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More Than 2000 Solved MCQs of STA630 Research Method

&
Short Questions Answers
By
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1- Hypothesis refers to
A. The outcome of an experiment
B. A conclusion drawn from an experiment
C. A form of bias in which the subject tries to outguess the experimenter
D. A tentative statement about the relationship

2- Statistics is used by researchers to


A. Analyze the empirical data collected in a study
B. Make their findings sound better
C. Operationally define their variables
D. Ensure the study comes out the way it was intended

3- A literature review requires


A. Planning
B. Good & clear writing
C. Lot of rewriting
D. All of the above

4- A literature review is based on the assumption that


A. Copy from the work of others
B. Knowledge accumulates and learns from the work of others
C. Knowledge disaccumulates
D. None of the above option

5- A theoretical framework
A. Elaborates the r/s among the variables
B. Explains the logic underlying these r/s
C. Describes the nature and direction of the r/s
D. All of the above

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6- Which of the following statement is not true?
A. A research proposal is a document that presents a plan for a project
B. A research proposal shows that the researcher is capable of successfully conducting
the proposed research project
C. A research proposal is an unorganized and unplanned project
D. A research proposal is just like a research report and written before the research
project

7- Preliminary data collection is a part of the


Research Method (STA 630) Success Objectives
A. Descriptive research
B. Exploratory research
C. Applied research
D. Explanatory research
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8- Conducting surveys is the most common method of generating
A. Primary data
B. Secondary data
C. Qualitative data
D. None of the above

9- After identifying the important variables and establishing the logical reasoning in
theoretical framework, the next step in the research process is
A. To conduct surveys
B. To generate the hypothesis
C. To focus group discussions
D. To use experiments in an investigation

10- The appropriate analytical technique is determined by


A. The research design
B. Nature of the data collected
C. Nature of the hypothesis
D. Both A & B

11- Personal interviews conducted in shopping malls are known as:

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a. Mall interviews
b. Mall intercept interviews
c. Brief interviews

d. None of the given options

12-WATS lines provided by long distance telephone service at fixed rates. In this regard,
WATS is the abbreviation of:
e. West Africa Theological Seminary
f. Washtenaw Area Transportation Study
g. Wide Area Telecommunications Service
h. World Air Transport Statistics

13-A list of questions which is handed over to the respondent, who reads the questions
and records the answers himself is known as the:
i. Interview schedule
j. Questionnaire
k. Interview guide
l. All of the given options

14-One of the most critical stages in the survey research process is:
m. Research design
n. Questionnaire design
o. Interview design
p. Survey design
Research Method (STA 630) Success Objectives

15-Question that consists of two or more questions joined together is called a:


q. Double barreled question
r. General question
s. Accurate question
t. Confusing question

16-The number of questionnaires returned or completed divided by the total number of


eligible people who were contacted or asked to participate in the survey is called the:
u. Response rate
v. Participation rate

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w. Inflation rate
x. None of the given options

17-To obtain the freest opinion of the respondent, when we ask general question before a
specific question then this procedure is called as the:
y. Research technique
z. Qualitative technique
aa. Funnel technique
bb. Quantitative technique

18-A small scale trial run of a particular component is known as:


cc. Pilot testing
dd. Pre-testing
ee. Lab experiments
ff. Both A & B

18-Field testing of the questionnaire shows that:


gg. Respondents are willing to co-operate
hh. Respondents are not willing to co-operate
ii. Respondents do not like any participation
jj. All of the given options

19- Service evaluation of hotels and restaurants can be done by the:


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kk. Self-administered questionnaires
ll. Office assistant
mm. Manager
nn. None of the given options

20- Service evaluation of hotels and restaurants can be done by the:


oo. Self-administered questionnaires
pp. Office assistant
qq. Manager
rr. None of the given options

21-Discrete variable is also called.


A. Categorical variable

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B. Discontinuous variable
C. Both A & B
D. None of the above

22-Officers in my organization have higher than average level of commitment Such a


hypothesis is an example of.
A. Descriptive Hypothesis
B. Directional Hypothesis
C. Relational Hypothesis
D. All of the above

23-Science refers to.


A. A system for producing knowledge
B. The knowledge produced by a system
C. Both A & B
D. None of the above

24-Which one of the following is not a characteristic of scientific method?


A. Deterministic
Research Method (STA 630) Success Objectives
B. Rationalism
C. Empirical
D. Abstraction

25-The theoretical framework discusses the interrelationships among the.


A. Variables
B. Hypothesis
C. Concept
D. Theory
26-research is based on naturalism.
A. Field research
B. Descriptive research
C. Basic research
D. Applied research

27-Personal interviews conducted in shopping malls are known as


E. Mall interviews

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F. Mall intercept interviews
G. Brief interviews
H. None of the given options

28- is used to obtain the freest opinion of the respondent, by asking general
question before a specific question.
I. Research technique
J. Qualitative technique
K. Funnel technique
L. Quantitative technique

29-In, ___________the interviewer and members jointly control the pace and direction of
the interview.
M. Field interview
N. Telephonic interview
O. Both A and B
P. None of the given options

30-Randomization of test units is a part of


Q. Pretest
R. Posttest
S. Matching
T. Experiment

31- Rationalism is the application of which of the following?


A. Logic and arguments
B. Research solution
C. Reasoning
D. Previous findings
32- On which of the following, scientific knowledge mostly relies?
A. Logical understanding
B. Identification of events
C. Prior knowledge
D. All of the given options

33- Which of the following refers to research supported by measurable


evidence?

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A. Opinion
B. Empiricism
C. Speculation
D. Rationalism
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34-Research method is applicable in all of the following fields, EXCEPT;


A. Health care
B. Religion
Research Method (STA 630) Success Objectives
C. Business
D. Government offices

35- All of the following are true statements about action research, EXCEPT;
A. Data are systematically analyzed
B. Data are collected systematically
C. Results are generalizable
D. Results are used to improve practice

36-Which of the following is characteristic of action research?


A. Variables are tightly controlled
B. Results are generalizable
C. Data are usually qualitative
D. Results demonstrate cause-and-effect relationships

37-If a researcher is studying the effect of using laptops in his classroom to ascertain their
merit and worth; he is likely conducting which of the following types of research?
A. Experimental
B. Applied
C. Basic
D. Evaluation

38- Exploratory research addresses which of the following types of question?


A. If
B. How
C. Why
D. What

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39- Which of the following is not the source for getting information for exploratory
research?
A. Content analysis
B. Survey
C. Case study
D. Pilot study

40- Which of the following is the main quality of a good theory?


A. A theory that has survived attempts at falsification
B. A theory that is proven to be right
C. A theory that has been disproved
D. A theory that has been falsified

41- A variable that is presumed to cause a change in another variable is known as:
A. Discontinuous variable
B. Dependent variable
C. Independent variable
D. Intervening variable

42- Which of the following is the opposite of a variable?


A. An extraneous variable
B. A dependent variable
C. A data set
D. A constant
43- Which of the following is not a concept?
A. Leadership
B. Total Quality Management
C. Intelligence Quotient (IQ)
D. Human Resource Management

44- Which of the following can best be described as a categorical variable?


A. Age
B. Annual income
C. Grade point average
D. Religion
Research Method (STA 630) Success Objectives

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45-Income distribution of employees in a specific organization is an example of which of
following type of variable?

A. Discontinuous variable
B. Continuous variable
C. Dependent variable
D. Independent variable

46-There is no relationship between higher motivation level and higher efficiency is an


example of which type of hypothesis?
A. Alternative
B. Null
C. Co relational
D. Research

47- Which of the following is not a role of hypothesis?


A. Guides the direction of the study
B. Determine feasibility of conducting the study
C. Identifies relevant and irrelevant facts
D. Provides framework for organizing the conclusions

48-Hypothesis test may also be called as:


A. Informal test
B. Significance test
C. Moderating test
D. T-test

49-Which type of review compares how different theories address an issue?


A. Context review
B. Integrated review
C. Theoretical review
D. Methodological review

50-After you locate a source, you should write down all details of the reference, EXCEPT;
A. Volumes
B. Titles

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C. Price
D. Full names of the authors

51- ___________research is based on naturalism.


A. Field research
B. Descriptive research
C. Basic research
D. Applied research

52- Personal interviews conducted in shopping malls are known as_________


A. Mall interviews
B. Mall intercepts interviews
C. Brief interviews
D. None of the given options

53- ____________is used to obtain the freest opinion of the respondent, by asking
general question before a specific question.
A. Research technique
B. Qualitative technique
C. Funnel technique
D. Quantitative technique

54- In, ____________the interviewer and members jointly control the pace and
direction of the interview.

A. Field interview
B. Telephonic interview
C. Both A and B
D. None of the given options
Research Method (STA 630) Success Objectives

55- Randomization of test units is a part of ______________


A. Pretest
B. Posttest
C. Matching
D. Experiment

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56- Which one of the following sets is the measure of central tendency?
a. Mean, standard deviation, mode
b. Mean, median, standard deviation
c. Arithmetic mean, median, mode
d. Standard deviation, internal validity, mode

57- Internal validity refers to.


a. Researchers degree of confidence.
b. Generalisability
c. Operationalization
d. All of the above

58- How many times the students appear in the research class is the example of
_________.
a. Intensity
b. Space
c. Frequency
d. Direction

59- Time consumed in mall intercept interview is .


a. High
b. Moderate
c. Low
d. Nil

60- Departmental stores selected to test a new merchandising display system is


the example of .
a. Quota sampling
b. Convenience sampling
c. Judgmental sampling
d. Purposive sampling

61- In ___________, the researcher attempts to control and/ or manipulate the variables in
the study.
1. Experiment
2. Hypothesis
3. Theoretical framework

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4. Research design

62- In an experimental research study, the primary goal is to isolate and identify the effect
produced by the ____.
1. Dependent variable
2. Extraneous variable
3. Independent variable
4. Confounding variable
63- A measure is reliable if it provides consistent ___________.
1. Hypothesis
2. Results
3. Procedure
4. Sensitivity
64- The interview in which questions are already prepared is called ________.
1. Telephonic interview
2. Personal interview
Research Method (STA 630) Success Objectives
3. Unstructured interview
4. Structured interview
65-The numerical description that describe sample may be expected to differ from those
that describe population because of random fluctuations inherent in sampling process.
1. Sampling design
2. Non-probability sampling
3. Sampling error
4. Probability sampling
66- In ______________ , each population element has a known and equal chance of
selection.
1. Purposive sampling
2. Quota sampling
3. Stratified sampling
4. Simple random sampling
67- ______ is the evidence that the instrument, techniques, or process used to measure
concept does indeed measure the intended concepts.
1. Reliability
2. Replicability
3. Scaling
4. Validity

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68- A researcher is interested in studying why the new math of the 1960s failed. She
interviews several teachers who used the new math during the 1960s. These teachers are
considered as:
1. Primary sources
2. Secondary Sources
3. External critics
4. Internal critics
69- Which of the following is NOT true about stratified random sampling?
1. It involves a random selection process from identified subgroups
2. Proportions of groups in the sample must always match their population
proportions
3. Disproportional stratified random sampling is especially helpful for getting large
enough subgroup samples when subgroup comparisons are to be done
4. Proportional stratified random sampling yields a representative sample
70- Experimental design is the only appropriate design where_________ relationship can
be established.
1. Strong
2. Linear
3. Weak
4. Cause and Effect
71. Discrete variable is also called.
E. Categorical variable
F. Discontinuous variable
G. Both A & B
H. None of the above
72.Officers in my organization have higher than average level of commitment
Such a hypothesis is an example of.
E. Descriptive Hypothesis
F. Directional Hypothesis
G. Relational Hypothesis
H. All of the above
73.Science refers to.
E. A system for producing knowledge
Research Method (STA 630) Success Objectives
F. The knowledge produced by a system
G. Both A & B
H. None of the above

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74.Which one of the following is not a characteristic of scientific method?
E. Deterministic
F. Rationalism
G. Empirical
H. Abstraction
73.The theoretical framework discusses the interrelationships among the.
E. Variables
F. Hypothesis
G. Concept
H. Theory
74.research is based on naturalism.
U. Field research
V. Descriptive research
W. Basic research
X. Applied research
75.Personal interviews conducted in shopping malls are known as
Y. Mall interviews
Z. Mall intercept interviews
AA. Brief interviews
BB. None of the given options
76. is used to obtain the freest opinion of the respondent, by asking general
question before a specific question.
CC. Research technique
DD. Qualitative technique
EE. Funnel technique
FF. Quantitative technique

77.In, the interviewer and members jointly control the pace and direction of the
interview.
GG. Field interview
HH. Telephonic interview
II. Both A and B
JJ. None of the given options
78.Randomization of test units is a part of
KK. Pretest
LL. Posttest

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MM. Matching
NN. Experiment

79. In ___________, the researcher attempts to control and/ or manipulate the variables in
the study.
1. Experiment
2. Hypothesis
3. Theoretical framework
4. Research design

80. In an experimental research study, the primary goal is to isolate and identify the effect
produced by the ____.
1. Dependent variable
2. Extraneous variable
3. Independent variable
4. Confounding variable

81. A measure is reliable if it provides consistent ___________.


Research Method (STA 630) Success Objectives
1. Hypothesis
2. Results
3. Procedure
4. Sensitivity

82. The interview in which questions are already prepared is called ________.
1. Telephonic interview
2. Personal interview
3. Unstructured interview
4. Structured interview

83. The numerical description that describe sample may be expected to differ from those
that describe population because of random fluctuations inherent in sampling process.
1. Sampling design

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2. Non-probability sampling
3. Sampling error
4. Probability sampling

84. In ______________ , each population element has a known and equal chance of
selection.
1. Purposive sampling
2. Quota sampling
3. Stratified sampling
4. Simple random sampling

85. ______ is the evidence that the instrument, techniques, or process used to measure
concept does indeed measure the intended concepts.
1. Reliability
2. Replicability
3. Scaling
4. Validity

86. A researcher is interested in studying why the new math of the 1960s failed. She
Interviews several teachers who used the new math during the 1960s. These teachers are
Considered as:
1. Primary sources
2. Secondary Sources
3. External critics
4. Internal critics

87. Which of the following is NOT true about stratified random sampling?
1. It involves a random selection process from identified subgroups
2. Proportions of groups in the sample must always match their population
Proportions
3. Disproportional stratified random sampling is especially helpful for getting large
enough subgroup samples when subgroup comparisons are to be done
4. Proportional stratified random sampling yields a representative sample

88. Experimental design is the only appropriate design where_________ relationship can
be established.
1. Strong

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2. Linear
3. Weak
4. Cause and Effect

89. Rationalism is the application of which of the following?


A. Logic and arguments
B. Research solution
C. Reasoning
D. Previous findings

90. On which of the following, scientific knowledge mostly relies?


A. Logical understanding
B. Identification of events
Research Method (STA 630) Success Objectives
C. Prior knowledge
D. All of the given options
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91. Which of the following refers to research supported by measurable


evidence?
A. Opinion
B. Empiricism
C. Speculation
D. Rationalism

92. Research method is applicable in all of the following fields, EXCEPT;


A. Health care
B. Religion
C. Business
D. Government offices
93. All of the following are true statements about action research, EXCEPT;
A. Data are systematically analyzed
B. Data are collected systematically
C. Results are generalizable
D. Results are used to improve practice

94. Which of the following is characteristic of action research?

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A. Variables are tightly controlled
B. Results are generalizable
C. Data are usually qualitative
D. Results demonstrate cause-and-effect relationship

95. If a researcher is studying the effect of using laptops in his classroom to


ascertain their merit and worth, he is likely conducting which of the
following types of research?
A. Experimental
B. Applied
C. Basic
D. Evaluation

96. Exploratory research addresses which of the following types of


question?
A. If
B. How
C. Why
D. What

97. Which of the following is not the source for getting information for
exploratory research?
A. Content analysis
B. Survey
C. Case study
D. Pilot study

98. Which of the following is the main quality of a good theory?


A. A theory that has survived attempts at falsification
B. A theory that is proven to be right
C. A theory that has been disproved
D. A theory that has been falsified

100. Which of the following is not a concept?


A. Leadership
B. Total Quality Management
C. Intelligence Quotient (IQ)

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D. Human Resource Management

101. A variable that is presumed to cause a change in another variable is


known as:
Research Method (STA 630) Success Objectives
A. Discontinuous variable
B. Dependent variable
C. Independent variable
D. Intervening variable

102. Which of the following is the opposite of a variable?


A. An extraneous variable
B. A dependent variable
C. A data set
D. A constant
103. Which of the following can best be described as a categorical
variable?
A. Age
B. Annual income
C. Grade point average
D. Religion

104. Income distribution of employees in a specific organization is an


example of which of following type of variable?
A. Discontinuous variable
B. Continuous variable
C. Dependent variable
D. Independent variable
105. There is no relationship between higher motivation level and higher
efficiency is an example of which type of hypothesis?
A. Alternative
B. Null
C. Correlational
D. Research

106. Which of the following is not a role of hypothesis?


A. Guides the direction of the study

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B. Determine feasibility of conducting the study
C. Identifies relevant and irrelevant facts
D. Provides framework for organizing the conclusions

107. Which type of review compares how different theories address an issue?
A. Context review
B. Integrated review
C. Theoretical review
D. Methodological review

108. After you locate a source, you should write down all details of the
reference, EXCEPT;
A. Volumes
B. Titles
C. Price
D. Full names of the authors
109. What is the primary focus of establishment surveys in this case study?
A. Collect the data through past studies
B. Analyze the literature review
C. Using of quantitative techniques
D. Data collection through mail and Interview
110. Which one of following is generally common in establishment survey and household
survey?
A. Cognitive recall
B. Homogenous respondents
C. Error free
D. Response burden
Research Method (STA 630) Success Objectives
111. Which one of the following is not of important consideration in establishment survey
while designing questionnaires?
A. Response burden
B. Professional terminology
C. Cognitive recall
D. Use of Records

112. Which of the following method of data collection is not discussed in the case study?
A. Questionnaires

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B. Interviews
C. Mail survey
D. Observations

113. Which of the following sampling technique is used for Employee Turnover and Job
Openings survey?
A. Simple random sampling
B. Cluster sampling
C. Stratified sampling
D. Convenience sampling
114. Which one of the following is the limitation of establishment survey in this case
study?
A. Cost
B. Limited data
C. Unskilled interviewer
D. Small sample size
115. Which of the following is not the part of specific protocol of focus groups in ETJO?
A. Concept and indicators
B. Definition
C. Availability of records
D. Cognitive recall
116. Which of the following is the draw back of pretest interview in ETJO survey?
A. Small simple size
B. Non cooperative response
C. Probing
D. Questionnaire format
117. Which of the following method of data collection is not used in the case study?
A. Questionnaires
B. Focus groups
C. Correlational method
D. Secondary data
118. What is the basic purpose of ETJO survey?
A. To assess the feasibility of collecting job-vacancy and turnover data by
occupation
B. To analyze the problem of labor shortage
C. To assess the motivation level of employees
D. To analyze the factor contributing towards employee turnover

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119. Which of the following is the basic purpose of pretest interview in this case study?
A. To identified the potential problem
B. To know the sample size
C. To develop the questionnaire
D. To use agency representative
120. Which one of the following sampling type is used in operations test to select the
units?
A. Simple random sampling
Research Method (STA 630) Success Objectives
B. Cluster sampling
C. Quota sampling
D. Judgment sampling
121. Which of the following is the basic purpose of Response analysis survey in the case
study?
A. To assess the quality of ETJO survey data
B. To know the sample size of ETJO survey data
C. To develop the questionnaire for ETJO
D. To use agency representative for ETJO
122. After Operation test, which of the following test findings were suggested by the
researcher?
A. Need of highly skilled and well trained interviewer
B. Sample size should be increased
C. A decent increase in survey budget
D. Focus group should be included
123. In which one of the following stage researcher consult the literature?
A. Operation test
B. Response analysis survey
C. Document design analysis
D. Pretest interviews
124. Which one of the following sampling type is used in Response analysis survey
(RAS)?
A. Simple random sampling
B. Cluster sampling
C. Quota sampling
D. Stratified sampling

125. Which one of the following could be helpful for minimizing the bias in this case

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study?
A. Cognitive research
B. Focus group
C. Pretest Interview
D. Response analysis survey
126. Which one of the following is useful in assessing and clarifying concepts and
definitions at the beginning stages of questionnaire?
A. Operation test
B. Document design analysis
C. Focus group
D. Response analysis survey
127. Which one of the following can be more helpful than others in order to determine the
exact source of measurement errors in establishment survey?
A. Focus group
B. Operation test
C. Response analysis survey
D. Document design analysis
Identify the True and False statements. (05)
(1) Review of literature shows the incredibility of the body of knowledge and identifies the
points at which the researcher made the research area ambiguous and unclear. (False)
(2) The literature survey provides a solid foundation for developing the theoretical
framework. (True)
(3) The hypothesis should not only be specific to a place and situation but also these should
be narrowed down with respect to its operation. (True )
(4) A cohort analysis is similar to cross-sectional research. (False)
Research Method (STA 630) Success Objectives
(5) A literature review does not consider the prior studies, their agreements or
disagreements in the field. (False)

Fill in the blanks with appropriate words.


(1) Research hypothesis is formulated by the researcher which suggests the nature of
relationship i.e. the direction of relationship.
(2) Correlational hypothesis merely states that the variables occur together and does not
imply that one causes the other.
(3) Longitudinal type of research examine feature of any unit at more than one time.
(4) Historical review traces the development of an idea or shows how a particular issue or
theory has evolved over time.

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(5) Discontinuous variable is also known as discrete/ categorical/ classificatory variable.
6. Validity problems occur when the researchers theoretical definition does not
match that of the government agency or organization that collected the
information.
7. Reliability problems occur when official definition or the method of collecting
Information changes over time.
8. Secondary data refer to information gathered by someone other than the
researcher conducting the present study.
9. Experiments are best for topics where the researcher controls a situation and
manipulates an Independent variable.
10. A social indicator is any measure of wellbeing used in policy.
11.Two power bases of scientific knowledge are Empiricism and Rationalism
12.Action research is a type of Applied research
13.Three types of longitudinal research are time series, panel, and cohort
14.The research proposal is just like a research report, but it is written before the research
project begins.

15.Natural science concepts are often expressed in symbolic forms.


16.The double blind experiment is designed to control experimenter expectancy.
17.Pilot testing is also called pre-testing.
18.The totality, out of which sample is drawn is referred to as population.
19.The physical setting of the interview creates Situational bias.
20.Probing is the verbal prompts made by field worker.

Long Questions:
Q1. Write any five similarities of Historical-Comparative research and Field
research?
Answer:
1. Both H-C research and field research recognize that the researchers point of view
is an avoidable part of research. Both involve interpretation, which introduce the
interpreters location in time, place, and world-view.
2. Both field and H-C research examine a great diversity of data. In both the
research becomes immersed in data to gain an emphatic understanding of events
and people.
3. Both field and H-C research often use grounded theory (theory usually emerges
during the process of data collection.)
4. Both field and H-C research involves a type of translation. The researchers
meaning system usually differs from that of people he or she studies, but he or she

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Research Method (STA 630) Success Objectives
tries to penetrate and understand their point of view.
5. Both field and H-C research focus on action, process, and sequence and see time
process as essential.
6. Generalization and theory are limited in field and H-C research.

Q2. How quantitative and qualitative techniques are applied in Historical-


Comparative research.
Answer:
Quantitative approach
The quantitative techniques with some minor adjustment can be applied to study the past
or other cultures.
_ The researcher can focus on the issue in one society, few societies or multiple
societies.
_ The researcher can focus on the issue in one time in the past or examine the issue
across many years/periods in the past.
_ The researcher can focus on the issue in the present or a recent past period.

_ The researchers analysis could be based primarily on quantitative data or


qualitative data.
Qualitative approach
_ The researcher must be able to take on, mentally, the circumstances, views, and
feelings of those being studied to interpret their action appropriately.
_ The historical-comparative research must find patterns among the voluminous
details describing the subject matter of study.

Question # 01
How do concrete and abstract concepts differ? Give example.
(Marks: 04)
Solution:
Concrete Concepts:
Concrete ones refer to straightforward physical objects or familiar experiences.
Abstract concepts:
Abstract concepts refer to ideas that have a scattered meaning or an indirect expression
Abstraction is a thought process wherein ideas are distanced from objects.
The difference between concrete and abstract concepts can be expressed with some
characterizations like,

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1. Abstract concepts have only relational properties while concrete concepts have some
fundamental properties.
2. Abstract concepts are universals and concrete concepts are particulars.
3. Abstract concepts are sets (generalized) and concrete concepts are individuals
(specified).
4. Concrete concepts are known by observation whereas abstract concepts are known in
some other way, e.g., by abstraction, by intuition, etc
Example
Print Media (Abstract)
Publication
News Paper
Daily Dawn (Concrete)

Question # 02
Research Method (STA 630) Success Objectives
Given the situation below, Discuss with reason into which category they fall
According to the purpose of doing research and
The uses of research
(Marks: 03, 03)
Scenario 1:
Reasons for Absenteeism
A university professor wanted to analyze in depth the reasons for absenteeism of employees
in organizations. Fortunately, a company within 20 miles of the campus employed her as a
consultant to study that very issue.
Solution:
According to the purpose of doing research :
It is Explanatory research as the purpose is to find out the reasons for a phenomenon i.e.
absenteeism of employees in organizations. Research seeks to determine the answers to
why question about a specific behavior.
According to the uses of research:
It is applied research since, the problem is being faced by an organization and the research
is called upon to solve it.
Scenario 2:
Effects of Nasal Spray on Flu
A research scientist surveys 1,000 employees in different organizational settings to study the
efficacy of several types of nasal sprays in controlling the flu virus. He subsequently
publishes his findings in a highly respected medical journal.

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Solution:
According to the purpose of doing research :
It is Descriptive research, as, the research question only finds out the special effects of
several types of nasal sprays in controlling the flu virus in different organizational settings. It
is to find out the relationship among the substances under study.
According to the uses of research:
It is a Basic research since the underlying purpose is to expand the frontier of knowledge
.
Question#01:
Why turn over is high in some organizations?
As per above given query, explain the following components of Theoretical frame work;
(Marks: 10)
i) Develop an inventory of variables (min. five variables required)
ii) Specify direction of relationship
iii) Give clear explanation why you should expect the proposed relationship exists
iv) Make an inventory of propositions
Ans:
i) Develop an inventory of variables
Salary Package is low, Inflexibility in working hours, Low decentralization (participation in
decision making), Lack of other benefits (bonus, appraisals, conveyance facilities, etc), Poor
working ambiance
ii) Specify direction of relationship
a) Between salary & turn-over negative relationship exists
b) Between flexible working hours & turn-over negative relationship exists
c) Between decentralization & turn-over negative relationship exists
Research Method (STA 630) Success Objectives
d) Between extra benefits & turn-over negative relationship exists
e) Between ambiance & turn-over negative relationship exists
iii) Give clear explanation why you should expect the proposed relationship exists?
a) Between salary & turn-over negative relationship exists because in current era a good
salary package has more attraction for employees to remain in the same organization. So
organizations that keep themselves up-dated with privileged market salary packages
usually have low turn over ratio.
b) Between flexible working hours & turn-over negative relationship exists because flexibility
in working hours give some relaxation to employees especially in case when their targets
are not achieved due to a reason able fact.
c) Between decentralization & turn-over negative relationship exists because participation in

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decision making raise confidence of employee and motivation level. So, organization
have more decentralized system face low turn-over ratio.
d) Between extra benefits & turn-over negative relationship exists. The organizations offer
different packages like bonuses, conveyance facilities etc, such organizations have more
satisfies employees and low turn over.
e) Between ambiance & turn-over negative relationship exists. Working ambiance does
matter a lot. Good ambiance that help in releasing working stress increase the employee
motivation and interest in doing job well.
Question#02:
What is meant by a Research Proposal? Explain briefly. Also mention at what time a
research proposal is submitted? (Marks: 05)
Note: (Copied data from hand outs will not be appreciated)
Ans:
A research proposal is a document that plans how and in which manner a research will be
conducted. Research proposals contain extensive literature reviews. Such proposals must offer
convincing support for your research topic. It means the topic/issue for which research study is
being proposed should be sound enough to conduct a worthy research. The proposal must
describe a detailed methodology for conducting the research i.e. which tools are going to be used
in your research.
More over when writing a proposal it is well to assume that reader of your proposal is interested
to find out the answer of these questions;
What do you want to do, how much will it cost, and how much time will it take?
What has already been done in the area of your project?
How do you plan to do it?
How will the results be evaluated?
A good proposal is that which well defines these questions and convinces the reader that
research on specified issue is needed to conduct. So, the research proposal is submitted before
starting the research project because in this you plan how the data will be collected and analyzed.
Q. Explain the difference between these terms with one example of each.
i. Population and target population
ii. Sampling unit and observation unit
iii. Parameter and statistic

i. Population and Target Population.


Population refers to the entire group of people, events or things of interest that the
researcher wishes to investigate.
Target population is the complete group of specific population elements relevant to the

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research project.
Example
Suppose a researcher wants to investigate the productivity of employees working in
multinationals in Pakistan.
All the employees working in multinational will be the population.
The researcher wants to investigate the productivity of employees working in
multinational in FMCG sector in Pakistan.
Research Method (STA 630) Success Objectives
All the employees working in multinationals in FMCG sector in Pakistan will be the
target population.
ii. Sampling Unit and Observation Unit
A sampling unit is that element or set of elements considered for selection in some stage
of sampling.
An observation unit is an element or aggregation of elements from which the
information is collected.
Example
In the above example the researcher selects employees from three FMCG multinationals
(Procter and Gamble, Unilever and Nestle) for data collection. Among these employees
he selected First Line Managers for collecting the data. Among all First Line Manager he
selects 40 Line managers for data collection.
In this example the employees from three FMCGs (Procter and Gamble, Unilever and
Nestle) are the primary sampling unit, all the First Line managers are the secondary/ final
sampling unit and the selected First Line managers are the observation unit.
iii. Parameter and Statistics
A parameter is the summary description of a given variable in a population while
Statistic is the summary description of a given variable in a survey sample.
Example
In the above example the mean productivity of all the employees working in the
multinational is the Parameter and the mean productivity of the First Line managers from
those the researcher collected the data is the Statistics.

