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Date: December 1, 2017

By: MAK

DESIGN OF PAD & CHIMNEY FOUNDATION


Tower Type "A10"
(Towers Include: # PI - 21)

1. INTRODUCTION:

* The purpose of the foundation is to transfer the loads from the structure to the ground without causing the ground to
fail in shear or to allow excessive settlement of the structure to occur. These requirements are met by ensuring the
bearing pressure below the foundation does not exceed permissible bearing pressure.
* The purpose of this calculation is to design Pad & Chimney foundation for "A10" type lattice steel tower structure.
* The foundation is subjected to upward, downward and horizontal forces.
* Foundation loads will be obtained from the tower reactions multiplied by over load capacity factors. These factored loads will be
used in the sizing of the foundation. However, to design steel reinforcements reactions without the OCFs will be used.

2. TOWER GEOMETRY:

h= 26100 mm Tower Body Hieght


a= 5000 mm Tower Dimension at the Top
b= 15962 mm Tower Dimension at the Bottom

=tan 1 [ ]
ba
2h
= 10.330 deg Leg Slope angel with Respect to Vertical

h0 = 1000 mm

=tan
1
[ ]
ba
2h
= 11.860 deg h22
h0
h0 h11
h11 = = 1021.812 mm Tower First Leg Slope
sin(90 )
h0
h22= = 1016.476 mm Tower Second Leg Slope
sin(90 )

3. LOADING IN THE VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL DIRECTION:

* The maximum vertical and horizontal reactions have been given in the PTS (clause: 4.09 A) for this kind of tower as follow:

Pc0 Pu0 Ph-x0 Ph-y0


1600.00 1192.00 242.00 212.00

Note :

Above Loads excludes over load capacity factors.


Pc0 = Compression Force
Pu0 = Uplift Force
Ph-x0 = Resultant Shear Force in X-Direction
Ph-y0 = Resultant Shear Force in Y-Direction

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Date: December 1, 2017
By: MAK

4. FACTORED LOADS:

In Compression SFc = 1.5


In Uplift SFu = 1.5 As per SES-P-122.06
In Shear SFs = 1.5

Pc = Pc0 SFc = 2400.00 KN Compression Force

Pu = Pu0 SFu = 1788.00 KN Uplift Force

Ph-x = Ph-x0 SFs = 363.00 KN Resultant Shear Force in X-Direction

Ph-y = Ph-y0 SFs = 318.00 KN Resultant Shear Force in Y-Direction

Q0 =( Phx 0 )2 +( Ph y 0 )2 = 321.73 KN

Q=Q0 SFs= 482.59 KN Horizontal Reaction

M 0 =0 M =0 Moment Reaction

5. PROPOSED SIZE OF FOUNDATION:

Assumed Footing Width B = 4 m


Pu
Assumed Footing Length L = 4 m Ph-y

Eh a
Thickness of Pad Fd = ### mm GL a Ph-x
Chimney
Assumed Footing Depth h = 3.5 m Pad
h
Exposed Height, including the Eh = ### mm OL
300 mm structure pad Fd

Assumed Pedestal Size a = ### mm


B
Cncrete Cover cov = 85 mm L

Thickness to be Ignored in T = ### mm As per PTS (05WO307 clause 4.09 item 3)


Calculating Uplift Resistance

6. MATERIAL PROPERTIES:

6.1 CONCRETE:

c = 24 KN/m Concrete Unit Weight

'
fc = 28 MPa Concrete Compressive Strength
PTS (clause: 4.09 A-1)
fy = 420 MPa Steel Yield Strength
PTS (clause: 5.02)
E = 200000 Mpa Steel Elastic Modulus

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Date: December 1, 2017
By: MAK

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Date: December 1, 2017
By: MAK

6.2 SOIL PROPERTIES:

Soil Type: "S1"

1 = 25 deg Angle of Internal Friction

S = 17 KN/m Unit Weight of Soil

C = 0 KN/m Soil Cohesion

f = 35 deg Frustum Angel

7. CALCULATIONS:

7.1 DETERMINE ALLOWABLE SOIL CAPACITY:

Df = h + Fd = 4.10 m Total Depth of Foundation

S = 17 KN/m Unit Weight of Soil

Kpy = 35 Referance: Foundation Analysis and


Design 1 Kpy
by: Joseph E. Bowles 15 18.6
qult =1 .3 . c. N c + s . z. N q +0 .4 . s . B .N 20 25
25 35
[ (0 .75 1 / 360) tan 1 ] a = 2.710 30 52
a=e
35 82
40 141
a2
N q= Nq = 12.720 45 0
2cos2 ( 45+ 1 /2 )

N c =( N q 1 )/tan 1 Nc = 25.135

N =
tan 1 K py
2 cos 2 [
1
] N = 9.702

qult =1 .3. c. N c + s . z. N q +0 .4 . s . B . N = 1176.449 KN/m

qult
q allow = q allow = 294.112 KN/m SF = 4 Safty Factor Allowable Bearing Capacity
SF
7.2 CHECK FOUNDATION DISPLACEMENT:

N 60 = 30 SPT N value

Sc = 50 mm Tolerable Settlement

B = 4 m Footing Width

S c N 1.
4
q= 60
0. 75
= 1216.034 KN/m q allow = Min ( q allow , q) = 294.112 KN/m
1. 7B

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Date: December 1, 2017
By: MAK

