1, FEBRUARY 1996
esign of Uncert
stems: Adaptive Fuzz
BorSen Chen, Senior Member, IEEE, ChingHsiang Lee, and YeongChan Chang
AbstractA fuzzy logic controller equipped with a training control algorithms attempt to make use of information from
(adaptive) algorithm is proposedl in this work to achieve H m human experts. The expert information is generally represented
tracking performance for a class of uncertain (model free) non by fuzzy terms, e.g., small, large, not very large, etc., for
linear singleinput singleoutput (SISO) systems with external
disturbances. An attempt is also made to create a bridge between convenience or lack of more precise knowledge, ease of
two important control design techniques, Le., H" control design communication, and so forth. However, most of these fuzzy
and fuzzy control design, so as to supply H" control design with control algorithms are proposed without analytical tools for
more intelligence and fuzzy condrol design with better perfor general design procedures to guarantee basic performance
mance. The perfect matching of parameters in an adaptive fuzzy criteria. Generally, these fuzzy control approaches combine
logic system is generally deemed impossible. Therefore, a desired
tracking performance cannot be guaranteed in the conventional expert knowledge with the conventional engineering systems
adaptive fuzzy control systems. In this study, the Muence of both in an ad hoc manner. Thereby, simulations are performed to
fuzzy logic approximation error and external disturbance on the show the validity of the approaches to the specific control
tracking error is attenuated to a prescribed level. Both indirect problems [2], [3], and [4].
and direct adaptive fuzzy controllers are employed to treat this
H" tracking problem. Our results indicate that arbitrarily small More recently, an important adaptive fuzzy control system
attenuation level can be achieved via the proposed adaptive fuzzy has been developed to incorperate with the expert infomation
control algorithm if a weighting factor of control variable is systematically and the stability is guaranteed by theoretical
adequately chosen. The proposed design method is also useful analyses [4], [14], and [lS]. An adaptive fuzzy system is
for the robust tracking control design of the nonlinear systems a fuzzy logic system equipped with a training algorithm, in
with external disturbances and a large uncertainty or unknown
variation in plant parameters and structures. Furthermore, only which the fuzzy logic system is constructed from a collection
smooth control signals are needed via the proposed control of fuzzy IFTmN rules, and the training algorithm adjusts
designs. Two simulation examples are given finally to illustrate the parameters of the fuzzy logic system according to numer
the performance of the proposed methods. Computer simulation ical inpub'output data. Conceptually, adaptive fuzzy systems
results confirm that the effect of both the fuzzy approximation combine linguistic information from experts with numerical
error and external disturbance on the tracking error can be
attenuated efficiently by the proplosed method. information from sensors. Linguistic information (in the form
of fuzzy IFTHENrules) can be directly incorporated since
fuzzy logic systems are constructed from fuzzy IFTHEN
I. INTRODUCTION rules; on the other hand, numerical information (in form of
HE ADAPTIVE control for feedback linearizable non inpuuoutput data) is incorporated by training the fuzzy logic
linear systems has already been discussed. In [l], the system to match the input/output data.
unknown parameters of nonlinear systems are assumed to be The perfect match via adaptive fuizy logic system is gener
linear and the system is free of external disturbances. The non ally deemed impossible. In [4], [14], and [15], the stability of
linear adaptive problem is transformed into a linear adaptive adaptive fuzzy control system has been guaranteed. However,
problem by feedback linearization method at first and then, the matching error may deteriorate the tracking performance.
the adaptive pole assignments and model matching techniques A prescribed tracking performance cannot be guaranteed in the
are used to achieve the asymptotic tracking design. In this conventional adaptive fuzzy control systems owing to the fact
work, the H" tracking problem of uncertain nonlinear single that the influence of matching error and external disturbance
input singleoutput (SISO) systems with external disturbance on tracking error cannot be efficiently eliminated. In most
is solved. cases, even when the output error is small, the errors of the
Fuzzy control has recently found extensive application for internal variables are not small in the conventional adaptive
a wide variety of industrial systems and consumer products fuzzy control designs.