Q: Define Research? Discuss the special features of Scientific method of Research?


Solution:
Definition of Research:
Research is an organized and systematic way of finding answers to questions by gathering the
needed information. General image of the research is that it has something to do with the
laboratory where scientists are supposedly doing some experiments. Research is simply the

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process of finding solutions to a problem after thorough study and analysis of the situational
factors. In research, we try to follow a system or a procedure in an organized manner. It is all the
more necessary in case we want to repeat the study, or somebody else wants to verify our
findings. In the latter case the other person has to follow the same procedure that we followed.
Hence not only we have to do the study in a systematic manner but also that system should be
known to others.
Special Features of Scientific Method of Research:
The Scientific method of Research is a procedure to produce knowledge and to discover the
principles & laws in this universe.
Special Features of Scientific Method of Research are as follows:
1. Empirical

Scientific method is concerned with the realities that are observable through sensory
experiences. It generates knowledge which is verifiable by experience or observation. Some of
the realities could be directly observed, like the number of students present in the class and how
many of them are male and how many female. The same students have attitudes, values,
motivations, aspirations, and commitments. These are also realities which cannot be observed
directly, but the researchers have designed ways to observe these indirectly. Any reality that
cannot be put to sensory experience directly or indirectly (existence of heaven, the Day of
Judgment, life hereafter, Gods rewards for good deeds) does not fall within the domain of
scientific method.
2. Verifiable
Observations made through scientific method are to be verified again by using the senses to
confirm or refute the previous findings. Such confirmations may have to be made by the same
researcher or others. We will place more faith and credence in those findings and conclusions if
similar findings emerge on the basis of data collected by other researchers using the same
methods. To the extent that it does happen (i.e. the results are replicated or repeated) we will
gain confidence in the scientific nature of our research. Replicability, in this way, is an important
characteristic of scientific method. Hence revelations and intuitions are out of the domain of
scientific method.
3. Cumulative
Prior to the start of any study the researchers try to scan through the literature and see that their
study is not a repetition in ignorance. Instead of reinventing the wheel the researchers take stock
of the existing body of knowledge and try to build on it. Also the researchers do
Research Method (STA 630) Success Objectives
not leave their research findings into scattered bits and pieces. Facts and figures are to be
provided with language and thereby inferences drawn. The results are to be organized and

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systematized. Nevertheless, we dont want to leave our studies as stand alone. A linkage
between the present and the previous body of knowledge has to be established, and that is how
the knowledge accumulates.
4. Deterministic
Science is based on the assumption that all events have antecedent causes that are subject to
identification and logical understanding. For the scientist, nothing just happens it happens for
a reason. The scientific researchers try to explain the emerging phenomenon by identifying its
causes. Of the identified causes which ones can be the most important? For example, in the
2006 BA/BS examination of the Punjab University 67 percent of the students failed. What could
be the determinants of such a mass failure of students? The researcher may try to explain this
phenomenon and come up with variety of reasons which may pertain to students, teachers,
administration, curriculum, books, examination system, and so on. Looking into such a large
number of reasons may be highly cumbersome model for problem solution. It might be
appropriate to tell, of all these factors which one is the most important. The researcher tries to
narrow down the number of reasons in such a way that some action could taken.
5. Ethical and Ideological Neutrality
The conclusions drawn through interpretation of the results of data analysis should be objective;
that is, they should be based on the facts of the findings derived from actual data, and not on our
own subjective or emotional values. For instance, if we had a hypothesis that stated that greater
participation in decision making will increase organizational commitment, and this was not
supported by the results, it makes no sense if the researcher continues to argue that increased
opportunities for employee participation would still help. Such an argument would be based, not
on the factual, data based research findings, but on the subjective opinion of the researcher. If
this was the conviction of the researcher all along, then there was no need to do the research in
the first place. Researchers are human beings, having individual ideologies, religious affiliations,
cultural differences which can influence the research findings. Any interference of their personal
likings and dis-likings in their research can contaminate the purity of the data, which ultimately
can affect the predictions made by the researcher. Therefore, one of the important
characteristics of scientific method is to follow the principle of objectivity, uphold neutrality, and
present the results in an unbiased manner.
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6. Statistical Generalization
Generalisability refers to the scope of the research findings in one organizational setting to other
settings. Obviously, the wider the range of applicability of the solutions generated by research,
the more useful the research is to users. For instance, if a researchers findings that participation
in decision making enhances organizational commitment are found to be true in a variety of

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manufacturing, industrial, and service organizations, and not merely in the particular organization
studied by the researcher, the generalisability of the findings to other organizational settings is
enhanced. The more generalizable the research, the greater its usefulness and value.
For wider generalisability, the research sampling design has to be logically developed. Here the
use of statistics is very helpful. Statistics is device for comparing what is observed and what is
logically expected. The use of statistics becomes helpful in making generalizations, which is one
of the goals of scientific method.
7. Rationalism
Science is fundamentally a rational activity, and the scientific explanation must make sense.
Religion may rest on revelations, custom, or traditions, gambling on faith, but science must rest
on logical reason. There are two distinct logical systems important to the scientific quest, referred
to as deductive logic and inductive logic.

Q: Define Hypothesis? What are different types of hypothesis? Explain.


Solution:
Definition of Hypothesis:
A proposition that can be verified to determine its reality is a hypothesis. A hypothesis may be
defined as a logically conjectured relationship between two or more variables, expressed in the
form of a testable statement. Relationship is proposed by using a strong logical argumentation.
This logical relationship may be part of theoretical framework of the study.
For example,
Officers in my organization have higher than average level of commitment (variable).
Level of job commitment of the officers is associated with their level of efficiency.
Level of job commitment of the officers is positively associated with their level of
efficiency.
Research Method (STA 630) Success Objectives
The higher the level of job commitment of the officers the lower their level of
absenteeism.
Types of Hypothesis:
There are different types of hypothesis which are as follows.
1-Descriptive Hypothesis
Descriptive hypothesis contains only one variable thereby it is also called as univariate
hypothesis. Descriptive hypotheses typically state the existence, size, form, or distribution of
some variable. The first hypothesis contains only one variable. It only shows the distribution of
the level of commitment among the officers of the organization which is higher than average.
Such a hypothesis is an example of a Descriptive Hypothesis.
2- Relational Hypothesis

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These are the propositions that describe a relationship between two variables. The relationship
could be non-directional or directional, positive or negative, causal or simply correlational.
While stating the relationship between the two variables, if the terms of positive, negative, more
than, or less than are used then such hypotheses are directional because the direction of the
relationship between the variables (positive/negative) has been indicated. These hypotheses are
relational as well as directional. The directional hypothesis is the one in which the direction of the
relationship has been specified.
Non-directional hypothesis is the one in which the direction of the association has not been
specified. The relationship may be very strong but whether it is positive or negative has not been
postulated.

Correlational hypotheses state merely that the variables occur together in some specified
manner without implying that one causes the other. Such weak claims are often made when we
believe that there are more basic causal forces that affect both variables. For example:
Level of job commitment of the officers is positively associated with their level of efficiency.
Explanatory (causal) hypotheses imply the existence of, or a change in, one variable causes or
leads to a change in the other variable. This brings in the notions of independent and the
dependent variables. Cause means to help make happen. So the independent variable may
not be the sole reason for the existence of, or change in the dependent variable.
3- Null Hypothesis
It is used for testing the hypothesis formulated by the researcher. Researchers treat evidence that
supports a hypothesis differently from the evidence that opposes it. They give negative evidence
more importance than to the positive one. It is because the negative evidence tarnishes the
hypothesis. It shows that the predictions made by the hypothesis are wrong. The null hypothesis
simply states that there is no relationship between the variables or the relationship between the
variables is zero. That is how symbolically null hypothesis is denoted as H0. For example:
H0 = There is no relationship between the level of job commitment and the level of efficiency. Or
H0 = The relationship between level of job commitment and the level of efficiency is zero. Or the
two variables are independent of each other.
It does not take into consideration the direction of association (i.e. H0 is non directional), which
may be a second step in testing the hypothesis.
4- Alternative Hypothesis
The alternative (to the null) hypothesis simply states that there is a relationship between the
variables under study. In our example it could be: there is a relationship between the level of job
commitment and the level of efficiency. Not only there is an association between the two
variables under study but also the relationship is perfect which is indicated by the number 1.
Thereby the alternative hypothesis is symbolically denoted as H1. It can be written like this:

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H1: There is a relationship between the level of job commitment of the officers and their level of
efficiency.
5- Research Hypothesis
Research hypothesis is the actual hypothesis formulated by the researcher which may also
suggest the nature of relationship i.e. the direction of relationship. In our example it could be:
Level of job commitment of the officers is positively associated with their level of efficiency.
Q: Ahmad is the manager of a restaurant; he wants to see his staff cooperative and
hardworking but his staff is not working well according to his will. He decided to give the
incentives in order to motivate and encourage them but his policy did not work effectively.
There can be many factors behind this behavior of staff that needs to be researched. For
this purpose, he appoints you as a researcher and asks you to discover those factors and
submit a report to him. How you will undertake this kind of
Research Method (STA 630) Success Objectives
research and what steps you will choose to make a report about the behavior of the staff?
Solution:
The manager of the restaurant appoints me as a researcher to find out the factors behind the staff
behavior. I will take the following steps in order to undertake this research and to make a report.
These steps are as follows:
STEP 1: To Select the topic of research:
First of all I will select the topic which is a general area of study or issue. The topic in this
research is the factors behind the staff behavior. A topic appears to be too broad for conducting
research. The specific issues that need to be researched within the situation may not be
identified at this stage. I will try to analyze the problems currently existing in the restaurant that
needs to be solved and the areas that a manager believes need to be improved in the restaurant
(improving the existing policies). Then I will develop some research questions that a basic
researcher wants to answer empirically.
STEP 2: Preliminary Data Collection or to Explore different areas from where I can get
information related to the restaurant and staff behavior:

After selecting the topic, I will collect data from different sources. This step may be considered as
part of the exploratory research. An exploration typically begins with a search for published data
and studies. Such sources can provide secondary data which becomes part of the background
information (about the restaurant & groups of people). Some secondary sources of data are
statistical bulletins, government publications, information published or unpublished, case studies,
online data, web sites, and the Internet from where I can get information. In addition, information
can also be collected from the people who are well informed about the staff and restaurant,
especially those who have clearly stated positions on controversial aspects of the problem. In

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certain situations, I will also focus on group discussions with the staff of the restaurant. Such
discussions can help me in the identification of factors and having clarification of their behavior.
STEP 3: Problem Definition
After having discussions with the professionals as well as with the staff to whom the issue relates,
and the review of literature, now I will be in a position to narrow down from its original broad base
and define the factors clearly. Translate the broad issue into a research question. As part of the
applied research convert the management dilemma into a management question, and then on to
research question that fits the need to resolve the dilemma. The symptoms of a problem might
help tracing the real problem. For example in this research, the productivity decline of workers is
an issue. The manager has tried to solve it by the provision of incentives but his policy did not
work. I will find the possible factors like the morale and motivation of the workers having some
other antecedents.
STEP 4: To develop the Theoretical Framework
Consultations with the informants and professionals, and the review of literature will help me in
the identification of different factors that are considered to be relevant. Now I will need to make a
logical relationship among several factors identified. This will help in the delineation of the
theoretical framework. The theoretical framework discusses the interrelationships among the
variables that are deemed to be integral to the dynamics of the situation being investigated.
Developing such a conceptual framework helps to postulate or hypothesize and test certain
relationships.
STEP 5: To Generate the Hypotheses
Once I have identified the important variables relevant to an issue and established the logical
reasoning in the theoretical framework, I will be in a position to test whether the relationships that
have been theorized do in fact hold true. By testing these relationships scientifically, I will obtain
reliable information to determine the relationship among the variables. The results of these tests
offer part of the answers to the formulated research questions, whether these relate basic
research or to applied research.
STEP 6: To make a Research Design
Research design is a master plan specifying the methods and procedures for collecting and
analyzing the needed information. It is a framework or the blueprint that plans the action for
research project. The objectives of the study determined during the early stages of the research
are included in the design to ensure that the information collected is appropriate for solving the
problem. It is very important to specify the sources of information, and the research method or
technique (survey or experiment, for example) to be followed in the study. Broadly there are six
basic research methods for descriptive and causal research: surveys, experiments, observation,
communication analysis (content analysis), case study, focus group discussion.
STEP 7: Data Collection, Data Processing, and Analysis

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Research Method (STA 630) Success Objectives
Data collection is integral part of the research design; Data collection is determined by the
research technique selected for the project. Data can be collected in a variety of ways, in
different settings field or lab and from different sources. It could include interviews face to
face interviews, telephone interviews, computer-assisted interviews, and interviews through
electronic media; questionnaires that either personally administered, sent through mail, or
electronically administered; observation of individuals and events which could be participant or
non participant. Once the fieldwork has been completed, the data must be converted into a format

that will answer the research questions and help testing the hypotheses. The computer can help
in making tables and the application of different statistics.
STEP 8: Testing the Hypotheses; Answering the Research Questions
The analysis and interpretation of the data shall be the means to testing the formulated
hypotheses as well as finding answers to the research questions. In case of applied research,
the research should be helpful in finding solutions to the problems of the organization or society.
Making recommendations may also be part of this process.
STEP 9: Report Writing
The research report should communicate the research findings effectively. All too often the report
is a complicated statement of the studys technical aspects and sophisticated research methods.
The report has to be presented in the format as it may have been part of the terms of reference if
it is a sponsored study. I will write the basic factors behind the staff behavior in my report and I
will also give some suggestions to the manager to motivate the staff so that they can work
efficiently.
Q: Define the measure that is used by the researcher in order to capture the intensity,
direction, level, or potency of a variable construct. Also describes the different types of
that measure.
Solution:
The measure that is used by the researcher in order to capture the intensity, direction,
level, or potency of a variable construct:
A scale is a measure in which a researcher captures the intensity, direction, level, or potency of a
variable construct. It arranges responses or observations on a continuum or in series of
categories. A scale can use a single indicator or multiple indicators.
An index is a measure in which a researcher adds or combines several distinct indicators of a
construct into a single score. The composite scores is often a simple sum of the multiple
indicators. Indexes are often measured at the interval or ratio level.
Researchers sometimes combine the features of scales and indexes in a single measure. This is
common when a researcher has a several indicators that are scales (i.e. that measure intensity or

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direction). The researcher then adds these indicators together to yield a single score, thereby
creating an index.
The different types of that measure:
A scale refers to any series of items that are arranged progressively according to value or
magnitude, into which an item can be placed according to its quantification. In other words, a
scale is a continuous spectrum or series of categories.
It is traditional to classify scales of measurement on the basis of the mathematical comparisons
that are allowable with these scales. Four types of scales are nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio.
Nominal Scale
A nominal scale is the one in which the numbers or letters assigned to objects serve as labels for
identification or classification. This measurement scale is the simplest type. With nominal data,
we are collecting information on a variable that naturally or by design can be grouped into two or
more categories that are mutually exclusive, and collectively exhaustive.
Nominal scales are the least powerful of the four scales. They suggest no order or distance
relationship and have no arithmetic origin. Nevertheless, if no other scale can be used, one can
almost always one set of properties into a set of equivalent classes.
Ordinal Scale

Research Method (STA 630) Success Objectives


Ordinal scales include the characteristics of the nominal scale plus an indicator of order. If a is
greater than b and b is greater than c, then a is greater than c. The use of ordinal scale implies a
statement of greater than or less than without stating how much greater or less. Other
descriptors can be: superior to, happier than, poorer than, or above.
Interval Scale
Interval scales have the power of nominal and ordinal scales plus one additional strength: they
incorporate the concept of equality of interval (the distance between 1 and 2 equals the distance
between 2 and 3). For example, the elapsed time between 3 and 6 A. M. equals the time
between 4 and 7 A. M. One cannot say, however, 6 A.M. is twice as late as 3 A.M. because
zero time is an arbitrary origin. In the consumer price index, if the base year is 1983, the price
level during 1983 will be set arbitrarily as 100. Although this is an equal interval measurement
scale, the zero point is arbitrary.
Ratio Scale
Ratio scales incorporate all the powers of the previous scales plus the provision for absolute zero
or origin. Ratio data represent the actual amounts of variable. Measures of physical dimensions
such as weight, height, distance, and area are the examples. The absolute zero represents a
point on the scale where there is an absence of the given attribute. If we hear that a person has
zero amount of money, we understand the zero value of the amount.

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Q: (a) Define the Probability & non-Probability sampling.
Solution (a):
Probability Sampling:
In probability sampling, every element in the population has a known nonzero probability of
selection. The simple random is the best known probability sample, in which each member of the
population has an equal probability of being selected.
Non-Probability Sampling:
In non-probability sampling the probability of any particular element of the population being
chosen is unknown. The selection of units in non-probability sampling is quite arbitrary, as
researchers rely heavily on personal judgment.
(b) Snowball sampling is also known as network, chain referral or reputational sampling.
Comment on this statement.
Solution (b):
Snowball sampling:
Snowball sampling is also called network, chain referral, or reputational sampling. It is a method
for identifying and sampling cases in the network. It is based on an analogy to a snowball, which
begins small but becomes larger as it is rolled on wet snow and picks up additional snow. It
begins with one or a few people or cases and spreads out on the basis of links to the initial cases.
This design has been found quite useful where respondents are difficult to identify and are best
located through referral networks. In the initial stage of snowball sampling, individuals are
discovered and may or may not be selected through probability methods. This group is then used
to locate others who possess similar characteristics and who, in turn, identify others. The
snowball gather subjects as it rolls along.
Example:
For example, a researcher examines friendship networks among teenagers in a community. He
or she begins with three teenagers who do not know each other. Each teen names four close
friends. The researcher then goes to the four friends and asks each to name four close friends,

then goes to those four and does the same thing again, and so forth. Before long, a large
number of people are involved. Each person in the sample is directly or indirectly tied to the
original teenagers, and several people may have named the same person. The researcher
eventually stops, either because no new names are given, indicating a closed network, or
because the network is so large that it is at thee limit of what he or she can study.
(c)The purpose of cluster sampling is to sample economically while retaining the
characteristics of a probability sample. At the same time, cluster sampling addresses two
major problems. Discuss those problems.
Research Method (STA 630) Success Objectives

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Solution (c):
The purpose of cluster sampling is to sample economically while retaining the characteristics of a
probability sample. At the same time, Cluster sampling addresses following two problems:
1. Researchers lack a good sampling frame for a dispersed population and the cost to reach
a sampled element is very high. A cluster is unit that contains final sampling elements but
can be treated temporarily as a sampling element itself. A researcher first samples
cluster, each of which contains elements, then draws a second sample from within the
clusters selected in the first stage of sampling. In other words, the researcher randomly
samples clusters, and then randomly samples elements from within the selected clusters.
He or she can create a good sampling frame of clusters, even if it is impossible to create
one for sampling elements. Once the researcher gets a sample of clusters, creating a
sampling frame for elements within each cluster becomes more manageable.
2. A second advantage for geographically dispersed populations is that elements within
each cluster are physically closer to each other. This may produce a savings in locating
or reaching each element.

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Q: Briefly discuss the steps that are involved in conducting an experiment.


Solution:
Steps in Conducting an Experiment
Broadly there are about 12 steps in conducting an experiment, which are as below:
1. Make a hypothesis that is appropriate for experimental research.
2. Decide about an experimental design that will test the hypothesis within practical
limitations.
3. Decide how to create a situation that induces the independent variable.
4. Develop a valid and reliable measure of the dependent variable.
5. Set up an experimental setting and conduct a pilot test of the treatment and dependent
variable measures.
6. Locate appropriate subjects or cases.
7. Randomly assign subjects to groups and give careful instructions.
8. Gather data for the pretest measure of the dependent variable for all groups.
9. Introduce the treatment to the experimental group only (or to the relevant groups if there
are multiple experimental groups) and monitor all groups.
10. Gather data for posttest measure of the dependent variable.
11. Debrief the subjects by informing them of the true purpose and reasons for the

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experiment. Ask subjects what they thought was occurring.
12. Examine data collected and make comparisons between different groups. Where
appropriate, use statistics and graphs to determine whether or not the hypothesis is
supported.

Q. Classify this research on the basis of:


i. Purpose of doing research.
ii. The use of research
iii. Time dimension in research
Justify your answer.
Answer:
i. It is an exploratory research. Because it was a new issue and no research was
made on it before. The researchers had limited amount of information on this issue
and this research provided bases for many other studies.
ii. It is a basic research because it provides knowledge generated to understand a
phenomenon of interest to the researcher.
iii. It is a longitudinal research because it examines the employees at more than one
time. The research is spread upon 1927 to 1932. A group of 6 women was selected
for 5 years so it can be further classified as Panel study.
Research Method (STA 630) Success Objectives
Q. Identify these variables used in the experiment:
i. Dependent variables
ii. Independent variables
iii. Extraneous variables
Justify your answer.
Answer:
i. The variable that is the result of another variable(s) is called a dependent variable.
Productivity of the employees is the dependent variable in this case. Because it
depends on many other independent variables.
ii. The variable that causes the dependent variable is called independent variable. It is
a cause variable. In our example light illumination, rest breaks, duration of work
hours, temperature, food, wages and humidity are independent variables because
they affect productivity.
iii. Extraneous variables are factors other than the independent variable that could result
in changes in the dependent variable. In an experiment, these factors should be
controlled so that they are constant in all conditions. If they are not well-controlled,
then they result in possible alternative explanations (other than changes in the

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independent variable) that could account for the changes observed in the dependent
variable. Possible extraneous variables in this research can be knowledge of the
employees that they are being observed (when employees know that they are
being watched, they tend to modify their behavior), special attention paid to them,
supervisors style, etc.
Q: What do you understand by the term concepts are an abstraction of reality? Explain
with the help of an example.
Answer: Concepts are the terms and terminologies used by researchers as means of
communication. They are expressed in words, letters, signs and symbols that refer to various
events or objects. Abstraction simply means generalization. In research methods, we use this
term concepts are an abstraction of reality. It means that we pick up concepts from observed
reality and goes on to the abstraction level. It is a level at which objects and events are expressed
in more generalized form.

For example Toyota is a concept, its abstraction is a car and its further abstraction would be
motor vehicles. We have changed the simple concept (Toyota) into an abstraction (motor
vehicles) which is a more generalized term.
Q: Join the options in column A with appropriate options given in column B. Identify the
variables and give reasons for your choice.
Column A Column B
(a) Two men and three women were
seriously injured in a road accident 25
km away from Lahore.
(i) Intervening variable
(b) Out break of Malaria in the city
increased the consumption of mosquito
repellents.
(ii) Independent and dependent variable
(c) Distance learning system increased the
literacy level in the country.
(iii)Continuous and discontinuous variable
Answer:
Column A Column B
(a) (iii)
(b) (ii)
(c) (i)
Research Method (STA 630) Success Objectives

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Identification of Variables:
(a) Men and Women are the example of discontinuous variables and the distance of 25 km is
an example of continuous variable.
(b) Out break of malaria is the independent variable and increase in the purchase of
mosquito repellents is dependent variable.
(c) There is a clear indication of many intervening variable such as flexible timing, low fees,
low transportation cost, easy access to get education especially for far off areas.
Reasons:
(a) Discontinuous variable has limited number of distinct values which can not be divided into
fractions, so male/female or men/women are discontinuous variables. Continuous
variable can take infinite number of values and can be divided into fractions, so the
distance is continuous variable as it can take any value e.g. 35km, 55.5 km etc.
(b) Independent variables are those variables which identifies forces or conditions that act on
something. Malaria is the independent variable as it is causing change in other variable.
Dependent variables are the effect or result of another variable. Their occurrence is
dependent upon the occurrence of another variable. Increase in the consumption of
mosquito repellents is an outcome of increasingly spreading Malaria disease.
(c) Intervening variables are those variables that come between independent and dependent
variables and shows a link or mechanism between them. Distance learning (independent
variable) has increased the literacy level (dependent variable) and there are other
intervening variables which are supporting this relationship e.g. flexible timing, low fees,
low transportation cost, easy access to get education especially for far off areas.

What is a grand theory?


a) One that was proposed by one of the major theorists in the
sociological
tradition
b) One that is highly abstract and makes broad generalizations about
the
social world
c) An intermediate level explanation of observed regularities
d) A particularly satisfactory theory that makes the researcher feel
happy
What does an empiricist believe?

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a) We should not apply natural science methods to social science
research
b) It is the sociologists aim to understand the meaning of social action
c) Knowledge, in the form of facts, should be gained through sensory
experience
d) Research conducted within the British empire was biased and
unreliable
An inductive theory is one that:
a) Involves testing an explicitly defined hypothesis
b) Does not allow for findings to feed back into the stock of knowledge
c) Uses quantitative methods whenever possible
d) Allows theory to emerge out of the data
What is the epistemological position held by a positivist?
a) There is no substitute for an indepth, hermeneutic understanding
of
society
b) Scientific research should be based on valuefree, empirical
observations

c) Events and discourses in the social world prevent us from having


direct
knowledge of the natural order
d) It is important to remain optimistic about our research, even when
things
go wrong
The interpretivist view of the social sciences is that:
a) Their subject matter is fundamentally different to that of the natural
sciences
b) We should aim to achieve the interpretive understanding of social
action

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c) It is important to study the way people make sense of their
everyday
worlds
d) All of the above
Which of the following is an ontological question?
a) Should I use questionnaires or interviews in my project?
b) What can (and should) be considered acceptable forms of
knowledge?
c) How long is it since I last visited the dentist?
d) Do social entities have an objective reality, external to social actors?
The constructionist ontological position suggests that:
a) Social phenomena and their meanings are constantly being
accomplished
by social actors
b) Individuals are born into a world of rules and structures that they
cannot
change
c) Building and construction work presents an ideal opportunity to
exercise
the sociological imagination

d) Social facts and objects have an external reality, independently of


the
people who perceive them
The qualitative research strategy places a value on:
a) Using numbers, measurements and statistical techniques
b) Generating theories through inductive research about social
meanings
c) Conducting research that is of a very high quality
d) All of the above
Which of the following is an example of valuefree research?