7.3 DETERMINE PEDESTAL SIZE:

7.3.1 BASED ON CONCRETE BEARING :

Ap = Pc / (0.35*fc) = 0.245 m Gross Pedestal Area

a = 494.872 mm < ### OK Pedestal Size

7.3.2 PEDESTAL AS A SHORT COLUMN :

= 0.008 Steel Ratio, Assumed

Pc
A P= = 0.137 m Gross Pedestal Area
0 . 65(0 . 85f c (1)+ f y )

a = 370.008 mm < ### OK Pedestal Size

Therefore, the assumed pedestal size of 800 mm is adequate

7.4 CHECK UPLIFT RESISTANCE:

h = 3.5 m L = 4 m B = 4 m Eh = ### mm

T = ### mm Thickness to be Ignored in As per PTS (05WO307 clause 4.09 item 3)


Calculating Uplift Resistance

= 1 / cos ( ) = 1.016 Increasing Coefficient

f = 35 deg Angle of the Shearing Soil Plane with the Vertical "Frustum Angle"

h3 = 2.9 m Soil Height Considered in Computing Uplift


" Effective Height of Soil "

Resisting Force to Uplift = Weight of Foundation + Weight of Soil Enclosed


in the Frustum of an Inverted Cone of Pyramid

Volume of Concrete Pad Vf = L x B x Fd


= 4 x 4 x 0.6
= 9.600 m

Weight of Pad Wf = Vf x
c
= 9.600 x 24
= 230.4 KN

Volume of Concrete Chimney Vp = a x a x (h+Eh) x



= 0.6 x 0.6 x 4 x 1.016
= 1.464 m

Weight of Chimney Wp = Vp x
c
= 1.464 x 24
= 35.1294 KN

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Date: December 1, 2017
By: MAK

h3
Volume of Soil Vs = ( At + A b + A t A b )
3
At : Area at The Top
Ab : Area at The Bottom G.L

Ab = L x B
= 4 x 4 h3
= 16.00 m f f

At = ( B + (2 x h3 x tan(f))
= 64.98 m
B
Vs = 109.454 m

Weight of Soil Ws = Vs x S
= 109.454 x 17
= 1860.711 KN

Weight of Soil Replaced Wr = a x a x h3 x S x


by The Pedestal = 0.6 x 0.6 x 2.9 x 17 x 1.016
= 18.040 KN

Total Resistance Force to Uplift RF = Wf + Wp + Ws - Wr


= 230.4 + 35.1294 + 1860.711 - 18.040
= 2108.200 KN

Factor of Safety Against Uplift FS = RF / Pu0


= 2108.200 / 1192.00
= 1.769 > 1.5 OK

Y
7.5 CHECK FOR BEARING CAPACITY OF SOIL: Y

7.5.1 CALCULATION ECCENTRICITY:

H = h + Fd Total Height of Chimney


= 3.5 + 0.6 X
= 4.100 m ey
ex X

e Total = H x tan ( ) Total Eccentricity


= 4.100 x 0.182
= 0.747 m

ex = e Total x cos (45) Eccentricity on X Direction


= 0.747 x 0.707
= 0.528 m

ey = e Total x sin (45) Eccentricity on Y Direction


= 0.747 x 0.707
= 0.528 m

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Date: December 1, 2017
By: MAK

7.5.2 CALCULATION MOMENTS:

H = h + Fd + Eh Total Height of Foundation


= 3.5 + 0.6 + 0.5
= 4.600 m

Mx1 = Pc x
y e Bending Moment due to
= 2400.00 x 0.528 Downward Force Pc
= 1268.23 K N.m "About X"

My1 = Pc x e Bending Moment due to


x
= 2400.00 x 0.528 Downward Force Pc
= 1268.23 K N.m "About Y"

Mx2 = Ph-y x H Bending Moment @ Base due


= 318.00 x 4.600 to Horizontal Force Ph - y
= 1462.80 K N.m "About X"

My2 = Ph-x x H Bending Moment @ Base due


= 363.00 x 4.600 to Horizontal Force Ph - x
= 1669.80 K N.m "About Y"

Mx3 = Wp x (
y
/2) e Bending Moment due to
= 35.13 x 0.264 Weight of Chimney
= 9.28 K N.m "About X"

My3 = Wp x ( e / 2 ) Bending Moment due to


x
= 35.13 x 0.264 Weight of Chimney
= 9.28 K N.m "About Y"
Total Moment:

Mxx = Mx2 - Mx1 - Mx3


= 1462.80 - 1268.23 - 9.28
= 185.28 K N.m

Myy = My2 - My1 - My3


= 1669.80 - 1268.23 - 9.28
= 392.28 K N.m

7.5.3 CALCULATION RESISTING MOMENTS:

T = ### mm Thickness to be Ignored in As per PTS (05WO307 clause 4.09 item 3)


Calculating Uplift Resistance

Fd = ### mm

h3 = h - T " Effective Height of Soil "


= 3.5 - 0.6
= 2.90 m

Kp =
1+ Sin 1
1Sin 1
Kp = 2.464 Passive Earth Pressure Coefficient

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Date: December 1, 2017
By: MAK

Qtp = Kp x S x h3 Passive Earth Pressure at


= 2.464 x 17 x 2.90 Top of Pad
= 121.471 KN/m

Qbp = Kp x S x ( h3 + Fd ) Passive Earth Pressure at


= 2.464 x 17 x 3.50 Bottom of Pad
= 146.603 KN/m

Pc

Ph 105.680
Eh = 0.500 G.L
Wp 0.60
T= Lt = 121.471 KN/m
Ws

h = 3.50
OL = 4.60 h3 = 2.90
Wf

Fd = 0.600

B= 4.00 Lb = 146.603 KN/m


0.30
1.567

Ftpx = ( 1 / 2 ) x Qtp x h3 x a The Force due to Passive Earth


= 0.5 x 121.471 x 2.90 x 0.60 Pressure at the Chimney
= 105.680 KN " X Direction"

