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Sensors & Transducers, Vol. 167, Issue 3, March 2014, pp.


© 2014 by IFSA Publishing, S. L.

Design of an Electric Commutated Frog-Leg Winding
Permanent-Magnet DC Machine
Hang Zhang, Yue-Jin Zhang, Chen Li, J. Z. Jiang
Department of Automation, Shanghai University, Shanghai, 200072, China
Tel.: (86)-021-56331266, fax: (86)-021-56331266

Received: 7 March 2014 /Accepted: 28 March 2014 /Published: 31 March 2014

Abstract: An electric commutated frog-leg winding permanent-magnet (PM) DC machine is proposed
in this paper. It has a semi-closed slotted stator with a classical type of mesh winding introduced from the
conventional brushed DC machine and a polyphase electric commutation besides a PM excitation rotor and a
circular arrayed Hall position sensor. Under the cooperation between the position sensor and the electric
commutation, the proposed machine is basically operated on the same principle of the brushed one.
Because of its simplex frog-leg winding, the combination between poles and slots is designed as 4/22, and the
number of phases is set as 11. By applying an exact analytical method, which is verified comparable with the
finite element analyses (FEA), to the prediction of its instantaneous magnetic field, electromotive force (EMF),
cogging torque and output torque, it is well designed with a series of parameters in dimension aiming at the
lowest cogging torque. A 230 W, 4-pole, and 22-slot new machine is prototyped and tested to verify the
analysis. Copyright © 2014 IFSA Publishing, S. L.

Keywords: DC machine, Electric commutation, Permanent magnet, Simplex frog-leg winding.

1. Introduction [2]. A CLM is generally such a system in
combination of a synchronous motor having a three-
There is a long time for the seeking of non- phase star-delta winding and a three-phase thyristor
contact commutated DC machine as early as 1934, inverter which supplies synchronous AC power
owing to the fundamental weaknesses of a corresponding to the rotating frequency. From then
conventional brushed DC machine such as on, more and more worldwide researchers focused on
mechanical brushes and commutation spark which the electric commutation, and then the research
lead to many disadvantages like complex structure, direction was evolved into two branches, i.e., AC and
difficult maintenance and restricted environment for quasi-DC electric commutation. In late 1970s, Yukio
practical use. Several researchers attempted to design Takeda and Kenya Sakamoto from Japan, on behalf
a thyratron machine [1] using electronic tubes under of the quasi-DC electric commutated machine
the poor technical and economic conditions at that branch, proposed a thyristor brush machine (TBM),
time, in which case the thyratron machine had been which is composed of a polyphase drum type closed
hardly evolved. Until 1960s, the striving for coil armature and a polyphase thyristor bridge
commutatorless DC machine has made great progress rectifier (i.e. converter) circuit, as equivalent DC
since the appearance of thyristors (SCRs), prompting machine, and it has fundamentally the same
the realization of commutatorless machine (CLM) characteristics as that of the conventional DC