and has attracted the attention of many control researchers In the last decade, H m optimal control theory has been well
due to its model free approach, [2][13] and [16]. The fuzzy developed and found extensive application to efficiently treat
the robust stabilization and disturbance rejection problems
Manuscript received August 26, 1994; revised May 25, 1995 This work
was supported by National Science Council under Contract NSC 842213E [17][21]. In the conventional H" optimal control, the plant
007077 model must be known beforehand. In this study, the H"
The authors are with the Control and Signal Processing Laboratory, optimal control design will be extended toward the nonlinear
Department of Electrical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsin
Chu, Taiwan, 300, R 0.C systems with unknown or uncertain models via fuzzy tech
Publisher Item Identifier S 10636706(96)006364 nique. To our knowledge, however, the H" optimal control
10636706/96$05.00 0 1996 IEEE
~
CHEN et al.: H m TRACKING DESIGN OF UNCERTAIN NONLINEAR SISO SYSTEMS: ADAPTIVE FUZZY APPROACH 33
design has not yet been used for adaptive control systems or for some parameter estimate 8 of fuzzy logic system and
fuzzy control systems. optimal parameter estimate e*
of fuzzy logic system. Let w
A new adaptive fuzzy control algorithm is proposed in denote the sum of matching errors due to fuzzy approximations
this study so that not only the stability of adaptive fuzzy of f(g), g(:) and the external disturbance d. Then our design
control system is guaranteed but also the influence of the objective is to impose an adaptive fuzzy control algorithm so
matching error and external disturbance on the tracking error that the following asymptotically stable tracking
is attenuated to an arbitrarily desired level via H" tracking
design technique, i.e., the gain (the induced L2 norm) from e(n) + kle("l) + . . . + kne = 0 (3)
both the matching error and external disturbance to tracking is achieved while w = 0 (i.e., in the case of perfect fuzzy
error must be less than or equal to a prescribed value. This is approximation and free of external disturbance). While w
the socalled H" tracking problem in adaptive fuzzy control
appears, the following H" tracking performance is requested:
systems. The proposed design method attempts to combine
([ 1714191)
the attenuation technique, fuzzy logic approximation method,
and adaptive control algorithm for the robust tracking control
design of the nonlinear systems with a large uncertainty or Jo
unknown variation in plant parameters and structures. Both
direct and indirect adaptive fuzzy controls are discussed, and
the corresponding design procedures are also proposed.
+ LgT(0)#(O)+ p2
7
1 T
wTw d t
Two simulation examples are finally provided to illustrate b'T E [0, 00) w E L2[0,TI (4)
the performance of the proposed methods. The adaptive fuzzy for given weighting matrices Q = QT 2 0, P = PT 2 0,
approximation technique is used as rough tuning and the H" an adaption gain y > 0, and a prescribed attenuation level
disturbance attenuation technique is considered as fine tuning. p, where = ( e ,k , . . . , e ( n  l ) ) T . Both indirect and direct
Therefore, the proposed design method is more suitable for adaptive fuzzy control algorithms are employed in this paper
the robust tracking control design of the uncertain nonlinear to control the nonlinear system in (1) to guarantee the tracking
systems and is an attractive control design concept. Computer performance (4) with a prescribed disturbance attenuation level
simulation results indicate the effect of both the fuzzy approx
P.
imation error and external disturbance on the tracking error Remark:
can be attenuated efficiently by the proposed method. These
simulation results illustrate desired upgrade on both H" and i) +
The roots of polynomial h ( s ) = sn kl.dn') .. + + +
fuzzy control designs. k,1s + kn in the characteristic equation of (3) are all
The paper is organized as follows. The problem formulation in the open lefthalf plane via an adequate choice of
is first made in Section 11. A brief description of fuzzy logic coefficients k l , k2, . . . , k,.