Fbpx = ( 1 / 2 * ( Lb + Lt ) ) x Fd x B The Force due to Passive Earth


= 134.037 x 0.600 x 4.00 Pressure at the Pad
= 321.688 KN " X Direction"

Mxp = Ftpx x ( Fd + ( h3 / 3 ) ) + Fbpx x ( Fd / 2 ) Bending Moment due to


= 105.680 x 1.567 + 321.688 x 0.30 Passive Earth Pressure
= 262.071 KN.m "About X"

Ftpy = ( 1 / 2 ) x Qtp x h3 x a The Force due to Passive Earth


= 0.5 x 121.471 x 2.90 x 0.60 Pressure at the Chimney
= 105.680 KN " Y Direction"

Fbpy = ( 1 / 2 * ( Lb + Lt ) ) x Fd x B The Force due to Passive Earth


= 134.037 x 0.600 x 4.00 Pressure at the Pad
= 321.688 KN " Y Direction"

Myp = Ftpy x ( Fd + ( h3 / 3 ) ) + Fbpy x ( Fd / 2 ) Bending Moment due to


= 105.680 x 1.567 + 321.688 x 0.30 Passive Earth Pressure
= 262.071 KN.m "About Y"

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Date: December 1, 2017
By: MAK

7.5.4 CALCULATION NET MOMENTS AT THE BASE OF FOOTING:

Mx = Mxx - 0.8 x Mxp Net Bending Moment @


= 185.28 - 0.8 x 262.071 Base of Footing
= -24.373 KN.m "About X"

My = Myy - 0.8 x Myp Net Bending Moment @


= 392.28 - 0.8 x 262.071 Base of Footing
= 182.627 KN.m "About Y"

Note 1 : only for safty purpose we consider in above calculation 80 % of the total resisting moment due to
passive earth pressure
Note 2 : if Mx < 0 then we will Mx = 0 and the same will be applicable for My.

Mx = if ( Mx < 0 , 0 , Mx) Mx = 0.000 KN.m

My = if ( My < 0 , 0 , My) My = 182.627 KN.m

7.5.5 CALCULATION SOIL PRESSURE AT THE BASE OF FOOTING:

P M My M
q= x y
A Ix Iy
x q=
P
LB (
1 x
L
My
B )
Where:
Mx : Net Bending Moment @ Base of Footing "Around X".
My : Net Bending Moment @ Base of Footing "Around Y".
P : Total Vertical Load.
A : Foundation Area.
I: Second Moment of Area of The Footing About The Axis of Bending.
x , y: Distance from Axis of Bending to the Position The Stress is Being Calculated.

Ix = ( B x L ) / 12
= 21.333 m

Iy = ( L x B ) / 12
= 21.333 m
Calculation Vertical Loads:

Weight of Pad Wf = Vf x
c
= 9.600 x 24
= 230.4 KN

Weight of Chimney Wp = Vp x
c
= 1.464 x 24
= 35.1294 KN

Weight of Soil Ws = ( B x L x h - a x a x h x ) x
S
= 54.719 x 17
= 930.227 KN

Total Vertical Load P = Pc + Wf + Wp + Ws


= 2400.000 + 230.4 + 35.1294 + 930.227
= 3595.756 KN

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Date: December 1, 2017
By: MAK

3595.756 0.000 182.627


qu1 = + x 2 + x 2 = 241.856 KN/m
16 21.333 21.333

qu 2 3595.756 0.000 182.627


= - x 2 + x 2 = 241.856 KN/m
16 21.333 21.333

qu 3 3595.756 0.000 182.627


= + x 2 - x 2 = 207.613 KN/m
16 21.333 21.333

qu 4 3595.756 0.000 182.627


= - x 2 - x 2 = 207.613 KN/m
16 21.333 21.333

q max = max ( qu1 , qu 2 , qu 3 , qu 4


) = 241.856 KN/m < q allow OK

q min = min ( qu1 , qu 2 , qu 3 , qu) 4 = 207.613 KN/m > 0 OK

241.856 KN/m
241.856 KN/m
241.856 KN/m

B= 4.00 m

L= 4.00 m

207.613 KN/m
207.613 KN/m
207.613 KN/m

7.5.6 CALCULATION SOIL PRESSURE DUE TO VERTICAL LOADS:

Weight of Pad 230.400 KN

Weight of Chimney 35.129 KN

Weight of Soil 930.227 KN

Compression Force 1600.000 KN

Total Downward Force = Weight of Pad + Weight of Chimney + Weight of Soil


+ Compression Force

= 230.400 + 35.129 + 930.227 + 1600.000

= 2795.756 KN

q max = Total Downward Force / (LxB)

q max = 2795.756 / 16

q max = 174.735 KN/m < OK

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Date: December 1, 2017
By: MAK

