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INTERIOR MATERIAL & TECHNOLOGY- 1

S E M 01
S.E.M.-
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Wood
Task name 10 objects made of wood that is in close proximity to you.

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Wood

Can you name any types of wood?


pine, oak, ash, teak, mahogany, maple, rose wood, beech, Babul,
Bamboo, walnut, cherry, zebrawood, balsa, Deodar, Sal.

pine oak beech walnut maple zebrawood mahogany ash

Can you think of words that describe wood?


warm, smooth, strong, flexible, strong, hard, soft, rough, .

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Introduction
Derived from the word timberian , that means to build
Denotes wood which is suitable for building or carpentry.

Three terms to be known in connection to the timber.


Converted timber: sawn and cut into suitable commercial sizes.
Rough Timber: obtained after felling a tree
Standing Timber: Timber contained in living tree
V l bl properties:
Valuable ti
Low heat conductivity
Ability to mechanical working
Small bulk density
High Strength
Drawbacks
Decay
Inflammability
Fluctuation in properties due to changes in moisture
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Classification
Trees

Exogenous Endogenous
They increase in bulk by growing outward They grow inwards and fibrous mass
and distinct consecutive rings are formed is seen in their longitudinal section
everyy yyear in the horizontal section of the e.g.
g bamboo,, cane , p palm
tree

Conifers Deciduous
-Also Known as ever green trees. They increase in bulk by growing outward
-Leaves do not fall till new one are and distinct consecutive rings are formed
grown. every year in the horizontal section of the
tree

Soft Wood Hard Wood


-Light colored Close grained
-Resinous
Resinous Strong
Strong
-Light in weight and weak Heavy
-Poor fire resistant Dark colored
-Strong in direct pull and week for resisting Durable
thrust or shear Non
Non resinous
-Eg. chir, devdar, fir, kail, pine spruce etc Do not show distinct annual rings
Eg. Babul, mahogany, oak, sal , teak rose wood etc
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Xylem
Sapwood
The younger
younger, The
Th woody d tissue
ti
softer living portion of a tree that
of wood between provides support
the cambium and and conducts water
heartwood
heartwood. andd mineral
i l
Usually lighter in nutrients upward
color, more from the roots
permeable and less
durable.
durable

Inner Bark
A Layer of tissue
Annual Ring
g
that carries food
from the leaves to A Concentric layer
the growing parts of of wood produced
the tree. during a single
Also called years
year s growth of
Phloem temperate tree
It is also known as
Growth ring.

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Pith
Bark
The Tough The
Th i
innermost t
external covering of central portion of a
a woody stem, tree is called pith or
branch or root, medulla.
composed of a Varies
V i i size
in i andd
living inner layer shape from tree to
called phloem and tree.
an outer bark of It is a soft part
corky dead tissue.
corky, tissue about
b t whichhi h first
fi t
growth takes place
in a newly formed
stem

Heartwood
The older harder ,
inactive core of a
tree, usually darker
denser and more
durable than the
surrounding sap
wood
They are the inner
annual rings
Imparts rigidity.

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Elements of tree

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Elements of tree

PITH

CAMBIUM

OUTER BARK

INNER BARK

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Identifications of Timber
General Properties
Color a darker color in wood indicates greater durability
durability.
Odor it is present only on freshly cut trees.
Hardness is the abilityy of wood to withstand indentations caused
by harder bodies.
Density densest woods are generally the strongest.
Grain
G i - Depending
D di on th the actual
t l alignment,
li t th
the grain
i may b be
straight, spiral, interlocked, wavy or irregular.
Spiral
p Grain
Interlocked Grain
Wavy Grain
Texture - In hardwoods, the texture depends upon the size and
distribution vessels and rays. In softwoods, it is determined by the
size and distribution of tracheid.

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Identifications of Timber

Workability-
Workability the relative case in which wood is shaped cut and
fastened together than the others.
Warping- is the general term used to describe any variation from a true
surface.
surface
Moisture content- is a percentage of the mass of water over the mass
of wood fiber in a piece of timber.
Specific Gravity- is the ratio found by dividing the weight of a
substance by the weight of an equal volume of pure water

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Mechanical Properties
Tensile Strength Timber is stronger in tension along the rain but its
quite difficult to determine this because of the difficulties in conducting
test.
Compressive Strength The strength along the grain is important for
columns, props, and post.
Shear Strength Shear strength is important in the case of the beam
and slabs.
Bending
B di Strength
S h This
Thi refers
f as the
h strength
h off the
h timber
i b as a b beam.
Cleavability High resistance for cleavage is important for nailing and
screwing g while low splitting
p g strength
g is important
p for used as firewood.
Torsion Strength is used to determine the torsion strength of the
timber and the specimen is loaded up to failure.
Hardness
H d is
i important
i t t in
i case off timber
ti b for
f paving i bl k flooring
blocks fl i
bearings and other similar purposes.
Stiffness - This p property
p y is important
p to determine the deflection of a
timber under a load.
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DEFECTS AND DECAY IN TIMBER

CENTRE HEART/HEART SHAKES


BOW
KNOTS
CUPPING

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Defects in timber

Timber is a natural material that is prone to defects.