88 Article number P_RP_0082

Sensors & Transducers. the coils winding for high-speed application. Moreover. such as and analysis for machine ontology design.e. less copper loss owing to the reduced winding pitch as 1. and the and it takes no account of fault-tolerance either. it leaves fault tolerance out of is assembled by 2 power switches. 167. Both the again. Therefore. mainly in China. i. As referred to Hall arrangement. it turns slot. it vanished from most people's sight applied to direct drive applications featuring higher for nearly half a century. this analytical model are not compatible with that of As summarized foregoing from a perspective based corresponding FEA at the positions of air-gap under on the operation of the proposed DC machine. which would be control scheme and circuit analysis of armature [18]. phase electric commutation according to the exact less DC machine will be back to the TBM to point energizing sequence in a given revolving direction of out a better solution. 10-pole and 11-slot frog-leg winding PM DC machine. The transient of copper loss. the simplex lap winding with winding pitch machine. is such a electromechanical system characteristics than that of a brushed DC machine formed by a PM synchronous motor having a frog- near the breakdown torque.. and then the consideration. To ease the less than that of the 10-pole/11-slot machine as 22. [14]-[15]. smooth speed regulation. rather than its electromagnetic field calculation uneven magnetic reluctance or air gap.000 rpm.. smaller The proposed machine is not really a new volume for higher pole number as 10 and wider speed invention as a whole for it combines an inverted range on account of properly controlling the switch conventional DC machine and a polyphase electric status to decrease the number of coils connected into commutation composed of 11 electric commutator the equivalent circuit. is typically designed in several aspects. nowadays. 11 half-bridges. It seems that the evolution of commutator. but also Until 2009.e.e. the TBM attached people's attention improves the efficiency and power density. wide speed range and fault- Considering the output torque and power tolerance. Issue 3. device development at that time on one hand. and its analytical model. such as lower peak cogging torque thanks to the "goodness" factor of slot number and pole number 2. the equalizer should be configured for TBM indicates the bottlenecks in power switching the simplex lap winding to ensure stable operation. the equalizer has the inverse of control (IOC) by just inversing current always been configured for the conventional DC flowing through coils without any consideration of armature winding to avoid this case. destabilized by many unforeseen reasons leading to [21]. By properly controlling the 11- proposed. a new design and simulation the rotor. i. which is in the design of a DC machine in general. March 2014. passing over the copper loss and of BLDC will be limited by the existence of internal processing difficulty. which is control logic and energizing sequence of power based on conformal mapping considering slotting electronic switches substitutes for the relative motion effect. Consequently. a new 4-pole and 18-slot to the topic of machine design as if it is a simplex lap winding PM brushless DC machine has combination of a PM synchronous DC machine with been put into practice for the application requiring a frog-leg armature and an 11-phase quasi-DC high speed no less than 10. commutation process and ensure stable operation. Machine Structure Characteristics combination [16] with the value of 1. for focus on the AC electric commutated (i. A simplex wave winding PM theoretical analysis and experimental results validate brushless DC machine with a special combination the feasibility of the proposed electric commutated number of pole and slot. number of power electronic switching devices It is essential to concern the commutation process adopted in the electric commutation is 18. As always there is a trade-off. and a polyphase electric to realize speed range extension [6]-[13].e. electric commutation. from the same branch are placed under the different 89 . its operation principle is basically the same method of TBM can reproduce its role in non-contact as a brushed one.. such as sensorless winding should be balanced. However. because of its simple segments. pp. installation error and they have made two low-level misunderstandings in deformation of shaft. i. in order to be therefore. and the choice of armature the simplex lap winding without equalizer. the total from the conventional brushed DC machine. With the same theory. significant development of BLDC on the other hand. most of their work focus on the branch potential and current distribution in the operation of this new DC machine. However. Vol. doesn't seem so accurate that the results from between mechanical commutator and carbon brush. discontinuity of material. every of which simplex wave winding. overload capacity and high holding torque. and it is more difficult leg armature as a stator. such as direct. 88-96 machine [3]-[5]. the most published papers there are several issues need to be improved. whereby it not only keeps the commutated DC machine and it still can be operated characteristics of a brushed DC machine such as wide in the same way as a brushed one but not a BLDC operating speed range. the Nevertheless. torque at low speed. the new DC machine dealt with inductance as it would cause worse mechanical in this paper. According to the split number of success to the design of frog-leg armature inherited phases of armature coil of this motor as 9. which evolved into the well-known as 4 means longer end of coil resulting in more brushless DC machine (BLDC). a new DC commutation having the same number of phases machine whose brushes and field winding is replaced equals to the split number of phases of armature coil by an electric commutation and PMs respectively is of the motor as 11. inverter) instance. from which it attributes the driven twister [17].