7.6 RECALCULATE THE FORCES WITHOUT OVER LOAD CAPACITY FACTOR:

Pc0 = 1600.00 KN Compression Force

Pu0 = 1192.00 KN Uplift Force

Ph-x0 = 242.00 KN Resultant Shear Force in X-Direction

Ph-y0 = 212.00 KN Resultant Shear Force in Y-Direction

Wf = 230.40 KN Weight of Pad

Wp = 35.13 KN Weight of Chimney

Ws = 930.23 KN Weight of Soil

P = 2795.756 KN Total Vertical Load

H = h + Fd + Eh Total Height of Foundation


= 3.5 + 0.6 + 0.5
= 4.600 m

Mx1 = Pc x
y e Bending Moment due to
= 1600.00 x 0.528 Downward Force Pc
= 845.49 K N.m "About X"

My1 = Pc x e Bending Moment due to


x
= 1600.00 x 0.528 Downward Force Pc
= 845.49 K N.m "About Y"

Mx2 = Ph-y x H Bending Moment @ Base du


= 212.00 x 4.600 to Horizontal Force Ph - y
= 975.20 K N.m "About X"

My2 = Ph-x x H Bending Moment @ Base du


= 242.00 x 4.600 to Horizontal Force Ph - x
= 1113.20 K N.m "About Y"

Mx3 = Wp x (
y
/2) e Bending Moment due to
= 35.13 x 0.264 Weight of Chimney
= 9.28 K N.m "About X"

My3 = Wp x ( e / 2 ) Bending Moment due to


x
= 35.13 x 0.264 Weight of Chimney
= 9.28 K N.m "About Y"
Total Moment:

Mxx = Mx2 - Mx1 - Mx3


= 120.43 K N.m

Myy = My2 - My1 - My3


= 258.43 K N.m

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Date: December 1, 2017
By: MAK

Mx = Mxx - 0.8 x Mxp Net Bending Moment @


= 120.43 - 0.8 x 262.071 Base of Footing
= -89.228 KN.m "About X"

My = Myy - 0.8 x Myp Net Bending Moment @


= 258.43 - 0.8 x 262.071 Base of Footing
= 48.772 KN.m "About Y"

Mx = if ( Mx < 0 , 0 , Mx) Mx = 0.000 KN.m

My = if ( My < 0 , 0 , My) My = 48.772 KN.m

Calculation Pressure at Four Corners:

2795.756 0.000 0.000


q1 = 16 + 21.333 x 2 + 21.333 x 2 = 174.735 KN/m

q2 2795.756 0.000 0.000


= - x 2 + x 2 = 174.735 KN/m
16 21.333 21.333

2795.756 0.000 0.000


q3 = + x 2 - x 2 = 174.735 KN/m
16 21.333 21.333

2795.756 0.000 0.000


q4 = - x 2 - x 2 = 174.735 KN/m
16 21.333 21.333

Calculate Average Pressure:

q ave = ( q + q
1 2
+ q
3
+ q ) /
4
4
= 174.735 + 174.735 + 174.735 + 174.735
= 174.735 KN/m

Calculate Average Pressure:

qamax = ( 174.73 + 174.73 ) / 2


= 174.735 KN/m

qamin = ( 174.73 + 174.73 ) / 2


= 174.735 KN/m

7.6 CHECK FOR PUNCHING SHEAR:

Assume pb = 20 mm Diameter for Bottom Steel in the Pad

a = 600 mm Pedestal Size

d = Fd - cov - ( 3 pb /2) Effective Depth for Section


= 600 - 85 - 30
= 485 mm

A = L x B Foundation Area
= 4 x 4
= 16 m

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Vn
: Date: December 1, 2017
Q
"Pu By: MAK
nch
"
wh
ere b0 = 4 x (a+d) Perimeter Length
the
no = 4 x 1085 B= 4
mi = 4.34 m
nal
she = (a+d) x (a+d) Punching Area
ar
A Punch w
= 1.085 x 1.085
stre a
= 1.177 m
ngt B=
h w
Vn quavve = ( qu + qu 2 + qu + qu ) / 4 4
1 3 4 a+d
is: = ( 241.856 + 241.856 + 207.613 + 207.613 ) / 4
= 224.735 KN/m

= qu x (A - A )
Vn QPunch avve Punch Punching Shear
= = 224.735 x 14.823 Perimeter
Vs = 3331.193 KN
+ Critical Section for
Vc Punching Shear
Vc
In general, the factored shear force Q "Punch" at the critical shear section shall
=
be less than or equal to the shear strength:
no Vn: Q "Punch"
mi
where the nominal shear strength Vn is:
nal Vn = Vs + Vc
she = nominal shear strength provided by concrete, computed if
Vc Fd d
ar
shear reinforcement is not used.
stre
Vs = nominal shear strength provided by reinforcement. q
"ngt
Reference ACI 318 - 02, clause 11.12.2.1"
h Elevation
pro
vid
The Nominal Shear Strength Provided by Concrete will be the Smallest of:
ed
by
con 1 '
1) .
cret
V c 1=
3 c 0
f b d
e, = 0.33 x 5.292 x 4340 x 485
co
= 3712.695 KN
mp
ute
s . d
f 'c . b0 . d
d2)if. V c 2=
( b0 )
+2 .
12
s = 20 For Corner Columns

= 3930.837 KN
she
ar 2 f 'c . b0 . d
3)
rei
nfo
rce
.
( )
V c 3 = 1+ .
c 6
c = a / a = ### / ### = 1

me = 5569.042 KN
nt
is Vc = Min ( Vc1 , Vc2 , Vc3 ) Allowable Punching Shear
not = 3712.695 KN
use
d.
Vs Check if (Punching Shear) QPunch < Vc (Allowable Punching Shear)
=
no If ( Qpunch <= Vc, OK , ERROR)
mi
nal Qpunch = 3331.193 < 3712.695 OK
she
ar
stre
ngt
h
pro
vidfile:///conversion/tmp/scratch/373317411.xls 13/26
ed
Date: December 1, 2017
By: MAK

