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32 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON FUZZY SYSTEMS, VOL. 4, NO.

1, FEBRUARY 1996

esign of Uncert
stems: Adaptive Fuzz
Bor-Sen Chen, Senior Member, IEEE, Ching-Hsiang Lee, and Yeong-Chan Chang

Abstract-A fuzzy logic controller equipped with a training control algorithms attempt to make use of information from
(adaptive) algorithm is proposedl in this work to achieve H m human experts. The expert information is generally represented
tracking performance for a class of uncertain (model free) non- by fuzzy terms, e.g., small, large, not very large, etc., for
linear single-input single-output (SISO) systems with external
disturbances. An attempt is also made to create a bridge between convenience or lack of more precise knowledge, ease of
two important control design techniques, Le., H" control design communication, and so forth. However, most of these fuzzy
and fuzzy control design, so as to supply H" control design with control algorithms are proposed without analytical tools for
more intelligence and fuzzy condrol design with better perfor- general design procedures to guarantee basic performance
mance. The perfect matching of parameters in an adaptive fuzzy criteria. Generally, these fuzzy control approaches combine
logic system is generally deemed impossible. Therefore, a desired
tracking performance cannot be guaranteed in the conventional expert knowledge with the conventional engineering systems
adaptive fuzzy control systems. In this study, the Muence of both in an ad hoc manner. Thereby, simulations are performed to
fuzzy logic approximation error and external disturbance on the show the validity of the approaches to the specific control
tracking error is attenuated to a prescribed level. Both indirect problems [2], [3], and [4].
and direct adaptive fuzzy controllers are employed to treat this
H" tracking problem. Our results indicate that arbitrarily small More recently, an important adaptive fuzzy control system
attenuation level can be achieved via the proposed adaptive fuzzy has been developed to incorperate with the expert infomation
control algorithm if a weighting factor of control variable is systematically and the stability is guaranteed by theoretical
adequately chosen. The proposed design method is also useful analyses [4], [14], and [lS]. An adaptive fuzzy system is
for the robust tracking control design of the nonlinear systems a fuzzy logic system equipped with a training algorithm, in
with external disturbances and a large uncertainty or unknown
variation in plant parameters and structures. Furthermore, only which the fuzzy logic system is constructed from a collection
smooth control signals are needed via the proposed control of fuzzy IF-TmN rules, and the training algorithm adjusts
designs. Two simulation examples are given finally to illustrate the parameters of the fuzzy logic system according to numer-
the performance of the proposed methods. Computer simulation ical inpub'output data. Conceptually, adaptive fuzzy systems
results confirm that the effect of both the fuzzy approximation combine linguistic information from experts with numerical
error and external disturbance on the tracking error can be
attenuated efficiently by the proplosed method. information from sensors. Linguistic information (in the form
of fuzzy IF-THENrules) can be directly incorporated since
fuzzy logic systems are constructed from fuzzy IF-THEN
I. INTRODUCTION rules; on the other hand, numerical information (in form of
HE ADAPTIVE control for feedback linearizable non- inpuuoutput data) is incorporated by training the fuzzy logic
linear systems has already been discussed. In [l], the system to match the input/output data.
unknown parameters of nonlinear systems are assumed to be The perfect match via adaptive fuizy logic system is gener-
linear and the system is free of external disturbances. The non- ally deemed impossible. In [4], [14], and [15], the stability of
linear adaptive problem is transformed into a linear adaptive adaptive fuzzy control system has been guaranteed. However,
problem by feedback linearization method at first and then, the matching error may deteriorate the tracking performance.
the adaptive pole assignments and model matching techniques A prescribed tracking performance cannot be guaranteed in the
are used to achieve the asymptotic tracking design. In this conventional adaptive fuzzy control systems owing to the fact
work, the H" tracking problem of uncertain nonlinear single- that the influence of matching error and external disturbance
input single-output (SISO) systems with external disturbance on tracking error cannot be efficiently eliminated. In most
is solved. cases, even when the output error is small, the errors of the
Fuzzy control has recently found extensive application for internal variables are not small in the conventional adaptive
a wide variety of industrial systems and consumer products fuzzy control designs.
and has attracted the attention of many control researchers In the last decade, H m optimal control theory has been well
due to its model free approach, [2]-[13] and [16]. The fuzzy developed and found extensive application to efficiently treat
the robust stabilization and disturbance rejection problems
Manuscript received August 26, 1994; revised May 25, 1995 This work
was supported by National Science Council under Contract NSC 84-2213-E- [17]-[21]. In the conventional H" optimal control, the plant
007-077 model must be known beforehand. In this study, the H"
The authors are with the Control and Signal Processing Laboratory, optimal control design will be extended toward the nonlinear
Department of Electrical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsin
Chu, Taiwan, 300, R 0.C systems with unknown or uncertain models via fuzzy tech-
Publisher Item Identifier S 1063-6706(96)00636-4 nique. To our knowledge, however, the H" optimal control
1063-6706/96$05.00 0 1996 IEEE
~