Issue 3. the degree of multiplicity of the wave winding. either y1L=5 and y1W=6. Simplex frog-leg armature winding. the  1L 1W proposed machine is designed with 4 poles and 22  ykL + ykW = K / p . slots is K=22 for there are 2 complete windings on The rules for designing a simplex frog-leg the armature to average N. the commutation is increased. it makes the poles is 2p=4 and the total number of pairs of parallel armature more complicated and wastes more copper. there is no need to install equalizer for the is same with [14]. Fig. connected to the virtual commutators cross each other leading to more copper waste as ykL=-1 and ykw=11. At last. and then the total number of machine because of its excellent potential for use coils is N=44 by multiplying N2a and 2a. 2 for duplex. which equals to that of the phases of electric winding. ykL and ykw is the virtual divide the armature winding circuit into 2 paralleling commutator pitch of the lap winding and wave units. the wave winding is set as m=2 in common use. There is a trade-off distribution of current between the two branches between the number of power electronic switches and becomes seriously imbalanced. and it has a simplex frog-leg armature winding  y = ±1  kL of simplex lap and duplex wave with the number of  y1L = K / 2 p ± ε winding/virtual commutator pitch as y1L=5/ykL=1 and y1W=6/ ykw=10 respectively. Although the configured equalizer can reduce Therefore. 88-96 magnetic poles. Besides. number of series coils per path N2a is set as 5. m = p when ykL=1 and ykw=10. Fig. m is the From the given parameters calculated above. i. the number of copper loss and improve commutation. a simplex frog-leg winding is introduced. to be employed in the proposed DC aW is equal to m as 2. according to formula (1). parallel paths through the simplex lap winding aL is for the same purpose as the equalizer to make full use equal to p as 2 and that of the duplex wave winding of the copper. 90 . a surge circulation arose from the jumping magnetomotive force (MMF) current would be generated by a little disturbance in decreases as the number of edges of the closed potential and smaller internal resistance of armature winding. when it operates on load. and then the mean overheated armature with more copper loss. Vol. the number of pairs of Therefore. a novel 11 split phases winding respectively. 167. pp. March 2014. the simplex frog-leg simplex wave winding for its connection principle is armature winding with the degree of multiplicity of just the same as a natural equalizer. that is. K armature winding with 4 poles and 22 slots including is the number of slots.e. ε is a correction to make y1L armature winding for the electric commutated PM an integer. Sensors & Transducers. (1) slots. because the torque ripple under magnetic poles. DC machine emerges. or y + y = K / p y1L=6 and y1W=5 is obtained. 1. 1. y1L drawn according to its drawing principle. In conclusion. and so forth. it comes to a conclusion that the number of speed range and high torque besides fault tolerance. if the magnetic reluctance or air gap It ought to take the electric commutation is nonuniform. and y1W is the winding pitch of the lap winding and It is obvious that the 4 fixed symmetrical brushes wave winding respectively. which leads to the amplitude of torque ripple. then there would be unbalanced in consideration for the armature winding design branch potential caused by unequal magnetic flux of the proposed machine. developed winding diagram of a simplex frog-leg m=1 for simplex wave. From the under high voltage and large current to obtain wide above. where p is the number of pairs of poles. Since the coils' ends winding of DC machines are presented below [22]. paths is a=aL+aW=4. which is the same as that of 22 commutator bars and 4 carbon brushes can be commutator bars of a conventional DC machine.5 which However. that is. Moreover. Inspired from this.

the number more accurate and fast. as shown in Fig. and connecting every two coils' ends contacted to the same pole of brushes together by assuming that the brushes are forwarding in a certain direction. while neither magnetic circuit of coils under a pair of poles is odd as 11. based From Fig. In addition. 2-D view of stator and rotor. Fig. could also generate a rotating dimensions are well-designed using an analytical magnetic field. instead of the fundamental principle to rotate it which demonstrates the essential difference between the proposed machine and the well-known machine (BLDC) that the rotational magnetic field is generated by quasi- DC rather than AC. Vol. then the phase current of every four layers after first and forth layers from above down. 3. March 2014. 2. the wave winding should be placed on the is Id. 88-96 Eliminating the 22 commutator bars and 4 carbon brushes of the conventional DC machine with simplex frog-leg armature winding. that is. the two complete double-layer windings on the Therefore. which means larger armature current The quasi-DC armature. a special armature winding type is presented for the electric commutated PM DC machine. 2. while the lap commutation fluctuates between Id×5/11 and Id×6/11 winding should be placed on the second and third for each commutation in other phases. paying commutation as it only needs to change one switch attention to the 4 layers along the height of slot for from one status to another. 1. which will be introduced in section 4. The wave layers accordingly. assuming the DC bus current amplitude armature. method. 167. what it gets commutation according to the exact energizing is just the rotor and stator of a BLDC machine with sequence in counterclockwise direction of the rotor surface-mounted PMs as shown in Fig. Fig. form of phase current is roughly shown in Fig. which method nor FEA method has yet met the goals of is convenient for the control of the 11-phase electric both accuracy and rapidity. which is regarded two new DC machines. 2. It is not an exclusive physical phenomenon of a three-phase symmetry AC armature energized by three-phase symmetry AC to generate a circular Compared to the commutation circuits of the rotating magnetic field. which is generated under the same voltage and better fault-tolerance. 3. Although it is indeed more complex than either of the new DC machines referred in section 1. The as shown in Table 1. Principle of Operation The operation principle of the proposed machine is basically as same as a brushed DC machine that in brief the current direction of coils under N or S pole remains unchanged by accurately controlling the power electronic switch status [14]. which is illustrated in Fig. as shown in Table 1. with the split number of phases of armature coil as 11. pp. Commutation circuit. Issue 3. the number of the two current on the analysis of electromagnetic field which is direction paths is not the same. it is only the presentational rules concluded from the operation of a brushed DC machine. each coil of the original as an important basis in the operation analysis commutation circuit is replaced by 4 coils connected of AC synchronous or asynchronous machines. Sensors & Transducers. energized arose from smaller resistance of armature winding by a specific form of quasi-DC. in parallel. the final commutation circuit is unexpectedly symmetrical like a spider web named araneose coil armature and even more advanced as shown in Fig. 3. However. 4. 91 .2. by properly controlling the 11-phase electric Taken away the armature winding.

