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00 03.11.2017 Issued for Implementation Amit Shah Chetan Bhavsar

Prepared &
REV Date Revision Approved BY
Reviwed By
1. Purpose
2. Scope
3. References
4. Abbreviations and Terms
5. Responsibilities
6. General
6.1. Personnel qualification
6.2. Pre-test information
6.3. Surface conditions and preparation
6.4. Applicability
6.5. Requirements of Magnetic Particles and its application
6.6. Methods and Types of Magnetization and Current
6.7. Magnetic Field strength and Adequacy
6.8. Magnetizing
6.9. Application techniques
6.10. Detection media
6.11. Viewing conditions
6.12. Application of detection media
6.13. Overall performance test
6.14. False indications
6.15. Recording of indications
6.16. Demagnetization
6.17. Test report
6.18. Examination
6.19. Record

Acceptance Criteria and Reporting # Annex A (informative)

V a r i a b l e affecting the sensitivity of magnetic particle testing
1.0 Purpose:

The purpose of these documents is to provide guidelines on practices

which are involved during execution of Magnetic Particle Testing.

2.0 Scope:

This Engineering Procedure establishes the minimum requirements and

describes the techniques for magnetic particle (MT) examinations on
welds and components conducted in accordance with the requirements
of the referenced codes/standard.

This Magnetic particle testing techniques for detection of surface

imperfections in welds in ferromagnetic materials, including the
heat affected zones, by means of magnetic particle testing. The
techniques are suitable for most welding processes and joint

Variations in the basic techniques that will provide higher or lower test
sensitivity are described in Annex A.

Please follow the EN 23278 international standard for Magnetic particle

Testing acceptance levels of the indications.

3.0 Normative references:

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the
application of this document. For dated references, only the edition
cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the
referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 3059: Non-Destructive Testing Penetrant Testing and Magnetic

Particle Testing Viewing Condition
ISO 9934-2: Non-Destructive Testing Magnetic Particle Testing Part 2 :
Detection Media
ISO 9934-3: Non-Destructive Testing Magnetic Particle Testing Part 3
ISO 17635 Non-Destructive Testing of W General rules for fusion welds in
metallic materials.
ISO 9712: Non-Destructive Testing Qualification and Certification of
EN 23278: Non-Destructive Testing of Welds- Magnetic Particle Testing Of
weld Acceptance levels.
EN ISO 17638: Non-Destructive Testing of Welds- Magnetic Particle Testing
4.0 Abbreviations and Terms:

NDT : Non Destructive Testing

MT : Magnetic Particle Testing
PT : Liquid Penetrant Testing
RT : Radiographic Testing
UT : Ultrasonic Testing
VT : Visual Testing

5.0 Responsibilities:

Manufacturing Quality In charge is responsible for implementing this

procedure in this area.
Quality Department is responsible for maintaining this procedure.

6.0 General:

6.1 Personnel qualification:

Magnetic particle testing of welds and the evaluation of results for

final acceptance shall be performed by qualified and capable personnel.
It is recommended that personnel be qualified in accordance with ISO
9712 or an equivalent standard at an appropriate level in the relevant
industry sector.

6.2 Pre-test information:

Prior to testing, the following information required:

Type and designation of the parent and weld materials:

Welding process:
Location and extent of Welds to be tested:
Joint preparation and dimensions:
Location and extent of any repairs:
Surface condition:
6.3 Surface conditions and preparation:

The weldment and an adjacent parent material area of at least

25 mm at each shall be dry and free from scale, oil, grease, weld
spatter, machining marks, dirt, heavy and loose paint and any other
foreign matter that can affect the sensitivity of the test method.

It may be necessary to improve the surface condition, e.g., by use of

abrasive paper or local grinding to permit accurate interpretation of

Any cleaning or surface preparation shall not be detrimental to the

material, the surface finish or the magnetic testing media.

6.4 Applicability:

Magnetic particle inspection shall be performed on magnetic

material only. It is obvious that smaller component in the field,
magnetic particle examination is difficult. Such cases can be
examined by magnetic particle examination after ensuring the
field adequacy by field indicator for the positioning of yoke.