CHEN et al.: H m TRACKING DESIGN OF UNCERTAIN NONLINEAR SISO SYSTEMS: ADAPTIVE FUZZY APPROACH 33

design has not yet been used for adaptive control systems or for some parameter estimate 8 of fuzzy logic system and
fuzzy control systems. optimal parameter estimate e*
of fuzzy logic system. Let w
A new adaptive fuzzy control algorithm is proposed in denote the sum of matching errors due to fuzzy approximations
this study so that not only the stability of adaptive fuzzy of f(g), g(:) and the external disturbance d. Then our design
control system is guaranteed but also the influence of the objective is to impose an adaptive fuzzy control algorithm so
matching error and external disturbance on the tracking error that the following asymptotically stable tracking
is attenuated to an arbitrarily desired level via H" tracking
design technique, i.e., the gain (the induced L2 norm) from e(n) + kle("-l) + . . . + kne = 0 (3)
both the matching error and external disturbance to tracking is achieved while w = 0 (i.e., in the case of perfect fuzzy
error must be less than or equal to a prescribed value. This is approximation and free of external disturbance). While w
the so-called H" tracking problem in adaptive fuzzy control
appears, the following H" tracking performance is requested:
systems. The proposed design method attempts to combine
([ 1714191)
the attenuation technique, fuzzy logic approximation method,
and adaptive control algorithm for the robust tracking control
design of the nonlinear systems with a large uncertainty or Jo
unknown variation in plant parameters and structures. Both
direct and indirect adaptive fuzzy controls are discussed, and
the corresponding design procedures are also proposed.
+ LgT(0)#(O)+ p2
7-
1 T
wTw d t

Two simulation examples are finally provided to illustrate b'T E [0, 00) w E L2[0,TI (4)
the performance of the proposed methods. The adaptive fuzzy for given weighting matrices Q = QT 2 0, P = PT 2 0,
approximation technique is used as rough tuning and the H" an adaption gain y > 0, and a prescribed attenuation level
disturbance attenuation technique is considered as fine tuning. p, where = ( e ,k , . . . , e ( n - l ) ) T . Both indirect and direct
Therefore, the proposed design method is more suitable for adaptive fuzzy control algorithms are employed in this paper
the robust tracking control design of the uncertain nonlinear to control the nonlinear system in (1) to guarantee the tracking
systems and is an attractive control design concept. Computer performance (4) with a prescribed disturbance attenuation level
simulation results indicate the effect of both the fuzzy approx-
P.
imation error and external disturbance on the tracking error Remark:
can be attenuated efficiently by the proposed method. These
simulation results illustrate desired upgrade on both H" and i) +
The roots of polynomial h ( s ) = sn kl.dn-') .. + + +

fuzzy control designs. k,-1s + kn in the characteristic equation of (3) are all
The paper is organized as follows. The problem formulation in the open left-half plane via an adequate choice of
is first made in Section 11. A brief description of fuzzy logic coefficients k l , k2, . . . , k,.
systems is then made in Section 111. H" tracking performance ii) If the system starts with initial conditions g(0) =
designs in both indirect and direct adaptive fuzzy systems are O,#(O) = 0, then the H" performance in (4) can be
given in Section IV. Two simulation examples are provided to rewritten as
illustrate the performance of the proposed methods in Section
V. Concluding remarks are finally made in Section VI.

FORMULATION
11. PROBLEM where 11g11: = J C c T Q g d t and llw112 = JT
wTw d t ,
Consider the following nth-order SISO systems i.e., the L2-gain from w to the tracking error e must be
x(4= f (x,2 , .'. ,x(%-')) + g(x,i ,. . . x("-l))u + d equal to or less than p.
iii) If p = 00,this is the case of minimum error tracking
y =x (1) control without disturbance attenuation [ 171-[ 191.
where f and g are unknown (uncertain) but bounded con- iv) In the conventional adaptive control systems with exter-
tinuous functions and U E R and y E R are the input and nal disturbance case, some adaptive controls with VSS
output of the system, respectively. d denotes the external or dead-zone techniques have been employed to guar-
disturbance which is unknown but bounded. The external antee the stability of the adaptive control systems, [20]
disturbances are due to system load, external noise, etc. and [ 2 3 ] . However, these methods will lead to higher
R" be the state vector of
Let g = ( ~ , i , . . . , x ( ~ - l )E) ~ frequency switching control signals and may drive the
the system which is assumed to be available. For (1) to high frequency modes of unmodeled dynamics. The
be controllable, we require that g(:) # 0 for g in certain control signals are expected here to be smooth. 0
controllability region U, c Rn. Consider the more general nonlinear system case
The control objective is to force y to follow a given bounded
reference signal ym . Let us denote the output tracking error +
2 = f ( z ) g(z)u + d'
e and parameter tracking error & Y =h(z) (6)
where z E R1,l2 n. Let L f h and L,h stand for the Lie
derivatives of h, with respect to f and g, respectively. If
34 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON FUZZY SYSTEMS, VOL. 4, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 1996