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a) Conscious partiality
b) Sympathy for the underdog
c) Unstructured interviewing
d) None of the above
An important practical issue to consider when designing a research
project is:
a) Which theoretical perspective you find most interesting
b) Whether or not you have time to retile the bathroom first
c) How much time and money you have to conduct the research
d) Which colour of ring binder to present your work in
Why do you need to review the existing literature?

a) To make sure you have a long list of references


b) Because without it, you could never reach the required wordcount
c) To find out what is already known about your area of interest
d) To help in your general studying
To read critically means:
a) Taking an opposing point of view to the ideas and opinions
expressed
b) Skimming through the material because most of it is just padding
c) Evaluating what you read in terms of your own research questions
d) Being negative about something before you read it
Which two of the following are legitimate frameworks for setting out a
literature
review: 1. Constructing intertextual coherence, 2. Deconstruction of
textual
coherence, 3. Problematizing the situation, 4. Resolving discovered
problems?
a) 1 and 2
b) 2 and 3
c) 1 and 3

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d) 2 and 4
A systematic literature review is:
a) One which starts in your own library, then goes to online
databases and,
finally, to the internet
b) A replicable, scientific and transparent process
c) One which gives equal attention to the principal contributors to the
area
d) A responsible, professional process of timemanagement for
research

What is metaanalysis?
a) A technique of correcting for the errors in individual studies within a
survey of a large number of studies, to demonstrate the effect of a
particular
variable
b) A process of secondarydata gathering to assemble all the
possibilities for
a variables effects
c) A substitute for original research, which is justified by constraints of
time
or money
d) A specialized step in a computer software program (SPSS e.g.)
What is metaethnography?
a) A technique for reviewing literature based exclusively on
ethnographic
studies
b) A technique for synthesizing interpretations drawn from a number
of
separate qualitative studies of the same phenomena

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c) A process used to make generalizations from a range of qualitative
studies
d) A process of surveying only that literature contained within a single
library

What is a narrative literature review?


a) An historicallybased review, starting with the earliest
contributions to the
field
b) A review based exclusively on stories about companies, in book and
casestudy
form
c) A paraphrase style of reviewing which does not require referencing

d) An initial impression of the topic which you will understand more


fully as
you conduct your research

When accessing the internet, which of these steps is the most


essential?
a) Recording the full URL
b) Noting the access dates
c) Downloading material to be referenced
d) They are all equally important

According to the Harvard referencing convention, which is the correct


reference?
a) Bryman, A. (2008, 3e) Social Research Methods, Oxford; Oxford
University
Press
b) Bryman (2008, second edition), Oxford University Press

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c) Bryman, Alan, Social Research Methods (2008: OUP)
d) Bryman, A. Social Research Methods (2008)

Which of the following statements about plagiarism is most accurate?


a) It is so easy to copy and paste from the internet that everyone
does it
nowadays. If a proper reference is given, where is the harm in that?
b) How can we say for sure where our own ideas come from exactly? If
we
tried to give a reference for everything we could never hope to
succeed.
c) Any suggestion that we have written what another actually wrote is
morally wrong. Anyway, the whole point of a literature review is to
show what
we have read and what we thought about it.
d) Plagiarism is such an awful crime that those found guilty should be
obliged to wear a scarlet P on their clothing

What is a research design?


a) A way of conducting research that is not grounded in theory
b) The choice between using qualitative or quantitative methods
c) The style in which you present your research findings, e.g. a graph
d) A framework for every stage of the collection and analysis of data

If a study is reliable, this means that:


a) It was conducted by a reputable researcher who can be trusted
b) The measures devised for concepts are stable on different occasions
c) The findings can be generalized to other social settings
d) The methods are stated clearly enough for the research to be
replicated

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Internal validity refers to:
a) Whether or not there is really a causal relationship between two
variables
b) Whether or not the findings are relevant to the participants
everyday lives
c) The degree to which the researcher feels that this was a worthwhile
project
d) How accurately the measurements represent underlying concepts

Lincoln & Guba (1985) propose that an alternative criterion for


evaluating
qualitative research would be:
a) Impressiveness
b) Trustworthiness
c) Joyfulness
d) Messiness

Naturalism has been defined as:


a) Viewing natural and social objects as belonging to the same realm
b) Being true to the nature of the phenomenon under investigation
c) Minimising the intrusion of artificial methods of data collection into
the
field
d) All of the above

In an experimental design, the dependent variable is:


a) The one that is not manipulated and in which any changes are
observed
b) The one that is manipulated in order to observe any effects on the
other
c) A measure of the extent to which personal values affect research

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d) An ambiguous concept whose meaning depends on how it is defined

What is a crosssectional design?


a) A study of one particular section of society, e.g. the middle classes
b) One that is devised when the researcher is in a bad mood
c) The collection of data from more than one case at one moment in
time
d) A comparison of two or more variables over a long period of time

Survey research is crosssectional and therefore:


a) High in replicability but low in internal validity
b) High in internal validity but low in reliability
c) High in ecological validity but low in external validity
d) None of the above

Panel and cohort designs differ, in that:


a) Cohort studies involve quantitative research, whereas panel studies
are
qualitative
b) A panel study does not need rules to handle new entrants to
households
c) Only a cohort study will suffer from sample attrition
d) A panel study can distinguish between age effects and cohort
effects, but a
cohort design cannot

Cross cultural studies are an example of:


a) Case study design

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b) Comparative design
c) Experimental design

What is rhetoric?
a) The type of rapport that is usually established in indepth
interviews
b) An ancient form of poetry
c) A technique used to assess the external reliability of a data source
d) The attempt to persuade or convince an audience, often through
writing

Which of the following is not usually found in a report of a quantitative


study?
a) Measurement
b) Introduction
c) Confession
d) Results

The introductory section of a research report should aim to:


a) Identify the specific focus of the study
b) Provide a rationale for the dissertation, or article
c) Grab the readers attention
d) All of the above

What is the purpose of the conclusion in a research report?


a) It explains how concepts were operationally defined and measured
b) It summarizes the key findings in relation to the research questions
c) It contains a useful review of the relevant literature
d) It outlines the methodological procedures that were employed

In a report of quantitative research, an empiricist repertoire serves to:

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a) Confuse the reader with long and technical words
b) Demonstrate the researchers reflexivity about their role in the
research
process
c) Give the impression that the results were objective and logically
inevitable
d) Provide a confessional tale of what went wrong in the procedure

Which of the following is not normally included in a written account of


qualitative research?
a) An introduction, locating the research in its theoretical context
b) An explanation of the design of the study
c) A discussion of the main findings in relation to the research
questions
d) A decision to accept or reject the hypothesis
Postmodernist theorists challenge the idea of objective truth by
arguing that:
a) There are many possible ways of interpreting and representing
social
reality
b) It is important to uncover the social laws that operate in an external
reality
c) Only women have the unique standpoint needed to be able to make
universal truth claims
d) All of the above

Apart from postmodernism, what other intellectual trend has


stimulated an
interest in the way social scientists use rhetorical devices in their
writing?
a) Positivism

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b) Social studies of science
c) Traditional ethnography
d) Existentialist philosophy

A reflexive social researcher will be inclined to write about:


a) The effects that their values, biases and theoretical leanings might
have
had upon the data collection and analysis
b) The way in which their findings unfolded naturally and inevitably
through logical deduction
c) The way in which their findings are objectively truthful and valid
d) The unproblematic and straightforward procedures of designing
research,

building a rapport with participants and interpreting the findings


The three forms of ethnographic writing that Van Maanen (1988)
identifies are:
a) Positivist stories, interpretivist stories and realist stories
b) Native accounts, tourist accounts and voyeuristic accounts
c) Realist tales, confessional tales and impressionist tales
d) Feminist accounts, ethnomethodological accounts and postmodern
accounts

Which of the following is not a problem associated with using web sites
as
sources of data?
a) The sample of web sites is only as good as the keywords used to
search for
them
b) It is difficult to find any web sites about most topics in social
research

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c) New web sites are constantly appearing while others are
disappearing
d) The content of web sites is likely to change as they are updated

What is distinctive about asynchronous online communication?


a) The interviewer and their respondents write at different times
b) It cannot take place on the World Wide Web
c) It occurs in real time, with participants responding to questions
immediately
d) It cannot be conducted by email

What is a virtual ethnography?


a) The use of visual data rather than written texts for content analysis
b) A technique used to facilitate online focus groups
c) A study that uses participant observation but not interviewing
d) An ethnographic study of an online community or social setting

Which of the following is a practical problem associated with


asynchronous
focus groups?
a) It is difficult to send out a welcome message to participants this way
b) Moderators cannot be available online 24 hours a day
c) Not all participants will have access to the required conferencing
software
d) Participants do not have enough time to write detailed responses

An advantage of conducting an interview online rather than faceto


face is that:

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a) It saves time and money as no travelling is involved
b) Informants have more time to give detailed, considered responses
c) There is no need to transcribe the data
d) All of the above

Which of the following is not a disadvantage of conducting focus


groups online?
a) Those who are fastest at typing may dominate the discussions
b) It is more difficult to establish rapport without nonverbal cues
c) Normally shy participants may find it easier to speak in this setting
d) It is easier for people to ignore questions or drop out of the study

The two ways of distributing online surveys are:


a) Quantitatively and qualitatively
b) With an interview schedule or an observation schedule
c) By email and via the World Wide Web
d) Facetoface or by post

What is the main advantage of an attached email questionnaire over


an
embedded one?
a) It retains more of the original formatting and so tends to look more
attractive
b) It requires less expertise for the respondent to open and reply to it
c) Recipients will be reassured that the message does not contain a
virus
d) It is easier to code the answers from this type of questionnaire

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Why is it argued that samples recruited online are not representative of
the
general population?
a) Because online researchers only use random probability sampling
methods
b) Because Internet users are most likely to be white, young and
middle class
c) Because women are less likely than men to volunteer for online
social
research
d) None of the above

What is the advantage of using Internet surveys to supplement


traditional postal
questionnaires?
a) Postal questionnaires generally produce a higher response rate
b) It makes all of the data more directly comparable
c) Online social surveys generally produce a higher response rate
d) It allows people to respond in the way that is most convenient for
them

What is the name of one of the arguments that suggests that research
methods
are inextricably linked to epistemological commitments?
a) Triangulation argument
b) Postmodern argument
c) Embedded methods argument
d) Positivist argument

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Which version of the debate about multistrategy research suggests
that
quantitative and qualitative research are compatible?
a) Technical version
b) Methodological version
c) Epistemological version
d) Feminist version

What is triangulation?
a) Using three quantitative or three qualitative methods in a project
b) Crosschecking the results found by different research strategies
c) Allowing theoretical concepts to emerge from the data
d) Drawing a triangular diagram to represent the relations between
three
concepts

How might qualitative research facilitate quantitative research?


a) By providing hypotheses that can later be tested
b) By helping with the design of survey questions
c) By informing the schedule of a structured interview
d) All of the above

How might quantitative research facilitate qualitative research?


a) By identifying specific groups of people to be interviewed
b) By showing the frequency of different responses to a survey item
c) By imposing a rigorous positivist framework on it
d) By combining laboratory experiments with structured observation

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Whereas quantitative research tends to bring out a static picture of
social life,
qualitative research depicts it as
a) Symmetrical
b) Statistical
c) Processual
d) Proverbial

How might qualitative research help with the analysis of quantitative


data?
a) By identifying a sample of respondents for a followup study
b) By providing hard, statistical data about them
c) By making the research more valueladen and subjective
d) By helping to explain the relationship between two variables
How can multistrategy research help us to study different aspects of
a
phenomenon?
a) By reducing the standard deviation of scores around the mean
b) By allowing the researcher to interview first women, and then men
c) By revealing both the macro and the micro level
d) By making it unnecessary to have more than one stage in the
research
process

When might unplanned multistage research be described as a


salvage
operation?
a) When the researcher abandons their original strategy and starts all
over
again

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b) When the second research strategy is used to explain unexpected
or
puzzling results
c) When there is a paradigm shift from quantitative to qualitative
research
d) When it is ethically unsound to use only one research strategy

Which of the following is not a feature of multistrategy research?


a) It is inherently superior to monostrategy research
b) It must be competently designed and conducted
c) It must be appropriate to the research questions
d) The skills of all researchers must be well integrated

Why is it important for structured interviews to follow a standardized


procedure?
a) To increase validity, as the interview can be adapted for each
respondent
b) To increase reliability, because all respondents receive the same
interview
stimulus
c) To allow for an indepth exploration of the topic
d) To make it easier for untrained interviewers to carry out complex
surveys

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Standardizing the interview schedule can reduce interviewer variation
in terms
of:
a) The way in which questions are phrased by the interviewer
b) The order in which questions are asked
c) The procedures used to code and analyse survey data
d) All of the above

Closed ended questions are those that:


a) Have a fixed range of possible answers
b) Prevent respondents from allocating themselves to a category
c) Encourage detailed, elaborate responses
d) Relate to the basic demographic characteristics of respondents

Which of the following is not a disadvantage of telephone interviewing?


a) Researchers do not have to spend so much time and money on
travelling
b) Some people in the target population may not own a telephone
c) It can be difficult to build rapport over the telephone
d) Interviewers cannot use visual cues such as show cards

The acronym CATI stands for:


a) Cameraactivated telescopic interviewing
b) Computerassisted telephone interviewing
c) Corrective antiterrorist interviewing
d) Critical analysis of telepathic interviewing

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Which of the following might you include in an introductory letter to
respondents?
a) An explanation of who you are and who is funding your research
b) An overview of what the research is about and how the data will be
collected
c) A statement of their ethical rights to anonymity, confidentiality, etc.
d) All of the above

A filter question is one that:


a) Ensures that all respondents are asked every question on the
schedule and
in the same order
b) Leaves a space for respondents to write long and detailed answers
c) Helps the interviewer to avoid asking irrelevant questions by
directing
them elsewhere on the schedule
d) Allows supervisors to distinguish between good and bad
interviewers

Which of the following is not advised when planning the question order
of a
structured interview?
a) Be wary of asking an earlier question that alters the salience of later
questions
b) Expect some variation in the order in which questions are asked
c) Leave questions about sensitive or embarrassing issues until later in
the
interview
d) Group the questions into logically organised sections

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A show card is:
a) One that prevents respondents from expressing their opinions about
a
statement
b) One that encourages explicit discussion of sensitive or personal
information
c) One that prompts respondents to choose from a range of possible
answers
d) One that researchers must present when they compete at pony club
events

The response set of acquiescence can be a problem in that:


a) Some people consistently agree or disagree with a set of questions
or items
b) Respondents tend to give answers that they think are socially
desirable
c) The structured interview is so conducive to reciprocity that male
respondents find it hard to stop talking
d) Researchers who wear very strong perfume will distract their
respondents

Which of the following statements is correct?


a) Selfcompletion questionnaires are a type of postal survey
b) Postal surveys can include selfcompletion or email surveys
c) Selfcompletion questionnaires can include postal or email surveys
d) Email surveys are a type of postal questionnaire

One of the advantages of selfcompletion questionnaires over


structured
interviews is that:
a) They are quicker and cheaper to administer

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b) They create interviewer effects
c) They have greater measurement validity
d) They are less prone to intercoder variation

Which of the following is not a disadvantage of selfcompletion


questionnaires
compared to structured interviews?
a) The respondent can read the whole questionnaire before answering
the
first question
b) The researcher cannot ask many closedended questions
c) The researcher cannot probe or prompt respondents for more detail
d) The respondent may not answer all questions, resulting in missing
data

Which of the following steps can be taken to improve response rates to


a selfcompletion
questionnaire?
a) Write a personalized covering letter to introduce the research
b) Enclose a stamped addressed envelope with a postal questionnaire
c) Send out polite reminder letters
d) All of the above

Why is it generally better to present fixed choice answers in vertical


rather than
horizontal form?
a) It takes up less space on the page
b) It encourages respondents to choose more than one answer
c) It allows questions to be spread over more than one page

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d) It makes the layout of the questionnaire more clear and
unambiguous

When using a Likert scale with a long list of items, it is usually better
to:
a) Arrange the answers horizontally, in abbreviated form
b) List the answers vertically, for each consecutive item
c) Omit any instructions about how to select an answer
d) List all questions on one page and all answers on another

In order to identify response sets in a Likert scale, you could:


a) Precode all items consistently from 15
b) Reverse the scoring of precoded answers
c) Only include items about socially desirable behaviours
d) Include explicit instructions to respondents not to deceive you

Corti (1993) makes a distinction between two types of researcher


driven diary:
a) Valid and reliable diaries
b) Quantitative and qualitative diaries
c) Structured and freetext diaries
d) Open or closed answer diaries

The timeuse diary can provide quantitative data about:


a) The amount of time respondents spend on certain activities every
day
b) The subjective meanings that concepts of time have for different
people

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c) The way respondents make sense of their life stories in narrative
form
d) The historical significance of clocks, watches and other devices for
measuring time

One advantage of using diaries in quantitative research is that:


a) There is little danger of attrition, as respondents tend to be highly
motivated
b) They are likely to elicit data about sensitive issues or deviant
activities
c) They highlight the thoughts, feelings and experiences that are
unique to
each respondent
d) None of the above

Which of the following is a problem associated with survey research?


a) The problem of objectivity
b) The problem of going native
c) The problem of omission
d) The problem of robustness

The key advantage of structured observation over survey research is


that:
a) It does not rely on the researchers ability to take notes
b) The researcher is immersed as a participant in the field they are
studying

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c) It does not impose any expectations of behaviour on the
respondents
d) It allows you to observe peoples behaviour directly

What is an observation schedule?


a) A set of explicit rules for assigning behaviour to categories
b) A timetable of days on which you plan to carry out your observation
c) A list of questions to ask your interviewees
d) A way of testing for measurement validity

LaPiere conducted a study of the way restaurant owners granted or


refused
access to a Chinese couple. This is an example of observing behaviour
in terms
of:
a) Individuals
b) Incidents
c) Short time periods
d) Long time periods

It may not be possible to use a probability sample to observe


behaviour in public
places because:
a) The findings of such studies are not intended to have external
validity
b) It is not feasible to construct a sampling frame of interactions

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c) It is difficult to gain access to such social settings
d) Researchers prefer not to use random samples whenever possible

Which of the following is not a type of sampling used in structured


observation?
a) Focal sampling
b) Scan sampling
c) Emotional sampling
d) Behaviour sampling

Cohens kappa is a measure of:


a) Intersurveyor consistency
b) Intraobserver validity
c) Intracoder validity
d) Interobserver consistency

What is meant by the term reactive effect?


a) If people know they are being observed, they may change their
behaviour
b) Research subjects may have a bad reaction to the drugs they are
given
c) Researchers sometimes react to their informants behaviour with
horror
d) The categories on an observation schedule may not be mutually
exclusive

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What did Salancik mean by field stimulations?
a) Being immersed in the field can help to simulate the experience of
your
informants
b) Researchers can intervene in and manipulate a setting to observe
the
effects
c) Surveys conducted in the field are more effective than structured
observation
d) Some researchers find their projects so stimulating that they have
to lie
down

One of the criticisms often levelled at structured observation is that:


a) It does not allow us to impose any framework on the social setting
b) It only generates a small amount of data
c) It is unethical to observe people without an observation schedule
d) It does not allow us to understand the meanings behind behaviour

Quantitative content analysis is an approach that aims to:


a) Objectively and systematically measure the content of a text
b) Reach an interpretive understanding of social action
c) Engage in a critical dialogue about ethical issues in research
d) Provide a feminist alternative to malestream quantitative
methods

Which of the following could be subjected to a textual content


analysis?
a) Interview transcripts
b) Newspaper articles

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c) Song lyrics
d) All of the above

Why did Warde sample food magazines from four different months in
the year?
a) Because there werent enough food adverts in the first two
magazines
b) To take into account any seasonal variation in the recipes included
in the
magazines
c) To find information from more than one form of mass media
communication
d) Because he couldnt decide which of the recipes were the most
appetizing

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Which of the following is not an example of a unit of analysis?


a) Validity
b) significant actors
c) Words
d) subjects and themes

Why might a researcher want to count the frequency of certain words


in a text?
a) It increases the reliability of the coding measures
b) It is a good way of finding out about the journalists favourite words
c) Emotive words can be used excessively to provoke a moral panic

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d) It shows which words are most common in the English language

The purpose of a coding manual is to:


a) Provide a form onto which the data can be entered
b) Provide researchers with instructions about how to code the data
c) List all the categories that have been omitted from the schedule
d) Test researchers knowledge of statistics

The data from each row in a coding schedule can be entered into a
quantitative
analysis computer program called:
a) Endnote
b) NVivo
c) Outlook
d) SPSS

One of the potential pitfalls in devising a coding scheme is that:


a) It can be difficult to obtain a random sample of newspapers
b) You might run out of photocopier paper
c) The categories may not be mutually exclusive
d) The unit of analysis is too clearly defined

Which of the following is not an advantage of content analysis?


a) It allows us to observe otherwise inaccessible populations at first
hand
b) It is a transparent and easily replicable technique
c) It allows us to track changes in media representations over time
d) It is a nonreactive method

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If coders differed in their interpretations of the categories in the
schedule, this
could negatively affect the datas:
a) Internal generalisability
b) Intrainterviewer reliability
c) Construct validity
d) Intercoder reliability

The term secondary analysis refers to the technique of:


a) Conducting a study of seconds, minutes and other measures of time
b) Analysing your own data in two different ways
c) Analysing existing data that have been collected by another person
or
organisation
d) Working part time on a project alongside other responsibilities

Why might secondary analysis be a particularly useful method for


students?
a) It is relatively easy to do
b) It saves time and money
c) It does not require any knowledge of statistics
d) It only requires a halfhearted effort

Which of the following is not an advantage of secondary analysis?


a) It immerses the researcher in the field they are studying
b) It tends to be based on high quality data

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c) It provides an opportunity for longitudinal analysis
d) It allows you to study patterns and social trends over time

The large samples used in national social surveys enable new


researchers to
a) Avoid using probability sampling
b) Identify any bias in the question wording
c) Evaluate the intercoder reliability of the data
d) Conduct subgroup analysis

Which of the following is not a disadvantage of using secondary


analysis?
a) The researchers lack of familiarity with the data
b) It is a relatively expensive and time consuming process
c) Hierarchical datasets can be very confusing
d) The researcher has no control over the quality of the data

Which of the following provides official statistics that could be analysed


as
secondary data?
a) Local Government Survey (LGS)
b) Expenditure and Food Survey (EFS)
c) Dwelling and Furnishings Survey (DFS)
d) Rowing and Oars Survey (ROS)

What is one of the advantages that official statistics have over


structured
interview data?
a) The researcher can conduct natural experiments in the field
b) They are completely objective and reliable

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c) They have greater measurement validity
d) They allow the researcher to identify social trends over time

Studying the official crime rate may provide unreliable data because:
a) Categories of criminal behaviour change over time
b) There is a dark figure of unreported and unrecorded crime
c) Police use their discretion to investigate some crimes and not others
d) All of the above

What is the ecological fallacy?


a) The assumption that secondary data analysis can be carried out at
home
b) The mistake of observing people in their natural setting
c) The error of making inferences about individual behaviour from
aggregate
data
d) The myth that it is easy to research environmentalist action groups

Why has the secondary analysis of official statistics been seen as an


unobtrusive
method?
a) It increases the risk of reactive effects from participants
b) The researcher is removed from the social settings that they are
investigating
c) The data were originally collected for the same purposes as those of
the
current researcher

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d) They do not intrude too much into the researchers spare time
What is the difference between interval/ratio and ordinal variables?

a) The distance between categories is equal across the range of


interval/ratio
data
b) Ordinal data can be rank ordered, but interval/ratio data cannot
c) Interval/ratio variables contain only two categories
d) Ordinal variables have a fixed zero point, whereas interval/ratio
variables
do not

What is the difference between a bar chart and a histogram?


a) A histogram does not show the entire range of scores in a
distribution
b) Bar charts are circular, whereas histograms are square
c) There are no gaps between the bars on a histogram
d) Bar charts represents numbers, whereas histograms represent
percentages

What is an outlier?
a) A type of variable that cannot be quantified
b) A compulsive liar who is proud to be gay
c) A score that is left out of the analysis because of missing data
d) An extreme value at either end of a distribution

What is the function of a contingency table, in the context of bivariate


analysis?
a) It shows the results you would expect to find by chance

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b) It summarises the frequencies of two variables so that they can be
compared
c) It lists the different levels of p value for tests of significance
d) It compares the results you might get from various statistical tests

If there were a perfect positive correlation between two interval/ratio


variables,
the Pearsons r test would give a correlation coefficient of:
a) 0.328
b) +1
c) +0.328
d) 1

What is the name of the test that is used to assess the relationship
between two
ordinal variables?
a) Spearmans rho
b) Phi
c) Cramers V
d) Chi Square

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Who, among the following, wrote the book "Research Methods for Business"?
Zikmund, W.
Sekaran, U.
Dessler, G.
Neuman, W.C.

Question No: 2 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one


What does an empiricist believe?
All the knowledge that we have of life after death can be used in research.
Knowledge in the form of facts should be gained through
sensory experience.
Research conducted within the British Empire was biased and unreliable.
Research should not always necessarily rely on the scientific methods.

Question No: 3 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one


Action research usually takes place in a single school because;
It is designed to answer questions about improving practice
in a particular
setting.
It is difficult to secure permission to study students in multiple schools.
Teachers do not have the necessary skills to conduct research across multiple settings.
Data collection methods used in action research are designed for single settings.

Question No: 4 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one


Which of the following is characteristic of action research?
Variables are tightly controlled.
Results are generalizable.
Results demonstrate cause-and-effect relationships.
Data are usually qualitative.

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Question No: 5 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which of the following statements is TRUE for qualitative research question?
It asks a question about some process, or phenomenon to be
explored.
It is generally an open-ended question.
It asks a question which may be open ended.
It asks a closed ended question.

Question No: 6 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one


Which of the following is NOT an example of quantitative variable?
Age
Grade point average
Gender
Motivation

Question No: 7 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one


In research, something that does not vary is known as:
Variable
Method
Constant
Control group

Question No: 8 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one


The cause variable or the one that identifies forces or conditions that act on something
else is known as:
Moderating variable
Independent variable
Categorical variable
Dependent variable

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Question No: 9 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which of the following statements best defines hypothesis?
A quantitative study.
A tentative prediction of the results of the research.
A qualitative research design.
The operational definition of the study.

Question No: 10 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one


Which of the following is the characteristic/s of Hypotheses in qualitative research
studies?
Hypotheses are very specific and stated prior to beginning the study.
Hypotheses are never used.
Hypotheses are often generated as the data are collected,
interpreted, and
analyzed.
Hypotheses are always stated after the research study has been completed.

Question No: 11 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one


Hypothesis test may also be called as:
Informal test
Moderating test
Significance test
t-test

Question No: 12 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one


Which of the following refers to "A review that only demonstrates familiarity with an
area is rarely published but it often is part of an educational program is which type of
review"?
Integrative review
Theoretical review

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Self-study review
Historical review
Question No: 13 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which one of the following tasks is NOT accomplished by theoretical framework?
Elaborate the relationship among the variables
Explain the logic underlying the relationship between the variables.
Describe the nature, and direction of the relationships among the variables.
Relates the previous studies.

Question No: 14 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one


Which of the following strategies is useful when defining a particular research question?
To clearly articulate the research question, to provide
operational, definitions
and ensuring its testability.
To clearly articulate the research question, outlining the conditions in which the
phenomena of interest are to be investigated.
To provide operational definitions of the ideas or concepts involved in the research.
Ensuring that their research question is empirically testable.

Question No: 15 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one


What should the business researcher be aware of when signing a confidentiality
agreement?
Any clause which limits the length of a questionnaire.
Any clause which allows the company to comment on
findings that will be
published.
Any clause which increases the level of access for the researcher.
Any clause which guarantees the anonymity of research participants.

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Question No: 16 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
In a study of concept learning in first-graders, all of the following should happen, except;
To help make the experience enjoyable, children should be
given substantial
incentives to participate.
The children should be asked if they want to participate.
Teachers of the children in their classes should give informed consent.
Parents must give consent.

Question No: 17 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one


Which of the following is least likely to occur as an ethical problem with electronic
research?
Privacy could be invaded.
People are not likely to be able to stop once they have begun
participating.
Debriefing could be avoided.
Informed consent cannot be completely monitored.

Question No: 18 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one


Quantitative research has been criticised because:
The reliance on instruments and procedures makes it high in ecological validity.
The measurement process suggests a spurious and artificial
sense of accuracy.
It underestimates the similarities between objects in the natural and social worlds.
It has no validity.

Question No: 19 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

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Which of the following is a characteristic of a standardized test?
The administration of the test is controlled carefully to ensure that all examinees
experience the same conditions.
The test is developed by experts to ensure it is technically sound.
The scores are interpreted in standard ways.
All of the given options

Question No: 20 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one


Mr. Latif is measuring students' attitudes on a controversial topic. Which of the following
would you recommend he use to control for the potential problem of students feeling the
need to respond with socially acceptable responses?
Ensure construct validity
Allow anonymous responses
Ensure reliability
Ensure confidentiality

Question No: 21 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one


Which of the following scales can measure the Temperature?
Nominal scale
Ordinal scale
Interval scale
All of the given options

Question No: 22 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one


Following are the properties of nominal scale, except;
Least powerful
Suggest no order
Provide categorical information
Provide magnitude of object

Question No: 23 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one


Which of the following is NOT the implication of Ordinal scale?

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Characteristics of nominal scale
Rank the object
Does not provide magnitude of object
Provide rate

Question No: 24 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one


Which of the following statements is correct about validity and reliability?
When internal validity is high, external validity is low
When internal validity is high, there is no change in external validity
When internal validity is high, external validity is also high
All of the given options

Question No: 25 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one


When you are confident that the experimental manipulation produced the changes you
measured in the dependent variable, your study probably has good ________ validity.
Internal
External
Causal
Construct

Question No: 26 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one


Mr. Ali has conducted an extensive review of the literature and has deductively reasoned
a hypothesis about his problem on the basis of this review. Which type of a research plan
is Mr. Ali likely proposing?

Qualitative
Ethical
Both quantitative and qualitative
Quantitative

Question No: 27 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

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Which of the following is a legitimate purpose of a research plan?
It forces you to think through every aspect of a study.
It provides detailed procedures to guide the conduct of the study.
It provides clear roadmap of the study.
Writing a plan facilitates the evaluation of it.
Question No: 28 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
In the statement Smoke badly destroys health of people what is the unit of analysis?
Transportation
Individuals
Pollutants
Drugs

Question No: 29 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one


While studying supervisor-subordinate relationship in an organization, what is the unit of
analysis?
Individual
Dyad
Employer-employee
Organization

Question No: 30 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one


Which of the following types of survey research is often used for program evaluation or
accreditation purposes?
Developmental surveys
Followup studies
Public opinion polls
No survey research is appropriate

Question No: 31 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one


Which of the following is NOT an example of a problem with using survey research to
investigate behaviour?
Respondents tend to answer by giving the most socially desirable answer.

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Respondents may inadvertently omit key terms in the question.
Respondents may not give an honest reply to what they see as a threatening question.
Respondents may be unwilling to reveal information as they
believe they are
likely to be identified.

Question No: 32 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one


What should the researcher do if they have achieved a low response rate?
Copy responses and paste them again.
Abandon the research project entirely.
Recognize and accept the possible limitations of a low
response rate.
Fill in some more questionnaires themselves.

Question No: 33 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one


Which of the following statements is correct about questionnaire?
A questionnaire should run to at least twenty pages.
The questions should have no spaces between them so that the whole questionnaire
looks small.
Only questionnaires that are A3 size achieve high response rates.
Clear presentation is more important than overall size.

Question No: 34 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one


Critical decision area in questionnaire construction is which of the following?
Question content
Question wording
Response strategy
All of the given options

Question No: 35 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one


The most critical area of an article to read is;

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Introduction
Abstract
Results section
Limitations

Question No: 36 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one


Which of the following is/are advantage(s) of the self-completed questionnaire?
Inability to confirm who completed the questionnaire
Its unsuitability for some kinds of respondents
Inability to ask many questions that are not directly relevant to the respondent
Easy to justify the answer

Question No: 37 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one


Time consumed in mall intercept interview is representing which of the following type?
High
Moderate
Low
Nill

Question No: 38 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one


Which of the following similarity is found in Qualitative research and Survey research?
Examine topics primarily from the participants' perspectives.
They are guided by predetermined variables to study.
They are descriptive research methods.
Have large sample sizes.

Question No: 39 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one


Which of the following represent a good qualitative problem statement?
Defines the independent and dependent variables.
conveys a sense of emerging design.
Specifies a research hypothesis to be tested.

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Specifies the relationship between variables that the researcher expects to find.

Question No: 40 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one


Which of the following makes research questions very crucial?
Guide your decisions about what data to collect and from
where.
Help you decide which research area interests you.
Ensure that your findings have external validity.
Prevent you from thinking about research strategies.