One of these is the tendency to split if it is put
under stress from rapid drying or de-lamination of
the growth rings.
rings
These defects are all known as Shakes
Upsets- are clipping or buckling of fibers caused
by crushing of fibers when the trunk is felled
violently over a rocky surface.
Wind Cracks
Cracks- are shakes on the outside of a log
due to the shrinkage of the exterior surface caused
by the atmospheric influences.

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KNOTS
Knots - are dark, hard pieces occurring as signs of branches broken or
cut off.
off

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Shakes
Shakes- or cracks are caused by the rupture of tissues resulting in partial
or complete separation of the fibers along the grain.
Star Shakes
Heart Shakes
Cups
p Shakes
Ring Shakes
Radial Shakes

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BOW
Bow- a curvature of the timber in the direction of its length. This defects
are Due to Seasoning.
g

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CUPPING DEFECTS
Cup- a curvature in the transverse direction of the timber. This defects
also are Due to Seasoning.g

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Wood

TIMBER is the general name for wood materials


materials.

There are 3 main types of timber:

HARDWOOD

SOFTWOOD

MANUFACTURED BOARD
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Hardwood

This type of timber is produced from broad leaf


trees that lose their leaves in winter a
deciduous tree. The photograph opposite is of
an oak tree which grows in this country
country.

Uses - Oak
U O k is
i a hardwood
h d d and
d iis used
d tto make
k
expensive furniture/flooring and strong framed
structures.

The term hardwood does not mean that the


timber is hard. For example balsa is used for
modelling, it is a hard wood but it is one of the
softest timbers to work with.
Model aircraft made
from balsa

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Hardwood

Mahogany reddish in colour


colour, always
looks good when varnished or waxed.

Beech creamy pinkish colour, its


close g
grain makes it very
y suitable for
kitchen utensils, as water does not
have too great an effect on it.

Task Can y
you think of other
uses of wood products in the
kitchen.

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Softwood
This type
yp of timber is p
produced from trees that
do not lose their leaves (coniferous).

Leaves are easily


Softwood trees grow much quicker than the identified as
hardwood ones, they are therefore cheaper to being thin and
narrow.
available Softwood is used
buy and far more available.
for construction of houses and furniture, and
outdoor uses such as fencing.

The term softwood does not mean that the


timber is soft , as pitch pine is one of the most
difficult timbers to work with, yet is a member of
this group

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Uses of soft woods
Furniture Building
Construction

Packaging

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Manufactured Products Of Timber
These are manmade boards, which are made by
gluing wood layers or wood fibers together.

Examples of manufactured boards are:

Plywood is a widely used manufactured timber


timber.
Can you think of advantages and disadvantages of
using plywood?

The photograph opposite shows MDF sheets. What does


t d for
MDF stand f ? Any
A thoughts
th ht regarding
di itits use ?

Manufactured board is mainly used for kitchen and


bedroom furniture and shelving.

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Manufactured Products Of Timber
VENEERS
LAMINATES
PLYWOOD
PARTICLE BOARD
FIBER BOARDS
BATTEN BOARDS : BLOCK BOARDS AND LAMINATED BOARDS

VENEERS - Thin sheet of wood, 0.4 mm to 0.6 mm in


thickness obtained by different knife cutting process.

PLYWOOD - is made by gluing together veneers.


It has a good strength both across as well as
along the grain.
y
Plywood has better splitting
p g resistance due to g
grains in adjacent
j layers
y
running at the right angle and nailing and screwing even closed to the
edges in safe. AAERT _SCHOOL OF INTERIOR DESIGN
Manufactured Products Of Timber
PLYWOOD
Can easily be bending to a curvature limited by
the
h tensile
il and d the
h compressivei strength h off the
h
other plies.
The face p piles made at different heartwoods
show great aesthetic variety in grain pattern and
color.
PARTICLE BOARDS - is a board manufactured
from particles of wood or other cellulose
materials.
BATTEN BOARD it is a board having a core
made up of strips of wood usually 8 cm wide
each laid separately
p y or g
glued or otherwise jjoined
to form a slab.
BLOCK BOARD these are boards having a
core made up strips of wood each not exceeding
25 mm.
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carve it

yyou can
layer it

Bend it ..

turn it ..
slot it together it ..