6.5 Requirements of Magnetic Particles and Its application:

Magnetic particles used for examination shall be either wet or

dry type. These are finely divided ferromagnetic particle,
which are fluorescent or non fluorescent. These particles
shall be free flowing in dry as well as in suspended conditions.
These particles shall have the following characteristics such
as high permeability, low retentivity, non-toxic and low
hazard potential with regard to flammability.

Dry particle is applied either by spraying or by dusting. These

particles can be reused provided size and shape and other
characteristics are not affected due to contamination because
of multiple usage. Dry particles are used maximum up to
temperature of 315 C . When dry particle is of fluorescent or
organic coated to give better contrast against background,
shall require approval regarding their usage.
Wet particle examination requires a medium such as
conditioned water or light petroleum distillate to suspend
fluorescent or non fluorescent particles. Use of Magnetic ink
in readymade Aerosol can only be permitted for this purpose.
Colors permitted in case of fluorescent are greenish yellow
when viewed under black light and for non fluorescent it is
black or reddish brown. The wet particles are used maximum
up to temperature of 55 C.

A minimum light intensity of 100fc (1000lx) is required on

the surface to be examined to ensure adequate sensitivity
during examination and evaluation of indication.

For carrying out wet fluorescent method examination is

performed using ultraviolet lamp called black light. The
examination shall be performed in darkened area. Examiners
shall be in a darkened area for at least 5 min prior to
performing examination to enable their eyes to dark viewing.
Glasses or lenses worn by examiners shall not be photo
chromic or exhibit any fluorescence. Black light shall achieve
a minimum of intensity of 1000 micros Watts/sq. cm on the
job surface. Of the part being examined throughout the
examination. Reflectors, filters, glasses and lenses should be
checked and if necessary, cleaned prior to use. Cracked or
broken reflector filters glasses, or lenses shall be replaced
immediately. The black light intensity shall be measured with
a black light meter prior to use, whenever the lights power
source is interrupted or changed, and at the completion of
examination or series of examination.

Aerosal Magnetic material shall be checked in case of

unsatisfactory performance on the job. In case of
unsatisfactory performance the brand and type of Aerosol
magnetic ink shall be disapproved.
6.6 Methods and Types of Magnetization and Current:

Localized area magnetization shall be by yoke magnetization.

D.C. prods are not permitted.
Magnetic field generated, as a result of yoke magnetization
shall be longitudinal and circular.
Current required for magnetization shall be half wave
rectified AC or full wave rectified AC in case of yoke

6.7 Magnetic Field strength and Adequacy:

To ensure the adequacy of the field and direction of the field

for examination, magnetic field indicator shall be used.
Magnetic field indicator is an octagon shaped assembly of
eight low carbon steel pie sections furnace brazed together
and copper plated. It is held in the area where field adequacy
needs to be checked and magnetic particles are sprinkled. If
all lines are formed, field is adequate otherwise parameters
have to change to increase the field strength. Field adequacy
to be checked for each and every joins. The traceability of
field indicator shall be through serial number and test
certificate from manufacture.

6.8 Magnetizing:

6.8.1 Magnetizing equipment:

Unless otherwise specified, e.g., in an application standard, the

following types of alternating current magnetizing equipment shall be

Electromagnetic yokes;
Current flow equipment with prods;
Adjacent or threading conductors or coil techniques.

The use of direct current-magnetization or permanent magnets shall be

specified prior to testing.
The magnetizing equipment shall conform to ISO 9934-3.

Where prods are used, precautions shall be taken to minimize

overheating, burning or arcing at the contact tips. Removal of arc burns
shall be carried out where necessary. The affected area shall be tested
by a suitable method to ensure the integrity of the surface.

Yokes are meant for generation of longitudinal magnetic field, and these
are electromagnets. Yokes are characterized for their magnetic field
strength based on their lifting capacity. Yoke shall have lifting capacity
of 4.5kg minimum for AC and 18.1 kg minimum for DC at their
maximum pole spacing of 6 inch which shall be checked as when
required or on daily basis.