where g = ( Q , . . . , x , ) ~ E U and y E V c R are the


input and output of the fuzzy logic system, respectively, F:
I F u u y Rulle Base I and GI are labels of fuzzy sets in U, and R, respectively,
and I = 1,. . ,Ad. The fuzzy inference engine performs a
_x 2 mapping from fuzzy sets in U to fuzzy sets in R, based
upon the fuzzy IF-THEN rules in the fuzzy rule base and
the compositional rule of inference. The fuzzifier maps a crisp
point g = ( 2 1 , . . . ,z,)~ E U into a fuzzy set A , in U. The
defuzzifier maps a fuzzy set in V to a crisp point in V. More
information can be found in [2]-[4].
Fig. 1. The basic configuration of a fuzzy logic system. The fuzzy logic systems of Fig. 1 comprise a very rich class
of static systems mapping from U c R" to V c R, because
many different choices are available within each block, and
n is the smallest integer such that LgL;h = 0 for i = in addition, many combinations of these choices can result
0,1,...,n-2andL,L~-1h#0, 'v'zE Rz.Thenweget[23] in a useful subclass of fuzzy logic systems. One subclass of
y(") =L"h
f (2 ) + LgLY-lh(z)u + LF&+#Ldfh(Z) fuzzy logic systems is used here as building blocks of our H"
adaptive fuzzy controller, and is described by the following
n-1
important result.
+ L ~ ~ ~ , Ld'
+ dLY-'hh(z).
, (7) Lemma I 141, [15]: The fuzzy logic systems with center-
k=l
average defuzzifier, product inference and singleton fuzzifier
If we denote y = X ,y = k,y = 2 , . . . , then (7) is of the are in the following form
following form
M
x(,) = L ~ +xL,L;-'ou +d
=: f ( r ) + + dy
=X

where f(a) := L;z,g(:) := L,Ly-lr~, and d := z=1


Ln-1
f+gu+d,LdlhfC;_:L:;~u+d,Ld'LjL-kh.
This is of the form
in the nonlinear system of (1). Without loss of a generality, where jjl is the point at which pGz achieves its maximum
the nonlinear system (1) can also represent the more general value, and we assume that ~ G(3')
Z = 1. 0
case in (6). Equation (9) can be written as

111. DESCRIPTION
OF FUZZY LOGICSYSTEMS
The fuzzy logic systems are universal approximations from
the viewpoint of human experts and can uniformly approxi- where = (7J1,. . . ,DM)T is a parameter vector, and [(g)=
mate nonlinear continuous functions to arbitrary accuracy, [2] ( f l ( g ) ., .. ,( ' M ( g ) ) Tis a regressive vector with the regressor
and [3]. In the indirect adaptive fuzzy control case, in order E (g) (which is the fuzzy basis function in [15]) defined as
to achieve H" control design purpose, nonlinear functions
f ( g ) and g ( g ) will be approximated by tuning the parameters
of the corresponding fuzzy logic systems. On the other hand,
in the direct adaptive fuzzy control case, the adaptive control
algorithm will be approximated by adjusting the parameters 1=1
of an adkquate fuzzy logic system. Therefore, the fuzzy logic
systems in Fig. 1 are qualified as building blocks of H a Two main reasons arise for using the fuzzy logic system (10)
adaptive controllers for nonlinear systems. Furthermore the as basic building block of adaptive fuzzy controllers. First, the
fuzzy logic systems are constructed from the fuzzy IF-THEN fuzzy logic systems in the form of (10) are proven in [4] and
rules using some specific inference, fuzzification, and de- [15] to be universal approximators, i.e., for any given real con-
fuzzification strategies. Therefore, linguistic information from tinuous function f on the compact set U, there exists a fuzzy
human experts can be directly incorporated into controllers [4]. logic system in the form of (10) such that it can uniformly
The basic configuration of the fuzzy logic system is shown approximate f over U to arbitrary accuracy. Therefore, the
in Fig. 1. The fuzzy logic system performs a mapping from fuzzy logic systems (10) are qualified as building blocks of
U E R" to R. Let U = U1 x . . . x U, where U, c R, z = adaptive controller for nonlinear systems. Second, the fuzzy
1 , 2 , . . . ,n. The fuzzy rule base consists of a collection of logic systems (10) are constructed from the fuzzy IF-THEN
fuzzy IF-THEN rules [2]-[4] rules of (8) using some specific fuzzy inference, fuzzification,
and defuzzification strategies. Therefore, linguistic information
R('): If X I is F!, and . . . and, IC, is FL, from a human expert can be directly incorporated into the
Then y is G', (8) controllers.
CHEN et al.: H w TRACKING DESIGN OF UNCERTAIN NONLINEAR SISO SYSTEMS: ADAPTIVE FUZZY APPROACH 35