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Things that attack timber

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Decay of Timber
Termites

Beetles

Flour
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INTERIOR DESIGN
Timber Seasoning
Removal of moisture from timber so as to be in equilibrium with
moisture in surrounding atmospheric conditions
conditions, where timber is
likely to be used, is called as seasoning.

When timber is first felled it is known as green timber and has a very high
moisture content approx 50%
Before it can be used it must be dried
If this process is not controlled properly defects can occur that can ruin
good timber
Aim of seasoning is to dry out the wood to a suitable moisture content of
22% or less

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OBJECTIVES OF SEASONING
Seasoning improves following properties:
Strength
g
Durability
Working qualities including polishing, painting, and gluing
Resistance to attack of insects, fungus
Proper seasoning reduces tendency to split, shrink and warp.
Seasoning reduces weight of timber and is easy to handle.
Timber becomes fit to receive preservative & to finish like
preservatives, paints, and varnish treatment.
To reduce weight and minimize cost of transportation.
To make the timber burn readily
readily, if used as a fuel
fuel.

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TYPES OF SEASONING
Natural Seasoning - is a slow process and the reduction in moisture
content to the desired level mayy not be attainable by
y air seasoning
g
alone.
Artificial or Kiln Seasoning - is a quicker method of seasoning timber t
the desired moisture content under highly controlled conditions
conditions.
Electrical Seasoning - in this method high frequency alternate electric
current is passed through timber.
Chemical Seasoning - If the outer layers of timbers are treated with
such solutions, the vapor pressure of the outer layers is reduced and a
vapor pressure gradient is set up.

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ADVANTAGES OF TIMBER
In terms of specific strength Timber can be used for both load bearing
structures and non-load bearing instruments.
It can be easily converted to any shape and size.
With the advent of superior adhesives and other forms of timber
connectors.
connectors
The wastage in timber construction is less because all wastes can be put
one use or the other.
It has high resale and salvage value.
Timber has better insulating properties than any other materials.
Durability of timber can be very high
high, if properly seasoned and
preserved.
Timber constructions are light in weight.
For aesthetic and decorative appearance.

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USES OF TIMBER AS A BUILDING MATERIAL

BEAMS
TRUSSES
RAFTERS
JOISTS IN FLOORS
DOORS FRAME AND SHUTTERS
WINDOWS FRAME AND SHUTTERS
STAIR CASES
POLES
PILES
COLUMNS

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Before we use wood, what should we think about ?

Wood - sustainability considerations.


A tree absorbs CO2 as it grows and stores the
carbon as wood. When it reaches maturity it
stops absorbing extra carbon. Eventually, if not
cutdown, it will die and gradually give off CO2
as it rots.

If it is cut down and the wood is used for products


such as furniture or buildings this locks
up the carbon in the timber for the lifetime of
the product
product.

If the tree is replaced the new tree will start


absorbing more CO2.

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Before we use wood, what should we think about?

Wood - sustainability considerations.

How does using


g wood affect
Climate Change?

If you use solid


lid titimber
b there is very little
processing.
Energy gy is used to p
plant and then fell
the trees, move them, saw and plane
the timber and then transport it.
The further it is transported the more
energy is used.

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Before we use wood, what should we think about?

Wood - sustainability considerations.

Manufactured boards use


more energy to produce.
They can use the waste from
milling solid timber.
They mostly use adhesives,
and the formaldehyde that is
used in MDF is a health risk.

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Before we use wood, what should we think about?

Wood - sustainability considerations.


Other ecological impacts
Some tropical hardwoods have huge
impacts. Mahogany trees grow in amongst
a variety of other trees and plants. Cutting
down the mahogany causes the destruction
of a whole area of rainforest which cannot
regrow easily.

Does its use harm other people?


If we add to Climate Change that affects
e er one in the World b
everyone butt particularly
partic larl the
poor who are most affected by drought and
flooding. If we destroy areas of rainforest
that affects the lives of the people who live
in the forest.

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Before we use wood, what should we think about?

Wood - sustainability considerations.


Can we keep on using as much as
we like?
lik ?
The planet has a limited amount of
land to grow food and trees so there is
a limit to the amount of timber we
can use. However, the amount that
is used in the production of the paper
that comes into the average house
each year will be a far bigger impact
than the timber in your school project
project.
But the products we do design and
make should be well made, so they
can be used for a number
b off
years.

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