7.7 CHECK FOR ONE - WAY SHEAR:

X = ((L-a)/2) - d 4
= 1.215 m B=
X d
qux =qu min + ( q u maxqu min ) .
L
= 218.015 KN/m
a
1
Qshear = (q + q ). B . X Direct Shear Load 4 w
2 ux u max B= a w
= 1117.486 KN

" Reference ACI 318 - 02, clause 11.3.1.2 and clause 11.3.2.3"

Allowable Direct Shear Force will be the Smallest of :

Critical Section
Pc f 'c . B . d
1) .
(
V c 1 = 1+
14 Ag )6 Ag =
=
=
B
4
x

2.400
Fd
x
m
0.6
for Shear

= 1833.128 KN

X
0 . 3 . Pu f 'c . B . d
2) .
(
V c 2 = 1+
Ag )6 Fd d
= 2093.310 KN
q

Vc = Min ( Vc1 , Vc2 ) Allowable Shear Force Elevation


= 1833.128 KN

Check if (Shear Force) Qshear < Vc (Allowable Shear Force)

If ( Qshear <= Vc, OK , ERROR)

Qshear = 1117.486 < 1833.128 OK

7.8 FLEXURE DESIGN:

7.8.1 COMPRESSION LOAD:

The Critical Section for The Design for Flexural Reinforcement Should be Taken at The Face of The Column.

X1 = ((L-a)/2)
= 1.7 m
X1
qux 1 =q u min +( qu max q u min )
L
= 222.167 KN/m

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Date: December 1, 2017
By: MAK

M ux 1=(q ux1 . X 21 . B )/2+((qu max q ux1 ). B . X 1 )/3 )


= 1284.123 + 44.629
= 1328.752 KN.m
B= 4
Required Rn =
M ux 1
.B .d 2

= 0.9 Strength Rediction Factor


" Reference ACI 318 - 02, clause 9.3.2"
a
Rn = 1569.127 KN/m B= 4 a w w

2 Rn
1 }
0 . 85 . f c
1

}
f c
0 . 85 .
f y
=

0.003868
= Critical Section
for Flexure
min = 0.0018 Minimum As Required for Footings
of Uniform Thickness, for Grade 60
Reinforcement
" Reference ACI 318 - 02, clause 7.12.2.1"

If ( > min , , ) X1= 1.7


= min

0.0039
=
Fd d
Required As = x B x d
= 0.0039 x 4000 x ### q
= 7503.98 mm
Elevation
Use Steel with 20 mm A
= 314.16 mm

NPb = round (( Required As / A ) + 1 ) Number of Steel Reinforcement Required



= 25

SPb = ( B - 2 cov ) / ( NPb - 1 ) Spacing of Steel Reinforcement

= 160 mm

Provided As = NPb x A

= 25 x 314.16

= 7853.98 mm

If ( Provided As > Required As , "OK" ," Revise" ) OK


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Date: December 1, 2017
By: MAK

7.8.2 UPLIFT LOAD:

Punet = Pu - Wp - Wf Load Carried by The Pad During Uplift


= 1788.00 - 35.1294 - 230.4
= 1522.47 KN

qunet = Punet / ( A - AP ) A : Area of Foundation


= 1522.47 / 15.64 AP : Area of Pedestal
= 97.345 KN/m

X1 = ((L-a)/2)
= 1.7 m
2
X1
Mu net =qu net B
2
= 562.652 KN.m

Required Rn =
M ux 1 = 0.9 Strength Rediction Factor
2

.B.d " Reference ACI 318 - 02, clause 9.3.2"

Rn = 664.437 KN/m

2 Rn
1 }
0 . 85 . f c
1
0.0016
0 . 85 .
f
}
f c

y
=
=

min = 0.0018 Minimum As Required for Footings of Uniform Thickness, for Grade 60
Reinforcement " Reference ACI 318 - 02, clause 7.12.2.1"

If ( > min , , )
= min

0.0018
=
Required As = x B x d
= 0.0018 x 4000 x 485
= 3492.00 mm

Use Steel with 20 mm


A = 314.16 mm

NPt = round (( Required As / A ) + 1 ) Number of Steel Reinforcement Required



= 12

SPt = ( B - 2 cov ) / ( NPt - 1 ) Spacing of Steel Reinforcement

= 348 mm

Provided As = NPt x A

= 12 x 314.16
= 3769.911

If ( Provided As > Required As , "OK" ," Revise" ) OK


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Date: December 1, 2017
By: MAK

7.9 PEDESTAL DESIGN:

7.9.1 CALCULATIOM MOMENT:

H = h + Eh Total Height of Pedestal


= 3.5 + 0.5
= 4.000 m

Mx1 = Pc x
y e Bending Moment due to
= 2400.00 x 0.528 Downward Force Pc
= 1268.23 K N.m "About X"

My1 = Pc x e Bending Moment due to


x
= 2400.00 x 0.528 Downward Force Pc
= 1268.23 K N.m "About Y"

Mx2 = Ph-y x H Bending Moment @ Base due


= 318.00 x 4.000 to Horizontal Force Ph - y
= 1272.00 K N.m "About X"

My2 = Ph-x x H Bending Moment @ Base due


= 363.00 x 4.000 to Horizontal Force Ph - x
= 1452.00 K N.m "About Y"