IV. ADAPTIVEFUZZYCONTROL Remark:


Fuzzy control provides nonlinear control actions to work i) The control law U in (12) is only true over a compact
in situations where a large uncertainty or unknown variation set U, c R" on which g(:) # 0.
occurs in plant parameters and structures. In general, adaptive ii) If the system is free of external disturbance d ( t ) and
control is a useful approach in maintaining the consistent let U, = 0 then e ( t ) ---f 0 as t -+ CO and its
performance of a system in the presence of these uncertainties. transient behavior of e ( t ) is determined by specifying
Therefore, advanced fuzzy control should be adaptive [4]. the coefficients k1,. . . , k,, beforehand.
An adaptive fuzzy system is a fuzzy logic system equipped iii) The control U , in (12) is employed to attenuate the
with a training (adaptive) algorithm to maintain a consistent external disturbance d and the approximation error due
performance under plant uncertainties. to fuzzy logic systems while fuzzy adaptive control is
The most important advantage of adaptive fuzzy control used at the case without the knowledge about f(:) and
over conventional adaptive control is that adaptive fuzzy d'). 0
controllers are capable of incorporating linguistic fuzzy infor-
The results in (12) and (13) are possible only while f (g)and
mation from human operators, whereas conventional adaptive
g ( g ) are well known. However, f(:) and g(:) are unknown
controllers are not. This is especially important for those
in our problem. Obtaining a control algorithm similar to (12)
systems with a high degree of uncertainty. For examples, in
is impossible. In this situation, the approximation by fuzzy
chemical processes and in aircraft industry, they are difficult
logic systems in Section I11 is employed to treat this tracking
to control from a control theory point of view and are often
control design problem. We replace f ( g ) and g(:) in (12) by
successfully controlled by human operators [4]. However,
the fuzzy logic systems f(:/@,) and @(a/@,) as (lo), i.e.,
human operators successfully control such complex systems
without a mathematical model in their mind but only according
to a few control rules in fuzzy terms and some linguistic
!(:/e,) =e?$(:) = $ (:)e, T
(14)
descriptions reguarding the behavior of the system under 6('/eg) = 8, <):( = g (:)eg
T T
(15)
where I(:)is a vector of fuzzy bases, ef and e, are the corre-
various conditions which are, of course, also in fuzzy terms.
They provide very important information about how to control
sponding parameters of fuzzy logic systems. Consequently, the
the system and how the system behaves. Adaptive fuzzy
following certainty equivalent controller [20] is obtained, i.e.,
control provides a tool for making use of the fuzzy information
in a systematic and efficient manner.
According to the conventional adaptive control, [20] and
[23], adaptive fuzzy control is also divided into two categories
[4], i.e., direct and indirect adaptive fuzzy control. An adaptive Applying (16) to (l),after some manipulations, we obtain the
fuzzy controller which uses fuzzy logic systems as controllers tracking error dynamic equation
is a direct adaptive fuzzy controller. A direct adaptive fuzzy e(") = -IC T e + [(!(:/e,) -f(4)
controller can incorporate fuzzy control rule directly into itself.
An adaptive fuzzy controller which uses fuzzy logic systems + (j(E/@,) - g(:))uc] + U, -d (17)
as a model of the plant is an indirect adaptive fuzzy controller.
or, equivalently
An indirect adaptive fuzzy controller can directly incorporate
fuzzy descriptions about the plant (in terms of fuzzy IF-THEN 4 = AC+ Bu, + B [ ( . f ( ~ / e-, )f(:))
rules) into itself.
Both direct and indirect adaptive fuzzy control algorithms
+ ( w e , ) - g(:))ucI Bd - (18)
are developed in this work to facilitate the uncertain nonlinear where
system (1) to achieve the H"O tracking performance (4). They
1
will be discussed in the following subsections, respectively.

A. H" Tracking Peijiormance Design in


Indirect Adaptive Fuzzy Systems
To begin, let b = ( k n , . . . , k ~ E Rn
) be
~ the vector of the Our design objective involves specifying the control U,
coefficients of the differential equation in (3). If the functions and adaptive laws for and e, e,
so that the H" tracking
f and g in (1) are known, then the control law performance in (4) is achieved.
First, let us define the optimal parameter estimates and e;
8*
--9
as follows:

e; = a w i n g f Enf [SUP:En, Il!(z/e,) - f(.)IIl (19)


can be applied to the nonlinear system (1) to achieve the @; = argmine-9 to2,[SUP,En, Il6(:/@,) - 9(2)111 (20)
following asymptotically error dynamic system
where Rf,R,, and R, denote the sets of suitable bounds on
@, ,e,, and g, respectively. We assume that e,, e, and g never
36 E E E TRANSACTIONS ON FUZZY SYSTEMS, VOL 4, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 1996

Then the tracking error dynamic equation (18) can be


rewritten as
+ A(wTBTPg
2
+ eTPBw).
From the adaptive laws, (26) and (27), and the Riccati-like
(28), we get

V = --eTQg
1 - -eTPBBTPe
1
2- 2p2-
1
+
-(wTBTPe eTPBw)
2
+
where w = we - d,ef =
x

e,
- 8; and =
x

-e:.
Then,
the following result can be obtained.
Theorem I : If we select the following adaptive fuzzy con- + -' p2 w T w
trol law in the nonlinear system (1) 2
5 - l e T Q e + -' p 2 w T w .
(32)
2- 2 I

Integrating the above equation from t = 0 to t = T yields


with

U, =--BTPg
1
(25) V ( T )- V ( 0 )5 --+ gTQg d t +ip2 1 T
wTw dt. (33)

Bf =-r1&)B Pe
T
(26) Since V ( T ) 2 0, the above inequality implies the following
I,
0 = - r2<(z)BTPeuc (27) inequality
where r is a positive scalar value and P = PT
solution of the following Riccati-like equation
2 0 is the
IT gTQg d t 5 V ( 0 )+ i p 2
T
wTw dt.
2
PA + ATP + Q - -PBBTP
r
+ 2P1P B B T P = 0 (28) From (29), the above inequality is equivalent to the following

then the H" tracking performance in (4) is achieved for a


prescribed attenuation level p . il T
eTQedt
Proof: Let us choose a Lyapunov function 1 1
I -eT(0)Pe(O)+ - - B ~
-T
(012, (0)
1 1 -T- 1 -T- 2- 271-
+
v = -2-e T P g + -02yl -f -fB --B2Y2-!I-9.8 (29) 1 -T l T
+ -8,272 (O)n,(O) + 5p2 wTw dt. (34)
The time derivative of V is -