Question No: 41 ( Marks: 10 )


How would you explain "Research Proposal" and its different sections?

1. When a extraneous variable systematically varies with the independent variable


and influences the dependent variable, it is called:
a. Another dependent variable
b. A confounding variable
c. A moderating variable
d. An unreliable variable

2. Which of the following statements is true?


a. A statistical relationship is sufficient evidence to infer causality
b. Temporal order of the cause and effect is not important in inferring causality
c. A statistical relation of X and Y is insufficient evidence for
inferring
causality
d. Temporal order of cause and effect variables and statistical relation are all that
are needed to infer causality

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3. A school district examines a program that uses mentors to help very poor
readers improve their reading performance. The children in the program are at the
4th percentile at pretest. At posttest they are around the 20th percentile. While it is
possible that the program made the difference, another reason for the change in
scores could be:
a. History
b. Regression artifact
c. Multiple-treatment interference
d. Differential selection

4. A group of researchers do a study where children from particular classrooms


are assigned to treatment or control conditions. After the study, the researcher
finds out that the students in the control group are higher achievers than those in
the experimental group. He found no treatment effect. The failure to find an effect
may be due to:
a. A treatment effect
b. A testing effect
c. A differential selection effect
d. A maturation effect

5. A researcher examines a program looking at the effects of mentoring on poor


readers' reading achievement. He looks at two different schools. One serves as the
control and the other the experimental group. Both schools had reading
achievement that was around the 50th percentile. During the time that the
mentoring program is in place in the experimental group, a statewide reading
initiative is started in randomly selected schools. The experimental, but not the

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control school is involved in the initiative. At the end of the year, the
experimental group does better than the control. From the information presented
above, a likely threat to the internal validity of the study is:
a. Selection by mortality interaction
b. Mortality
c. Selection-history effect
d. Selection-maturation effect

6. Which type of validity refers to the degree to which you can infer that the
relationship between two variables is causal?
a. Internal validity
b. Population validity
c. Ecological validity
d. Statistical conclusion validity

7. Which type of validity refers to the ability to infer that the independent and
dependent variables are related ant that the measured strength of the relationship
is accurate?
a. Internal validity
b. Population validity
c. Ecological validity
d. Statistical conclusion validity

8. An extraneous variable that systematically varies with the independent variable


and also influences the dependent variable is known as a _______________.
a Confounding variable
b. Third variable
c. Second variable
d. Both a and b are correct

9. The use of multiple observers to allow cross-checking of observations to make


sure that the investigators agree with what took place is known as _______.

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a. Interpretive validity
b. Researcher bias
c. Multiple operationalism
d. Investigator triangulation
10. _____________ is the lowest inference descriptor of all because it uses the
participants own words.
a. Participant feedback
b. A verbatim
c. Data triangulation
d. Investigator triangulation

11. ___________ refers to physical or mental changes that may occur within
individuals over time, such as aging, learning, boredom, hunger, and fatigue.
a. Instrumentation
b. History
c. Maturation
d. Testing

12. What type of validity refers to the extent to which the results of a study can be
generalized across time?
a. Ecological validity
b. External validity
c. Internal validity
d. Temporal validity

13. Which of the following best describes interpretive validity?


a. Factual accuracy of an account as reported by the researcher
b. Accurately portraying the meanings given by the
participants to what is
being studied
c. Degree to which a theoretical explanation fits the data
d. Ability to generalize the study results across settings

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14. Which of the following terms is a strategy where the researcher actively
engages in critical self-reflection about his or her potential biases and
predispositions.
a. Experimenter effect
b. Reactivity
c. Investigator triangulation
d. Reflexivity

15. Which of the following is not considered one of the criteria for inferring
causality?
a. Evidence that the independent and dependent variables are related
b. Evidence that the relationship between the variables being investigated is not
due to a
confounding extraneous variable
c. Evidence that changes in variable A occur before changes in variable B
d. The temporal ordering of the variables being investigated
does not matter
because a relationship is all that is really needed

16. The use of multiple data sources to help understand a phenomenon is one
strategy that is used to promote qualitative research validity. Which of the
following terms describes this strategy?
a. Data matching
b. Pattern matching
c. Data triangulation
d. Data feedback

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17. What may happen when different comparison groups experience a different
history event?
a. History effect
b. Selection-history effect
c. Selection effect
d. Group effect

18. What is another term that refers to a confounding extraneous variable?


a. Last variable
b. First variable
c. Third variable
d. Fourth variable

19. Which of the following refers to any systematic change that occurs over time
in the way in which the dependent variable is assessed?
a. Instrumentation
b. Maturation
c. Testing
d. Selection

20. Which of the following terms describes the ability to generalize from the
sample of individuals on which a study was conducted to the larger target
population of individuals and across different subpopulations within the larger
target population?
a. External validity
b. Population validity
c. Ecological validity
d. Temporal validity

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21. Which of the following is not a strategy used to promote qualitative research
validity?
a. Peer review
b. Theory triangulation
c. Extended fieldwork
d. Random assignment

22. The use of several measures of a construct is called:


a. Multiple operationalism
b. Multiple construct measurement
c. Operationalism
d. Methods triangulation

23. A physical or mental change that occurs in participants over time that affects
their performance on the dependent variable is called ________.

a. Instrumentation
b. Maturation
c. Regression
d. None of above

24. Attrition generally occurs in research where ____.


a. You do demographic research
b. The study fails
c. Some participants do not complete the study
d. The study is very brief

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25. Differential attrition occurs when the people dropping out from one group are
different from the others in their group or from the people in the comparison
group.
a. True
b. False

26. Internal validity refers to which of the following?


a. The ability to infer that a casual relationship exists between
2 variables
b. The extent to which study results can be generalized to and across populations
of persons,
settings, and times
c. The use of effective measurement instruments in the study
d. The ability to generalize the study results to individuals not included in the
study

27. Which strategy used to promote qualitative research validity uses multiple
research methods to study a phenomenon?
a. Data triangulation
b. Methods triangulation
c. Theory triangulation
d. Member checking

28. Which type of validity refers to the factual accuracy of an account as reported
by the researcher?
a. Ecological validity
b. Temporal validity
c. Descriptive validity
d. None of the above

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29. Which of the following in not one of the key threats to internal validity?
a. Maturation
b. Instrumentation
c. Temporal change
d. History

30. This type of validity refers to the ability to generalize the results of a study
across settings.
a. Temporal validity
b. Internal validity
c. Ecological validity
d. External validity

31. Which is not a direct threat to the internal validity of a research design?
a. History
b. Testing
c. Sampling error
d. Differential selection

32. Alteration in performance due to being aware that one is participating in a


study is known as ______.
a. Operationalism
b. Reactivity
c. Temporal validity
d. Mortality

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33. The idea that the more times a research finding is shown with different sets of
people, the more confidence we can place in the finding and in generalizing
beyond the original participants is known as ___________.
a. Naturalistic generalization
b. Methods generalization
c. Data triangulation
d. Replication logic

The scientific method is preferred over other ways of knowing because it is more;
Reliable
Systematic
Accurate
All of the given options

An operational definition is:


One that bears no relation to the underlying concept.
An abstract, theoretical definition of a concept.
A definition of a concept in terms of specific, empirical
measures.
One that refers to opera singers and their work.

If a researcher is studying the effect of using laptops in his classroom to ascertain


their merit and worth, he is likely conducting which type of research?
Basic
Applied
Evaluation
Experimental

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What is the basis of the Scientific Method?
To test hypotheses in conditions those are condusive to its success.
To formulate a research problem and disprove the hypothesis.
To formulate a research problem, test the hypothesis in carefully controlled
conditions that challenge the hypothesis.
To test hypotheses and if they are disproved, they should be
abandoned completely.

Which of the following is a concept?


Leadership.
Total Quality Management.
Human Resource Management.
All of the given options

Meanings attached to a concept create problems of measurements.


Unambiguous
Vague
Clear
Dictionary

To explain, predict, and/or control phenomena are the goal of----------------------


Tradition
Inductive logic
Deductive logic
The scientific

Why, as scientists, do we not want to rely on authority for explanations?


Those in authority are often wrong.
Those in authority cannot be challenged.
Those in authority rely too much on objective information.
Those in authority often have no common sense.

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If a researcher was studying the use of various instructional approaches to the
"multiple intelligences" of his students, he is likely to be conducting which type of
research?
Basic
Applied
Evaluation
Grounded theory

A concept is a generalized idea about------ .


A class of objects
Attributes
Occurrences
All of the given

Under which of the following research method is not applicable?


Health care
Business
Government offices
Imaginary worlds

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1- Hypothesis refers to
A. The outcome of an experiment
B. A conclusion drawn from an experiment
C. A form of bias in which the subject tries to outguess the experimenter
D. A tentative statement about the relationship

2- Statistics is used by researchers to


A. Analyze the empirical data collected in a study
B. Make their findings sound better
C. Operationally define their variables
D. Ensure the study comes out the way it was intended

3- A literature review requires


A. Planning
B. Good & clear writing
C. Lot of rewriting
D. All of the above

4- A literature review is based on the assumption that


A. Copy from the work of others
B. Knowledge accumulates and learns from the work of others
C. Knowledge disaccumulates
D. None of the above option

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5- A theoretical framework
A. Elaborates the r/s among the variables
B. Explains the logic underlying these r/s
C. Describes the nature and direction of the r/s
D. All of the above

6- Which of the following statement is not true?


A. A research proposal is a document that presents a plan for a project
B. A research proposal shows that the researcher is capable of successfully
conducting the proposed research project
C. A research proposal is an unorganized and unplanned
project
D. A research proposal is just like a research report and written before the
research project

7- Preliminary data collection is a part of the


A. Descriptive research
B. Exploratory research
C. Applied research
D. Explanatory research

8- Conducting surveys is the most common method of generating


A. Primary data
B. Secondary data
C. Qualitative data
D. None of the above

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9- After identifying the important variables and establishing the logical reasoning in
theoretical framework, the next step in the research process is
A. To conduct surveys
B. To generate the hypothesis
C. To focus group discussions
D. To use experiments in an investigation

10- The appropriate analytical technique is determined by


A. The research design
B. Nature of the data collected
C. Nature of the hypothesis
D. Both A & B

E. Personal interviews conducted in shopping malls are known as:


a. Mall interviews
b. Mall intercept interviews
c. Brief interviews
d. None of the given options

F. WATS lines provided by long distance telephone service at fixed rates.


In this regard, WATS is the abbreviation of:
a. West Africa Theological Seminary
b. Washtenaw Area Transportation Study
c. Wide Area Telecommunications Service
d. World Air Transport Statistics

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G. A list of questions which is handed over to the respondent, who reads
the questions and records the answers himself is known as the:
a. Interview schedule
b. Questionnaire
c. Interview guide
d. All of the given options

H. One of the most critical stages in the survey research process is:
a. Research design
b. Questionnaire design
c. Interview design
d. Survey design

I. Question that consists of two or more questions joined together is


called a:
a. Double barreled question
b. General question
c. Accurate question
d. Confusing question

J. The number of questionnaires returned or completed divided by the


total number of eligible people who were contacted or asked to
participate in the survey is called the:
a. Response rate
b. Participation rate
c. Inflation rate
d. None of the given options

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K. To obtain the freest opinion of the respondent, when we ask general


question before a specific question then this procedure is called as the:
a. Research technique
b. Qualitative technique
c. Funnel technique
d. Quantitative technique

L. A small scale trial run of a particular component is known as:


a. Pilot testing
b. Pre-testing
c. Lab experiments
d. Both A & B

M. Field testing of the questionnaire shows that:


a. Respondents are willing to co-operate
b. Respondents are not willing to co-operate
c. Respondents do not like any participation
d. All of the given options

N. Service evaluation of hotels and restaurants can be done by the:


a. Self-administered questionnaires
b. Office assistant
c. Manager
d. None of the given options
A.

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1. Which one of the following sets is the measure of central
tendency?
a. Mean, standard deviation, mode
b. Mean, median, standard deviation
c. Arithmetic mean, median, mode
d. Standard deviation, internal validity, mode

2. In lab experiment the effect of Variables is controlled to


evaluate the
causal relationship.
a. Extraneous
b. Moderate
c. Intervening
d. All of the above

3. Internal validity refers to .


a. Researchers degree of confidence.
b. Generalizability
c. Operationalization
d. All of the above

4. Which of the following is the weakest experimental design?


a. One group pretest-posttest design
b. Quasi- experimental design
c. Two group posttest only design
d. Ex post facto design

5. How many times the students appear in the research class is


the example of

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_________.
a. Intensity
b. Space
c. Frequency
d. Direction
6. Disadvantage of content analysis is .
a. Researcher can increase the sample size
b. Provides access on the subjects to which researcher does have physical access.
c. Sometime documents provide incomplete account to the researcher
d. Spontaneous feelings can be recorded when they occurred

7. Which of the following statement is incorrect with respect to


An
experimental design is a set of procedures specifying:
a. How the test units (subjects) are to be divided into homogenous sub samples.
b. What independent variables or treatments are to be measured?
c. What dependent variables are to be measured?
d. How the extraneous variables are to be controlled?

8. Time consumed in mall intercept interview is .


a. High
b. Moderate
c. Low
d. Nil

9. Teacher should create a friendly environment in the


classroom this is the
type of .
a. Leading question
b. Loaded question
c. Double Barreled

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d. Burdensome question

10. Departmental stores selected to test a new merchandising


display system is
the example of .
a. Quota sampling
b. Convenience sampling
c. Judgmental sampling
d. Purposive sampling

1. Discrete variable is also called.


A. Categorical variable
B. Discontinuous variable
C. Both A & B
D. None of the above

2. Officers in my organization have higher than average level


of commitment
such a hypothesis is an example of.
A. Descriptive Hypothesis
B. Directional Hypothesis
C. Relational Hypothesis
D. All of the above

3. Science refers to.


A. A system for producing knowledge

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B. The knowledge produced by a system
C. Both A & B
D. None of the above

4. Which one of the following is not a characteristic of


scientific method?
A. Deterministic
B. Rationalism
C. Empirical
D. Abstraction
5. The theoretical framework discusses the interrelationships
among the.
A. Variables
B. Hypothesis
C. Concept
D. Theory

1. research is based on naturalism.


A. Field research
B. Descriptive research
C. Basic research
D. Applied research

2. Personal interviews conducted in shopping malls are known


as
A. Mall interviews
B. Mall intercept interviews
C. Brief interviews
D. None of the given options

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3. is used to obtain the freest opinion of the respondent,
by asking
general question before a specific question.
A. Research technique
B. Qualitative technique
C. Funnel technique
D. Quantitative technique

4. In, the interviewer and members jointly control the


pace and
direction of the interview.
A. Field interview
B. Telephonic interview
C. Both A and B
D. None of the given options
5. Randomization of test units is a part of
A. Pretest
B. Posttest
C. Matching
D. Experiment

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Rationalism is the application of:


Select correct option:
Research solution
Logic and arguments
Reasoning
Previous findings

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Question # 3 of 10 ( Start time: 01:25:20 AM )
The independent variable is;
Select correct option:
The variable manipulated in order to observe its effects
The variable that is measured
The free spirited variable
A confounding variable

What research is?


Select correct option:
A lab experiment
A report
A systematic Enquiry
A procedure
If a researcher is studying the effect of using laptops in his classroom to ascertain their
merit and worth, he is likely conducting which type of research?
Select correct option:

Basic
Applied
Evaluation
Experimental

The elaboration of the variables in the theoretical framework addresses which type of
qestions?
Select correct option:
Why we expect certain relationships to exist
How we expect certain relationships to exist
Both of the given questions
None of the given questions

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What is an hypothesis?
Select correct option:
A prediction of a relationship between certain variables.
An experiment that tests certain predictions.
An independent variable.
A dependent variable

Question # 9 of 10 ( Start time: 01:30:36 AM )


A literature review requires;
Select correct option:
planning
clear writing
good writing
All of the given option

Question # 10 of 10 ( Start time: 01:32:50 AM )


12. Which of the following true about the relationship between theory building and data
collection?
Select correct option:
When studies come out as expected, inductive support for the theory is gained.
If an experiment fails, discarding the experiment is an example of affirming the
consequent.
When a hypothesis is not supported, virtually nothing has been learned about the theory.

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A good theory will be inclusive enough to explain every possible research outcome.

literature review requires;


Select correct option:
planning
clear writing

All of the following are true about theories, except;


Select correct option:
They organize and summarize existing knowledge about a topic.
They are tentative until the facts prove them true.
Quiz Start Time: 04:30 PM
Time Left 54
sec(s)
Question # 6 of 20 ( Start time: 04:35:36 PM ) Total Marks: 1
How can we determine if a test has good validity?

Select correct option:


It produces the same result when it is given at different times to the same group
of people
It produces the same result no matter which version of the test is used
It measures what it is supposed to measure
All of the questions on it can be answered accurately by the subject
s)
Question # 7 of 20 ( Start time: 04:36:25 PM ) Total Marks: 1
Why do you need to review the existing literature?
Select correct option:
To give your dissertation a proper academic appearance, with lots of references
Because without it, you could never reach the required word-count
To find out what is already known about your area of interest
To help in your general studying
34

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sec(s)
Question # 8 of 20 ( Start time: 04:37:24 PM ) Total Marks: 1
When you are confident that the experimental manipulation produced the changes you
measured in the dependent variable, your study probably has good ________ validity.
Select correct option:
Construct
Internal
External
Causal
sec(s)

Question # 9 of 20 ( Start time: 04:38:25 PM ) Total Marks: 1


Preliminary Data Collection may be considered as part of ----------------.
Select correct option:
Descriptive research
Explananory research
Exploratory research
All of the given options

Question # 10 of 20 ( Start time: 04:39:02 PM ) Total Marks: 1


Rationalism is the application of:
Select correct option:
Research solution
Logic and arguments
Reasoning
Previous findings

Question # 12 of 20 ( Start time: 04:40:20 PM ) Total Marks: 1


If a researcher is studying the effect of using laptops in his classroom to ascertain their

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merit and worth, he is likely conducting which type of research?
Select correct option:
Basic
Applied
Evaluation
Experimental
sec(s)

Question # 13 of 20 ( Start time: 04:41:22 PM ) Total Marks: 1


_________ meanings attached to a concept create problems of measurements.
Select correct option:
Unambiguous
Vague
Clear
Dictionary
sec(s)
Question # 15 of 20 ( Start time: 04:43:20 PM ) Total Marks: 1
Which of the the following is not included in Objects?
Select correct option:
Tables
People
Books
Weight
sec(s)
Question # 17 of 20 ( Start time: 04:44:50 PM ) Total Marks: 1
The ________ is only useful if the concepts, ideas, questions, etc. to be investigated are

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both testable and falsifiable.
Select correct option:
Independent Variable
Dependent Variable
Experimental Method
Scientific Method

Question # 18 of 20 ( Start time: 04:45:48 PM ) Total Marks: 1


Which of the following is likely to reduce the validity of a test?
Select correct option:
Unclear test directions
Ambiguous test items
Untaught items
All of the given options

Question # 19 of 20 ( Start time: 04:46:16 PM ) Total Marks: 1


If a researcher was studying the use of various instructional approaches to the "multiple
intelligences" of his students, he is likely to be conducting which type of research?
Select correct option:
Basic
Applied
Evaluation
Grounded theory

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ANSWERS: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
dadbdcbabd
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
bcbbaacdaa

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1- Hypothesis refers to
A. The outcome of an experiment
B. A conclusion drawn from an experiment
C. A form of bias in which the subject tries to outguess the experimenter
D. A tentative statement about the relationship

2- Statistics is used by researchers to


A. Analyze the empirical data collected in a study
B. Make their findings sound better
C. Operationally define their variables
D. Ensure the study comes out the way it was intended

3- A literature review requires


A. Planning
B. Good & clear writing
C. Lot of rewriting
D. All of the above

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4- A literature review is based on the assumption that
A. Copy from the work of others
B. Knowledge accumulates and learns from the work of others
C. Knowledge disaccumulates
D. None of the above option

5- A theoretical framework
A. Elaborates the r/s among the variables
B. Explains the logic underlying these r/s
C. Describes the nature and direction of the r/s
D. All of the above

6- Which of the following statement is not true?


A. A research proposal is a document that presents a plan for a project
B. A research proposal shows that the researcher is capable of successfully
conducting the proposed research project
C. A research proposal is an unorganized and unplanned project
D. A research proposal is just like a research report and written before the research
project

7- Preliminary data collection is a part of the


A. Descriptive research
B. Exploratory research
C. Applied research
D. Explanatory research

8- Conducting surveys is the most common method of generating


A. Primary data
B. Secondary data
C. Qualitative data
D. None of the above

9- After identifying the important variables and establishing the logical reasoning in

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theoretical framework, the next step in the research process is
A. To conduct surveys
B. To generate the hypothesis
C. To focus group discussions
D. To use experiments in an investigation

10- The appropriate analytical technique is determined by


A. The research design
B. Nature of the data collected
C. Nature of the hypothesis
D. Both A & B

E. Personal interviews conducted in shopping malls are known as:


1. Mall interviews
2. Mall intercept interviews
3. Brief interviews
4. None of the given options

F. WATS lines provided by long distance telephone service at fixed rates. In this
regard, WATS is the abbreviation of:
1. West Africa Theological Seminary
2. Washtenaw Area Transportation Study
3. Wide Area Telecommunications Service
4. World Air Transport Statistics

G. A list of questions which is handed over to the respondent, who reads the
questions and records the answers himself is known as the:
1. Interview schedule
2. Questionnaire
3. Interview guide
4. All of the given options

H. One of the most critical stages in the survey research process is:

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1. Research design
2. Questionnaire design
3. Interview design
4. Survey design

I. Question that consists of two or more questions joined together is called a:

1. Double barreled question


2. General question
3. Accurate question
4. Confusing question

J. The number of questionnaires returned or completed divided by the total number


of eligible people who were contacted or asked to participate in the survey is called
the:
1. Response rate
2. Participation rate
3. Inflation rate
4. None of the given options

K. To obtain the freest opinion of the respondent, when we ask general question
before a specific question then this procedure is called as the:
1. Research technique
2. Qualitative technique
3. Funnel technique
4. Quantitative technique

L. A small scale trial run of a particular component is known as:


1. Pilot testing
2. Pre-testing
3. Lab experiments
4. Both A & B

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M. Field testing of the questionnaire shows that:
1. Respondents are willing to co-operate
2. Respondents are not willing to co-operate
3. Respondents do not like any participation
4. All of the given options

N. Service evaluation of hotels and restaurants can be done by the:


1. Self-administered questionnaires
2. Office assistant
3. Manager
4. None of the given options

1-The researcher protects the confidentiality in following ways, Except;


Select correct option:
Obtaining signed nondisclosure documents.
Restricting access to data instruments where the respondent is identified.
Disclosure of data subsets.
Restricting access to respondent identification.

2-Which of the following should not be a consideration in writing a proposal?


Select correct option:
Understanding the problem situation
The appearance/form of the proposal
Responding to every element exactly as specified by the client
Knowing as much as possible about the proposal recipients

3-Under which of the following research method is not applicable?


Select correct option:
Health care
Business
Government offices
Imaginary worlds

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4-Which of the following is a concept?
Select correct option:
Leadership.
Total Quality Management.
Human Resource Management.
All of the given options

5-In which way does a ratio scale measurement differ from an interval measurement?
Select correct option:
It measures larger or smaller scores on some underlying dimension.
It implies the existence of an absolute zero value.
It requires the mutual exclusivity of all cases.
It requires that exhaustiveness is applied to all observations.

6-If a researcher was studying the use of various instructional approaches to the "multiple
intelligences" of his students, he is likely to be conducting which type of research?
Select correct option:
Basic
Applied
Evaluation
Grounded theory
applieed

7-An operational definition is:


Select correct option:
One that bears no relation to the underlying concept.
An abstract, theoretical definition of a concept.
A definition of a concept in terms of specific, empirical measures.
One that refers to opera singers and their work.

8-In the statement 'an examination of the effects of discretionary behaviour on employee
performance' employee performance is the:
Select correct option:
Independent variable

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Dependent variable
Extraneous variable
Causal variable

9-Quantitative researcher's preoccupation with generalization is an attempt to:


Select correct option:
Develop the law like findings of the natural sciences.
Boost their chances of publication.
Enhance the internal validity of their research.
Demonstrate the complex techniques of statistical analysis.

10-Which one of the following tasks is NOT accomplished by theoretical framework?


Select correct option:
Elaborate the relationship among the variables
Explain the logic underlying the relationship between the variables.
Describe the nature, and direction of the relationships among the variables.
Relates the previous studies.

11-What is required if there is a chance that data could harm the respondents?
Select correct option:
Change of results
A signed form detailing the types of limits
Free consent of respondents
All of the given options

12-Which of the following is not an example of deception?


Select correct option:
A part of the truth is not communicated to the respondent
To observe code of ethics
To leak out information regarding any confidential matter
To create bias between respondents before the survey

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13-Which of the the following is not included in Objects?
Select correct option:
Tables
People
Books
Weight

14-The extent to which we can generalize the results of a study to other participants is called:
Select correct option:
Sampling validity
External validity
Construct validity
Internal validity

15-If a nominal scale is used, it is permissible to calculate which of the following statistics?
Select correct option:
Mean
Range
Percentile
Mode

16-All of the following are true about theories, except;


Select correct option:
They organize and summarize existing knowledge about a topic.
They are tentative until the facts prove them true.
They provide possible explanations for the phenomenon under study.
They lead to testable hypotheses through the process of deduction.

17-Research questions are crucial because they will:


Select correct option:
Guide your decisions about what data to collect and from where.
Help you decide which research area interests you.
Ensure that your findings have external validity.
Prevent you from thinking about research strategies.

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18-What is the basis of the Scientific Method?
Select correct option:
To test hypotheses in conditions that are condusive to its success.
To formulate a research problem and disprove the hypothesis.
To formulate a research problem, test the hypothesis in carefully controlled conditions
that challenge the hypothesis.
To test hypotheses and if they are disproved, they should be abandoned completely.

19-Procedures determining what two issues are rarely used in quantitative research?
Select correct option:
Objectivity and subjectivity
Reliability and validity
Accessibility and replicability
Quality and quantity

20-Ms. Laiba has decided to use the test at the end of the textbook to measure the achievement
levels of the students in her study. Which of the following BEST describes the chapter test?
Select correct option:
Definition
Construct
Variable
Operationalized variable

Quiz 01
STA 630- Research Methods
Choose the best option and give answer according to
the
instructions
1. Rationalism is the application of which of the following?
A. Logic and arguments
B. Research solution
C. Reasoning

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D. Previous findings

2. On which of the following, scientific knowledge mostly


relies?
A. Logical understanding
B. Identification of events
C. Prior knowledge
D. All of the given options

3. Which of the following refers to research supported by


measurable
evidence?
A. Opinion
B. Empiricism
C. Speculation
D. Rationalism

4. Research method is applicable in all of the following fields,


EXCEPT;
A. Health care
B. Religion
C. Business
D. Government offices

5. All of the following are true statements about action


research, EXCEPT;
A. Data are systematically analyzed
B. Data are collected systematically
C. Results are generalizable
D. Results are used to improve practice

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6. Which of the following is characteristic of action research?
A. Variables are tightly controlled
B. Results are generalizable
C. Data are usually qualitative
D. Results demonstrate cause-and-effect relationships

7. If a researcher is studying the effect of using laptops in his


classroom to
ascertain their merit and worth, he is likely conducting which
of the
following types of research?
A. Experimental
B. Applied
C. Basic
D. Evaluation

8. Exploratory research addresses which of the following types


of
question?

A. If
B. How
C. Why
D. What

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9. Which of the following is not the source for getting
information for
exploratory research?
A. Content analysis
B. Survey
C. Case study
D. Pilot study

10. Which of the following is the main quality of a good theory?


A. A theory that has survived attempts at falsification
B. A theory that is proven to be right
C. A theory that has been disproved
D. A theory that has been falsified

11. Which of the following is not a concept?


A. Leadership
B. Total Quality Management
C. Intelligence Quotient (IQ)
D. Human Resource Management

12. A variable that is presumed to cause a change in another


variable is
known as:
A. Discontinuous variable
B. Dependent variable
C. Independent variable
D. Intervening variable

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13. Which of the following is the opposite of a variable?
A. An extraneous variable
B. A dependent variable
C. A data set
D. A constant

14. Which of the following can best be described as a


categorical
variable?
A. Age
B. Annual income
C. Grade point average
D. Religion

15. Income distribution of employees in a specific


organization is an
example of which of following type of variable?
A. Discontinuous variable
B. Continuous variable
C. Dependent variable
D. Independent variable

16. There is no relationship between higher motivation level


and higher
efficiency is an example of which type of hypothesis?
A. Alternative

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B. Null
C. Correlational
D. Research

17. Which of the following is not a role of hypothesis?


A. Guides the direction of the study
B. Determine feasibility of conducting the study
C. Identifies relevant and irrelevant facts
D. Provides framework for organizing the conclusions

18. Hypothesis test may also be called as:


A. Informal test
B. Significance test
C. Moderating test
D. T-test

19. Which type of review compares how different theories


address an issue?
A. Context review
B. Integrated review
C. Theoretical review
D. Methodological review

20. After you locate a source, you should write down all details
of the
reference, EXCEPT;
A. Volumes
B. Titles
C. Price
D. Full names of the authors

Solution of Quiz 01

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Spring Semester 2009
STA 630- Research Methods
Question No: Answer
1A
2A
3B
4B
5C
6C
7D
8D
9A
10 A
11 C
12 C
13 D
14 D
15 B
16 B
17 B
18 B
19 C
20 C

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1. Operational definitions are useful because they offer specificity, but are not essential
when the scientific method is used.
True
False

2. The ability to make inferences about cause and effect relationships is increased when
the experimental method is used.
True
False

3. In a positive linear relationship, increases in the levels of one variable are associated
with increases in the levels of a second variable.
True
False

4. Which is NOT a problem when the non experimental method is used to study
relationships between variables?
Direction of cause and effect
Behavior is only measured
A "third" variable may be responsible for the relationship.