systems is then made in Section 111. H" tracking performance ii) If the system starts with initial conditions g(0) =
designs in both indirect and direct adaptive fuzzy systems are O,#(O) = 0, then the H" performance in (4) can be
given in Section IV. Two simulation examples are provided to rewritten as
illustrate the performance of the proposed methods in Section
V. Concluding remarks are finally made in Section VI.
FORMULATION
11. PROBLEM where 11g11: = J C c T Q g d t and llw112 = JT
wTw d t ,
Consider the following nthorder SISO systems i.e., the L2gain from w to the tracking error e must be
x(4= f (x,2 , .'. ,x(%')) + g(x,i ,. . . x("l))u + d equal to or less than p.
iii) If p = 00,this is the case of minimum error tracking
y =x (1) control without disturbance attenuation [ 171[ 191.
where f and g are unknown (uncertain) but bounded con iv) In the conventional adaptive control systems with exter
tinuous functions and U E R and y E R are the input and nal disturbance case, some adaptive controls with VSS
output of the system, respectively. d denotes the external or deadzone techniques have been employed to guar
disturbance which is unknown but bounded. The external antee the stability of the adaptive control systems, [20]
disturbances are due to system load, external noise, etc. and [ 2 3 ] . However, these methods will lead to higher
R" be the state vector of
Let g = ( ~ , i , . . . , x ( ~  l )E) ~ frequency switching control signals and may drive the
the system which is assumed to be available. For (1) to high frequency modes of unmodeled dynamics. The
be controllable, we require that g(:) # 0 for g in certain control signals are expected here to be smooth. 0
controllability region U, c Rn. Consider the more general nonlinear system case
The control objective is to force y to follow a given bounded
reference signal ym . Let us denote the output tracking error +
2 = f ( z ) g(z)u + d'
e and parameter tracking error & Y =h(z) (6)
where z E R1,l2 n. Let L f h and L,h stand for the Lie
derivatives of h, with respect to f and g, respectively. If
34 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON FUZZY SYSTEMS, VOL. 4, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 1996
111. DESCRIPTION
OF FUZZY LOGICSYSTEMS
The fuzzy logic systems are universal approximations from
the viewpoint of human experts and can uniformly approxi where = (7J1,. . . ,DM)T is a parameter vector, and [(g)=
mate nonlinear continuous functions to arbitrary accuracy, [2] ( f l ( g ) ., .. ,( ' M ( g ) ) Tis a regressive vector with the regressor
and [3]. In the indirect adaptive fuzzy control case, in order E (g) (which is the fuzzy basis function in [15]) defined as
to achieve H" control design purpose, nonlinear functions
f ( g ) and g ( g ) will be approximated by tuning the parameters
of the corresponding fuzzy logic systems. On the other hand,
in the direct adaptive fuzzy control case, the adaptive control
algorithm will be approximated by adjusting the parameters 1=1
of an adkquate fuzzy logic system. Therefore, the fuzzy logic
systems in Fig. 1 are qualified as building blocks of H a Two main reasons arise for using the fuzzy logic system (10)
adaptive controllers for nonlinear systems. Furthermore the as basic building block of adaptive fuzzy controllers. First, the
fuzzy logic systems are constructed from the fuzzy IFTHEN fuzzy logic systems in the form of (10) are proven in [4] and
rules using some specific inference, fuzzification, and de [15] to be universal approximators, i.e., for any given real con
fuzzification strategies. Therefore, linguistic information from tinuous function f on the compact set U, there exists a fuzzy
human experts can be directly incorporated into controllers [4]. logic system in the form of (10) such that it can uniformly
The basic configuration of the fuzzy logic system is shown approximate f over U to arbitrary accuracy. Therefore, the
in Fig. 1. The fuzzy logic system performs a mapping from fuzzy logic systems (10) are qualified as building blocks of
U E R" to R. Let U = U1 x . . . x U, where U, c R, z = adaptive controller for nonlinear systems. Second, the fuzzy
1 , 2 , . . . ,n. The fuzzy rule base consists of a collection of logic systems (10) are constructed from the fuzzy IFTHEN
fuzzy IFTHEN rules [2][4] rules of (8) using some specific fuzzy inference, fuzzification,
and defuzzification strategies. Therefore, linguistic information
R('): If X I is F!, and . . . and, IC, is FL, from a human expert can be directly incorporated into the
Then y is G', (8) controllers.