This is (4). 0
2- 2- 72 (30) Remark: The solvability of H" tracking performance by
adaptive fuzzy control law (24)-(27) is on the existence of
BY the fact 8f = 8,)
.

e, = e,, and (23) and (25), the above


x

positive semidefinite and symmetric solution P of (28) which


equation becomes can be rewritten as
1
eTATPe- -gTPBBTPe
r PA+ATP+Q-PB
+'
f
-T
u"Tt(')BTPe
t(z)BTPg + +
T T
Pe The above Riccati equation has a positive semidefinate solu-
1
+ eTPAg - -eTPBBTPg
r-
tion PT = P 2 0 if and only if [22]

Therefore, for a prescribed p in H" tracking control, in order


to guarantee the solvability of H" tracking performance by
fuzzy adaptive control, the weighting T on control law U, of
(25) must satisfy the above inequality. 0
CHEN et al.. Hm TRACKING DESIGN OF UNCERTAIN NONLINEAR SISO SYSTEMS: ADAPTIVE FUZZY APPROACH 31

K
J
{
If the control U , is also of concern, the H" tracking -72$(:)BTPeuc, if Ile,ll < Mgor (Ilegll =
performance in (4) should be modified as and g T P B < T ( g ) @2
g ~0)c
e, = Pg[.l, if Il@gll = Mg-
l T ( y T Q r+ TU;) dt and eTPBET(:)B,uC
- <0

5 eT(0)Pe(O)+ 1 -T (O)Bf(O)
-ef respectively, where
71

+ lj:(0)Bg(O) + p2
72
1 T
W ~ dt.
W (35) Pf[.]
:= -nS(:)B'Pr +71
rTpq'(.)e,
ll@fIlZ @f

Then, the following result is obtained. and


Corollary I : For the nonlinear system (l), if we choose the
fuzzy adaptive law as (24)-(27) with PT = P 2 0 being the PJ.1 := -7z'(:)BTPeuc + YzeTPBgT(:)8,Uc
Ilegllz e,.
solution of the following Riccati-like equation

+ +1 1
+ .T -
P A ATP Q - -PBBTP --PBBTP = 0 (36) - (E)+ 1/7&)ef 5 0 and (eTPBE'-
Since (gTPBcT
r P2
then the H"" tracking performance of (35) is achieved with a
(:)uC+ l/yzt$)$ 5 0 in (31), the Ha performance
(4) can also be guaranteed. 0
prescribed attenuation level p.
Proof: Similar to Theorem 1. From the above analysis, a design procedure for indirect
Remark: H" adaptive fuzzy control algorithm is proposed as follows:

The H" tracking performance in (4) without con- Design Procedure I :


sideration of U, is a singular H" problem and the
Step 1: Select membership functions p2(:) for i =
performance in (35) is a nonsingular H" problem [18].
1 , 2 , . . . , iM and compute the fuzzy basis functions - <)(: as
The difference in the solutions of singular H" problem
in (11).
and nonsingular H" problem is the term -2/rPBBTP
Step 2: Select Q and the desired attenuation level p. Give
in (28) and - l / r P B B T P in (36).
the weighting values 71 and 7 2 . Select the weighting factor T
The attenuation level p in the H" tracking performance
so that 2p2 2 T in Theorem 1 and p2 2 T in Corollary 1 to
can be as small as possible if the positive semidefinite
guarantee a positive semi-definite and symmetric solution of
and symmetric solution PT = P 2 0 in the Ricciti-like
Riccati-like equation.
equation, (28) and (36) can be guaranteed.
Step 3: Specify the desired coefficients IC1 , k z , . . . , such as
From the property of algebraic Riccati equation [22],
in (3)
(28) has a solution PT = P 2 0 if and only if 2p2 2 r .
Step 4: Solve the Riccati-like (28) or (36).
However, (36) has a solution PT = P 2 0 , if and
Step 5: Obtain the fuzzy control law (24)-(27). 0
only if p2 2 T . Therefore, for a prescribed disturbance
attenuation level p, the weighting factor T in U , must
be chosen to satisfy the inequality 2p2 2 T to guarantee B. H" Tracking Performance Design in
the solvability of the H" tracking performance (4) in direct Adaptive Fuzzy Systems
Theorem 1. Similarly, the weighting factor T must be If g(:) is known in (l), the direct adaptive fuzzy control in
chosen to satisfy p2 2 T to guarantee the solvability of [4], [14] has attempted to directly approximate the following
H" tracking performance (35) in Corollary 1. control law
Notice that O f ,R,, and R, need not be known or
specified. If the H" attenuation is well designed, ~ ( t )
will follow the desired signal y m ( t ) well. Since w is
bounded by the universal approximation theorem and In this paper, an additional H" control U , is employed to
the assumption of bounded external disturbances, II: is attenuate both the effects of fuzzy approximation error and
bounded. Moreover, additional tools concerning about external disturbance. More precisely, when f(:) and g(:) in
Projection algorithm [4], [20] can be used to analyze the nonlinear system (1) are well known, the following control
the bounded problems of ef
and eg.
Assume that the law would be used
constraint sets Rf and R, are specified as Rtf :=
{@f I ll@fII 5 Mf} and Q9 := { e g I Il@gll I %I}>
(35)
respectively, where M f and Mg are positive constants.
Then, the parameter update laws in (26) and (27) must where the H" control us will be discussed later. This control
be modified as [4], [25] law U* forces the error dynamic to become