5. Which of the following relationships would most likely be studied with the
nonexperimental method?
The effect of parental use of alcohol on aggressive behavior of children.
The effect of distraction while studying on test performance.
The effect of defendant attractiveness on juror decisions.

6. The variable that is manipulated in an experiment is the dependent variable.


True
False

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7. In an experiment, some participants took a standard printed exam; others took the
exam using a computer administration procedure. Scores obtained with the two exam
procedures were compared. The independent variable was __________ and the
dependent variable was __________.
exam type; exam score.
exam score, exam type.
participant gender, exam procedure

8. Which of the following is used to make sure that the participants in each condition of
an experiment are equivalent?
Experimental control
Randomization

9. Internal validity refers to the ability to draw inferences about cause and effect
relationships between variables.
True
False

10. Complete understanding of behavior is achieved by studying variables using multiple


operational definitions and both experimental and non experimental methods.
True
False

============================ANSWERS===========================

1. False
2. True

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3. True
4. Measurement
5. Alcohol and aggression
6. False
7. exam type/exam score
8. Randomization
9. True
10. True

1. If you predict a curvilinear relationship, you must have at least three levels of the
independent variable in your experiment.
True
False
2. A researcher studied the effect of defendant gender (male-female) and type of crime
(robbery-embezzlement) on juror decisions. How many conditions are in this study?
two.
three
four
3. If a study has two or more independent variables, it is called a factorial design.
True
False

4. Participants gave longer sentences for embezzlement than robbery, irrespective of


gender. This implies that there was a:
main effect of gender.
main effect of type of crime.
interaction.
5. In the IV X SV design, one of the independent variables is a characteristic of
participants such as personality type.
True
False

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6. In a mixed factorial design, one of the independent variables is a characteristic of
participants such as personality type.
True
False

7. A researcher interested in attitude change designed an experiment that examined the


effect of age (18-25 years of age, 35-50, and over 60) and type of media (newspaper,
radio, television) on attitude toward a tax increase for local schools. In a completely
independent groups design with 20 participants per condition, the researcher needs to
study ______ people.
60
120
180

8. The effect of motivation depended on whether there was a clear standard for
excellence. This sentence implies that there was a(n):
main effect of motivation
main effect of standard
interaction effect

9. A main effect is the effect of one independent variable averaged over the other
independent variables.
True
False

10. Dr. Fox studied the effect of attractiveness on juror decisions. Dr. Ramirez studied the
effect of type of crime on juror decisions. What would be gained by studying both
independent variables in one experiment?
main effects
interaction
curvilinear relationship

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=========================ANSWERS==============================

1. True
2. four
3. True
4. main effect of type of crime
5. True
6. False
7. 180
8. interaction effect
9. True
10. interaction

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1. Your county has just developed a new procedure for helping juveniles who are
arrested. Does the new procedure result in fewer arrests in the future? This is a question
of:
outcome evaluation.
process evaluation
economic efficiency assessment.

2. The nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design allows a researcher to assess


the effects of an independent variable by examining change from pretest to posttest.
True
False

3. When a researcher makes multiple observations before and after a change is


implemented, the design is called an interrupted time-series design.

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True
False

4. Behavior changes when the treatment is introduced and changes again when the
treatment is withdrawn. This describes a:
interrupted time-series design.
ABA design.
control series design

5. Single-subject designs cannot be conducted with multiple participants.


True
False

6. An ABAB design has both ethical and internal validity advantages over the ABA
design.
True
False

7. A documentary film director made a series of films about the lives of a set of children
when they were 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 years of age, i.e, the films 7-Up and 14-Up.. What
type of "research design" is this?
cross-sectional
longitudinal
sequential
8. When Donald Campbell compared fatalities in Connecticut and nearby states before
and after a police speeding crackdown, the ___________ design was used.
interrupted time series
control series
longitudinal

9. Cross-sectional designs confound developmental changes and cohort effects.


True

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False

10. After comparing the effects of jail and a drug treatment program on persons convicted
of drug-related offenses, a researcher analyzed the societal costs of each. The researcher
has conducted:
outcome evaluation
needs assessment
economic efficiency assessment
===========================ANSWERS============================
1. outcome evaluation
2. True
3. True
4. ABA design
5. False
6. True
7. longitudinal
8. control series
9. True
10. economic efficiency assessment

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1. You want to know if males and females differ in preferences for dogs and cats as pets.
You ask males and females to indicate whether they prefer dogs, cats, or neither dogs nor
cats. When you describe your results, you will compare:
means.
percentages.
medians.

2. You want to know if males and females differ in the length of recommended sentence

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for someone found guilty of driving under the influence of alcohol. You ask males and
females to indicate the number of weeks of jail time the convicted person should receive.
When you describe your results, you will compare:
means
percentages
medians

3. If you are using a nominal scale, the standard deviation is the best measure of
variabilility of responses.
True
False

4. You conducted a survey of students in your school. You report that half the students
work 25 hours per week or less. The statistic you used is the
mean.
median.
mode

5. Couples who share more similar attitudes indicate that they are more satisfied with
their relationship. This reflects a ___________ correlation.
positive
negative
6. A correlation coefficient provides information about the strength of the relationship
between variables.
True
False

7. A researcher assessed the following variables in a sample of teenage males: aggressive


behavior, anger, loneliness, and perceived social support from family and friends. In
addition to examining the correlations among these variables, the researcher tested a
proposed model of how these variable are related to one another. The researcher is using
a:

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partial correlation analysis.
structural equation model.
multiple regression analysis.

8. You believe that the relationship between the two variables you are investigating is
curvilinear. The Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient will provide a good
index of the strength of this relationship.
True
False

9. You expected to find that age is related to more conservative political attitudes.
However, your study found that the two variables were not related. Before you conclude
that the two variables are not related, you should examine the range of values on your age
variable.
True
False

10. A multiple correlation is a correlation between one variable and


another variable that is measured on a ratio scale.
a combined set of variables.
a manipulated variable.
===========================ANSWERS============================
1. percentages
2. means
3. False
4. median
5. positive
6. True
7. structural equation model
8. False
9. True
10. combined set of variables

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1. Statistical significance tests allow you to make inferences about population values
based on data obtained from samples.
True
False

2. After conducting a statistical test, you conclude that the mean score of males differs
significantly from the mean score of females. You have:
accepted the null hypothesis
rejected the null hypothesis
made a Type I error

3. With larger sample sizes, your sample data are more likely to accurately reflect true
population values.
True
False

4. You did not reject the null hypothesis. It is possible that you made a:
Type I error.

Type II error.
Type I and a Type II error.

5. To increase the likelihood of obtaining a significant result, you should have a:


large difference between groups.
small variabilility within groups.
both of these are true.

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6. In addition to knowing about the statistical significance of your data, it is important to
know about effect size, the strength of the relationship between your variables.
True
False

7. When you conduct a t-test, your obtained data are transformed into a single obtained t
value. A ____________ of t values exists to allow you to know the probability that your
data are consistent with the null hypothesis.
sampling distribution
random probability distribution
Type I error table

8. The probability of correctly rejecting the null hypothesis is called:


alpha
beta
power

9. Another term for systematic variance is between-group variance. Another term for
error variance is within-group variance.
True
False

10. When designing a study, it is possible to calculate the sample size that will be needed
to obtain a statistically significant effect. This calculation is called:
Type II error analysis.
effect size analysis.
power analysis.
=======================ANSWERS================================
1. True
2. rejected the null hypothesis

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3. True
4. Type II error

5. both of these
6. True
7. sampling distribution
8. power
9. True
10. power analysis

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1. Meta-analysis is a statistical procedure to combine the results of many studies that


investigated the same variable.
True
False

2. The ability to infer that that the independent variable caused the effect on the
dependent variable is called:
internal validity
external validity
criterion validity

3. When you discuss the extent to which your results would apply to other people or
settings, you are concerned with:
internal validity
external validity
criterion validity

4. A jury decision study used a male judge. A way to increase generalizability would be

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to replicate the study with a female judge.
True
False

5. A replication in which the original procedures are duplicated is called a(n)


_______________ .
exact replication
conceptual replication
systematic replication.

6. A synthesis of the data obtained from many studies on a particular topic is called a
literature review.
True
False

7. A study on fear of medical procedures was conducted in a room on campus that had
been decorated as a doctor's office has:
experimental realism
mundane realism
replicability

8. The participants in the study became very involved in a computer simulation. This
study has:
experimental realism
mundane realism
replicability

9. A study that uses different procedures for manipualating and measuring variables from
another study is called a conceptual replication.
True

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False

10. A study conducted outside the confines of a standard laboratory/classroom is called a:


field experiment
mundane experiment
meta-analysis
==========================ANSWERS=============================
1. True
2. internal validity
3. external validity
4. True
5. exact replication
6. True
7. mundane realism
8. experimental realism
9. True
10. field experiment

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1. A reliable measure has more measurement error than an unreliable measure.


True
False

2. An indicator of reliability based on the correlations of each item in a measure with


every other item is called:
Test-retest reliability
Cronbach's alpha
Split-half reliability

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3. A measure is reactive if it changes the behavior being measured.
True
False

4. A researcher developed a measure of shyness and is now asking whether this measure
does in fact measure a person's true state of shyness. This is a question of:
reactivity.
construct validity.
reliability.

5. Scores on a final exam are related to student grade point average, the amount of time
spent studying for the exam, and class attendance. What type of validity is demonstrated
in this case?
convergent validity.
discriminant validity.
criterion validity.

6. Nominal scales of measurement have no quantitative properties.


True
False

7. Which of the following variables does NOT have ratio scale properties?
job satisfaction rating
reaction time to respond when a stimulus is presented
distance (in inches) that two people stand from each other when conversing

8. My measure allows me to successfully predict future behavioral outcomes. My

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measure has:
Criterion validity
Face validity

9. Unobtrusive measures reduce the problem of reactivity.


True
False

10. Whenever you divide people into groups, you probably using a nominal scale level of
measurement.
True
False

========================ANSWERS===============================
1. False
2. Cronbach's alpha
3. True
4. Construct validity
5. Convergent validity
6. True
7. job satisfaction
8. Criterion validity
9. True
10. True

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1. A researcher is granted permission to become involved with a college basketball team -


- attending practices and team meetings, accompanying coaches on recruiting trips,
regularly talking with players, etc. The researcher used naturalistic observation.

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True
False

2. A researcher devised a coding system to analyze the messages on an Internet bulletin


board discussion of the controversy concerning Elian Gonzalez, the Cuban boy who was
rescued after a boat accident in the ocean between Cuba and the United States. This study
used:
content analysis.
naturalistic observation.
systematic observation.

3. Reliability is not an issue in systematic observation.


True
False

4. A researcher videotaped people while viewing political debates. Raters viewed


segments of the tapes and recorded whether the people were smiling. This study used:
systematic observation.
naturalistic observation.
content analysis.

5. A researcher tries to explain why a particular observation does not fit with a theory that
is used to explain other observations. This is called:
inter-rater reliability.
negative case analysis.
internal validity.

6. A researcher uses interviews and many types of psychological and medical tests to
study a woman who had surgery to remove a part of her brain. This is called a case study.
True

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False

7. A researcher accessed information on the Internet from a series of surveys of women


that was conducted during the 1970s and 1980s. The data were analyzed to examine
changes in attitudes and behaviors over time. Which of the following methods was used?
systematic observation
case study

archival research

8. When two or more judges make ratings of observed behaviors, it is important to


examine:
inter-rater reliability.
test-retest reliability.

9. A psychologist conducts a study that uses data collected from many cultures in the
world. The researcher probably used:
Human Relations Area Files
PsycINFO

10. A researcher studies memory by talking to groups of people in their 50s, 60s, and 70s
about memory problems that they have experienced and worried about. This study has
collected:
quantitative data.
qualitative data.
=======================ANSWERS================================
1. True
2. content analysis
3. False
4. Systematic observation

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5. negative case analysis
6. True
7. archival research
8. inter-rater reliability
9. Human Relations Area Files
10. qualitative data

1. With probability sampling techniques, each member of the population has a(n)
specifiable probability of being sampled.
True
False
2. You wish to make a precise estimate about the characteristics of a population of
individuals. You should use:
quota sampling.
probability sampling.
accidental sampling.

3. A nonprobability sample is usually acceptable when the goal of the research is to


examine relationships between variables.
True
False

4. The number of people who complete a survey in relation to the number of people
contacted to participate is called the:
response set.
response rate.
response bias.

5. A panel study is used to study changes in survey responses over time.


True
False

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6. The question, "Do you think that television should have less violence and fewer shows
about sex" is considered:
double-barreled.
loaded.
open-ended.

7. Which type of questions should be first in a questionnaire or interview?


questions about demographics such as age and gender
questions about attitudes and behaviors

8. Which type of question is most likely to be used when the researcher is just starting to
explore what people think about a particular topic?
closed-ended
open-ended

9. If you need a sample of about 1,000 to get an accurate estimate of a population of


10,000 people, you need a sample size of 2,000 if your population consists of 20,000
people.
True
False

10. Which is most likely to yield qualitative data?


Mail survey
Focus group
Telephone interview
==============================ANSWERS=========================
1. True
2. probability sampling
3. True
4. response rate
5. True
6. double-barreled

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7. attitudes and behaviors
8. open-ended
9. False
10. Focus group interview

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1. The reasons why the independent variable might not have caused an effect on the
dependent variable are called threats to internal validity.
True
False

2. A researcher studied the effect of defendant physical attractiveness on juror decisions.


The attractive person was 20 years old, and the unattractive person was a 45-year old.
The problem here is that:
age is confounded with attractiveness.
it is very difficult to operationally define physical attractiveness.
attractiveness is not related to perceptions of guilt.

3. The use of existing natural groups of participants usually results in equivalent groups
for the experiment.
True
False

4. The same people participate in each condition of an experiment. What type of design is
this?
repeated measures (within-subjects)
independent groups (between-subjects)
matched pairs

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5. Mortality refers to the fact that participants may drop out of experiments.
True
False

6. Complete counterbalancing means that:


there were no practice effects
all possible orders of the IV were used
all Latin squares were constructed
7. An advantage of a repeated measures design is that it requires fewer participants.
True
False

8. Practice and fatigue effects are both problems with independent groups designs.
True
False

9. All things being equal, which design is more likely to result in a statistically significant
effect?
Independent groups
Repeated measures

10. You identified the 15 employees in a large organization who were absent from work
the most days during the previous month. You require these employees to attend a
oneday
program on time and stress management in an attempt to reduce absenteeism. In the
following month, all of the employees improved their attendance. The improvement
could be caused by the program or it might be due to:
statistical regression.
mortality
instrument decay
==============================ANSWER==========================
1. True

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2. age is confounded
3. False
4. repeated measures
5. True
6. all possible orders
7. True
8. False
9. Repeated measures
10. Statistical regression

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1. In an experiment, words with either feminine or masculine connotation were presented


on a computer screen. The participant pressed one key when they perceived a masculine
word and another key when it was perceived as feminine. Reaction time was the
dependent variable. The experimenter used a:
staged manipulation
straightforward manipulation

2. The dependent variable was score on a measure of comprehension of material.


Virtually everyone in all conditions of the experiment answered all questions correctly.
Researchers refer to this situation as a:
floor effect.
ceiling effect.
similarity effect.

3. Strength of the manipulation is important because it increases the likelihood that the
researcher will be able to detect an effect of the independent variable on the dependent
variable.
True
False

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4. You are concerned that participants in your study may be figuring out exactly what you
are studying. You are worried about:
demand characteristics.
experimenter expectancies.
placebo effects.

5. A placebo group is used to control for alternative explanations in studies of the effect
of drugs.
True
False

6. The session that the experimenter holds with participants following an experiment is
called:
deception.
informed consent.
debriefing

7. The galvanic skin response (GSR) is a measure of:


anxiety.
muscle tension.

8. A good way to "debug" a study is to run a:


placebo group.
pilot study.

9. An experiment was conducted entirely on the Internet. This procedure probably


eliminated the problem of:
demand characteristics.
experimenter expectancies.
informed consent.

10. A researcher is designing a study on the effect of defendant attractiveness on juror

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decisions. To investigate whether participants perceive the two defendants as different in
attractiveness, the researcher should use a:
sensitive dependent measure.
manipulation check.
strong manipulation.

=======================ANSWERS================================
1. straightforward manipulation
2. ceiling effect
3. True
4. demand characteristics
5. True
6. debriefing
7. anxiety
8. pilot study
9. experimenter expectancies
10. manipulation check

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1. Accepting the information in professor's lecture without asking about the basis of the
information is a reliance on authority.
True
False

2. Intuition and authority can be good sources of ideas.


True
False

3. Applied research is not guided by the theories and findings of basic research.
True

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False

4. The statement, "Interviewers rate job applicants more favorably when they are wearing
a pleasant scent than when they have no scent" is an example of:
description of behavior.
prediction of behavior.
explanation of behavior.

5. The statement, "A pleasant scent increases favorability of ratings because the scent
creates a positive emotional state in the interviewer" is an example of:
description of behavior.
prediction of behavior.
explanation of behavior.

6. An empirical test of an idea about behavior must be conducted so the idea can either be
supported or refuted.
True
False

======================ANSWERS=================================
1. True
2. True
3. False
4. Description
5. Explanation
6. True

1. A prediction is a statement about the expected relationship between variables


True

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False

2. The method section of a research report includes a description of exactly how the study
was designed and conducted.
True
False

3. Which of the following would result in finding more articles when using PsycINFO?.
happiness AND marital satisfaction
happiness OR marital satisfaction

4. You found an important article published in 1990. What resource would you use to
find articles that have cited your article since then?
Psychological Abstracts
PsycINFO
Social Science Citation Index

5. Which of the following is NOT true of theories?


Explain currently known facts.
Rarely change once formulated.
Generate new knowledge.

6. When the results of a study are consistent with a theory, our confidence in the theory
increases.
True
False

7. You are reading a paragraph in a journal article; the topic of the paragraph is the
implications of the results for future research. Which section of the article are you
reading?
Introduction

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Results
Discussion
======================ANSWERS=================================
1. True
2. True
3. OR
4. Social Science Citation Index
5. Rarely change
6. True
7. Discussion

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1. Psychological studies must be reviewed for possible sources of physical and


psychological stress.
True
False

2. All research must include a procedure to obtain informed consent.


True
False

3. Asking people whether they wish to participate in a study after telling them all of the
potential risks and benefits is called informed consent.
True
False

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4. A researcher records the tips left at a restaurant. The amount of the tip is related to size
of the check, and the number and gender composition of people in the party. According
to regulations, this research would be classified as:
No risk
Minimal risk
Greater than minimal risk

5. Which is not a reason for a debriefing session?


Required by Health and Human Services regulations.
Deal with issues of stress or deception.
Education about psychological research.

6. Research conducted today has more ethical problems that research conducted 30 years
ago.
True
False

7. Survey research in which people are asked questions about themselves has no ethical
risk.
True
False

8. According to Health and Human Services regulations, informed consent is necessary in


all research investigations.
True
False
============================ANSWERS===========================
1. True
2. False
3. True
4. No risk

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5. Required
6. False
7. False
8. False
Research Methods (Fall 2009)
Quiz # 1:

Question # 1 of 10: A one tailed hypothesis predicts-----------


The future
The lottery result
The frequency of the effect
The direction of the effect
Question # 2 of 10: To say that a theory is falsifiable is to say that;
It is based on results that are not replicable.
Investigators have replaced it with a simpler or more accurate theory.
We can imagine results that would contradict it.
It is so vague that it fits any and all possible results.
Question # 3 of 10: In the statement 'an examination of the effects of discretionary
behaviour on employee performance' employee performance is the:
Independent variable
Dependent variable
Extraneous variable
Causal variable

Question # 4 of 10: The following journal article would be an example of _______


research; "The benefits of florescent lighting on production in a factory setting."

Applied
Interview
Basic

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Stupid

Question # 5 of 10: To explain, predict, and/or control phenomena are the goal of ---------
Tradition
Inductive logic
Deductive logic
The scientific method
Question # 6 of 10: A concept is a generalized idea about ------ .
A class of objects
Attributes
Occurrences
All of the given options

Question # 7 of 10: _________ meanings attached to a concept create problems of


measurements.
Unambiguous
Vague
Clear
Dictionary
Question # 8 of 10: Which one of the following creates problems of measurements of a
concept?
Unambiguous meanings
Vague meanings
Clear meanings
Dictionary meanings
Question # 9 of 10: The purpose of a literature review is to:
Help you find out what is already known about this area.
Identify any inconsistencies or gaps in the literature.
Demonstrate an awareness of the theoretical context in which the current study
can be located.
Find what is already known, identify gaps demonstrate awareness.
Question # 10 of 10: Why do you need to review the existing literature?
To give your dissertation a proper academic appearance, with lots of
references
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Because without it, you could never reach the required word-count
To find out what is already known about your area of interest
To help in your general studying

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Quiz # 2:

Question # 1 of 20: If a nominal scale is used, it is permissible to calculate which of the


following statistics?

Mean
Range
Percentile
Mode

Question # 2 of 20: Which of the following statements is false?

Discrete variables allow measurement of an infinite number of fractions of units of


measurement.
Discrete variables can only have whole number values.
Continuous numbers can only have whole number values.
Continuous measures do not allow for scores that fall between two number
values.

Question # 3 of 20: What is ordinal data?

Ordinary data
Well behaved data
Ranked data
Numbers

Question # 4 of 20: Which of the following is not an example of deception?

A part of the truth is not communicated to the respondent

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To observe code of ethics
To leak out information regarding any confidential matter
To create bias between respondents before the survey

Question # 5 of 20: Mr. Haris is interested in studying the shared beliefs and practices of
the teachers in a small rural school. He is likely to use which research design?

Action research
Historical research
Ethnography
Grounded theory

Question # 6 of 20: Which of the following questions might invade the privacy of a
research participant?

How long have you worked for this organisation?


What is your home address?
What do you think about your direct line manager?
What happened during your last performance appraisal?

Question # 7 of 20: What is opposite of a variable?

A constant
An extraneous variable
A dependent variable
A data set

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Question # 8 of 20: Quantitative researcher's preoccupation with generalization is an
attempt to:

Develop the law like findings of the natural sciences.


Boost their chances of publication.
Enhance the internal validity of their research.
Demonstrate the complex techniques of statistical analysis.

Question # 9 of 20: Which of the following is the BEST hypothesis?

Students taking formative quizzes will perform better on chapter exams than
students not taking these quizzes.
Taller students will have higher test scores than shorter students.
Students taught in a cooperative group setting should do better than students in a
traditional class.
Students using laptops will do well.

Question # 10 of 20: The independent variable is;

The variable manipulated in order to observe its effects


The variable that is measured
The free spirited variable
A confounding variable

Question # 11 of 20: After you locate a source, you should write down all details of the
reference, except;

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Full names of the authors
Titles
Volumes
Price

Question # 12 of 20: The following journal article would be an example of _______


research; "The benefits of florescent lighting on production in a factory setting."

Applied
Interview
Basic
Stupid

Question # 13 of 20: A measure has high internal consistency reliability when:

Multiple observers make the same ratings using the measure.


Participants score at the high end of the scale every time they complete the measure.
Multiple observers obtain the same score every time they use the measure.
Each of the items correlates with other items on the measure.

Question # 14 of 20: What is required if there is a chance that data could harm the
respondents?

Change of results
A signed form detailing the types of limits
Free consent of respondents
All of the given options

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Question # 15 of 20: The key objective of data analysis is to:

Calculate statistics
Understand relationships between variables
Obtain the distribution of responses for each question
Create tables which display the survey results

Question # 16 of 20: Which of the following is not a concept?

Leadership
Total Quality Management
Human Resource Management
IQ

Question # 17 of 20: Which one of the following creates problems of measurements of a


concept?

Unambiguous meanings
Vague meanings
Clear meanings
Dictionary meanings

Question # 18 of 20: Ms. Laiba has decided to use the test at the end of the textbook to
measure the achievement levels of the students in her study. Which of the following
BEST describes the chapter test?

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Definition
Construct
Variable
Operationalized variable

Question # 19 of 20: The scientific method is preferred over other ways of knowing
because it is more;

Reliable
Systematic
Accurate
All of the given options

Question # 20 of 20: Which of the following is a concept?

Leadership.
Total Quality Management.
Human Resource Management.
All of the given options

Quiz # 3:

Question # 1 of 20: Which of the following is least likely to occur as an ethical problem
with e-research?

People are not likely to be able to stop once they have begun participating.
Informed consent cannot be completely monitored.
Debriefing could be avoided.

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Privacy could be invaded.

Question # 2 of 20: The most difficult sources to locate are;

Dissertations
Policy Reports and Presented Papers
Government Documents
Scholarly Books

Question # 3 of 20: Which of the following is the least obtrusive and most accurate
method for recording data in an interview?

Note taking
Videotaping
Audiotaping
Writing notes after the interview

Question # 4 of 20: How can we determine if a test has good validity?

It produces the same result when it is given at different times to the same group of
people
It produces the same result no matter which version of the test is used
It measures what it is supposed to measure
All of the questions on it can be answered accurately by the subject

Question # 5 of 20: How is nominal data presented?

In order
In discrete categories
Units of equal distance
Data where there is a true zero

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Question # 6 of 20: When we say that science is parsimonious, we mean that:

Scientific theories are based on laws.


We must be careful because causes can occur after specific effects.
The best scientific theories are those that offer the simplest explanations for a law.
Science accurately describes a wide range of behavior.

Question # 7 of 20: A concept is a generalized idea about------ .

A class of objects
Attributes
Occurrences
All of the given options

Question # 8 of 20: The purpose of a literature review is to:

Help you find out what is already known about this area.
Identify any inconsistencies or gaps in the literature.
Demonstrate an awareness of the theoretical context in which the current study can
be located.
Find what is already known, identify gaps demonstrate awareness.

Question # 9 of 20: A ________ scale only assigns numbers to objects to classify the
objects according to the characteristic of interest.

Ratio
Nominal

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Interval
Dichotomous

Question # 10 of 20: Procedures determining what two issues are rarely used in
quantitative research?

Objectivity and subjectivity


Reliability and validity
Accessibility and replicability
Quality and quantity

Question # 11 of 20: What does Ordinal scale NOT imply?

Characteristics of nominal scale


Rank the object
Does not provide magnitude of object
Provide rate

Question # 12 of 20: A literature review requires;

planning
clear writing
good writing
All of the given option

Question # 13 of 20: Quantitative social researchers rarely claim to have established


causality because:

They are more concerned with publishing the results of their reliability tests.
They do not believe that this is an appropriate goal to be striving for.
They keep forgetting which of the variables they have manipulated.
They tend to use cross-sectional designs, which produce only correlations.

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Question # 14 of 20: When you are confident that the experimental manipulation
produced the changes you measured in the dependent variable, your study probably has
good ________ validity.

Construct
Internal
External
Causal

Question # 15 of 20: All the persons involved in the collection of data and supervision of
data collection process are called;

Fieldworkers
Researchers
Research assistants
None of the given options

Question # 16 of 20: The key objective of data analysis is to:

Calculate statistics
Understand relationships between variables
Obtain the distribution of responses for each question
Create tables which display the survey results

Question # 17 of 20: The small scale trial run of a particular item is called
______________.

Test run
Pilot test
Post hoc test

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t-test

Question # 19 of 20: Hypothesis refers to __________:

The outcome of an experiment


A conclusion drawn from an experiment
A form of bias in which the subject tries to outguess the experimenter
A tentative statement about the relationship

Question # 20 of 20: Detailed and unambiguous instructions are particularly important


for:

Computer-assisted telephone surveys


Mail surveys
Computer-assisted personal interviews
Internet surveys

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Quiz # 4:

Question # 1 of 20: Measurement reliability refers to the:

Accuracy of the scores


Consistency of the scores
Dependency of the scores
Comprehensiveness of the scores

Question # 2 of 20: Quantitative research has been criticised because:

The measurement process suggests a spurious and artificial sense of accuracy.


The reliance on instruments and procedures makes it high in ecological validity.
It underestimates the similarities between objects in the natural and social worlds.
It has no validity.

Question # 3 of 20: Why does qualitative interviewing have an advantage over participant
observation when it comes to longitudinal research?

Repeat interviews are easier to organise.


It allows for a better exploration of key issues.
It is a more focused research method.
Participant observers are prone to 'go native' during longitudinal research.

Question # 4 of 20: Cover letter must include the following information, except:

How was the respondent selected?


Data collecting tools

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Motivation for the respondent
Importance of research topic which is going to be conducted

Question # 5 of 20: How can we determine if a test has good validity?

It produces the same result when it is given at different times to the same group of
people
It produces the same result no matter which version of the test is used
It measures what it is supposed to measure
All of the questions on it can be answered accurately by the subject

Question # 6 of 20: The logic of qualitative data analysis is described as:

Objective
Subjective
Inductive
Deductive

Question # 7 of 20: The validity of a measure refers to the:

Particular type of construct specification


Comprehensiveness with which it measures the construct
Accuracy with which it measures the construct
Consistency of the measurement

Question # 8 of 20: An advantage of computer-assisted telephone interviewing is:

Interviewing time is reduced


Data quality is enhanced
Questionnaires do not have to be coded
There is little opportunity for interviewer bias

Question # 9 of 20: Which of the following is not an example of deception?

A part of the truth is not communicated to the respondent

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To observe code of ethics
To leak out information regarding any confidential matter
To create bias between respondents before the survey

Question # 10 of 20: What does it mean if two variables have a positive correlation?