Mx3 = Wp x ( /2) e Bending Moment due to


= 35.13 x y 0.264 Weight of Chimney
= 9.28 K N.m "About X"

My3 = Wp x ( e / 2 ) Bending Moment due to


= 35.13 x x 0.264 Weight of Chimney
= 9.28 K N.m "About Y"

Mx4 = Pu x
y e Bending Moment due to
= 1788.00 x 0.528 Upward Force Pc
= 944.83 K N.m "About X"

My4 = Pu x e Bending Moment due to


x
= 1788.00 x 0.528 Upwnward Force Pc
= 944.83 K N.m "About Y"

Total Moment with Downward Force:


Pc
Mxc = Mx2 - Mx1 - Mx3
Ph G.L
= 1272.00 - 1268.23 - 9.28
= -5.52 K N.m W
p
W
Myc = My2 - My1 - My3 s
= 1452.00 - 1268.23 - 9.28
= 174.48 K N.m
Wf
Pd = Pc + Wp
= 1788.00 + 35.13
= 1823.13 KN
Loads on Foundation when
Subjected to Compression

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Date: December 1, 2017
By: MAK

Total Moment with Upward Force:

Mxu = Mx2 - Mx4 - Mx3 Pu


= 1272.00 - 944.83 - 9.28 Ph G.L
= 317.88 K N.m W
W p
Myu = My2 - My4 - My3 s
= 1452.00 - 944.83 - 9.28
= 497.88 K N.m Wf

Pf = Pu - Wp
= 1788.00 - 35.13 Loads on
= 1752.87 KN Foundation when
Subjected to Uplift

7.9.2 ESTIMATE EQUIVALENT UNIAXIAL BENDING MOMENT:

h0 = 0.6 m Section Height


b = 0.6 m Section Wedth
Asd = 25 mm Vertical Bar Diameter
Sd = 12 mm Ties Diameter

d = h0 - cov - Sd - ( Asd / 2 ) Effective Depth


= 600 - 85 - 12 - 12.5
= 490.50 mm

1 = 0.65

h 0 1 1
Mu=Mxu+ Myu ( ) b 1
= 585.98 K N.m

h 0 1 1
Mc=Mxc+ Myc ( ) b 1
= 88.44 KN.m

7.9.3 DESIGN FOR COMPRESSION:

Try to use : NP = 32 Total Number of Steel Reinfocement in Pedestal


Asd = 25 Vertical Bar Diameter

Smin = ( If 1.5Asd > 40 mm, 1.5 Asd , 40 mm )


cov
Smin = 40 mm Minimum Bar Spacing

S =
4 .(h 02(cov+ Sd +( Asd / 2)))
Asd
NP h0
= 22.625 < 40 CHANG NO. OF BARS
2
As = . Asd Area of Steel Prvided
NP
4 Asd Sd
= 15707.963 mm

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Date: December 1, 2017
By: MAK

min = 1.4 / fy Minimum Steel Ratio


= 1.4 / ### " Reference ACI 318 - 02, clause 10.5"
= 0.0033

max = 0.05 Maximum Steel Ratio

actual = As / ( h0 x b )
= 0.04363

Check if the Steel Ratio is : min actual OK


Check if the Steel Ratio is : actual max OK

=0. 5actual = 0.04363 x 0.5 = 0.02182

e copm. = Mc / Pc
= 88.44 / 2400.00
= 0.03685 m

e1 = d - ( h0 / 2 ) + e comp.
= 490.50 - 300 + 36.8488
= 227.35 mm

d1 = cov + Sd + Asd / 2
= 85 + 12 + 12.5
= 109.5 mm
fy
m1 = = ### / 28 = 17.647
0. 85 . f 'c

[ ( ]]
2
Pc1 =

=
0 . 85. f 'c . b . d +1
10146.69 KN >
e1
d
2400.000
+ 1
KN
e1
d ) [
+2 . . ( m11).(1
d1
d
)+
e1
d

If ( Pc1 <= Pc , "OK" , Error" ) OK

7.9.4 CHECK FOR UPLIFT:

Pf = 1752.87 KN Adjusted Uplift Load Test

Mu = 585.98 K N.m

Ast = 0.5 x As Area for Tension Steel


= 0.5 x 15707.963
= 7853.98 mm

Asc = 0.5 x As Area for Compression Steel


= 0.5 x 15707.963
= 7853.98 mm

c = 0.003 Maximum Concrete Strain

E = 200000 Steel Elastic Modulus

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Date: December 1, 2017
By: MAK

In order to calculate the iteraction curve due to the uplift force, it is necessary to calcuate the bending capacity of
the section Mu0 when the axial load is zero, Also we need to determine Pu00 the maximum axial capacity of the
section in the absence of the moment.

we will assume the x value " distance of the center of rotation from the center line of the section" and then it will
be adjusted to be as foolow

x = 144.64 mm Distance of the Neutral Axis from the Compression Face

y = fy / E
= ### / 200000 = 0.0021

s = (( x - d1 ) / x ) x c = 0.00073 Strain in the Compression Steel

fs = ( s / y )f y = 145.759 Mpa

Cs = Asc . ( fs - 0.85 fc ) = 957.867 KN Compression Force in Steel

Ts = Ast x fy = 7853.98 x ### = 3298.672 KN Tension Force in Steel

Cc = 0.85 x fc x 2 x x x b = 1755.604 KN Compression Force in Concrete

Eq = Ts - Cc - Cs = 585.201

Check Equation if ( Ts - Cc - Cs = 0 , OK , Change x )