CHEN et al.: H w TRACKING DESIGN OF UNCERTAIN NONLINEAR SISO SYSTEMS: ADAPTIVE FUZZY APPROACH 35
V = eTQg
1  eTPBBTPe
1
2 2p2
1
+
(wTBTPe eTPBw)
2
+
where w = we  d,ef =
x
e,
 8; and =
x
e:.
Then,
the following result can be obtained.
Theorem I : If we select the following adaptive fuzzy con + ' p2 w T w
trol law in the nonlinear system (1) 2
5  l e T Q e + ' p 2 w T w .
(32)
2 2 I
U, =BTPg
1
(25) V ( T ) V ( 0 )5 + gTQg d t +ip2 1 T
wTw dt. (33)
Bf =r1&)B Pe
T
(26) Since V ( T ) 2 0, the above inequality implies the following
I,
0 =  r2<(z)BTPeuc (27) inequality
where r is a positive scalar value and P = PT
solution of the following Riccatilike equation
2 0 is the
IT gTQg d t 5 V ( 0 )+ i p 2
T
wTw dt.
2
PA + ATP + Q  PBBTP
r
+ 2P1P B B T P = 0 (28) From (29), the above inequality is equivalent to the following
This is (4). 0
2 2 72 (30) Remark: The solvability of H" tracking performance by
adaptive fuzzy control law (24)(27) is on the existence of
BY the fact 8f = 8,)
.
K
J
{
If the control U , is also of concern, the H" tracking 72$(:)BTPeuc, if Ile,ll < Mgor (Ilegll =
performance in (4) should be modified as and g T P B < T ( g ) @2
g ~0)c
e, = Pg[.l, if Il@gll = Mg
l T ( y T Q r+ TU;) dt and eTPBET(:)B,uC
 <0
5 eT(0)Pe(O)+ 1 T (O)Bf(O)
ef respectively, where
71
+ lj:(0)Bg(O) + p2
72
1 T
W ~ dt.
W (35) Pf[.]
:= nS(:)B'Pr +71
rTpq'(.)e,
ll@fIlZ @f
+ +1 1
+ .T 
P A ATP Q  PBBTP PBBTP = 0 (36)  (E)+ 1/7&)ef 5 0 and (eTPBE'
Since (gTPBcT
r P2
then the H"" tracking performance of (35) is achieved with a
(:)uC+ l/yzt$)$ 5 0 in (31), the Ha performance
(4) can also be guaranteed. 0
prescribed attenuation level p.
Proof: Similar to Theorem 1. From the above analysis, a design procedure for indirect
Remark: H" adaptive fuzzy control algorithm is proposed as follows:
e
f [

71<(z)BTPe, if
Pf[.I,
if
Ile, II < Mf or (Il@fII = Mf
and e T P B T ( Z ) B f2 0)
llefll = Mf
and gTPBET(:)ef
 <0,
& = A e + B u ,  B d .
In our case, however, f ( g ) is unknown. Therefore, U* in (35)
cannot be obtained.