Each magnetizing equipment shall be calibrated once a year

6.8.2 Verification of magnetization:

A tangential magnetic field strength of 2 kA/m to 6 kA/m (r.m.s.) is


Verification of the magnetic field strength shall be carried out using one
of the following methods:

a) A component containing fine, natural or artificial imperfections in the

least favorable locations;

b) Measurement of the tangential field strength as close as possible to

the surface using a Hall Effect probe. The appropriate tangential field
strength can be difficult to measure close to abrupt changes in the
shape of a component, or where flux leaves the surface of a component;

c) calculation of the approximate current value in order to achieve

the recommended tangential field strength; the calculation can be
based on the current values specified in Figures 5 and 6;
d) Other methods based on established principles.
NOTE : Flux indicators, placed in contact with the surface being
tested, can provide a guide to the magnitude and direction of the
tangential field, but should not be used to verify that the field strength is
6.9 Application Techniques:

6.9.1 Field directions and testing area:

The delectability of an imperfection depends on the angle of its major

axis with respect to the direction of the magnetic field. This is
explained for one direction of magnetization in Figure 1.

is the angle between the magnetic field and the direction of the
min is the minimum angle for imperfection detection.
i is an example of imperfection orientation.

Figure 1 -Directions of detectable imperfections

1 magnetic field direction
2 optimum sensitivity
3 reducing sensitivity
4 insufficient sensitivity
To ensure detection of imperfections in all orientations, the welds shall be
magnetized in two directions approximately perpendicular to each other
with a maximum deviation of 30. This can be achieved using one or more
magnetization methods.

Testing in only one field direction is not recommended but may be

carried out if specified, e.g., in an application standard.

When using yokes or prods, there will be an area of the component in the
vicinity of each pole piece or tip that will be impossible to test due to
excessive magnetic field strength. This is usually seen as furring of

Care shall be taken to ensure adequate overlap of the testing

areas as shown in Figures 2 and 3.
d is the yoke/prod separation

Figure 2- Examples of effective testing area (shaded) for magnetizing

with yokes & prods

1 effective area

2 overlap

Figure 3- Overlap of effective areas

6.9.3 Typical magnetic testing techniques

Magnetic particle testing techniques for common weld joint configurations

are shown in Figures 4, 5 and 6. Values are given for guidance purposes
only. Where possible the same directions of magnetization, and field
overlaps should be used for other weld geometries to be tested. The width
of the flux current path in the material, d, shall be greater or equal to the
width of the weld and the heat affected zone + 50 mm and in all cases the
weld and the heat affected zone shall be included in the effective
area. The direction of magnetization with respect to the orientation of the
weld shall be specified.
6.10 Detection media

6.10.1 General

Detection media may be either in dry powder or liquid form in

accordance with ISO 9934-2.

6.10.2 Verification of detection media performance

Verification of the detection media shall be carried out periodically to

confirm continuing satisfactory performance.

The verification shall be carried out on components having known or

artificial surface imperfections, or on pre- magnetized reference

Indications obtained with the medium to be verified shall be

compared against those obtained from a medium having a known and
acceptable performance. For this purpose the reference indications
may be:

a) Real imperfections;

b) Photograph;

c) Replica.

6.11 Viewing Conditions:

The viewing condition shall be in accordance with ISO 3059.

6.12 Application of detection media:

After the object has been prepared for testing, the detection medium shall
be applied by spraying, flooding or dusting immediately prior to and during
the magnetization. Following this, time shall be allowed for indications to
form before removal of the magnetic field.

When magnetic suspensions are used, the magnetic field shall be

maintained within the object until the majority of the suspension
carrier liquid has drained away from the test surface. This will prevent
any indications being washed away.
Depending on the material being tested, its surface condition and
magnetic permeability, indications will normally remain on the surface
even after removal of the magnetic field due to residual magnetism within
the part. However, the presence of residual magnetism shall not be
presumed and post evaluation techniques after removal of the prime
magnetic field source are only permitted when a component has been
proven by an overall performance test to retain magnetic indications.

6.13 Overall performance test:

When specified, an overall performance test of the system sensitivity for

each procedure shall be carried out on site. The performance test shall be
designed to ensure a proper functioning of the entire chain of
parameters including the equipment, the magnetic field strength and
direction, surface characteristics, detection media and illumination.

The most reliable test is to use representative test pieces containing real
imperfections of known type, location, size and size-distribution. Where
these are not available, fabricated test pieces with artificial imperfections,
or flux shunting indicators of the cross or shim-type may be used.

The test pieces shall be demagnetized and free from indications resulting
from previous tests.