(3) Fig. 6. W18. and then it gets the same current distribution referred in the previous paragraph. electrically equivalent to a 2-pole machine. L9. have the same current direction. W15. L12. March 2014. L8. 4. Coils' position under 2-pole (α=0). whose amplitude can be obtained by Fa = Asτ / 2 . In Fig. Distribution of current along armature surface. W20. W11. the current distribution along the upper side coils' position can be rearranged according armature surface is just a symmetrical square to their original position under N or S pole as shown waveform. L14. (1) AS = N1I aI / t (2) τ = πD / 2 p . W2. As Fa τ τ Fig. Issue 3. S1L). where the circle in slot as the distance between the two switches is the same means the current direction is vertical out of the as the pitch of pole. with the total number as 20 (5 coils per path). with the total number as Besides the switch status (S6H. W8. When S6H and S1L are turned on as the first status in Table 1. L12. W1 and W13 are commutating. W21. of poles. W17. 167. From Fig. coils under the same pole should P 7 8 9 10 11 1 2 3 4 5 6 have the same current direction with the right hand N 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 1 rule to orient the MMF keeping 90 electrical degree with PM MMF in advance. which means coil L1. L4. 7. W16. L3. L20. as shown in Fig. L17. W6. and the cross in slot means the opposite statuses can be deduced by rotating the 2-pole rotor current direction. 7. Therefore. and so for coil L6. Vol. L19. Fig. W3. W14. 92 . coil L7. L5. L15. Pay attention to slot 7 and 18. it assumes that the energized coils concentrated in slots are equivalent to a current sheet distributed along the circumferential surface of armature hence MMF of armature Fa generated by the current sheet is a triangle wave [23]. Fig. L11. W1. Current of coils (S6H and S1L on at α=0). as listed in Table 1. W22. The total number counterclockwise. it can be of effective switch statuses is 22. W7. 7. L22. the resultant current is zero. W5. if we want the machine to rotate counterclockwise. Sensors & Transducers. pp. While from another point of view. the current direction switch statuses can also generate an effective MMF of each layer of slot with S6H and S1L on at α = 0 through the 11-phase electric commutation as long can be exhibited in Fig. Energizing sequence of power electronic switch. 5. when and which switches to be turned on to to determine the coils' current direction and the supply a quasi-DC to drive the machine to rotate switches to be turned on. W10.. counterclockwise every α = (2π/p)/22 = π/22 i.e. Wave form of phase current. and the As a consequence. L18. 5 (b). L1. the space period of which is a pair in Fig. L10. L2. W4. and W12. L16. the other 24 (6 coils per path). 88-96 Table 1. L21. and then all the effective switch paper. W19. W9. L13.5. and W13. 6. since there are 2 units.