(36)
38 EEE TRANSACTIONS ON FUZZY SYSTEMS, VOL. 4, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 1996
Adopte U = u(:/g)  u,/g(g), and let the fuzzy control Proof: Let us choose a Lyapunov function
law be in terms of the following fuzzy logic system as (10) 1 1 T
v = eTPg+ Q 6.
u(:/e) = e g(a)= < .S)'(
T T 2 27 
Taking the time derivative of the above equation yields
Then, we get the control law as
i. 1k T p g + eTPe+
1 Q1 LT,.Q + Q1  T A8. (49)
(37) 2 2 27  27 
After some straightforwardmanipulations, the tracking error By the fact $ = and (43), the above equation becomes
dynamic of the nonlinear system (1) with the fuzzy control law
U in (37) to replace U* in (35) is of the following form
(50)
Q* = argming,no [SUP,,n,
 @
/:(.l )  .izlll (39) Y
where R0 and R, denote the sets of desired bounds on @ From (441, we get
and ,: respectively. Let the minimum approximation error be
denoted by
2 r
wc = g(:)(u(:/8*)  U ) . (40) <(z)g(:)BT P e 
Y
The error dynamic equation (38) can be rewritten as 1
+ lwTBTPg + eTPBw. (51)
i= Ag
 + Bu, Bg(:)(u(:/O)  U(./@*)  Bd + Bw,. 2 2
(41) From the adaptive laws (47) and the Riccatilike (49, we get
 1 1
From (37), (41) becomes V = eTQg  eTPBBTPg
2 202
where
Fig. 2. The inverted pendulum system.
7
+
(eTQe+TU:) d t 5eT(0)Pe(O) i l T ( 0 ) 8 ( O )
mlxz cos 2 1 sin z1
4 mcos2XI)]
m,+m
coszl [ I/ ] /
[l(a
T +
+
p 2 1 wTui d t . (53) m,+m m,+m
Corollary 2: If we adopt the following direct adaptive
fuzzy control law for the nonlinear system (1)
y =x1
U @IT:(
I
=  us/g(:.)
where g = 9.8m/s2 is the acceleration due to gravity, m, is
1
U, =BTPe the mass of the cart, m is the mass of the pole, 1 is the half
(54)
r
length of the pole, U is the applied force (control) and d is the
8 = r$(:)g(:)BTPe
 (55) external disturbance. For the convenience of simulation, the
where PT = P 2 0 is the solution of the following Riccati external disturbance d is assumed to be a square wave with
like equation the amplitude f0.05 and the period 27r. The reference signal
1 1 is assumed here to be y,(t) = 7 r / 3 0 s i n t . Also we choose
PA+ATP+QPBBTP+PBBTP=O (56) m, = 10,m = l,Z = 3. How do we use fuzzy adaptive
r P2
control to achieve the H" tracking performance?
then the H" tracking performance in (53) is achieved with a Solution: According to the design procedure 1, the H"
prescribed p . 0 tracking design is given by the following steps:
From the above analysis, a design procedure for direct Step I : The following membership functions are selected,
adaptive fuzzy control algorithm is proposed as follows: i.e.,
1
Design Procedure 2:
+
p F : ( z z ) = 1 exp(5 x ( 2 . 0.6)) +
Step I : Select membership functions p Z ( g ) for i =
1 , 2 , . . . , M and compute the fuzzy basis functions  [ ( g ) as
pF,"( 2 . ) = ~xP[(z. 0.41~1 +
in (11). PF+Z) = exp[(zz +
0.q21
Step 2: Select Q, y,r and the desired attenuation level p so 2
PF+Z) = exp[z,I
that 2p2 2 T in Theorem 2 and p 2 2 T in Corollary 2. 2

Step 3: Specify the desired coefficients k:z, i = 1 , 2 , . . , n. PF+Z) = exp[(zz  0.2) 1
Step 4: Solve the Riccatilike (45) or (56). P ~ ! ( ~= , ) ~XP[(Z,  0.41~1
Step 5: Compute the direct adaptive fuzzy control law 1
(46)(47) or (54)(55). 0 p L F ~ ( I c ' ) = 1 + exp(5 x (zz 0.6))'
Denote
0.151 I
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
t (sec)
&= p: 1:]
Then
PA+A~P+QPB
c p:>
 B~P=O.
P = [I; ;] 0.15
o a
\. I,
4 6 8 io
t (sec)
12 14 16 18 PO
for all cases. Fig. 4. Families of response curves y ( t ) = z ~ ( tof) tracking control in
Step 5: Obtain the indirect adaptive law as Example 1.
