 1 Slot 2 Slot 3 Slot N

Trail Bits Sync. Bits Information Data Guard Bits

The frame is cyclically repeated over time.


FEATURES OF TDMA FRAME STRUCTURE

FRAME STRUCTURE : Different TDMA Wireless standards have different frame structures.
Some common features are given here.
PREAMBLE: In TDMA frame, preamble contains address and synchronization information
that the both station and subscribers use to identify each other.
GUARD TIME: Utilized to allow synchronization of Receivers between different slots and
frames.(to separate users)
TIME SLOTS: Number of time slots per frame depends on many factors, such as Modulation
technique, available BW.
Low battery consumption due to non continuous transmission by subscribers.
Because of discontinuous transmissions, Hand-off process is much simpler.
As transmission and reception are at different times, Duplexers are not required.
Adaptive equalization is necessary in TDMA Systems since the transmission rates are
generally very high.
High synchronization overhead is required in TDMA systems because of burst transmissions.
bandwidth can be supplied on demand to different users by concatenating or reassigning
time slots based on priority.
Efficiency of TDMA

bOH = Nr*br + Nt*bp + Nt*bg + Nr*bg


bOH number of overhead bits
Nr number of reference bursts per frame
br reference bits per reference burst
Nt number of traffic bursts per frame
bp overhead bits per preamble in each slot
bg equivalent bits in each guard time
intervall
Efficiency of TDMA

bT = Tf * R

bT total number of bits per frame


Tf frame duration
R channel bit rate
Efficiency of TDMA

f = (1-bOH/bT)*100%

f frame efficiency
bOH number of overhead bits per frame
bT total number of bits per frame
No. of channels in TDMA system

Where m = maximum no. of TDMA users supported


on each radio channel.

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SPREAD SPECTRUM MULTIPLE ACCESS

Spread Spectrum Multiple Access (SSMA) uses signals which have a transmission
bandwidth that is several orders of magnitude greater than the minimum
required BW.

SSMA also provides immunity to multi-path interference and robust multiple


access capability.

SSMA is not BW efficient when used by single user but very efficient in multi-user
environment.

There are two types of SSMA Technique


1: Frequency hopped multiple access.(FHMA)
2: Direct sequence multiple access (DSMA). This is also called CDMA.
CODE DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS (CDMA)

A narrow band MESSAGE SIGNAL is multiplied by a very large band width


signal called the SPREADING SIGNAL.
The spreading signal is a pseudo-noise code sequence that has a chip
rate which is orders of magnitudes greater than the data rate of the
message.

Each user has its own pseudorandom code word which is approximately
orthogonal to all other code words.
The receiver performs a time correlation operation to detect only the
specific desired code word.
All other code words appear as noise due to de-correlation.
In CDMA , the power of multiple users at a receiver determine the noise
floor after de-correlation.
To combat the near-far problem, POWER CONTROL is used in most
CDMA systems (at Base station)
Chip sequences
The inner product of each code by itself is N.
C . C = [+1, +1, -1, -1] . [+1, +1, -1, -1] = 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 = 4

If two sequences are different, the inner product is 0.

B . C = [+1, -1, +1, -1] . [+1, +1, -1, -1] = 1 - 1 - 1 + 1 = 0

The inner product of each code by its complement is -N. This is shown for
code C; you can prove for yourself that it holds true for the other codes.

C . (-C ) = [+1, +1, -1, -1] . [-1, -1, +1, +1] = - 1 - 1 - 1 - 1 = -4

The inner product of a code with the complement of another code is 0.

B . (-C ) = [+1, -1, +1, -1] . [-1, -1, +1, +1] = -1 + 1 + 1 - 1 = 0


W1 and W2N
Sequence generation
Encoding rules
CDMA multiplexer
CDMA demultiplexer
PN sequences
Balance property
Run property
Correlation property

Period N=2m-1
PN sequences
100
110 X1 X2 X3
111
011
101
010
001
PN sequences

initial X1 X2 X3 X4

1000
PN sequences
1000 1010
1100 1101
1110 0110
1111 0011
0111 1001
1011 0100
0101 0010
0001
Range of PN sequence lengths
Length of shift register PN sequence length
7 27
8 255
9 511
10 1023
11 2047
12 4095
13 8191
17 131071
19 524287
DSSS
Code-Division Multiple Access
(CDMA)
Basic Principles of CDMA
D = rate of data signal
Break each bit into k chips
Chips are a user-specific fixed pattern
Chip data rate of new channel = kD

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CDMA
Advantages
Greatest spectrum efficiency:
CDMA improves call quality by filtering out background noise, cross-talk, and
interference
Simplified frequency planning - all users on a CDMA system use the same
radio frequency spectrum.
Random Walsh codes enhance user privacy; a spread-spectrum advantage
Precise power control increases talk time and battery size for mobile phones
Disadvantages
Backwards compatibility techniques are costly
Currently, base station equipment is expensive
Low traffic areas lead to inefficient use of spectrum and equipment resources

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WCDMA Transmitter

OVSF

CONVOLUTION
CRC-16 ENCODER

OVSF SCRAMBLING
CODE GEN

MODULATOR
CRC-16 CONVOLUTION
ENCODER

SCRAMBLING
OVSF
CODE GEN

CONVOLUTION
CRC-16 ENCODER

SCRAMBLING
CODE GEN

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WCDMA Rx
SCRAMBLE
CODE GEN OVSF

CONVOLUTION CRC16
MF1 DECODER

SCRAMBLE OVSF
CODE GEN

CONVOLUTION CRC16
MF2 DECODER
DEMODULATOR

SCRAMBLE
OVSF
CODE GEN

CONVOLUTION CRC16
MF3 DECODER

18-09-2017 S.P.V SUBBARAO 84