As one variable increases, so does the other


As one variable increases, the other decreases
The correlation between the two variables is 0
The correlation between the two variables is greater than 1.0

Question # 11 of 20: The researcher protects the confidentiality in following ways,


Except;

Obtaining signed nondisclosure documents.


Restricting access to data instruments where the respondent is identified.
Disclosure of data subsets.
Restricting access to respondent identification.

Question # 12 of 20: Theoretical framework is trying to develop a ________ model of


our study.

Functional
Conceptual
Operational
Practical

Question # 13 of 20: Which of the following is an example of deception in business


research?

The obtaining of company material without permission.


The researcher wearing a disguise during an observation.
The researcher representing their research as being about a different topic.
The researcher failing to ask permission to interview someone.

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Question # 14 of 20: To say that a theory is falsifiable is to say that;

It is based on results that are not replicable.


Investigators have replaced it with a simpler or more accurate theory.
We can imagine results that would contradict it.
It is so vague that it fits any and all possible results.

Question # 15 of 20: Which of the following is an excellent way to enhance the validity
of interview data collection?

Spend an extended period of time in the field.


Obtain participant trust.
Recognize your own biases
Spend time in field,obtain participant trust, recognize biases.

Question # 16 of 20: When doing research involving deception with human subjects,
researchers have an obligation to do which of the following?

Tell subjects the truth about the studys purpose and methods after the study is
completed
Prevent mental and physical harm to subjects
Let subjects withdraw from the study at any time if they dont want to keep
participating
All of the given options

Question # 17 of 20: Which of the following is an example of an issue that would be


checked in a pilot testing?

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Completion of all questions on a questionnaire
Legible writing
Single responses to all multiple choice questions
Logical answers between questions (i.e., attributes should be rated high if purchase
interest is high)

Question # 18 of 20: What is the basis of the Scientific Method?

To test hypotheses in conditions that are condusive to its success.


To formulate a research problem and disprove the hypothesis.
To formulate a research problem, test the hypothesis in carefully controlled
conditions that challenge the hypothesis.
To test hypotheses and if they are disproved, they should be abandoned completely.

Question # 19 of 20: Quantitative social researchers rarely claim to have established


causality because:

They are more concerned with publishing the results of their reliability tests.
They do not believe that this is an appropriate goal to be striving for.
They keep forgetting which of the variables they have manipulated.
They tend to use cross-sectional designs, which produce only correlations.

Question # 20 of 20: Rationalism is the application of:

Research solution
Logic and arguments
Reasoning
Previous findings

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Quiz # 5:

Question # 1 of 20: After a researcher has stated the specific problem to be studied in an
experiment, he must then develop a(n):

Theory
Conclusion
Hypothesis
Summary of the data

Question # 2 of 20: Which of the following control techniques available to the researcher
controls for both known and unknown variables?

Building the extraneous variable into the design


Matching
Random assignment
Analysis of covariance

Question # 3 of 20: Quantitative research has been criticised because:

The measurement process suggests a spurious and artificial sense of accuracy.


The reliance on instruments and procedures makes it high in ecological validity.
It underestimates the similarities between objects in the natural and social worlds.
It has no validity.

Question # 4 of 20: Hypothesis refers to __________:

The outcome of an experiment


A conclusion drawn from an experiment

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A form of bias in which the subject tries to outguess the experimenter
A tentative statement about the relationship

Question # 5 of 20: What is required if there is a chance that data could harm the
respondents?

Change of results
A signed form detailing the types of limits
Free consent of respondents
All of the given options

Question # 6 of 20: Which of the following is a measure in which a researcher adds or


combines several distinct indicators of a construct into a single score?

Scale
Index
Unidimensionality
Weighting

Question # 7 of 20: Which of the following is not an example of deception?

A part of the truth is not communicated to the respondent


To observe code of ethics
To leak out information regarding any confidential matter
To create bias between respondents before the survey

Question # 8 of 20: What is ordinal data?

Ordinary data
Well behaved data
Ranked data
Numbers

Question # 9 of 20: What research is?

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A lab experiment
A report
A systematic Enquiry
A procedure

Question # 10 of 20: Which of the following terms refers to a statistical method that can
be used to statistically equate groups on a pretest or some other variable?

Experimental control
Differential influence
Matching
Analysis of covariance

Question # 11 of 20: You wish to make a precise estimate about the characteristics of a
population of individuals. You should use:

Quota sampling
Probability sampling
Accidental sampling
Snowball sampling

Question # 12 of 20: A researcher is interested in nonverbal behavior among young


adults. The researcher goes to public gathering places in town and observes smiles,
gestures, gaze, and touch. This is an example of;

Blind observation

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Quasi-experimentation
Naturalistic observation
Field experimentation

Question # 13 of 20: Which type of research address major societal change?

Experimental Research
Action Research
Social Research
Historical Comparative Research

Question # 14 of 20: Rationalism is the application of:

Research solution
Logic and arguments
Reasoning
Previous findings

Which of the following provides insight into the complexity of using interviews?

Potential influence of gender or cultural differences between interviewer and


interviewee
The accuracy of the interviewee's responses
The different semantic meanings of the language being used
Accuracy, influences and language used

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Question # 16 of 20: Which of the following elements of Observation in Non Reactive
research?

External Appearance
Count Behaviors
Time Duration
All of the given options

Question # 17 of 20: Research may differ along a series of dimensions. Which of the
following may be applied to this statement?

The type of data collected.


The data-collection technique.
The level of manipulation used to elicit data collection.
All of the given options

Question # 18 of 20: Which one of the following tasks is NOT accomplished by


theoretical framework?

Elaborate the relationship among the variables


Explain the logic underlying the relationship between the variables.
Describe the nature, and direction of the relationships among the variables.
Relates the previous studies.

Question # 19 of 20: _________ meanings attached to a concept create problems of


measurements.

Unambiguous

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Vague
Clear
Dictionary

Question # 20 of 20: When you are confident that the experimental manipulation
produced the changes you measured in the dependent variable, your study probably has
good ________ validity.

Construct
Internal
External
Causal

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Quiz # 5:

Question # 1 of 20: When a variable is so closely associated with the independent


variable that we do not know which one is producing the experimental effect, the variable
is:

Manipulated
Confounded
Unspecified
Uncontrolled

Question # 2 of 20: If a researcher was studying the use of various instructional


approaches to the "multiple intelligences" of his students, he is likely to be conducting
which type of research?

Basic
Applied
Evaluation
Grounded theory

Question # 3 of 20: Which of the following control techniques available to the researcher
controls for both known and unknown variables?

Building the extraneous variable into the design


Matching
Random assignment
Analysis of covariance

Question # 4 of 20: Procedures determining what two issues are rarely used in
quantitative research?

http://vustudents.ning.com 183
Objectivity and subjectivity
Reliability and validity
Accessibility and replicability
Quality and quantity

Question # 5 of 20: Which of the following is the least appropriate research problem?

Does studying Latin improve the standardized vocabulary test scores of seventh grade
students?
Does drilling fifth grade students with multiplication facts improve their standardized test
scores?
What is the relationship between students' math attitudes and math achievement?
Should students have access to controversial novels in school?

Question # 9 of 20: Quantitative researcher's preoccupation with generalization is an


attempt to:

Develop the law like findings of the natural sciences.


Boost their chances of publication.
Enhance the internal validity of their research.
Demonstrate the complex techniques of statistical analysis.

Question # 10 of 20: Which of the following concerns is MOST likely to become a


problem if Mr. Baber uses purposive sampling techniques?

Generalizability from the sample to the population.


Statistically equal groups.
Subjects participating in the study.
Selection of participants who are thought to be informative, articulate, and experienced

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with the research topic and setting.

Question # 11 of 20: Which measure of dispersion is easiest to calculate?

Mean
Range
Median
Mode

Question # 13 of 20: Ms. Tania is thinking about changing her instructional approach to
a more mastery-learning orientation. She is interested in knowing more about this topic as
well as its effectiveness when working with elementary school students. On which source
should she rely for such information:

Tradition
Research
Intuition
Personal experience

Question # 14 of 20: What type of sample involves some form of random selection so
that every member of the sampling frame has an equal, non-zero chance of being
included in the sample?

Probability sample
Zero-bias sample
All-inclusive sample
Non-probability sample

Question # 15 of 20: Which of the following statements is false?

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Discrete variables allow measurement of an infinite number of fractions of units of
measurement.
Discrete variables can only have whole number values.
Continuous numbers can only have whole number values.
Continuous measures do not allow for scores that fall between two number values.

Question # 16 of 20: Setting quotas for hard-to-reach respondents is one way to


minimize _______ bias.

Interviewer
Respondent
Instrument
Sampling

Question # 17 of 20: Detailed and unambiguous instructions are particularly important


for:

Computer-assisted telephone surveys


Mail surveys
Computer-assisted personal interviews
Internet surveys

Question # 18 of 20: Which type of research address major societal change?

Experimental Research
Action Research
Social Research
Historical Comparative Research

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Question # 20 of 20: Which of the following is a measure of inflation?

Scale
Consumer price index
Weighting
Unidimensionality

# 1 of 20 ( Start time: 10:38:21 PM


Total Marks: 1
)
Which of the following is the least appropriate research problem?

Select correct option:

Does studying Latin improve the standardized vocabulary test


scores of seventh grade students?
Does drilling fifth grade students with multiplication facts
improve their standardized test scores?
What is the relationship between students' math attitudes and
math achievement?
Should students have access to controversial novels in school?
Question # 2 of 20 ( Start time:
Total Marks: 1
10:39:32 PM )
What is the final step of a scientific investigation?

Select correct option:

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Analyze data

Collect data

Report the findings

Determine whether the hypothesis was supported


Question # 3 of 20 ( Start time:
Total Marks: 1
10:40:45 PM )
If a researcher was studying the use of various instructional
approaches to the "multiple intelligences" of his students, he is likely to
be conducting which type of research?

Select correct option:

Basic

Applied

Evaluation

Grounded theory
Question # 4 of 20 ( Start time:
Total Marks: 1
10:41:38 PM )
_________ meanings attached to a concept create problems of
measurements.

Select correct option:

Unambiguous

Vague

Clear

Dictionary
Question # 5 of 20 ( Start time:
Total Marks: 1
10:42:05 PM )
What is the reason for consulting handbooks, yearbooks,

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encyclopedias, or reviews in the initial stages of identifying a research
topic?

Select correct option:

They are readily available.

They provide an overview of the issues related to a topic.

They are primary sources.


They avoid reporting statistical data so one can interpret the
results more easily.
Question # 6 of 20 ( Start time:
Total Marks: 1
10:43:30 PM )
All of the following are true about theories, except;

Select correct option:

They organize and summarize existing knowledge about a topic.

They are tentative until the facts prove them true.


They provide possible explanations for the phenomenon under
study.
They lead to testable hypotheses through the process of
deduction.
A literature review requires;

Select correct option:

planning

clear writing

good writing

All of the given option


Research may differ along a series of dimensions. Which of the
following may be applied to this statement?

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Select correct option:

The type of data collected.

The data-collection technique.

The level of manipulation used to elicit data collection.

All of the given options


# 11 of 20 ( Start time: 10:49:48
Total Marks: 1
PM )
What is a relationship between the literature survey and the theoretical
framework?

Select correct option:

An indicator of reliability based on the correlations of each item in a


measure with every other item is called:

Select correct option:

Test-retest reliability

Cronbach's alpha

Split-half reliability

Inter item ratio


Question # 13 of 20 ( Start time:
Total Marks: 1
10:52:15 PM )
Which of the following should not be a consideration in writing a
proposal?

Select correct option:

What is opposite of a variable?

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Select correct option:

A constant

An extraneous variable

A dependent variable

A data set
Question # 15 of 20 ( Start time:
Total Marks: 1
10:54:40 PM )
An operational definition is:

Select correct option:

One that bears no relation to the underlying concept.

An abstract, theoretical definition of a concept.

A definition of a concept in terms of specific, empirical measures.

One that refers to opera singers and their work.


The key objective of data analysis is to:

Select correct option:

Question # 17 of 20 ( Start time:


Total Marks: 1
10:56:46 PM )
If a measure is consistent over multiple occasions, it has:

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Select correct option:

Inter-rater reliability

Construct validity

Internal validity

Test-retest reliability
Quantitative research has been criticised because:

Select correct option:

The measurement process suggests a spurious and artificial


sense of accuracy.
The reliance on instruments and procedures makes it high in
ecological validity.
It underestimates the similarities between objects in the natural
and social worlds.
It has no validity.

MC080404783 : Saqib Adnan 68


Time
sec(
Left
s)

Quiz Start Time: 10:38 PM


Question # 19 of 20 ( Start time:
Total Marks: 1
10:58:39 PM )
A review that only demonstrates familiarity with an area is rarely
published but it often is part of an educational program is which type
of review?

Select correct option:

Integrative reviews

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Theoretical reviews

Self-study reviews

Historical reviews
Question # 20 of 20 ( Start time:
Total Marks: 1
10:59:41 PM )
Which of the following is not an example of deception?

Select correct option:

A part of the truth is not communicated to the respondent

To observe code of ethics

To leak out information regarding any confidential matter

To create bias between respondents before the survey

Quiz # 1

Q1. All the persons involved in the collection of data and supervision of data collection
process are called
i. Fieldworkers
ii. Researchers
iii. Research assistants

http://vustudents.ning.com 193
iv. None of the given options

Q2. While terminating the interview, the fieldworker should not do one of the following:
i. He should record all the responses made by the interviewee before leaving.
ii. He should thank the interviewee.
iii. He should close the interview hastily.
iv. He should answer all the questions the respondent asks concerning the nature
and purpose of the study.

Q3. Which one of these is a type of Interviewee bias?


i. The respondent does not tell his true income, age, or contact information.
ii. The fieldworker fails to probe the interviewee properly.
iii. The fieldworker contacted the wrong person for interview.
iv. The fieldworker asks the questions in wrong order.

Q4. A magazine conducts a survey and asks its readers to cut the questionnaire from the
magazine, fill it and send it via mail. It is a type of
i. Purposive sampling
ii. Snowball sampling
iii. Sequential sampling
iv. Convenience sampling

Q5. The height distribution of a few students in a school is an example of


i. Statistic
ii. Population
iii. Parameter
iv. Element

Q6. A researcher wants to conduct a survey of the drug users. Which type of sampling
technique will be most appropriate here?
i. Sequential samplin
ii. Snowball sampling
iii. Quota sampling
iv. Convenience sampling

Q7. When there is a need to apply different data collection methods to different parts of
the population, the best sampling method would be

http://vustudents.ning.com 194
i. Double sampling
ii. Cluster sampling
iii. Stratified random sampling
iv. Systematic random sampling

Q8. The sampling technique in which every element of the population has an equal, non-zero
probability of being selected in a sample, is called
i. Probability sampling
ii. Convenience sampling
iii. Purposive sampling
iv. Quota sampling

Q9. Target population is also called


i. Population
ii. Survey population
iii. Population element
iv. Population frame

Q10. Which one of them is the method for probing the respondent?
i. Repeat the question
ii. Give an expectant pause
iii. Repeat the respondents reply
iv. All of the given options

1. Analysis of covariance is:


a. A statistical technique that can be used to help equate groups on
specific variables
b. A statistical technique that can be used to control sequencing effects
c. A statistical technique that substitutes for random assignment to groups
d. Adjusts scores on the independent variable to control for extraneous variables

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2. To determine whether noise affects the ability to solve math problems, a
researcher has one group solve math problems in a quiet room and another
group solve math problems in a noisy room. The group solving problems in the
noisy room completes 15 problems in one hour and the group solving problems
in the quiet room completes 22 problems in one hour. In this experiment, the
independent variable is ____________ and the dependent variable is
_____________.
a. The number of problems solves; the difficulty of the problems
b. The number of problems solved; the noise level in the room
c. The noise level in the room; the number of problems solved
d. The noise level in the room; the difficulty of the problems

3. The posttest-only design with nonequivalent groups is likely to control for


which of the following threats to internal validity:

a. History
b. Differential selection
c. Additive and interactive effects
d. Differential attrition

4. When all participants receive all treatment conditions, the study is susceptible
to:
a. Order effects
b. Carryover effects
c. Analysis of covariance
d. a and b

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5. A researcher is interested in the effects of a preschool program on later school
performance. Because she is concerned that socio-economic-status (SES) is a
potential extraneous variable in her study, she picks children to study who are
only from low SES homes. The control technique she used in this study was:
a. Matching
b. Random assignment
c. Holding the extraneous variable constant
d. Statistically controlling the extraneous variable

6. Which of the following terms best describes an interaction effect?


a. The effect of one independent variable (on a DV) depends on the level of
another independent
variable
b. Eliminating any differential influence of extraneous variables
c. Sequencing effect that occurs from the order in which the treatment conditions
are
administered
d. The effect of one independent variable on the dependent variable

7. Which of the following terms refers to a statistical method that can be used to
statistically equate groups on a pretest or some other variable?
a. Experimental control
b. Differential influence
c. Matching
d. Analysis of covariance

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8. Which of the following is not a way to manipulate an independent variable?
a. Presence technique
b. Amount technique
c. Type technique
d. Random technique

9. Which of the following designs permits a comparison of pretest scores to


determine the initial equivalence of groups on the pretest before the treatment
variable is introduced into the research setting.
a. One-group pretest-posttest design
b. Pretest-posttest control group design
c. Posttest-only design with nonequivalent groups
d. Both b and c

10. Counterbalancing is _________.


a. Usually based on random selection of participants
b. Only used when one pretest variable needs to be controlled
c. Chosen to control for such things as order and carryover effects*
d. All of the above
for more contents visit

11. The group that receives the experimental treatment condition is the _____.
a. Experimental group
b. Control group
c. Participant group
d. Independent group

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12. Which of the following control techniques available to the researcher controls
for both known and unknown variables?
a. Building the extraneous variable into the design
b. Matching
c. Random assignment
d. Analysis of covariance

13. The group that does not receive the experimental treatment condition is the
________.
a. Experimental group
b. Control group
c. Treatment group
d. Independent group

14. There are a number of ways in which confounding extraneous variables can
be controlled. Which control technique is considered to be the best?
a. Random assignment
b. Matching
c. Counterbalancing
d. None of the above

15. Which of the following could be used for randomly assigning participants to
groups in an experimental study?
a. Split-half (e.g., first half versus second half of a school directory)
b. Even versus odd numbers
c. Use a list of random numbers or a computer randomization program

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d. Let the researcher decide which group will be the best

16. Which term is not a related to counterbalancing?


a. Carryover effect
b. Order effect
c. Sequencing effects
d. Matching

17. A cell is a combination of two or more ____ in a factorial design.


a. Research designs
b. Research measurements
c. Dependent variables
d. Independent variables

18. Which of the following designs does an excellent job of controlling for rival
hypotheses that threaten the internal validity of an experiment?
a. Posttest-only design with nonequivalent groups
b. Posttest-only control-group design
c. Pretest-posttest control-group design
d. Both b and c are excellent designs

19. Manipulating the independent variable by varying the type on the


independent variable that is presented to the different comparison groups is
known as _____.
a. Amount technique
b. Absence technique
c. Type technique

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d. Presence technique

20. Which of the following terms is a sequencing effect that occurs from the order
in which the treatment conditions are administered?
a. Carry-over effect
b. Order effect
c. Sequencing effects
d. None of the above

21. When manipulating the independent variable in an educational experiment,


which of the following describes this method?
a. An independent variable is manipulated using the presence or absence
technique
b. The researchers varies the amount of the independent variable that is
administered
c. The researcher varies the type of the independent variable
d. All of the above are possible

22. Which method of controlling confounding extraneous variables takes


precedence over all other methods?
a. Matching individual participants
b. Holding extraneous variables
c. Building the extraneous variable into the research design
d. Counterbalancing
e. Randomly assign research participants to the groups

23. In an experimental research study, the primary goal is to isolate and identify
the effect produced by the ____.
a. Dependent variable
b. Extraneous variable
c. Independent variable

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d. Confounding variable

24. This type of design is one where all participants participate in all experimental
treatment conditions.
a. Factorial design
b. Repeated measures design
c. Replicated design
d. Pretest-posttest control-group design

25. A factorial design is one in which ____.


a. Only one independent variable is studied to determine its effect on the
dependent variable
b. Only two independent variables are simultaneously studied to determine their
independent
and interactive effects on the dependent variable
c. Two or more independent variables are simultaneously studied to
determine their independent
and interactive effects on the dependent variable
d. Two dependent variables are studied to determine their interactive effects

26. The design in which one group of research participants is administered a


treatment and is then compared, on the dependent variable, with another group
of research participants who did not receive the experimental treatment is ____.
a. One-group posttest-only design
b. One-group pretest-posttest design
c. Posttest-only design with nonequivalent groups
d. time series design

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27. _____ refers to the influence of a single independent variable.
a. Interaction effect
b. Reactive effect
c. Main effect
d. Proactive effect

28. A sequencing effect that occurs when performance in one treatment condition
is influenced by participation in a prior treatment condition is known as ____.
a. Counterbalancing effect
b. Carryover effect
c. Treatment effect
d. Order effect

29. Which of the following is possible in a factorial design with two independent
variables?
a. There is only one main effect present
b. There are two main effects present
c. There are two main effects and an interaction effect present
d. All of the above are possible

30. Which of the following is a factorial design where different participants are
randomly assigned to the levels of one independent variable but participants take
all levels on another independent variable?
a. One-group pretest-posttest
b. Pretest-posttest control-group design
c. Factorial design
d. Factorial design based on a mixed mode

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1. In ___________, the researcher attempts to control and/ or manipulate the
variables in
the study.

1. Experiment
2. Hypothesis
3. Theoretical framework
4. Research design

2. In an experimental research study, the primary goal is to isolate and identify


the effect
produced by the ____.

1. Dependent variable
2. Extraneous variable
3. Independent variable
4. Confounding variable

3. A measure is reliable if it provides consistent ___________.


1. Hypothesis
2. Results
3. Procedure
4. Sensitivity

4. The interview in which questions are already prepared is called ________.


1. Telephonic interview
2. Personal interview
3. Unstructured interview
4. Structured interview

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5. The numerical description that describe sample may be expected to differ from
those
that describe population because of random fluctuations inherent in sampling
process.
1. Sampling design
2. Non-probability sampling
3. Sampling error
4. Probability sampling

6. In ______________ , each population element has a known and equal chance


of
selection.
1. Purposive sampling
2. Quota sampling
3. Stratified sampling
4. Simple random sampling

7. ______ is the evidence that the instrument, techniques, or process used to


measure
concept does indeed measure the intended concepts.

1. Reliability
2. Replicability
3. Scaling

http://vustudents.ning.com 205
4. Validity

8. A researcher is interested in studying why the new math of the 1960s failed.
She
interviews several teachers who used the new math during the 1960s. These
teachers are
considered as:
1. Primary sources
2. Secondary Sources
3. External critics
4. Internal critics

9. Which of the following is NOT true about stratified random sampling?


1. It involves a random selection process from identified subgroups
2. Proportions of groups in the sample must always match their population
proportions
3. Disproportional stratified random sampling is especially helpful for getting
large
enough subgroup samples when subgroup comparisons are to be done
4. Proportional stratified random sampling yields a representative sample

10. Experimental design is the only appropriate design where_________


relationship can
be established.
1. Strong
2. Linear
3. Weak
4. Cause and Effect

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1. ___________research is based on naturalism.
A. Field research
B. Descriptive research
C. Basic research
D. Applied research

2. Personal interviews conducted in shopping malls are known as_________


A. Mall interviews
B. Mall intercept interviews
C. Brief interviews
D. None of the given options

3. ____________is used to obtain the freest opinion of the respondent, by asking


general question before a specific question.
A. Research technique
B. Qualitative technique
C. Funnel technique
D. Quantitative technique

4. In, ____________the interviewer and members jointly control the pace and
direction of the interview.
A. Field interview
B. Telephonic interview
C. Both A and B
D. None of the given options

5. Randomization of test units is a part of ______________


A. Pretest
B. Posttest
C. Matching
D. Experiment

6. Which one of the following sets is the measure of central tendency?


a. Mean, standard deviation, mode

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b. Mean, median, standard deviation
c. Arithmetic mean, median, mode
d. Standard deviation, internal validity, mode

7. Internal validity refers to .


a. Researchers degree of confidence.
b. Generalizability
c. Operationalization
d. All of the above

8. How many times the students appear in the research class is the example of
_________.
a. Intensity
b. Space
c. Frequency
d. Direction

9. Time consumed in mall intercept interview is .


a. High
b. Moderate
c. Low
d. Nil

10. Departmental stores selected to test a new merchandising display system is


the example of .
a. Quota sampling
b. Convenience sampling
c. Judgmental sampling
d. Purposive sampling

1. Which is not a source of existing statistics?


A. Government
B. International agencies
C. Personal interviews
D. Private sources

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2. Followings are the advantages of secondary data except
A. Non-Reactivity
B. Selective survival
C. Low cost
D. Spontaneity

3. Following are the disadvantages of secondary data except


A. Longitudinal analysis
B. Sampling bias
C. Coding difficult
D. Incompleteness

4. The coding of the secondary data may be difficult because of


A. Differences in content or subject matter
B. Lack of standardization
C. Differences in length and format
D. All of these

5. The researcher must be concerned about the following problems while using
secondary data in research.
A. Validity
B. Reliability
C. Both of these
D. None of these

Fill in the blanks

1. Validity problems occur when the researchers theoretical definition does not
match that of the government agency or organization that collected the
information.

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2. Reliability problems occur when official definition or the method of collecting
Information changes over time.

3. Secondary data refer to information gathered by someone other than the


researcher conducting the present study.

4. Experiments are best for topics where the researcher controls a situation and
manipulates an Independent variable.

5. A social indicator is any measure of wellbeing used in policy.

Fill in the blanks with appropriate words


1. The double blind experiment is designed to control
experimenter expectancy.
2. Pilot testing is also called pre-testing.
3. The totality, out of which sample is drawn is referred to as
population.
4. The physical setting of the interview creates Situational bias.
5. Probing is the verbal prompts made by field worker.

Select the most suitable option for the given questions


1. research is based on naturalism.
1. Field research
2. Descriptive research
3. Basic research
4. Applied research

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2. Personal interviews conducted in shopping malls are known
as
1. Mall interviews
2. Mall intercept interviews
3. Brief interviews
4. None of the given options
3. is used to obtain the freest opinion of the respondent, by
asking general question before a specific question.
1. Research technique
2. Qualitative technique
3. Funnel technique
4. Quantitative technique
4. In, the interviewer and members jointly control the pace
and direction of the interview.
A. Field interview
B. Telephonic interview
C. Both A and B
D. None of the given options
1. Randomization of test units is a part of
1. Pretest
2. Posttest
3. Matching
4. Experiment

Fill in the blanks with appropriate words

1. Two power bases of scientific knowledge are Empiricism and


Rationalism

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1. Action research is a type of Applied research

1. Three types of longitudinal research are time series, panel, and cohort

1. The research proposal is just like a research report, but it is written before
the research project begins.

1. Natural science concepts are often expressed in symbolic forms.

Select the most suitable option for the given questions

1. Discrete variable is also called.

1. Categorical variable
2. Discontinuous variable
3. Both A & B
4. None of the above

1. Officers in my organization have higher than average level of


commitment
Such a hypothesis is an example of.

A. Descriptive Hypothesis
B. Directional Hypothesis
C. Relational Hypothesis
D. All of the above

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1. Science refers to.

A. A system for producing knowledge


B. The knowledge produced by a system
C. Both A & B
D. None of the above

1. Which one of the following is not a characteristic of scientific


method?

1. Deterministic
2. Rationalism
3. Empirical
4. Abstraction

1. The theoretical framework discusses the interrelationships among


the.

A. Variables
B. Hypothesis
C. Concept
D. Theory
1- Personal interviews conducted in shopping malls are known as:

A. Mall interviews
B. Mall intercept interviews
C. Brief interviews
D. None of the given options

http://vustudents.ning.com 213
2- WATS lines provided by long distance telephone service at fixed rates. In this regard,
WATS is the abbreviation of:

A. West Africa Theological Seminary


B. Washtenaw Area Transportation Study
C. Wide Area Telecommunications Service
D. World Air Transport Statistics

3- A list of questions which is handed over to the respondent, who reads the questions
and records the answers himself is known as the:

A. Interview schedule
B. Questionnaire
C. Interview guide
D. All of the given options

4- One of the most critical stages in the survey research process is:

A. Research design
B. Questionnaire design
C. Interview design
D. Survey design

5- Question that consists of two or more questions joined together is called a:

A. Double barreled question


B. General question
C. Accurate question
D. Confusing question

6- The number of questionnaires returned or completed divided by the total number of


eligible people who were contacted or asked to participate in the survey is called the:

A. Response rate
B. Participation rate

http://vustudents.ning.com 214
C. Inflation rate
D. None of the given options

7- To obtain the freest opinion of the respondent, when we ask general question before
a specific question then this procedure is called as the:

A. Research technique
B. Qualitative technique
C. Funnel technique
D. Quantitative technique

8- A small scale trial run of a particular component is known as:

A. Pilot testing
B. Pre-testing
C. Lab experiments
D. Both A & B

9- Field testing of the questionnaire shows that:

A. Respondents are willing to co-operate


B. Respondents are not willing to co-operate
C. Respondents do not like any participation
D. All of the given options

10- Service evaluation of hotels and restaurants can be done by the:

A. Self-administered questionnaires
B. Office assistant
C. Manager
D. None of the given options
Rationalism is the application of:
Select correct option:

Research solution
Logic and arguments
Reasoning

http://vustudents.ning.com 215
Previous findings

Question # 3 of 10 Total Marks: 1


The independent variable is;
Select correct option:

The variable manipulated in order to observe its effects


The variable that is measured
The free spirited variable
A confounding variable

What research is?