e
-f -[
-
-71<(z)BTPe, if
Pf[.I,
if
Ile, II < Mf or (Il@fII = Mf
and e T P B T ( Z ) B f2 0)
llefll = Mf
and gTPBET(:)ef
- <0,
-& = A e + B u , - B d .
In our case, however, f ( g ) is unknown. Therefore, U* in (35)
cannot be obtained.
(36)
38 EEE TRANSACTIONS ON FUZZY SYSTEMS, VOL. 4, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 1996

Adopte U = u(:/g) - u,/g(g), and let the fuzzy control Proof: Let us choose a Lyapunov function
law be in terms of the following fuzzy logic system as (10) 1 1 -T-
v = -eTPg+ -Q 6.
u(:/e) = e g(a)= < .S)'(
T T 2- 27- -
Taking the time derivative of the above equation yields
Then, we get the control law as
i. -1k T p g + -eTPe+
1 -Q1 LT,.Q + -Q1 - T A8. (49)
(37) 2- 2- 27- - 27- -

After some straightforwardmanipulations, the tracking error By the fact $ = and (43), the above equation becomes
dynamic of the nonlinear system (1) with the fuzzy control law
U in (37) to replace U* in (35) is of the following form

- = AS + Bu, - Bg(:)(u(:/O) - U ) - Bd. (38)


'I
V = - eTATPg+ uTBTPg
2 -
-
I
Define the optimal parameter vector @* for which the fuzzy
logic system can approximate control law .iz optimally
i-gTPAg + gTPBu, - gTPBg(q)tT(:)j
-

(50)
Q* = argming,no [SUP,,n,
- @
/:(.l ) - .izlll (39) Y
where R0 and R, denote the sets of desired bounds on @ From (441, we get
and ,: respectively. Let the minimum approximation error be
denoted by
2- r
wc = -g(:)(u(:/8*) - U ) . (40) <(z)g(:)BT P e -
Y
The error dynamic equation (38) can be rewritten as 1
+ lwTBTPg + -eTPBw. (51)
i= Ag
- + Bu,- Bg(:)(u(:/O) - U(./@*) - Bd + Bw,. 2 2-
(41) From the adaptive laws (47) and the Riccati-like (49, we get
- 1 1
From (37), (41) becomes V = --eTQg - -eTPBBTPg
2- 202-

and then we will specify U , and an adaptive law for e to


achieve the H" tracking performance. Let us define = B e-@* 2-
and w = wc - d , then (42) can be rewritten as
+ -' p2w, w
i= Ag
- + Bus - Bg(:)iT(g)# + Bw. (43) 2
1
5 --eTQg+ -' p 2 w, w.
Assume that the control U , in (37) is chosen as (52)
2- 2
1 By the similar procedure as the proof of Theorem 1, the proof
= --BTPg
U,
r (44) is obtained. cl
Remark:
where r is a positive weighting factor, and the matrix P =
PT 2 0 is the solution of the following Riccati-like equation 1) The result of H"O tracking performance has some differ-
ence from that in [4] and [14]. In our design objective,
2 1
P A + ATP + Q - - P B B T P
r
+ -PPBBTP
P2
= 0. (45) the attenuation level p can be specified beforehand. In
[4] and [ 141, the stability has been guaranteed. However,
Then, we get the following result. the effect due to the approximation error w, and external
Theorem 2: In the nonlinear system (I), if the following disturbance d on the tracking error g ( t ) can not be
direct adaptive fuzzy control law is selected attenuated.
2) Since the adaptive law (47) needs to know g(:) before-
U =rT(z)e
- us/g(:) hand, the direct adaptive fuzzy control in Theorem 2
1 is only suitable for those nonlinear systems of which
U, = --BTPg (46) g(:) is well known. If g(:) is of the form g ( g ) =
r
B = r<(z)s(:)BTPc (47) go(:) + $(g),where go(-) is the well known part and
$(z)is the uncertain part, then $(:)U can be considered
then the H" tracking performance in (4) is achieved for a as a part of external disturbance. In this case, the direct
prescribed attenuation level p. adaptive fuzzy control in Theorem 2 can be applied, and
CHEN ef al.: H a TRACKING DESIGN OF UNCERTAIN NONLINEAR SISO SYSTEMS: ADAPTIVE FUZZY APPROACH 39

G(:)u can be attenuated by the proposed H" attenuation


design method.
3) Consider the bounded problem of e.
Assume that the
constraint set 0 0 is specified as 0 0 :'= {elIlell 5 MO}
where is a positive constant. Then, the parameter
update laws in (47) must be modified as [4] and [25]
'Y<(:)g(g)BTPe, if llell < M8 or (llell = M0
.-{
- p8[.1, if
and eTPBg(z)$T(:)eI 0)
llell = Me
and eTPBg(:)<T(:)B >0
U

where
Fig. 2. The inverted pendulum system.