NOTE: It may be necessary to perform an overall performance test of the

system sensitivity for each specific procedure on site.

6.14 False indications:

False indications which may mask relevant indications can arise for
many reasons, such as undercut and changes in magnetic permeability
in, e.g., the heat affected zone. Where masking is suspected the test
surface shall be dressed or alternative test methods should be used.

6.15 Recording of Indication:

Indications can be recorded in one or more of the

following ways by using:

a) Description in writing;

b) Sketches;

c) Photography;

d) Transparent adhesive tape;

e) Transparent varnish for "freezing" the indication on the surface tested;

f) Peelable contrast-aids;

g) Video

h) Epoxy or chemical magnetic particle


i) Magnetic tapes;

j) Electronic scanning.

6.16 Demagnetization:

After testing welds with alternating current, residual magnetization will

normally be low and there will generally be no need for demagnetization of
the object under test.

If demagnetization is required, it shall be carried out using a defined

method and to a predefined level.

Remove all magnetic medium from the surface after the examination by
either of the following methods.

Drying of wet particle and then compressed air cleaning

Flushing with solvent.

6.17 Test report

A test report shall be prepared.

The report should contain at least the following:

Material specification and area of examination

Name of the Company carrying out the test;

Method of magnetic particle examination, equipment and type of

magnetic material used for examination

Surface condition

Magnetizing process, magnetizing current and magnetic field strength

Method application of magnetic medium

Code of fabrication and interpretation


Post cleaning

Reports shall be serial numbered and traceable

Date of Testing;

Type of Joint;

Material Thickness

Welding Process

details and results of the overall performance test, where applicable;

acceptance levels;

description and location of all recordable indications;

test results with reference to acceptance levels;

Names, relevant qualification and signatures of personnel who carried

out the test.

6.18 Examination:

Magnetization shall be done at least in two directions perpendicular to

each other to insure the coverage of flows at different orientations.

Apply magnetic medium during the magnetization and look for

formation of an indication at flux leakage areas.

Once indication has developed then start removing the excess medium

for better interpretation

Check the indication are relevant or non relevant

Report all relevant indication in test report. Image of indicators shall

be collected by using transparent tape and attached to the test report.

6.19 Acceptance Criteria and Reporting:

Acceptance criteria shall be as per respective code/ specification


For acceptance criteria please refer international code EN 23278.

6.20 Record:

Records of magnetic particle examination shall be maintained in the

Magnetic particle Inspection Report.

Format no: MANF- 1 QM00-FMT-MPT-001.

Retention/handing over of records shall be as per contract,

Annex # A

Variables affecting the sensitivity of magnetic particle testing

A.1 Surface conditions and preparation

The maximum test sensitivity that can be achieved by any magnetic

testing method is dependent on many variables but can be seriously
affected by the surface roughness of the object and any irregularities
present. In some cases it can be necessary to:

dress undercut and surface irregularities by grinding;

remove or reduce the weld reinforcement.

Surfaces covered with a thin non-magnetic paint e.g. a primer may also be
tested, provided the paint surface is unbroken and the thickness of the
coating does not exceed 50 IJm. Above this thickness the sensitivity of the
method decreases and may be demonstrated to be sufficiently sensitive
before proceeding with the test.

A.2 magnetizing equipment characteristics

The use of alternating current gives the best sensitivity for

detecting surface imperfections.

Yokes produce an adequate magnetic field in simple butt-welds but where

the flux is reduced by gaps or the path is excessive through the object, as in
T-joints a reduction of sensitivity can occur.

For complex joint configurations, e.g. branch connections with an inclined

angle of less than 90, testing using yokes might be inadequate. Prods or
cable wrapping with current flow will, in these cases, prove more suitable.

A.3 Magnetic field strength and


The field strength required to produce an indication strong enough to be

detected during magnetic particle testing is dependent mainly, on the
magnetic permeability of the object.

Generally, magnetic permeability is high in softer magnetic materials, e.g.,

low alloy steels and low in harder magnetic materials, e.g., martens tic
steels. Because permeability is a function of the magnetizing current, low
permeability materials usually require application of a higher
magnetization value than do softer alloys to produce the same flux
density. It is essential, therefore, to establish that flux density values are
adequate before beginning the magnetic particle testing.