5
+ ;(e + L)]
Q,

g
= .5(e + i)<(g)

8 = 0.05(e + e)u,[(:).

overall control system with step size 0.001. From the computer
simulation, the H tracking performance is illustrated in
Figs. 36. The curves of ~ ( tunder) different attenuation lev
els are given in Fig. 3; meanwhile, the curves of ~ ( tunder) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
2.5
0 0.0s 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5 1.51 J
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
t (00.5sec)
t (sec)
(a)
Fig. 7. Families of response curves y ( t ) = z l ( t ) of tracking control in
Example 2.
401
30
1
I I
40
so 2 4 6 8 10
t (0.520 sec)
12 14 16 10 20
1.51 , ~.4: , I
0 1 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 16 20
(b)
t (=.)
Fig. 6. (a) Families of u ( t ) in Example 1 (transient response). (b) Families
of ~ ( tin) Example 1 (steadystate response). Fig. 8. Families of response curves y(t) = za(t) of tracking control in
Example 2.
y =21.
The fuzzy basis functions and fuzzy approximations are deter
mined similar to Example 1. The initial conditions are chosen
The system is chaotic if u(t) = 0 and d ( t ) = 0. For the to be zl(0) = ~ ( 0 =) 2 and e(0) = 0.
convenience of simulation, the reference signal selected here Step 2: Assume that Q is the same as in Example 1 and
is y m ( t ) = sint, and the external disturbance d is a square choose y = 1. Consider also three cases of prescribed attenua
wave with the amplitude f l and the period 27r Next, our tion levels p = 0.05,0.1,0.2 and select T = 0.005,0.02,0.08,
direct adaptive fuzzy controller is used to achieve the H" respectively.
tracking performance. Step 3: Assume that the coefficients k l , k2 are the same as
Solution: in Example 1.
Step I : The fuzzy membership functions are chosen as Step 4: The solution of the Riccatilike (45) is the same as
follows: before for all cases, i.e.,
1
p F : ( 2 z ) = 1 + exp(5 x ( 2 . + 2.5))
L
P ~ ( G = ) exp[(zz + 1.5)'I
Step 5: Obtain the direct adaptive law as
PF; (G)= exp[(z, + 0.5)21
PF: ( z z ) = exp[z8]
p F 5 ( z , ) = exp[(z,  0.5)2]
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON FUZZY SYSTEMS, VOL. 4, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 1996
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
800
t (sec) 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.15 0.4 0.45 0.5
t (00.5 sec)
Fig. 9. Families of 6e 2 ( t ) d t in Example 2.
From the computer simulation, the H tracking perfor
mance is illustrated in Figs. 710. The effects of both the
fuzzy logic approximation error and external disfxrbance on
the tracking error are also attenuated efficiently by the pro
posed method. In Fig. 7, the curves of x l ( t ) under different
attenuation levels are given. Meanwhile, the curves of x ~ ( t )
under different attenuation levels are given in Fig. 8. If H
design method is not exploited, even x l ( t ) is near the desired
sincurve, the deviation of x ~ ( tfrom
) the desired sincurve is
large. The simulation result in Fig. 9 indicates that the integrals
of error signals under different prescribed attenuation levels
are decreased sequentially. The control signals under different
20
 2 4 61 8 10 12 5 14 16 18 12 0
attenuation levels are given in Fig. 10. Fig. 1O(a) indicates that
the initial control effort at a high attenuation is much larger t (0.520 sec)
than that at low ones. These phenomena are due to the high
CO)
gain effect which is similar to that in Fig. 6.
Fig. 10. (a) Families of u ( t )in Example 2 (transient response). (b) Families
of u(t) in Example 2 (steadystate response).