Xts = 0.5 * ( d -d1 ) = 190.5 mm Tension Steel Distance from the center

Xcs = 0.5 * ( d -d1 ) = 190.5 mm Compression Steel Distance from the center

Xc = d - Xst - 2 * 0.5*x = 238.529 mm Center of Concrete Compression Block from


the Center

Muo = 0.9 * ( Ts.Xst + Cs . Xcs + Cc. Xc ) Section Moment Capacity when P = 0


= 1106.670 KN.m

Pu00 = 0.9 . ( fy . As ) Section Axial Load when M = 0


= 5937.610 KN

1.1 1. 1
Pf Mu
IR=
( ) ( )
Pu00
+
Mu 0

= 0.261 + 0.497
= 0.758 < 1

If ( IR <=1 , "OK" , " ERROR" ) OK

Final Vertical Reinforcement for Pedestal:

NP = 32 Number of Steel Reinforcement Bars

Asd = 25 Diameter of Steel Reinforcement Bars

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Date: December 1, 2017
By: MAK

7.9.5 TIES:

Use Steel Bars of Diameter 12 mm @ 200 mm Spacing

ds = 12 mm Diameter of Ties
2
Ass = d s Area of Ties
4
= 113.10 0

Ns = (( h + Eh - cov ) / 200 ) + 1 Number of Ties


= 21

7.10 CHECK FORCE TRANSFER AT INTERFACE OF COLUMN AND FOOTING:

1- Bearing Strength of Column:

fc = 28 MPa Compreesive Strength of the pedestal Concrete


= 0.65
A1 = Ap = 360000 0

' Bearing Strength of Column


Pnb = .(0 . 85 . f c . A 1 )
" Reference ACI 318 - 02, clause 10.17"

= 5569.2 KN > 3595.756 OK

2- Bearing Strength of Footing:

The bearing strength of the footing is increased by a factor Sqrt ( A2 / A1 ) <= 2 due to the large footing area
permitting a greater distribution of the column load.

B= 4 " Reference ACI 318 - 02, clause 15.8"

1.2
a

B= 4 a w 0.6
45
45

1.2
=
d
0.6
F

Fd=
0.6

1.2 0.6 1.2

A1 is the column (loaded) area and A2 is the plan area of the lower base of the largest frustum of the pyramide , cone
or tapered wedge cotained wholly within the support and for having its upper base the loaded area , and having side
slopes of 1 vertical to 2 horizontal.

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Date: December 1, 2017
By: MAK

A1 = Ap = 360000 0

A2 = ( 1.2 + 0.6 + 1.2 ) x ( 1.2 + 0.6 + 1.2 )


= 9000000 0

A2 / A1 = 5 > 2 A2 / A1 = 2

Note that bearing on the column concrete will allways govern until the strength of the column concrete exceeds
twice that of the footing concrete

P nb = .(0 . 85 . f 'c . A 1 ).
= 11138.4 KN >
A2
A1
3595.756 OK

7.11 REQUIRED DOWEL BARS BETWEEN COLUMN AND FOOTING:

Even though bearing on the column and footing concrete is adequate to transfer the factored loads, a minimum area
of reinforcement is required across the interface.
" Reference ACI 318 - 02, clause 15.8.2.1"
Asmin = 0.005 x Ap Ap Area of Pedestal
= 0.005 x 360000
= 1800 0

Provide 5 Bars of 25 dia ( As = 2290.9 0 )

7.12 DEVELOPMENT OF DOWEL REINFORCEMENT IN COMPREESION:

Shorter development lengths are required for bars in compression than in tension since the weakening effect of
flexural tension cracks in the concrete is not present. The development length for deformed bars or deformed wire in
compression is dc = (db.fy) / (4.Sqrt (f c)), but not less than 0.04.db.fy or 200mm.
" Reference ACI 318 - 02, clause 12.3"

dc1 =
fy
d b
4 f c
'

dc1 = 496.08 mm

dc2 = 0 .04f y db
= 420 mm

dc3 = 200 mm

dc = max ( dc1 , dc2 , dc3 )


= 496.08 mm

This length may be reduced to account for excess reinforcement.

As ( required ) / As ( provided ) = 1800 / 2290.9 = 0.786

Reqiured dc = 496.08 x 0.786 = 389.782 mm

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Date: December 1, 2017
By: MAK

Available length for development in footing :

= Footing Thickness - Cover - 2.( Footing Bar Diameter ) - Dowel Bar Diameter

= 600 - 85 - 40 - 25

= 450 > 389.782 OK Therefore, the dowels can be fully developed in the footing

Note: If case the avilable development length is less than the required length, either increase footing depth or use
larger number of smaller size dowels. Also note that if the footing dowels are bent for placement on top of the
footing reinforcement , the bent portion cannot be considered effective for development the bars in compression.