A.4 Detection media

Magnetic particle suspensions will usually give a higher sensitivity for

detecting surface imperfections than dry powders.

Fluorescent magnetic detection media usually give a higher test

sensitivity than colour contrast media, because of the higher contrast
between the darkened background and the fluorescent indication. The
sensitivity of the fluorescent method will, nevertheless, decrease in
proportion to any increase in the roughness of the surface to which
magnetic particles adhere and can cause a disturbing background
Where the background illumination cannot be adequately lowered or where
background fluorescence is disturbing, coloured detection media in conjunction
with the smoothing effect of a contrast aid will usually give better sensitivity.

Attachment 1 Electromagnetic Yoke Technique

1. Scope

This procedure covers the use of an Alternating Current (AC) yoke for
the examination of ferrous materials for surface indications using wet or
dry particles and the continuous method.

1.2 This method shall only be used to detect surface discontinuities using
AC current. Half Wave Direct Current (HWDC) may be used for
verification of discontinuities and special applications. Unless otherwise
specified, the current control on the yoke shall be set at maximum.
1.3 The prod technique should not be used on highly polished or machined
surfaces due the possibility of arc damage to the surface.
2. Equipment
Magnetization is to be performed using a Parker AC/DC contour probe (yoke)
Model DA-200 or DA-400, Magnaflux Y6 or Y-7, Johnson and Allen JAY, or
equivalent. The yoke shall demonstrate adequate magnetization force by being
able to lift a 10 lb. weight for AC and 40 lbs. for DC.
Dry powder shall be chosen to provide the greatest contrast between the powder
and the background. It is recommended to apply a light application of white
paint before application of the wet visible technique.
3. Procedure
3.1 The yoke shall be placed in contact with the surface to be examined and
3.2 While maintaining the magnetic field, apply the magnetic particles so
that a light, uniform coating settles on the examination surface.
3.3 For the dry technique, while maintaining the magnetic field, remove the
excess particles by using a low pressure air stream from a hand actuated
rubber bulb. For the wet technique, allow the solution to drain from the
part while maintaining the magnetic field.
3.4 Observe the particle formation during application and excess particle
3.5 For the wet fluorescent technique, the black light shall be warmed up for
5 minutes prior to the examination and external visible light shall be
excluded from the examination area.
4. Direction of Magnetization
4.1 Two separate examinations shall be carried out on each area. The yoke
shall be placed so the magnetic field during the second examination is
approximately perpendicular (90) to the field of the first examination
forming an "X" pattern. The legs of the yoke shall be positioned for
maximum contact with the surface being tested.
4.2 For welds on flat surfaces, the yoke shall be placed across the weld at an
angle of 30-45 from the long axis of the weld. The second
examination shall be perpendicular to the first.
4.3 For examining circumferential (pipe) and fillet welds, the yoke shall be
initially positioned so the legs straddle the weld or the area of interest
and the applied field is perpendicular to the long axis of the weld. For
the second examination, the yoke legs shall be positioned parallel to the
long axis of the weld, on the crown of the weld or immediately beside
the weld. Caution shall be exercised when performing successive shots
to note the position of the legs (poles) on the previous shot. Assure the
area of the established field sufficiently overlaps the area of the previous
field, especially at the pole positions of the previous field.
5. Examination Coverage
5.1 Yoke leg spacing shall be between a minimum of 3 inches (76.2 mm)
and a maximum of 8 inches (203.2 mm). Shorter spacing may be used to
compensate for the geometry of the area being examined or to increase
sensitivity, but leg spacing less than 3 inches (76.2 mm) is not
recommended due to the strength of the longitudinal magnetic field at
the poles.
5.2 The area to be examined shall be limited to a maximum distance of onefourth
() of the spacing on either side of a centerline joining the two
yoke poles.
6 Inspection
The surface to be tested and 1 inch (25.4 mm) of additional adjacent area shall
be examined for evidence of particle accumulations. Interpret and evaluate all
indications to the appropriate acceptance criteria after each examination.

Record all pertinent information on the MT report. Attach a sketch of the area
examined and all permanent records.
7. Post Examination Cleaning
Remove all residual magnetic particle materials from the part examined.
Perform a visual inspection to assure the post cleaning operation was thorough
and complete and the part was not damaged.