In Fig. (b) Back-EMF (Phase W1 at 220 rpm). Major Parameters. It aims at lower peak cogging diameter of armature. is (a) No-load field distribution. 8. Simulation and Experiments Stator Outer Diameter 151 mm Stator Inner Diameter 81 mm As referred in section 2. 8. 88-96 where AS is the line load along the armature surface. EMF induced in the Pole Arc Coefficient 0. Vol. D is the compared to FEA. cogging torque and output torque of the proposed DC machine [25]. which is based on the solutions of Laplace's Thickness of Magnets 4 mm and Possion's equations using magnetic vector Mechanical Air Gap 0. counterclockwise with the aid of the 11-phase quasi- DC electric commutation. Fig. Simulation comparisons.15 T boundary and interface conditions [24]. (f) Cogging torque. and τ is the pitch of pole. dimensions.5 Nm Pole/Slot Number 4/22 4. as a quasi-DC machine. of positive and negative current is just the space For the sake of convenience and generality of the position of axis of MMF indicated by Fa as shown introduced exact analytical method. t is the pitch of teeth. from which it can be concluded that the solutions for the model are omitted. and they are compatible with each others of rotor to generate an effective MMF to keep the while the analytical method costs less time to predict rotor rotating in a certain direction. the detailed in Fig. an exact analytical Stator Axial Length 101 mm method. pp. Therefore. Ia1 is the and fast scheme for well-designed dimensions current of each path. 5. 93 . the switch status should be renewed for certain coils' comparisons between analytical method and FEA are commutation at every π/22 mechanical position angle illustrated. comprehensively introduced to provide an accurate N1 is the number of coils' sides in each slot. its rotation speed can be conveniently Rated Power 230 W regulated by controlling the DC bus voltage or the Rated Voltage 48 V switch statuses to update the number of coils Rated Speed 220 rpm connected into the equivalent circuit [14]. the rotor with Table 2. which means an efficient and effective the MMF generated by quasi-DC is rotating way to design a new DC machine. the performance of the new machines with different according to the switch status sequence in Table 1. Finally. for predicting Slot Open Width 1. (d) Magnetic field distribution (e) Electromagnetic torque.74 armature winding. Sensors & Transducers. surface-mounted PMs follows.5 mm the instantaneous magnetic field. Rated Load 10. on load. 167. Issue 3. March 2014. (c) Armature reaction field distribution. As a result. torque and higher torque density for the proposed The position of MMF peak at the interface machine. PM and slot domains under Magnet Remanence 1.6 mm potential for air-gap.

8 (b) and Fig. Fig. (2 V/div.13 Nm while the electromagnetic torque is about 10. Beyond that. as shown in Fig. Observing Fig. 11. Fig. as given in Table 2. General assembly drawing of prototype. pp. results from experiment are still compatible with (b) Simulation results (110 rpm). From Fig. Prototype components and experimental platform. (c) Adjustable Hall PCB backseat. Fig. corresponding simulation. 10(a). 94 . Issue 3. and the no-load EMF wave forms of phase 1 and phase 2 at the speed of 110 rpm are recorded using an oscilloscope and then compared with corresponding simulation results. We can learn that the maximum no-load EMF is about 5 V at the speed of 110 rpm. Since there are 11 phases of the armature winding. 10. 40 ms/div.5 Nm. 9. we can find that there are distinct differences between the no-load EMF wave forms of analytical and FEA. the prototype is used as a generator driven by a conventional DC machine as (a) Experimental results. To validate the principle of proposed DC machine and the simulation model. 167. the position sensor should be accurately equipped with 11 Hall elements arrayed evenly around the center hole on the PCB board as shown in Fig. Its general assembly drawing is illustrated in Fig.. on the hillside between zero and the positive or negative maximum EMF. 88-96 Its major parameters can be determined by the rated value and the repeated calculation of peak cogging torque from the exact analytical model to make it lower. 10(c). (b) Wiring stator. 11. and then the predicted torque ripple caused by cogging torque is lower than 2 %. i. Vol. 8(c). March 2014. 11. while that of experiment is basically the same with FEA. and the design of the proposed DC machine is validated. It is likely due to the assumption for the modeling of analytical method that the gaps between poles are filled with a kind of virtual material with the same permeability of PMs. 110 rpm) shown in Fig. considering the axial magnetic field of specially designed PM commutated rotor.e. the maximum calculated cogging torque is 0. adjusting the slot open width considering manufacturing process and pole arc coefficient based on the predicted optimal effective pole arc coefficient [26]. Sensors & Transducers. (a) Experimental platform. 9. No-load EMF wave forms of phase1 and phase 2. which leads to smooth magnetic flux under pole.

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