7.13 CALCULATION MATERIAL QUANTITIES:

7.13.1 EXCAVATION:

L = 4 m

B = 4 m 0.5 Y
Eh = G.L
h = 3.5 m

Fd = 600 mm 3.5
h=
20
H = h + Fd = 4.1 m

X = 0.5 m
0.6
Fd =
s = 20 deg
X X
B=
4
Y = H x tan ( s )
= 4.1 x 0.364
= 1.492 m

Vs = H Volume of Soil to be Excavated


( A + A + A t Ab )
3 t b
Ab = (L+2X)*(B+2X) Bottom Area
= 25 m

At = (L+2X+2Y)*(B+2X+2Y) Top Area


= 63.75 m

Vs = 175.9 m

7.13.2 CONCRETE QUANTITY:

L = 4 m Footing Length

B = 4 m Footing Width

h = 3.5 m Footing Depth

Fd = 600 mm Thickness of Pad

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Date: December 1, 2017
By: MAK

Eh = 500 mm Exposed Height, including the


300 mm structure pad
a = 600 mm Pedestal Size

Volume of Concrete Pad Vf = L x B x Fd


= 4 x 4 x 0.6
= 9.600 m

Volume of Concrete Chimney Vp = a x a x (h+Eh) x


= 0.6 x 0.6 x 4 x 1.016
= 1.464 m

Total Volume of Concrete Vc = Vf + Vp


= 9.600 + 1.464
= 11.064 m

7.13.3 BACKFILL:

Vbf = Vs - Vc - Volume of Exposed Height of Chimney


= 175.9 - 11.064 - ( a x a x ( Eh - 0.3 ))
= 175.9 - 11.064 - 0.072
= 164.72 m

7.13.4 STEEL QUANTITY:

1- Chimney Rebars (Vertical Bars ):

OL = h + Eh + Fd
= 4.6 m
A= 4.46 m
A1 = OL - Fd + dc
= 4.6 - 0.6 + 0.38978
= 4.390 m B= 0.30 m

A = A1 x
= 4.390 x 1.016
= 4.46 m

B = 12 x Asd
= 12 x 25
= 0.30 m

LP = A + B Total Pedestal Vertical Bar Length


= 4.46 + 0.30
= 4.76 m

2- Chimney Rebars (Ties ):

a1 = a - 2. cov 200
= 0.6 - 0.17 a1 0.43
= 0.43 m

LS = ( 4 x a1 ) + 0.3 Total Tie Length


= 2.02 m a1 0.43

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Date: December 1, 2017
By: MAK

3- Footing Rebars:

C1 = (( Fd - 2. cov ) / 2 ) + 0.1
= 0.315 m

C2 = L - ( 2 x cov )
= 4 - 0.17
= 3.83 m

LPB = C2 + ( 2 x C1 ) C1 C2 = 3.83 C1= 0.315


= 3.83 + 0.63
= 4.46 m

LPT = LPB = 4.46 m Total Pad Bar Length

7.13.5 STEEL WEIGHT:

1- Chimney Rebars (Vertical Bars ):

Asd = 25 mm Diameter of Steel Reinforcement Bars


NP = 32 Number of Steel Reinforcement Bars

LP ( Total ) = LP x NP Total Pedestal Vertical Bars Length


= 4.76 x 32
= 152.39 m

LPW = LP ( Total ) x W W : Weight of Chimney Rebar (Per Meter)


= 152.39 x 3.856
= 587.644 Kg

2- Chimney Rebars (Ties ):

ds = 12 mm Diameter of Ties
NS = 21 mm Number of Ties

LS ( Total ) = LS x NS
= 2.02 x 21
= 41.56 m

LSW = LS ( Total ) x W W : Weight of Ties (Per Meter)


= 41.56 x 0.888
= 36.927 Kg

3- Footing Rebars:

pb = 20 mm Diameter for Bottom Steel in the Pad

NPP = ( NPb + NPt ) x 2 Number of Pad Bars


= 50 + 24
= 74

LPP ( Total ) = NPP x ( LPB , LPT )


= 74.00 x 4.46
= 330.04 m

LPPW = LS ( Total ) x W W : Weight of Bars (Per Meter)


= 330.04 x 2.468
= 814.539 Kg

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Date: December 1, 2017
By: MAK

S.S.E.M Date: December 1, 2017


Saudi Services For Electro Mechanic Works Ltd. By: MAK

DESIGN OF PAD & CHIMNEY FOUNDATION


0
Tower Type "A10"
(Towers Include: # PI - 21)

SUMMURY FOR DESIGN

Pc = 2400.00 KN B = 4.00 m
Pc
Ph-y
Pu = 1788.00 KN L = 4.00 m
Factored Loads

Eh a
GL a Ph-x
Ph-x = 363.00 KN Fd = 600.00 mm
Chimney
Pad
Geometry

Ph-y = 318.00 KN h = 3.50 m


h
OL
Q = 482.59 KN Eh = 500.00 mm Fd

M = 0.00 KN a = 600.00 mm
B
c = 24.00 KN/m cov = 85.00 mm L

'
fc = 28.00 MPa T = 600.00 mm
Material Properties

fy = 420.00 MPa QUANTITY SURVEY " One Footing"


EXCAVATION CONCRETE STEEL
1 = 25.00 deg Volume of Pad Steel of Pad
Vs = 175.9 m Vf = 10 m LPPW = 815 Kg
S = 17.00 KN/m Volume of Chimney Steel of Chimney
BACKFILLING Vp = 1 m LPSW = 625 Kg
C = 0.00 KN/m Total Volume of Concrete Total Weight of Concrete
Vbf = 164.7 m Vc = 11 m Total = 1439 Kg
f = 35.00 deg

STEEL REINFORCEMENT
PAD CHIMNEY
Top reinforcement for
Ties ( Stirrups ) Chimney Vertical Bars
C2 = 3.83 Pad

C1 = 0.315 C1 NPt = 12 200


a1= 0.43
A= 4.46
C1 = 0.315 C1 NPb = 25
a1= 0.43
C2 = 3.83 Bottom reinforcement B= 0.30
for Pad

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