Select correct option:

A lab experiment
A report
A systematic Enquiry
A procedure

If a researcher is studying the effect of using laptops in his classroom to ascertain their merit and
worth, he is likely conducting which type of research?
Select correct option:

Basic
Applied
Evaluation
Experimental

The elaboration of the variables in the theoretical framework addresses which type of qestions?
Select correct option:

Why we expect certain relationships to exist

http://vustudents.ning.com 216
How we expect certain relationships to exist
Both of the given questions
None of the given questions

What is an hypothesis?
Select correct option:

A prediction of a relationship between certain variables.


An experiment that tests certain predictions.
An independent variable.
A dependent variable

Question # 9 of 10 Total Marks: 1


A literature review requires;
Select correct option:

planning
clear writing
good writing
All of the given option

Question # 10 of 10 Total Marks: 1


12. Which of the following true about the relationship between theory building and data collection?
Select correct option:

When studies come out as expected, inductive support for the theory is gained.
If an experiment fails, discarding the experiment is an example of affirming the consequent.
When a hypothesis is not supported, virtually nothing has been learned about the theory.
A good theory will be inclusive enough to explain every possible research outcome.

http://vustudents.ning.com 217
. 13 If a researcher was studying the use of various instructional approaches to the "multiple
intelligences" of his students, he is likely to be conducting which type of research?
Basic
Applied
Evaluation
Grounded theory
1- Hypothesis refers to

a) The outcome of an experiment


b) A conclusion drawn from an experiment
c) A form of bias in which the subject tries to outuess the experimenter
d) A tentative statement about the relationship

2- Statistics is used by researchers to

a) Analyze the empirical data collected in a study


b) Make their findings sound better
c) Operationally define their variables
d) Ensure the study comes out the way it was intended

3- A literature review requires

a) Planning
b) Good & clear writing
c) Lot of rewriting
d) All of the above

4- A literature review is based on the assumption that

a) Copy from the work of others


b) Knowlede accumulates and learns from the work of others
c) Knowlede disaccumulates
d) None of the above option

http://vustudents.ning.com 218
5- A theoretical framework

a) Elaborates the r/s amon the variables


b) Explains the logic underlying these r/s
c) Describes the nature and direction of the r/s
d) All of the above

6- Which of the following statement is not true?

a) A research proposal is a document that presents a plan for a project


b) A research proposal shows that the researcher is capable of
successfully conducting the proposed research project
c) A research proposal is an unorganized and unplanned project
d) A research proposal is just like a research report and written before the research
project

7- Preliminary data collection is a part of the

a) Descriptive research
b) Exploratory research
c) Applied research
d) Explanatory research

8- Conducting surveys is the most common method of enerating

a) Primary data
b) Secondary data
c) Qualitative data
d) None of the above

9- After identifying the important variables and establishing the logical reasoning in
theoretical framework, the next step in the research process is

a) To conduct surveys

http://vustudents.ning.com 219
b) To generate the hypothesis
c) To focus group discussions
d) To use experiments in an investigation

10- The appropriate analytical technique is determined by

a) The research design


b) Nature of the data collected
c) Nature of the hypothesis
d) Both A & B

11-Personal interviews conducted in shopping malls are known as:

a) Mall interviews
b) Mall intercept interviews
c) Brief interviews
d) None of the given options

12-WATS lines provided by long distance telephone service at fixed rates. In


this regard, WATS is the abbreviation of:

a) West Africa Theological Seminary


b) Washtenaw Area Transportation Study
c) Wide Area Telecommunications Service
d) World Air Transport Statistics

13-A list of questions which is handed over to the respondent, who reads the questions
and records the answers himself is known as the:

a) Interview schedule
b) Questionnaire
c) Interview guide
d) All of the given options

14-One of the most critical stages in the survey research process is:

http://vustudents.ning.com 220
a) Research design
b) Questionnaire design
c) Interview design
d) Survey design

15-Question that consists of two or more questions joined together is called a:

a) Double barreled question


b) General question
c) Accurate question
d) Confusing question

16-The number of questionnaires returned or completed divided by the total number


of eligible people who were contacted or asked to participate in the survey is called the:

a) Response rate
b).Participation rate
c) Inflation rate
d) None of the given options

17-To obtain the freest opinion of the respondent, when we ask general question before
a specific question then this procedure is called as the:

a) Research technique
b) Qualitative technique
c) Funnel technique
d) Quantitative technique

18- A small scale trial run of a particular component is known as:

a) Pilot testing
b) Pre-testing
c) Lab experiments
d) Both A & B

http://vustudents.ning.com 221
19-Field testing of the questionnaire shows that:

a) Respondents are willing to co-operate


b) Respondents are not willing to co-operate
c) Respondents do not like any participation
d) All of the given options

20-Service evaluation of hotels and restaurants can be done by the:

a) Self-administered questionnaires
b) Office assistant
c) Manager
d) None of the given options

Why do you need to review the existing literature?


Select correct option:

To give your dissertation a proper academic appearance, with lots of


references

Because without it, you could never reach the required word-count

To find out what is already known about your area of interest


To help in your general studying
Which one of the following is not an assumption of science?
Select correct option:

There are reoccurring patterns in the world.


Events happen because of preceding causes.
We can discover solutions to problems of interest.
Theoretical explanations must agree with common sense.
The scientific method is preferred over other ways of knowing because it is more;
Select correct option:

http://vustudents.ning.com 222
Reliable
Systematic
Accurate
All of the given options
Which of the following is not a concept?
Select correct option:

Leadership
Total Quality Management
Human Resource Management
IQ
What is an hypothesis?
Select correct option:

A prediction of a relationship between certain variables.


An experiment that tests certain predictions.
An independent variable.
A dependent variable.
Which one of the following creates problems of measurements of a concept?
Select correct option:

Unambiguous meanings
Vague meanings
Clear meanings
Dictionary meanings
_________ meanings attached to a concept create problems of measurements.
Select correct option:

Unambiguous
Vague
Clear
Dictionary
Under which of the following research method is not applicable?
Select correct option:

Health care

http://vustudents.ning.com 223
Business
Government offices
Imaginary worlds
One tailed hypothesis predicts-----------
Select correct option:

The future
The lottery result
The frequency of the effect
The direction of the effect

Quiz #2 STA 630


MC080200627 : Muhammad Naveed
Question # 1 of 15 ( Start time: 05:33:57 PM ) Total Marks: 1
If a nominal scale is used, it is permissible to calculate which of the following statistics?
Select correct option:
Mean
Range
Percentile
Mode
Question # 2 of 15 ( Start time: 05:35:07 PM ) Total Marks: 1
The key objective of data analysis is to:
Select correct option:
Calculate statistics
Understand relationships between variables
Obtain the distribution of responses for each question
Create tables which display the survey results

Question # 3 of 15 ( Start time: 05:36:34 PM ) Total Marks: 1


Bias is defined as;
Select correct option:
The distortion of responses based on gender, ethnicity, race, or language

http://vustudents.ning.com 224
A lack of validity
A lack of reliability
A poor interpretation of a student's score

Question # 4 of 15 ( Start time: 05:37:51 PM ) Total Marks: 1


Which of the following is a research method that allows a researcher to get information
about a large number of subjects relatively inexpensively and easily?
Select correct option:
Naturalistic observation
Case study
Laboratory observation
Survey

Question # 5 of 15 ( Start time: 05:39:14 PM ) Total Marks: 1


What is the first step in the research process?
Select correct option:
Preliminary data collection
Problem definition
Theoretical framework
Define broad problem area

Question # 6 of 15 ( Start time: 05:40:06 PM ) Total Marks: 1


When you are confident that the experimental manipulation produced the changes you
measured in the dependent variable, your study probably has good ________ validity.
Select correct option:
Construct
Internal
External
Causal

Question # 7 of 15 ( Start time: 05:41:19 PM ) Total Marks: 1

http://vustudents.ning.com 225
What is a relationship between the literature survey and the theoretical framework?
Select correct option:
Provides a solid foundation for developing the latter
Literature survey helps in the identification of the relevant variables
The theoretical framework explains the theory underlying these relations
All of the given options

Question # 8 of 15 ( Start time: 05:42:44 PM ) Total Marks: 1


In which way does a ratio scale measurement differ from an interval measurement?
Select correct option:
It measures larger or smaller scores on some underlying dimension.
It implies the existence of an absolute zero value.
It requires the mutual exclusivity of all cases.
It requires that exhaustiveness is applied to all observations.

Question # 9 of 15 ( Start time: 05:44:05 PM ) Total Marks: 1


All of these are characteristics of scientific methods of research except, it is;
Select correct option:
Cumulative
Deterministic
Unethical
Rationalism

) Question # 10 of 15 ( Start time: 05:45:19 PM ) Total Marks: 1


The elaboration of the variables in the theoretical framework addresses which type of
questions?
Select correct option:

http://vustudents.ning.com 226
Why we expect certain relationships to exist
How we expect certain relationships to exist
Both of the given questions
None of the given questions

Question # 11 of 15 ( Start time: 05:46:06 PM ) Total Marks: 1


Which of the following is the least appropriate research problem?
Select correct option:
Does studying Latin improve the standardized vocabulary test scores of seventh
grade students?
Does drilling fifth grade students with multiplication facts improve their standardized test
scores?
What is the relationship between students' math attitudes and math achievement?
Should students have access to controversial novels in school?

Question # 12 of 15 ( Start time: 05:47:19 PM ) Total Marks: 1


A ________ scale only assigns numbers to objects to classify the objects according to the
characteristic of interest.
Select correct option:
Ratio
Nominal
Interval
Dichotomous

Question # 13 of 15 ( Start time: 05:48:44 PM ) Total Marks: 1


Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of a good research topic?
Select correct option:

http://vustudents.ning.com 227
It is ethical.
It can be investigated through the collection and analysis of data.
It focuses on a philosophical or ethical issue.
It is theoretically or practically significant.

Question # 14 of 15 ( Start time: 05:49:44 PM ) Total Marks: 1


Which of the following should not be a consideration in writing a proposal?
Select correct option:
Understanding the problem situation
The appearance/form of the proposal
Responding to every element exactly as specified by the client
Knowing as much as possible about the proposal recipients
Question # 15 of 15 ( Start time: 05:50:42 PM ) Total Marks: 1
The extent to which we can generalize the results of a study to other participants is called:
Select correct option:
Sampling validity
External validity
Construct validity
Internal validity
Question # 1 of 15 ( Start time: 11:42:46
Total Marks: 1
PM )
A review that only demonstrates familiarity with an area is rarely published but it often is part
of an educational program is which type of review?
Select correct option:

Integrative reviews

Theoretical reviews

Self-study reviews

Historical reviews

Question # 2 of 15 ( Start time: 11:43:29


Total Marks: 1
PM )
To explain, predict, and/or control phenomena are the goal of----------------------

http://vustudents.ning.com 228
Select correct option:

Tradition

Inductive logic

Deductive logic

The scientific method

Question # 3 of 15 ( Start time: 11:43:50


Total Marks: 1
PM )
Which one of the following creates problems of measurements of a concept?
Select correct option:

Unambiguous meanings

Vague meanings

Clear meanings

Dictionary meanings

Question # 4 of 15 ( Start time: 11:44:36


Total Marks: 1
PM )
What is the reason for consulting handbooks, yearbooks, encyclopedias, or reviews in the initial
stages of identifying a research topic?
Select correct option:

They are readily available.

They provide an overview of the issues related to a topic.

They are primary sources.

They avoid reporting statistical data so one can interpret the results more easily.

Question # 5 of 15 ( Start time: 11:45:56


Total Marks: 1
PM )
To say that a theory is falsifiable is to say that;
Select correct option:

It is based on results that are not replicable.

http://vustudents.ning.com 229
Investigators have replaced it with a simpler or more accurate theory.

We can imagine results that would contradict it.

It is so vague that it fits any and all possible results.

Question # 6 of 15 ( Start time: 11:46:32


Total Marks: 1
PM )
The most critical areas of an article to read is;
Select correct option:

Results section

Introduction

Abstract

Limitations

Question # 7 of 15 ( Start time: 11:47:10


Total Marks: 1
PM )
Which of the following is a discrete variable?
Select correct option:

Age

Nationality

Test score

Income

Question # 8 of 15 ( Start time: 11:48:18


Total Marks: 1
PM )
A one tailed hypothesis predicts-----------
Select correct option:

The future

The lottery result

The frequency of the effect

http://vustudents.ning.com 230
The direction of the effect

Question # 9 of 15 ( Start time: 11:49:28


Total Marks: 1
PM )
An operational definition is:
Select correct option:

One that bears no relation to the underlying concept.

An abstract, theoretical definition of a concept.

A definition of a concept in terms of specific, empirical measures.

One that refers to opera singers and their work.

Question # 10 of 15 ( Start time: 11:49:54


Total Marks: 1
PM )
Ms. Tania is thinking about changing her instructional approach to a more mastery-learning
orientation. She is interested in knowing more about this topic as well as its effectiveness when
working with elementary school students. On which source should she rely for such
information?
Select correct option:

Tradition

Research

Intuition

Personal experience

Question # 11 of 15 ( Start time: 11:51:17


Total Marks: 1
PM )
Which of the following is the best hypothesis statement to address the research question,
"What impact will the new advertising campaign have on use of Brand B?"
Select correct option:

The new advertising campaign will impact Brand B usage.

The new advertising campaign will increase Brand B trial.

The new advertising campaign will cause increased Brand B usage at the expense of
Brand C.

http://vustudents.ning.com 231
The new advertising campaign will increase Brand B's market penetration.

Question # 12 of 15 ( Start time: 11:52:20


Total Marks: 1
PM )
Ms. Roshi has been coordinating the Annual Festival at her school for the last several years. She
wants to be sure the students and parents enjoy the festival again this year. On which source is
she LEAST likely to rely when making decisions about what to do?
Select correct option:

Tradition

Personal experience

Research

Expert opinion

Question # 13 of 15 ( Start time: 11:53:23


Total Marks: 1
PM )
If a researcher was studying the use of various instructional approaches to the "multiple
intelligences" of his students, he is likely to be conducting which type of research?
Select correct option:

Basic

Applied

Evaluation

Grounded theory

Question # 14 of 15 ( Start time: 11:53:39


Total Marks: 1
PM )
Rationalism is the application of:
Select correct option:

Research solution

Logic and arguments

Reasoning

Previous findings

http://vustudents.ning.com 232
Question # 15 of 15 ( Start time: 11:54:40
Total Marks: 1
PM )
After a researcher has stated the specific problem to be studied in an experiment, he must then
develop a(n):
Select correct option:

Theory

Conclusion

Hypothesis

Summary of the data

MC080400961 : Muhammad Usman 62


Time
sec(
Left
s)

Quiz Start Time: 12:52 PM


Question # 1 of 20 ( Start time: 12:52:40
Total Marks: 1
PM )
Which of the following is an example of an issue that would be checked in a pilot testing?
Select correct option:

Completion of all questions on a questionnaire

Legible writing

Single responses to all multiple choice questions

Logical answers between questions (i.e., attributes should be rated high if purchase
interest is high)

Click here to Save Answer & Move to Next Question

MC080400961 : Muhammad Usman 57


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Quiz Start Time: 12:52 PM


Question # 2 of 20 ( Start time: 12:54:31
Total Marks: 1

http://vustudents.ning.com 233
What is an hypothesis?
Select correct option:

A prediction of a relationship between certain variables.

An experiment that tests certain predictions.

An independent variable.

A dependent variable.

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MC080400961 : Muhammad Usman 62


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Quiz Start Time: 12:52 PM


Question # 3 of 20 ( Start time: 12:55:13
Total Marks: 1
PM )
Which of the following is an excellent way to enhance the validity of interview data collection?
Select correct option:

Spend an extended period of time in the field.

Obtain participant trust.

Recognize your own biases

Spend time in field,obtain participant trust, recognize biases.

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Question # 4 of 20 ( Start time: 12:56:25
Total Marks: 1
PM )
Why, as scientists, do we not want to rely on authority for explanations?
Select correct option:

Those in authority are often wrong.

Those in authority cannot be challenged.

http://vustudents.ning.com 234
Those in authority rely too much on objective information.

Those in authority often have no common sense.

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Question # 5 of 20 ( Start time: 12:57:56
Total Marks: 1
PM )
Ms. Roshi has been coordinating the Annual Festival at her school for the last several years.
She wants to be sure the students and parents enjoy the festival again this year. On which
source is she LEAST likely to rely when making decisions about what to do?
Select correct option:

Tradition

Personal experience

Research

Expert opinion

Click here to Save Answer & Move to Next Question

MC080400961 : Muhammad Usman 81


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Question # 6 of 20 ( Start time: 12:58:30
Total Marks: 1
PM )
What does Ordinal scale NOT imply?
Select correct option:

Characteristics of nominal scale

Rank the object

Does not provide magnitude of object

Provide rate

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Question # 7 of 20 ( Start time: 12:59:42
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Which of the following is an example of deception in business research?
Select correct option:

The obtaining of company material without permission.

The researcher wearing a disguise during an observation.

The researcher representing their research as being about a different topic.

The researcher failing to ask permission to interview someone.

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Question # 8 of 20 ( Start time: 01:01:05
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In which way does a ratio scale measurement differ from an interval measurement?
Select correct option:

It measures larger or smaller scores on some underlying dimension.

It implies the existence of an absolute zero value.

It requires the mutual exclusivity of all cases.

It requires that exhaustiveness is applied to all observations.

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Question No: 1 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

http://vustudents.ning.com 236
The part of the action research spiral that differentiates this research methodology from
other kinds of research is;
Looking at multiple sources of data.
Taking action based on results. Correct
Thinking about or analyzing data in more than one way.
The kinds of data that are collected.

Question No: 2 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

Individuals who engage in action research are most concerned with:


Supporting the way things are being done.
Publishing results Correct
Proving a hypothesis
Improvement

Question No: 3 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

Research may differ along a series of dimensions. Which of the following may be applied
to this statement?
The level of manipulation used to elicit data collection.
The data-collection technique. Correct
The type of data collected.
Type, technique and manipulation of data collection.

Question No: 4 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

Which of the following statements best defines hypothesis?


A quantitative study.

http://vustudents.ning.com 237
A tentative prediction of the results of the research. Correct
A qualitative research design.
The operational definition of the study.

Question No: 5 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

What is the first step in the research process?


Problem definition Correct
Define broad problem area
Theoretical framework
Preliminary data collection

Question No: 6 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

When there is a need of generating new ideas for hypotheses or to interpret the results of
some research, which one is the best research deign?
Experiment
Surveys
Focus group discussion Correct
Communication analysis

Question No: 7 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

Which of the following is an example of deception in business research?


The obtaining of company material without permission.
The researcher wearing a disguise during an observation.
The researcher representing their research as being about a different topic.
Correct
The researcher failing to ask permission to interview someone.

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Question No: 8 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

Which of the following is least likely to occur as an ethical problem with electronic
research?
Privacy could be invaded.
People are not likely to be able to stop once they have begun participating.
Correct
Debriefing could be avoided.
Informed consent cannot be completely monitored.

Question No: 9 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

All of the following are unethical issues, EXCEPT;


Invoicing irregularities
Avoiding legal liability
Misrepresenting results
Seeking permission for entry Correct

Question No: 10 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

Which of the following is the difference between measures and indicators?


Measures are unambiguous quantities, whereas indicators are devised from
common sense understandings.

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Indicators have a more direct relationship to the underlying concept than
measures. Correct
Measures are intuitively devised and then applied as if they were direct indicators
of a concept.
Indicators are unambiguous quantities, whereas measures are subjective and
value-laden.

Question No: 11 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

The extent to which a test provides scores that are meaningful, appropriate, or useful is
referred to as;
Reliability
Accuracy Correct
Internal validity
Validity

Question No: 12 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

Which of the following functions is performed by the Ordinal scale?


Categorize
Distance
Order Correct
Unique origin

Question No: 13 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

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What is the difference between interval/ratio and ordinal variables?

Ordinal data can be rank ordered, but interval/ratio data cannot.


The distance between categories is equal across the range of interval/ration data.
Interval/ratio variables contain only two categories.
Ordinal variables have a fixed zero point, whereas interval/ratio variables do not.
Correct

Question No: 14 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

Which of the following statement refers to cross-sectional design?


A comparison of two or more variables over a long period of time
The collection of data from more than one case at one moment in time Correct
One that is devised when the researcher is in a bad mood
A study of one particular section of society, e.g. the middle classes

Question No: 15 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

Which of the following is TRUE for research plan?

It should be detailed.
It should be given to others for review and comments.
It sets out the rationale for a research study.
All of the given options Correct

Question No: 16 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

Which of the following typically does NOT apply to observers in survey research
studies?
They observe predetermined activities.

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They are participant observers.
They obtain information by watching rather than asking. . Correct
They must be careful not to influence the activities they observe.

Question No: 17 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

Which of the following is not an advantage of the self-completion questionnaire over the
structured interview?
It is cheaper to administer.
It is quicker to administer.
It is easier to prompt the interviewee.
It is easier to remove interviewer effects. . Correct

Question No: 18 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

Mr. X has coded his observations to hide the identity of each of the three participants in
his study. He is ensuring;
protection from harm
confidentiality
informed consent
anonymity . Correct

Question No: 19 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

The cover letter to a questionnaire study should contain all of the following, EXCEPT;
A list of participants
A self-addressed, stamped envelope
Purpose of the study
Reasons to respond . Correct

Question No: 20 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

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Teachers are advised to predict the results of student attitudinal questionnaires, because;
It will help them decide if students answered truthfully.
It gives them a point of comparison against which to judge actual responses.
Correct
It will allow them to apply statistical procedures in analyzing results.
It helps them familiarize themselves with the questionnaires.

Question No: 21 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

In conducting an action research study of "student's organizational skills during class in a


particular school", which of the following would NOT likely to provide useful data?
Interviews with teachers
Classroom observations
Parent surveys Correct
Teacher's journal entries

Question No: 22 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

Why it is helpful to keep a research diary or log book while you are conducting your
project?
To give you something to do in the early stages of your research when nothing is
happening.
Because funding councils generally demand to see written evidence that you were
working every day during the period of the research.
To keep a record of what you did and what happened throughout the research
process. Correct
It can be added to your dissertation to ensure that you reach the required word
limit.

Question No: 23 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

http://vustudents.ning.com 243
Which of the following is likely to happen if clear instructions are not given as to how the
respondent should answer the question?
Respondents may delete inappropriate answers rather than select appropriate ones.
Respondents may choose only one answer when they need to choose as many as
apply.
Respondents may complete questions that are not relevant to them.
All of the given options. Correct

Question No: 24 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

Which of the following is NOT a suitable topic for research using a diary?
The amount of time managers spend on particular activities.
The frequency with which managers undertake particular tasks.
The locations in which a trade union representative has discussions with
individual members. Correct
The volume of female managers in the retail industry.

Question No: 25 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

Which of the following represents excellent advice for conducting an interview?


Listen more and talk less
Don't interrupt
Don't be judgmental about the interviewee's beliefs or views
All of the given options Correct

Question No: 26 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

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Which of the following is an example of a dilemma that might face feminist business
researchers conducting qualitative interviews with women?
What role to adopt while interviewing male managers?
How many female employees should be interviewed for a representative sample?
Correct
How to overcome the issue of false consciousness?
What data to use while publishing findings?

Question No: 27 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

Which of the following sampling strategies was used when the three students with the
highest GPAs were selected?
Extreme case Correct
Snowball
Maximum variation
Normal case

Question No: 28 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

Which type of sampling strategy is exemplified by selecting two types of individuals:


those who are extremely happy and those who are extremely sad?
Snowball
Intensity Correct
Homogeneous

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Purposive

Question No: 29 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

The logic of purposive sampling is:


To use participants because the researcher has access to them.
That a random sample can generalize to a population.
That a few information-rich participants studied in depth yield many insights
about a topic. Correct
To include all participants, even though they are not all relevant to the problem.

Question No: 30 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

Using a sample of 30 participants, a researcher finds a correlation of 0.30 between two


variables. The relationship is not statistically significant. If the researcher were to triple
her sample size, which of the following is most likely?
The correlation would be statistically significant.
The correlation would be larger. Correct
The correlation would be smaller.
Nothing is likely to change.

Question No: 31 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

Which of the following steps begins the analysis of qualitative data?


Reading and memoing
Describing the content and participants Correct
Classifying and interpreting
Data management

Question No: 32 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

http://vustudents.ning.com 246
Which of the following represents the most general conceptualization in qualitative data
analysis?
Word
Topic Correct
Category
Pattern

Question No: 33 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

Which of the following BEST differentiates data analysis from interpretation?


Interpretation requires more conceptual and integrative thinking than data
analysis.
Interpretation involves computerized analysis of data.
Data analysis is explanatory and interpretation is conceptual. Correct
Data analysis involves conceptualization but interpretation does not.

Question No: 34 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

The statistic used to determine the relationship between two variables is:
Analysis of covariance
Chi square
Standard deviation Correct
Pearson "r"

Question No: 35 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

Which of the following is NOT a control procedure used in causal-comparative research?


Matching.
Subgroups.
Chi square. Correct

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Analysis of covariance.

Question No: 36 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

Which of the following best describes qualitative data coding?


Adding all of the scores together and describing them statistically.
Identify data segments that contain general episodes.
Numerically representing the concepts identified by the participants. Correct
Dividing data in parts that represent single thoughts.

Question No: 37 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

The bivariate tables derived from trivariate table are called;


Sub table
Bivariates
Partials
Correlational tables Correct

Question No: 38 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

Quasi-experimental research is used because:


Random selection is not possible
Neither random selection nor random assignment is possible
Random assignment is not possible Correct
There are no comparison groups available

Question No: 39 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

A researcher believes that the effects of a treatment will be different for males and
females. Which one is the best method to test this possible interaction?

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Single-subject design
Factorial design
Time-series design Correct
Quasi-experimental design

Question No: 40 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

The influence of the researcher's background, personal experiences, preferences, or


attitude on an interview or observation is technically defined as:
Participant bias
Observer bias
Observer effect Correct
Nonparticipant effect

Question No: 41 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

On which component of his field notes did Mr. Majid focused when he expressed in his
notes his thoughts and ideas about what he observed?
Description Correct
Reflection
Protocol
Formal data
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Question No: 42 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

http://vustudents.ning.com 249
Which of the following is linked with an abstract model of underlying relations or causal
mechanism?
Historical comparative research Correct
Social research
Action research
Experimental research

Question No: 43 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

In which section is the researcher allowed greater flexibility to express opinions, discuss
implications for educational practice, and suggest additional research?
Review of the literature
Significance of the study
Results
Discussion Correct

Question No: 44 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

Which of the following can be referred as Haphazard Sampling?

Convenience Sampling
Purposive Sampling
Snowball Sampling Correct
Quota Sampling

Question No: 45 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

An important issue in index construction is to------------items.

Reconstruct

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Codify
Measure
Weight Correct

Question No: 46 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

Which of the following elements of Observation is/are included in Non Reactive


research?

External Appearance
Count Behaviors
Time Duration
All of the given options Correct

Question No: 47 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

Secondary /existing data may include which of the following?

Official documents
Personal documents
Archived research data Correct
All of the given options

Question No: 48 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

Which of the following major problem exist with non respondents in survey research?

They tend to be alike in many ways.


Data cannot be analyzed for only part of a sample.
They cannot be found to determine if they are similar to respondents. Correct
They may have different opinions than respondents.

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Question No: 49 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

Which of the following advantage differentiates personal interview from mail, internet
and telephonic survey?
Cheaper
Expensive
Easier Correct
Inexpensive

Question No: 50 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

Which one of the following methods offers the lowest degree of geographic flexibility?
Mail survey
Telephone interview
Door-to-door personal interview Correct
Internet survey

Question No: 51 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

Which of the following survey research methods is the most expensive?


Telephone interview
Mail survey
Door-to-door personal interview Correct
Mall intercept personal interview

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Question No: 52 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

When a respondent tells the interviewer that he reads "Best Selling English News Paper"
on a daily basis so that he can impress the interviewer, this is an example of:

Administrative bias
Interviewer bias
Submission bias
Response bias Correct

Question No: 53 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

All of the following are stages in the selection of a sample EXCEPT:

Determine sample size


Analyze data Correct
Conduct fieldwork
Select a sampling frame

Question No: 54 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

A stratified sample in which the number of sampling units drawn from each stratum is in
proportion to the population size of that stratum is called a:

Balanced stratified sample Correct


Proportional stratified sample
Cluster sampling
Convenience sample

Question No: 55 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

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Assigning males the value of zero and females the value of one in a database to record
the gender of the respondents is an example of:

Coding Correct
Editing
Verification
Test tabulation

Question No: 56 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

Arranging data into a table is called:

Analysis
Frequency
Interpretation
Tabulation Correct

Question No: 57 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

A researcher interested in a data matrix that displays the frequency of some combination
of possible responses to multiple variables should construct a:

Contingency table
Regression equation
Marginal table

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None of the given options Correct

Question No: 58 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

When initial subjects are selected randomly and additional subjects are obtained from
recommendations of names from the initial subjects, this sampling technique is called:

Judgment sample
Snowball
Convenience sample
Cluster sample Correct

Question No: 59 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

When different interviewers are used in a pretest from those used in the posttest and this
produces different results in the study, this is an example of a:

History effect
Mortality effect
Instrumentation effect Correct
Cohort effect

Question No: 60 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

Which of the following is a threat to the internal validity of experiment using a repeated
measures design?

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Instrumentation effect Correct
Cohort effect
Attrition effect
All of the given options

Question No: 61 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

Most threats to ________ are taken care of by the experiments design, while most threats
to ________ need to be taken care of by the designer of the experiment.