VI. CONCLUSION
The H control technique has been combined with adaptive the robust tracking performance of the uncertain nonlinear
control algorithm and fuzzy approximation method in this systems can be guaranteed in fuzzy control via the H
study to achieve the desired attenuation of disturbance due tracking technique even if only a few fuzzy IFTHEN rules
to the approximation error and external noise in a class are used. Further works are still under investigation to apply
of nonlinear system under a large uncertainty or unknown the proposed adaptive fuzzy Htracking algorithm to the
variation in plant parameter and structure. Both indirect and more general nonlinear systems, e.g., multivariable nonlinear
direct adaptive fuzzy control algorithms have been employed case and output feedback control case.
to treat this H tracking design problem. The solvability
conditions and the corresponding adaptive fuzzy control laws
are both derived. Our results indicate that an arbitrarily small
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191 C. C. Lee, Fuzzy logic in control systems: Fuzzy logic controllerPart BorSen Chen (SM94) received the B.S. degree
I and Part 11, IEEE Trans. Syst., Man, Cybem., vol. 20, no. 2, pp. from Tatung Institute of Technology, the M.S.
404435, 1990. degree from National Central University, Taiwan,
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a truck and trailer, IEEE Trans. Neural Networks, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. University of Southern California, Los Angeles.
211223, 1992. He was a Lecturer, Associate Professor, and
[ l l ] M. Maeda and S. Murakami, A selftuning fuzzy controller, Fuzzy Professor at Tatung Institute of Technology, from
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1121 G. V. S. Raju and J. Zhou, Fuzzy logic adaptive algorithm to improve TsingHua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, R.O.C.
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Neural Networks, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 807814, 1992.
[I61 L. A. Zadeh, Fuzzy sets, Information Contr., vol. 8, pp. 338353, ChingHsiang Lee was born in Kuaoshung, Taiwan,
1965. Republic of China. He received the B.S. degree
[I71 B. A. Francis, A Course in H m Control Theory, Lecture Notes in from FengChia University and M.S. degree from
Control Inform. Sci., vol. 8, Springer Verlay, Berlin, 1987. National ChiaoTung University, both in electrical
[I81 A. Stoorvogel, The H m Control Problem: A State Space Approach. engineering. He is currently working toward the
New York Prentice Hall, 1992. Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering at National
[19] J. Doyle, K. Glover, P. P. Khargonekar, and B. A. Francis, State TsingHua University.
space solution to standard Ha control problems, IEEE Trans. Automat. He is a Lecturer in the National Kuaoshung In
Contr., vol. 34, no. 8, pp. 831847, 1989. stitute of Technology. His areas of research interest
[20] K. S . Narendra and A. M. Annaswamy, Stable Adaptive Systems. are nonlinear control, adaptive fuzzy control, and
Englewood Cliffs, NJ: PrenticeHall, 1989. constrainted systems.
[21] B. S . Chen, T. S. Lee, and J. H. Feng, A nonlinear H a control
design in robotic systems under parameter perturbation and external
disturbance, Int. J. Control, vol. 59, pp. 439461, 1994.
[22] B. D. 0. Anderson and J. B. Moore, Optimal Control: Linear Quadratic
Methods. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1990.
[23] J. E. Slotine and W. Li, Applied Nonlinear Control. Englewoods Cliffs, YeongChan Chang was born in Tainan, Taiwan,
N J PrenticeHall, 1991. Republic of China. He received the M.S. degree
1241 A. Yesildirek and F. L. Lewis, A neural network controller for feedback from National TsingHua University in electrical
linearization, in Proc. 33rd Con5 Decision Contr., pp. 24942498, engineering. He is currently working toward the
1994. Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering at National
[25] G. C. Goodwin and D. Q. Mayne, A parameter estimation perspective TsingHua University.
of continuous time model reference adaptive control, Automatica, vol. His areas of research interest are nonlinear con
23, pp. 5770, 1987. trol, adaptive systems, robotics, and signal process
[26] B. S . Chen and C.H. Lee, Ha adaptive fuzzy tracking control design in ing.
a class of uncertain nonlinear systems, IFACAutomation Cont, Beijing,
YAC, 1995, pp. 209214.