Example I-Indirect Adaptive Fuzzy Control Approach:


Similarly, the H , performance (4) can also be
Consider the inverted pendulum system in Fig. 2. Let x1 = 0
guaranteed. 0
and 2 2 = 4. The dynamic equations of the inverted pendulum
If the control U , is also of concern, then the H" track- system are [23]
ing performance in direct adaptive fuzzy control system is
modified to the following form x1 =x2
T

7
+
(eTQe+TU:) d t 5eT(0)Pe(O) i l T ( 0 ) 8 ( O )
mlxz cos 2 1 sin z1

4 mcos2XI)]
m,+m
coszl [ I/ ] /
[l(a-
T +

+
p 2 1 wTui d t . (53) m,+m m,+m
Corollary 2: If we adopt the following direct adaptive
fuzzy control law for the nonlinear system (1)
y =x1
U @IT:(
I
=- - us/g(:.)
where g = 9.8m/s2 is the acceleration due to gravity, m, is
1
U, =--BTPe the mass of the cart, m is the mass of the pole, 1 is the half-
(54)
r
length of the pole, U is the applied force (control) and d is the
8 = r$(:)g(:)BTPe
- (55) external disturbance. For the convenience of simulation, the
where PT = P 2 0 is the solution of the following Riccati- external disturbance d is assumed to be a square wave with
like equation the amplitude f0.05 and the period 27r. The reference signal
1 1 is assumed here to be y,(t) = 7 r / 3 0 s i n t . Also we choose
PA+ATP+Q--PBBTP+-PBBTP=O (56) m, = 10,m = l,Z = 3. How do we use fuzzy adaptive
r P2
control to achieve the H" tracking performance?
then the H" tracking performance in (53) is achieved with a Solution: According to the design procedure 1, the H"
prescribed p . 0 tracking design is given by the following steps:
From the above analysis, a design procedure for direct Step I : The following membership functions are selected,
adaptive fuzzy control algorithm is proposed as follows: i.e.,
1
Design Procedure 2:
+
p F : ( z z ) = 1 exp(5 x ( 2 . 0.6)) +
Step I : Select membership functions p Z ( g ) for i =
1 , 2 , . . . , M and compute the fuzzy basis functions - [ ( g ) as
pF,"( 2 . ) = ~xP[-(z. 0.41~1 +
in (11). PF+Z) = exp[-(zz +
0.q21
Step 2: Select Q, y,r and the desired attenuation level p so 2
PF+Z) = exp[-z,I
that 2p2 2 T in Theorem 2 and p 2 2 T in Corollary 2. 2
-
Step 3: Specify the desired coefficients k:z, i = 1 , 2 , . . , n. PF+Z) = exp[-(zz - 0.2) 1
Step 4: Solve the Riccati-like (45) or (56). P ~ ! ( ~= , ) ~XP[-(Z, - 0.41~1
Step 5: Compute the direct adaptive fuzzy control law 1
(46)-(47) or (54)-(55). 0 p L F ~ ( I c ' ) = 1 + exp(-5 x (zz- 0.6))'

Because we have two state variables, i.e., z1 and 2 2 , 14 fuzzy


V. SIMULATION
EXAMPLES
rules of the following form are included in the fuzzy rule bases
Indirect and direct adaptive fuzzy control examples are both
given in this section to illustrate the H" tracking performance R('): If z1 is F i , Then y is G3,
of the proposed design algorithms. f o r j = 1 , . - . , 7 ,1 = 1 , . . . , 7 ,
40 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON FUZZY SYSTEMS, VOL. 4, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 1996

Denote

-0.151 I
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20

t (sec)

Fig. 3. Families of response curves y(t) = z l ( t ) of tracking control in


Example 1.

&= p: 1:]

For high penalty on initial parameter errors #,(O) and g , ( O ) ,


select y1 = 0.1 and y~ = 0.01. Consider three cases of
prescribed attenuation levels p = 0.05,0.1,0.2 and set T =
0.005,0.02,0.08, respectively.
Step 3: Select the coefficients kl = 2 and ka = 1.
Step 4: Solve the Riccati (28)

Then
PA+A~P+Q-PB
c p:>
--- B~P=O.

P = [I; ;] -0.15
o a
\. I,

4 6 8 io

t (sec)
12 14 16 18 PO

for all cases. Fig. 4. Families of response curves y ( t ) = z ~ ( tof) tracking control in
Step 5: Obtain the indirect adaptive law as Example 1.

5
+ ;(e + L)]
Q,
-

-g
= -.5(e + i)<(g)
-

8 = -0.05(e + e)u,[(:).
-

The MATLAB command ode23 is used to simulate the


:J 2 ( t ) d t 0.021/[:
0.02 ;;,,,-
, . ........... ... ..__ .__ ... .......
.--
_ _ _._._
-.
... ...
.
i
..

overall control system with step size 0.001. From the computer
simulation, the H tracking performance is illustrated in
Figs. 3-6. The curves of ~ ( tunder) different attenuation lev-
els are given in Fig. 3; meanwhile, the curves of ~ ( tunder) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20

different attenuation levels are given in Fig. 4. The tracking t (sec)


control using conventional adaptive fuzzy logic system does
not attack the problem of attenuation of the effect of both Fig. 5. Families of Jz e 2 ( t ) d t in Example 1.
the fuzzy approximation error and external disturbance on
the tracking error. Furthermore, under low attenuation level the fuzzy approximation error and external disturbance on the
( p is large, e.g., p = 0.2) the H tracking performance tracking error has been attenuated efficiently by indirect H
is often poor too. The simulation result in Fig. 5 indicates adaptive fuzzy control. The control signals are given in Fig. 6.
that the integrals of error signals under different suitably As expected, Fig. 6(a) indicates the control effort at a higher
prescribed attenuation levels are decreased obviously. Notice attenuation is observed to be larger than that at low ones. This
the important feature that even in the computer simulation, is due to the high gain nature under which good performance
the matching errors are unknown. However the effect of both of the tracking control is desired.
CHEN et al.: H a TRACKING DESIGN OF UNCERTAIN NONLINEAR SISO SYSTEMS: ADAPTIVE FUZZY APPROACH 41

2.5

0 0.0s 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5 -1.51 J
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
t (0-0.5sec)
t (sec)
(a)
Fig. 7. Families of response curves y ( t ) = z l ( t ) of tracking control in
Example 2.

401
30
1

I I

-40
-so 2 4 6 8 10

t (0.5-20 sec)
12 14 16 10 20

-1.51 , ~.4: , I
0 1 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 16 20
(b)
t (=.)
Fig. 6. (a) Families of u ( t ) in Example 1 (transient response). (b) Families
of ~ ( tin) Example 1 (steady-state response). Fig. 8. Families of response curves y(t) = za(t) of tracking control in
Example 2.

Example 2-Direct Adaptive Fuzzy Approach: Consider


2
the Duffing forced oscillation system [4] pF:(Xz) = exp[-(sz - 1.5) ]
1
XI = 2 2
X2 = -0.122 - 2; + 12cost + + d U
+
p F J ( z z ) = 1 exp(-5 x (xz- 2 . 5 ) ) .

y =21.
The fuzzy basis functions and fuzzy approximations are deter-
mined similar to Example 1. The initial conditions are chosen
The system is chaotic if u(t) = 0 and d ( t ) = 0. For the to be zl(0) = ~ ( 0 =) 2 and e(0) = 0.
convenience of simulation, the reference signal selected here Step 2: Assume that Q is the same as in Example 1 and
is y m ( t ) = sint, and the external disturbance d is a square choose y = 1. Consider also three cases of prescribed attenua-
wave with the amplitude f l and the period 27r Next, our tion levels p = 0.05,0.1,0.2 and select T = 0.005,0.02,0.08,
direct adaptive fuzzy controller is used to achieve the H" respectively.
tracking performance. Step 3: Assume that the coefficients k l , k2 are the same as
Solution: in Example 1.
Step I : The fuzzy membership functions are chosen as Step 4: The solution of the Riccati-like (45) is the same as
follows: before for all cases, i.e.,
1
p F : ( 2 z ) = 1 + exp(5 x ( 2 . + 2.5))
L

P ~ ( G = ) exp[-(zz + 1.5)'I
Step 5: Obtain the direct adaptive law as
PF; (G)= exp[-(z, + 0.5)21
PF: ( z z ) = exp[-z8]
p F 5 ( z , ) = exp[-(z, - 0.5)2]
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON FUZZY SYSTEMS, VOL. 4, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 1996

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
-800
t (sec) 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.15 0.4 0.45 0.5

t (0-0.5 sec)
Fig. 9. Families of 6e 2 ( t ) d t in Example 2.
From the computer simulation, the H tracking perfor-
mance is illustrated in Figs. 7-10. The effects of both the
fuzzy logic approximation error and external disfxrbance on
the tracking error are also attenuated efficiently by the pro-
posed method. In Fig. 7, the curves of x l ( t ) under different
attenuation levels are given. Meanwhile, the curves of x ~ ( t )
under different attenuation levels are given in Fig. 8. If H
design method is not exploited, even x l ( t ) is near the desired
sin-curve, the deviation of x ~ ( tfrom
) the desired sin-curve is
large. The simulation result in Fig. 9 indicates that the integrals
of error signals under different prescribed attenuation levels
are decreased sequentially. The control signals under different
-20
- 2 4 61 8 10 12 5 14 16 18 12 0
attenuation levels are given in Fig. 10. Fig. 1O(a) indicates that
the initial control effort at a high attenuation is much larger t (0.5-20 sec)
than that at low ones. These phenomena are due to the high
CO)
gain effect which is similar to that in Fig. 6.
Fig. 10. (a) Families of u ( t )in Example 2 (transient response). (b) Families
of u(t) in Example 2 (steady-state response).
VI. CONCLUSION
The H control technique has been combined with adaptive the robust tracking performance of the uncertain nonlinear
control algorithm and fuzzy approximation method in this systems can be guaranteed in fuzzy control via the H
study to achieve the desired attenuation of disturbance due tracking technique even if only a few fuzzy IF-THEN rules
to the approximation error and external noise in a class are used. Further works are still under investigation to apply
of nonlinear system under a large uncertainty or unknown the proposed adaptive fuzzy Htracking algorithm to the
variation in plant parameter and structure. Both indirect and more general nonlinear systems, e.g., multivariable nonlinear
direct adaptive fuzzy control algorithms have been employed case and output feedback control case.
to treat this H tracking design problem. The solvability
conditions and the corresponding adaptive fuzzy control laws
are both derived. Our results indicate that an arbitrarily small
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