Internal validity, external validity


External validity, internal validity Correct
Randomization, reliability
Reliability, randomization

Question No: 62 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

In which of the following, the beginning and end are not clear. The interview can be
picked up later?

Survey Interview
Field Interview Correct
Deception
None of the given options

Question No: 63 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

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The written set of guidelines that describes an outline of topics to be covered by a focus
group moderator is called a:

Discussion guide Correct


Concept test
Case study
All of the given options

MC080203173 : Khurram Khan 17


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Question # 1 of 10 ( Start time: 09:17:02
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When you are confident that the experimental manipulation produced the changes you
measured in the dependent variable, your study probably has good ________ validity.
Select correct option:

Construct see page 55

Internal

External

Causal

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Pagr 55 .three major types of validity: (1) content validity, (2)


criterion-related validity, and (3) construct validity.

MC080203173 : Khurram Khan 76


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Question # 3 of 10 ( Start time: 09:19:55
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The small scale trial run of a particular item is called ______________.

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Select correct option:

Test run

Pilot test see page 80

Post hoc test

t-test

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Pilot testing also called pre-testing means small scale trial run of a particular component

MC080203173 : Khurram Khan 22


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The small scale trial run of a particular item is called ______________.
Select correct option:

Test run

Pilot test

Post hoc test

t-test

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Question # 4 of 10 ( Start time: 09:21:15
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The independent variable is;
Select correct option:

The variable manipulated in order to observe its effects see page 19

The variable that is measured

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The free spirited variable

A confounding variable

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see page 19..last paragraph

Independent variables affect or have an impact on other variables

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To say that a theory is falsifiable is to say that;
Select correct option:

It is based on results that are not replicable.

Investigators have replaced it with a simpler or more accurate theory.

We can imagine results that would contradict it.

It is so vague that it fits any and all possible results.

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Which of the following is an advantage of open questions?
Select correct option:

They allow respondents to answer in their own terms.

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They prevent respondents from giving unusual answers.

They allow respondents to put less effort into their answer.

They allow respondents to code their answers in advance.

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Question # 7 of 10 ( Start time: 09:25:19
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Mr. Haris is interested in studying the shared beliefs and practices of the teachers in a small
rural school. He is likely to use which research design?
Select correct option:

Action research see page 9

Historical research

Ethnography

Grounded theory

See page 9 =- Action researchers assume that


knowledge develops from experience, particularly the experience of social-political action.
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What is an hypothesis?
Select correct option:

A prediction of a relationship between certain variables.

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An experiment that tests certain predictions.

An independent variable.

A dependent variable.

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Question # 9 of 10 ( Start time: 09:27:55
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Which of the following is to read in an article?
Select correct option:

Methods

Introduction see page 29

Figures

References

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Se page 29Critically reading research reports requires skills and take time and practice to
develop. When reading an article, read carefully to see whether the introduction and title really fit
with the rest of the article

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Which of the following is not a concept?
Select correct option:

Leadership

Total Quality Management

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Human Resource Management

IQ

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Question # 1 of 10 ( Start time: 09:30:47
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Theoretical framework is trying to develop a ________ model of our study.
Select correct option:

Functional

Conceptual see page 30

Operational

Practical

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See page 30 ..A theoretical framework is conceptual model of how one theorizes or makes
logical sense of the

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Question # 2 of 10 ( Start time: 09:31:16
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The most critical areas of an article to read is;
Select correct option:

Results section see page 29

Introduction

Abstract

Limitations

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Seee page 29 The most critical areas of an article to read are the methods and results sections.

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Question # 3 of 10 ( Start time: 09:32:03
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A researcher developed a measure of shyness and is now asking whether this measure does in
fact measure a person's true state of shyness. This is a question of:
Select correct option:

Reactivity

Construct validity

Reliability

Content validity

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Question # 4 of 10 ( Start time: 09:33:28
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All the persons involved in the collection of data and supervision of data collection process are
called;
Select correct option:

Fieldworkers see page 82

Researchers

Research assistants

None of the given options

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See page 82 Who conducts the fieldwork?

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Data collection in a sponsored study is rarely carried out by the person who designs the research
project.
For a student, depending upon the sample size, data collection is usually done by the student
himself/herself.

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Question # 5 of 10 ( Start time: 09:34:45
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When doing research involving deception with human subjects, researchers have an obligation
to do which of the following?
Select correct option:

Tell subjects the truth about the studys purpose and methods after the study is
completed

Prevent mental and physical harm to subjects

Let subjects withdraw from the study at any time if they dont want to keep
participating

All of the given options see page 43

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see page 43. .decepation topic

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Question # 6 of 10 ( Start time: 09:35:41
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What is the basis of the Scientific Method?
Select correct option:

To test hypotheses in conditions that are condusive to its success.

To formulate a research problem and disprove the hypothesis.

To formulate a research problem, test the hypothesis in carefully controlled conditions


that challenge the hypothesis. See page 3

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To test hypotheses and if they are disproved, they should be abandoned completely.

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see page 3 .
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Question # 7 of 10 ( Start time: 09:37:08
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Which of the following is least likely to occur as an ethical problem with e-research?
Select correct option:

People are not likely to be able to stop once they have begun participating. See
Page 151

Informed consent cannot be completely monitored.

Debriefing could be avoided.

Privacy could be invaded.

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See page 151 . Read Ethical problems are less intense in H-C research than in other types
of social research because a
researcher is less likely to have direct contact with people being studied.

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Question # 9 of 10 ( Start time: 09:39:48
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A good qualitative problem statement:
Select correct option:

Defines the independent and dependent variables

Conveys a sense of emerging design see page 34

Specifies a research hypothesis to be tested

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Specifies the relationship between variables that the researcher expects to find.

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see page 34 A proposal for quantitative research has most of the parts of a research report: a
title, an abstract, a problem statement, a literature review, a method or design section

MC080203255 : ROHAIL TARIQ 81


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Question # 1 of 10 ( Start time: 09:42:35
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Which of the following is likely to reduce the validity of a test?
Select correct option:

Unclear test directions

Ambiguous test items

Untaught items

All of the given options

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Question # 2 of 10 ( Start time: 09:42:54
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To explain, predict, and/or control phenomena are the goal of----------------------
Select correct option:

Tradition

Inductive logic

Deductive logic

The scientific method

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Question # 3 of 10 ( Start time: 09:44:22
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Which of the following is the BEST hypothesis?
Select correct option:

Students taking formative quizzes will perform better on chapter exams than students
not taking these quizzes.

Taller students will have higher test scores than shorter students.

Students taught in a cooperative group setting should do better than students in a


traditional class.

Students using laptops will do well.

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not sure

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Question # 4 of 10 ( Start time: 09:45:50
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12. Which of the following true about the relationship between theory building and data
collection?
Select correct option:

When studies come out as expected, inductive support for the theory is gained.

If an experiment fails, discarding the experiment is an example of affirming the


consequent.

When a hypothesis is not supported, virtually nothing has been learned about the
theory.

A good theory will be inclusive enough to explain every possible research outcome.

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Question # 5 of 10 ( Start time: 09:47:14 Total Marks: 1

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AM )
Which of the following is NOT a legitimate research problem as stated?
Select correct option:

What is the relationship between the number of books children read and their reading
scores?

Should competitive games be banned from elementary schools?

What does it mean to be a special needs child "included" in Ms. Amaras fourth grade
class?

What are the major legal principles applied to educational cases decided by the
Supreme Court?

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see page 77
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Question # 7 of 10 ( Start time: 09:49:53
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A variable is:
Select correct option:

Any characteristic of interest that can take on more than one value see pag
19

Defined as the groups manipulated in experimental research

The complete set of scores we use in statistical analysis

Completely specified only in observational research

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Se page 19The second type of concept and measures of the concept arevariables. A variable
is defined as anything that varies or changes in value. Variables take on two or more values.

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Question # 8 of 10 ( Start time: 09:50:41 Total Marks: 1

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The small scale trial run of a particular item is called ______________.
Select correct option:

Test run

Pilot test

Post hoc test

t-test

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Question # 9 of 10 ( Start time: 09:51:01
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If a researcher is studying the effect of using laptops in his classroom to ascertain their merit
and worth, he is likely conducting which type of research?
Select correct option:

Basic

Applied

Evaluation

Experimental

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Question # 10 of 10 ( Start time:
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Measurement reliability refers to the:
Select correct option:

Accuracy of the scores

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Consistency of the scores see apge 57

Dependency of the scores

Comprehensiveness of the scores

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see page 57. Reliability


The reliability of a measure indicates the extent to which it is without bias (error free) and hence
ensures
consistent measurement across time and across the various items in the instrument. In other
words, the
reliability of a measure is an indication of the stability and consistency with which the instrument
measures the concept and helps to assess the goodness of measure.

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Question # 1 of 10 ( Start time: 09:55:45
Total Marks: 1
AM )
Ms. Roshi has been coordinating the Annual Festival at her school for the last several years.
She wants to be sure the students and parents enjoy the festival again this year. On which
source is she LEAST likely to rely when making decisions about what to do?
Select correct option:

Tradition

Personal experience no refrnce

Research

Expert opinion

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Question # 2 of 10 ( Start time: 09:56:59 Total Marks: 1

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All the persons involved in the collection of data and supervision of data collection process are
called;
Select correct option:

Fieldworkers

Researchers

Research assistants

None of the given options

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Question # 3 of 10 ( Start time: 09:57:16
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Why, as scientists, do we not want to rely on authority for explanations?
Select correct option:

Those in authority are often wrong.

Those in authority cannot be challenged.

Those in authority rely too much on objective information.

Those in authority often have no common sense.

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Question # 4 of 10 ( Start time: 09:58:40
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Which of the following is not an example of deception?
Select correct option:

A part of the truth is not communicated to the respondent see page 43

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To observe code of ethics

To leak out information regarding any confidential matter

To create bias between respondents before the survey

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See page 43..read ths topic.


Deception: Deception occurs when the respondents are told only part of the truth or when the
truth is fully compromised.

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Question # 5 of 10 ( Start time: 10:00:03
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When we say that science is parsimonious, we mean that:
Select correct option:

Scientific theories are based on laws.

We must be careful because causes can occur after specific effects.

The best scientific theories are those that offer the simplest explanations for a law.

Science accurately describes a wide range of behavior.

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Question # 6 of 10 ( Start time: 10:01:31
Total Marks: 1
AM )
Which of the following is a research method that allows a researcher to get information about
a large number of subjects relatively inexpensively and easily?
Select correct option:

Naturalistic observation

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Case study

Laboratory observation

Survey se page 37

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see page 37..read survey topic..

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Question # 7 of 10 ( Start time: 10:02:17
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Why do you need to review the existing literature?
Select correct option:

To give your dissertation a proper academic appearance, with lots of references

Because without it, you could never reach the required word-count

To find out what is already known about your area of interest see page 25

To help in your general studying

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see page 25.. A review tells


the reader that the researcher knows the research in an area and knows the major issues.

Rationalism is the application of:


Select correct option:

Research solution
Logic and arguments
Reasoning see page no .5
Previous findings

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Question # 3 of 10 Total Marks: 1
The independent variable is;
Select correct option:

The variable manipulated in order to observe its effects see page 19


The variable that is measured
The free spirited variable
A confounding variable

What research is?


Select correct option:

A lab experiment
A report
A systematic Enquiry
A procedure

If a researcher is studying the effect of using laptops in his classroom to ascertain


their merit and worth, he is likely conducting which type of research?
Select correct option:

Basic
Applied
Evaluation see page 9
Experimental

The elaboration of the variables in the theoretical framework addresses which


type of 274uestions?
Select correct option:

Why we expect certain relationships to exist

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How we expect certain relationships to exist
Both of the given questions see page 22
None of the given questions

What is an hypothesis?
Select correct option:

A prediction of a relationship between certain variables.


An experiment that tests certain predictions. Page 21 last line
An independent variable.
A dependent variable

Question # 9 of 10 Total Marks: 1


A literature review requires;
Select correct option:

planning
clear writing
good writing
All of the given option page 29 startng lines

Question # 10 of 10 Total Marks: 1


12. Which of the following true about the relationship between theory building and
data collection?

http://vustudents.ning.com 275
Select correct option:

When studies come out as expected, inductive support for the theory is
gained. Not confirm
If an experiment fails, discarding the experiment is an example of affirming
the consequent.
When a hypothesis is not supported, virtually nothing has been learned
about the theory.
A good theory will be inclusive enough to explain every possible research
outcome.

The scientific method is preferred over other ways of knowing because it is more;

Reliable
Systematic
Accurate
All of the given options

What is ordinal data?

Ordinary data
Well behaved data
Ranked data
Numbers

The facts that should be collected to measure a variable, depend upon the

Conceptual understanding
Dictionary meaning
Operational definition

http://vustudents.ning.com 276
All of the above

The ________ is only useful if the concepts, ideas, questions, etc. to be investigated are
both testable and falsifiable.

Independent Variable
Dependent Variable
Experimental Method
Scientific Method

Which of the following is false with regard to the benefits of multiple-choice questions
over open-ended questions?

Multiple-choice questions are easier to design


Multiple-choice questions are less costly for coding and data processing
Multiple-choice questions are quicker to administer
The use of multiple-choice questions results in higher cooperation for self-
administered surveys

Ms. Roshi has been coordinating the Annual Festival at her school for the last several
years. She wants to be sure the students and parents enjoy the festival again this year. On
which source is she LEAST likely to rely when making decisions about what to do?

Tradition

http://vustudents.ning.com 277
Personal experience
Research
Expert opinion

Which of the the following is not included in Objects?

Tables
People
Books
Weight

12. Which of the following true about the relationship between theory building and data
collection?

When studies come out as expected, inductive support for the theory is gained.
If an experiment fails, discarding the experiment is an example of affirming the
consequent.
When a hypothesis is not supported, virtually nothing has been learned about the
theory.
A good theory will be inclusive enough to explain every possible research
outcome.

Which of the following is not a feature of theoretical framework?

Making an inventory of variables


Specify the direction of relationship
Presenting findings

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Making an inventory of propositions

Time consumed in mall intercept interview is---------------.

High
Moderate
Low
Nil

If an interview is conducted with a respondent who does not meet the qualifications for a
study, what kind of bias has occurred?

Respondent bias
Position bias
Non-response bias
Instrument bias

A telephone company is interested in obtaining customers' reactions to a new service


package. Which of the following primary research methods would be most effective in
reaching this audience to obtain their feedback?

An Internet survey
Telephone interviews
A mail survey
Focus groups

A concept is a generalized idea about------ .

A class of objects
Attributes

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Occurrences
All of the given options

Theoretical framework is trying to develop a ________ model of our study.

Functional
Conceptual
Operational
Practical

A literature review requires;

planning
clear writing
good writing
All of the given option

Question 1 of (Start time: 09:18:47 PM ) Total Marks: 1


How is nominal data presented?
Select correct option:

In order
In discrete categories
Units ol equal distance
Data where there is a true zero

Question 2 (Start time: 09:19:25 PM J Total Marks: 1


Which one of the following creates problems of measurements of a concept?
Select correct option:

http://vustudents.ning.com 280
Unambiguous meanings
Vague meanings
Clear meanings
Dictionary meanings

Question 3 (Start time: 09:19:56 PM ) Total Marks: 1


When doing research involving deception with human subjects, researchers
have an obligation to do which of the
following?

Select correct option:

Tell subjects the truth about the studys purpose and methods alter the
study is completed

Prevent mental and physical harm to subjects

Let subjects withdraw from the study at any time if they dont want to keep
participating

All of the given options

Question 4 (Start time: 09:20:43 PM J Total Marks: 1


In the statement an examination ol the ellects oF discretionary behaviour
on employee perFormance employee
perFormance is the:

Select correct option:

Independent variable
Dependent variable
Extraneous variable
Causal variable

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Question 5 (Start time: 09:21:22 PM J Total Marks: 1
Mr. Hans is interested in studying the shared belieFs and practices oF the
teachers in a small rural school. He is likely to use which research design?

Select correct option:

Action research
Historical research
Ethnography
Grounded theory

Question 6 (Start time: 09:22:02 PM J Total Marks: 1


What type of the interview that is in which questions are already prepared?
Select correct option:

Telephonic interview
Personal interview
Unshuctured interview
Structured interview

Question 7 (Start time: 09:22:34 PM J Total Marks: 1


Which oF the Following is a concept?
Select correct option:

Leadership.
Total Quality Management.
Human Resource Management.
All of the given options

Question 8 (Start time: 09:22:46 PM ) Total Marks: 1


Which method ol sampling is least likely to produce bias?

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Select correct option:

Opportunity Sampling
Random Sampling
Stratilied Sampling
Quasi-random sampling

Question 9 (Start time: 09:23:14 PM ) Total Marks: 1


Which of the following is NOT a legitimate research problem as stated?
Select correct option:

What is the relationship between the number of books children read and
their reading scores?

Should competitive games be banned from elementary schools?

What does it mean to be a special needs child included in Ms. Amaras


fourth grade class?

What are the major legal principles applied to educational cases decided by
the Supreme Court?

Question 10 (Start time: 09:24:00 PM ) Total Marks: 1


A ________ scale only assigns numbers to objects to classily the objects
according to the characteristic oF interest.
Select correct option:

http://vustudents.ning.com 283
Ratio
Nominal
Interval
Dichotomous

Question 11 (Stan time: 09:24:23 PM ) Total Marks: 1


Which ol the lollowing is an example ol a dilemma that might lace leminist
business researchers conducting
qualitative interviews with women?
Select correct option:

What role to adopt when interviewing male managers?

How many Female employees should be interviewed For a representative


sample?

How to overcome the issue of False consciousness?

What data to use when publishing Findings?

Question 12 (Start time: 09:25:12 PM ) Total Marks: 1


Which type oF sampling strategy is exempliFied by selecting two types at
individuals: those who are extremely happy
and those who are extremely sad?
Select correct option:

Snowball
Intensity
Homogeneous
Purposive

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Question 13 (S tail time: 09:25:39 PM ) Total Marks: 1
Which ol the lollowing is the least obtrusive and most accurate method br
recording data in an interview?
Select correct option:

Note taking
Videotaping
Audiotaping
Writing notes abtei the interview

Question 14 (Start time: 09:26:46 PM ) Total Marks: 1


An advantage oF computer-assisted telephone interviewing is:
Select correct option:

Interviewing time is reduced


Data quality is enhanced
Questionnaires do not have coded
There is little opportunity For interviewer bias

Question 15 (Start time: 09:27:34 PM ) Total Marks: 1


Whichlol the lollowing is the best hypothesis statement to address the
research question. What impact will the new
advertising campaign have on use ol Brand B?
Select correct option:

The new advertising campaign will impact Brand B usage.

The new advertising campaign will increase Brand B trial.

The new advertising campaign will cause increased Brand B usage at the
expense of Band C.

The new advertising campaign will increase Brand Bs market penetration.

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After a researcher has stated the specific problem to be studied in an experiment, he must then
develop a(n):
Select correct option:

Theory
Conclusion
Hypothesis
Summary of the data

What is the reason for consulting handbooks, yearbooks, encyclopedias, or reviews in the initial
stages of identifying a research topic?
Select correct option:

They are readily available.


They provide an overview of the issues related to a topic.
They are primary sources.
They avoid reporting statistical data so one can interpret the results more easily.

If an interview is conducted with a respondent who does not meet the qualifications for a study,
what kind of bias has occurred?
Select correct option:

Respondent bias
Position bias
Non-response bias
Instrument bias

Time consumed in mall intercept interview is-------------.


Select correct option:

High

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Moderate
Low
Nil
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Which of the following is NOT a legitimate research problem as stated?


Select correct option:

What is the relationship between the number of books children read and their reading scores?
Should competitive games be banned from elementary schools?
What does it mean to be a special needs child "included" in Ms. Amaras fourth grade class?
What are the major legal principles applied to educational cases decided by the Supreme Court?s

An indicator of reliability based on the correlations of each item in a measure with every other
item is called:
Select correct option:

Test-retest reliability
Cronbach's alpha
Split-half reliability
Inter item ratio

Which type of question is most likely to be used when the researcher is just starting to explore
what people think about a particular topic?
Select correct option:

Closed-ended
Open-ended
Structured
Semi structured

Which one of the following aspect to be evaluated during Pilot Testing?


Select correct option:

Reactions of Respondents

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Discovering errors in the instrument
Sampling procedure can be checked
All of the given options

What is the main purpose of pilot testing?


Select correct option:

To accumulate responses
To identify respondent
To identify potential problems
To evaluate the research

Hypothesis refers to ________:


Select correct option:

The outcome of an experiment


A conclusion drawn from an experiment
A form of bias in which the subject tries to outguess the experimenter
A tentative statement about the relationship

Why, as scientists, do we not want to rely on authority for explanations?


Select correct option:

Those in authority are often wrong.


Those in authority cannot be challenged.
Those in authority rely too much on objective information.
Those in authority often have no common sense.

Preliminary Data Collection may be considered as part of --------------.


Select correct option:

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Descriptive research
Explananory research
Exploratory research
All of the given options

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Which type of question is most likely to be used when the researcher is just starting to explore
what people think about a particular topic?
Select correct option:

Closed-ended
Open-ended
Structured
Semi structured

Which one of the following tasks is NOT accomplished by theoretical framework?


Select correct option:

Elaborate the relationship among the variables


Explain the logic underlying the relationship between the variables.
Describe the nature, and direction of the relationships among the variables.
Relates the previous studies.

What type of process research is?


Select correct option:

A process to discover the truth


A process to invent the machines
A process to make new medicines
A process to create theories

Question # 13 of 15 ( Start time: 05:00:35 PM ) Total Marks: 1


Which of the following is NOT a legitimate research problem as stated?
Select correct option:

http://vustudents.ning.com 289
What is the relationship between the number of books children read and their reading scores?
Should competitive games be banned from elementary schools?
What does it mean to be a special needs child "included" in Ms. Amaras fourth grade class?
What are the major legal principles applied to educational cases decided by the Supreme Court?

Which of the following terms represents the most general, broad concept?
Select correct option:

Test
Assessment
Measurement
Instrument

Question # 15 of 15 ( Start time: 05:02:22 PM ) Total Marks: 1


If a researcher was studying the use of various instructional approaches to the "multiple
intelligences" of his students, he is likely to be conducting which type of research?
Select correct option:

Basic
Applied
Evaluation
Grounded theory

Quantitative research has been criticised because:


Select correct option:
The measurement process suggests a spurious and artificial sense of accuracy.
The reliance on instruments and procedures makes it high in ecological validity.
It underestimates the similarities between objects in the natural and social worlds.
It has no validity.

The most critical areas of an article to read is;


Select correct option:
Results section
Introduction

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Abstract
Limitations

When we say that science is parsimonious, we mean that:


Select correct option:
Scientific theories are based on laws.
We must be careful because causes can occur after specific effects.
The best scientific theories are those that offer the simplest explanations for a law.
Science accurately describes a wide range of behavior.

What type of the interview that is in which questions are already prepared?
Select correct option:
Telephonic interview
Personal interview
Unstructured interview
Structured interview

Question # 5 of 15 ( Start time: 05:09:30 PM ) Total Marks: 1


What is the first step in the research process?
Select correct option:
Preliminary data collection
Problem definition
Theoretical framework
Define broad problem area

Question # 6 of 15 ( Start time: 05:10:01 PM ) Total Marks: 1


The most difficult sources to locate are;
Select correct option:
Dissertations
Policy Reports and Presented Papers
Government Documents
Scholarly Books

Question # 7 of 15 ( Start time: 05:10:46 PM ) Total Marks: 1


Which of the following is not an unethical issue?

http://vustudents.ning.com 291
Select correct option:
Invoicing irregularities
Avoiding legal liability
Misrepresenting results
None of the given options

In the statement 'an examination of the effects of discretionary behaviour on employee


performance' employee performance is the:
Select correct option:
Independent variable
Dependent variable
Extraneous variable
Causal variable

Question # 9 of 15 ( Start time: 05:12:18 PM ) Total Marks: 1


Which one of the following tasks is NOT accomplished by theoretical framework?
Select correct option:
Elaborate the relationship among the variables
Explain the logic underlying the relationship between the variables.
Describe the nature, and direction of the relationships among the variables.
Relates the previous studies.

Question # 10 of 15 ( Start time: 05:13:13 PM ) Total Marks: 1


The ______ is only useful if the concepts, ideas, questions, etc. to be investigated are both
testable and falsifiable.
Select correct option:
Independent Variable
Dependent Variable
Experimental Method
Scientific Method

ks: 1
Why, as scientists, do we not want to rely on authority for explanations?

http://vustudents.ning.com 292
Select correct option:
Those in authority are often wrong.
Those in authority cannot be challenged.
Those in authority rely too much on objective information.
Those in authority often have no common sense.

Question # 13 of 15 ( Start time: 05:16:07 PM ) Total Marks: 1


Ms. Laiba has decided to use the test at the end of the textbook to measure the achievement
levels of the students in her study. Which of the following BEST describes the chapter test?
Select correct option:
Definition
Construct
Variable
Operationalized variable

What is the basis of the Scientific Method?


Select correct option:
To test hypotheses in conditions that are condusive to its success.
To formulate a research problem and disprove the hypothesis.
To formulate a research problem, test the hypothesis in carefully controlled conditions that
challenge the hypothesis.
To test hypotheses and if they are disproved, they should be abandoned completely.

Question # 15 of 15 ( Start time: 05:18:15 PM ) Total Marks: 1


According to Empiricism, which of the following is the ultimate source of all our concepts and
knowledge?
Select correct option:
Perceptions
Theory
Sensory experience
Logics and arguments

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Question # 1 of 15 ( Start time: 05:25:04 PM ) Total Marks: 1
Which of the following is an example of an issue that would be checked in a pilot testing?
Select correct option:
Completion of all questions on a questionnaire
Legible writing
Single responses to all multiple choice questions
Logical answers between questions (i.e., attributes should be rated high if purchase interest
is high)

What is the basis of the Scientific Method?


Select correct option:
To test hypotheses in conditions that are condusive to its success.
To formulate a research problem and disprove the hypothesis.
To formulate a research problem, test the hypothesis in carefully controlled conditions that
challenge the hypothesis.
To test hypotheses and if they are disproved, they should be abandoned completely.

Question # 3 of 15 ( Start time: 05:27:10 PM ) Total Marks: 1


Bias is defined as;
Select correct option:
The distortion of responses based on gender, ethnicity, race, or language
A lack of validity
A lack of reliability
A poor interpretation of a student's score

Question # 4 of 15 ( Start time: 05:27:45 PM ) Total Marks: 1


To explain, predict, and/or control phenomena are the goal of----------------------
Select correct option:
Tradition
Inductive logic
Deductive logic
The scientific method

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Question # 5 of 15 ( Start time: 05:28:42 PM ) Total Marks: 1
What is ordinal data?
Select correct option:
Ordinary data
Well behaved data
Ranked data
Numbers

Ms. Tania is thinking about changing her instructional approach to a more mastery-learning
orientation. She is interested in knowing more about this topic as well as its effectiveness when
working with elementary school students. On which source should she rely for such information?
Select correct option:
Tradition
Research
Intuition
Personal experience

hich of the following is the best hypothesis statement to address the research question, "What
impact will the new advertising campaign have on use of Brand B?

Marks: 1
Which of the following is the best hypothesis statement to address the research question, "What
impact will the new advertising campaign have on use of Brand B?"
Select correct option:
The new advertising campaign will impact Brand B usage.
The new advertising campaign will increase Brand B trial.
The new advertising campaign will cause increased Brand B usage at the expense of Brand
C.
The new advertising campaign will increase Brand B's market

Question # 8 of 15 ( Start time: 05:32:00 PM ) Total Marks: 1


The extent to which we can generalize the results of a study to other participants is called:
Select correct option:
Sampling validity
External validity

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Construct validity
Internal validity

Question # 9 of 15 ( Start time: 05:32:48 PM ) Total Marks: 1


Mr. Haris is interested in studying the shared beliefs and practices of the teachers in a small rural
school. He is likely to use which research design?
Select correct option:
Action research
Historical research
Ethnography
Grounded theory

Ms. Roshi has been coordinating the Annual Festival at her school for the last several years. She
wants to be sure the students and parents enjoy the festival again this year. On which source is
she LEAST likely to rely when making decisions about what to do?
Select correct option:
Tradition
Personal experience
Research
Expert opinion

Question # 11 of 15 ( Start time: 05:34:18 PM ) Total Marks: 1


Critical decision area in questionnaire construction is__________ .
Select correct option:
Question content
Question wording
Response strategy
All of the given options

Question # 12 of 15 ( Start time: 05:35:45 PM ) Total Marks: 1


If a researcher was studying the use of various instructional approaches to the "multiple
intelligences" of his students, he is likely to be conducting which type of research?
Select correct option:
Basic
Applied
Evaluation
Grounded theory

http://vustudents.ning.com 296
Which of the following is a research method that allows a researcher to get information about a
large number of subjects relatively inexpensively and easily?
Select correct option:
Naturalistic observation
Case study
Laboratory observation
Survey

uestion # 14 of 15 ( Start time: 05:37:38 PM ) Total Marks: 1


One of the preoccupations of quantitative researchers is with generalization, which is a sign of:
Select correct option:
External validity
Internal reliability
External reliability
Internal validity

----------------surveys are more impersonal than face-to-face interviews.


Select correct option:
Mail
Recorded Interview
Focus group
Telephone

The key objective of data analysis is to:


Select correct option:
Calculate statistics
Understand relationships between variables
Obtain the distribution of responses for each question
Create tables which display the survey results

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Question # 2 of 15 ( Start time: 05:43:21 PM ) Total Marks: 1
What is the basis of the Scientific Method?
Select correct option:
To test hypotheses in conditions that are condusive to its success.
To formulate a research problem and disprove the hypothesis.
To formulate a research problem, test the hypothesis in carefully controlled conditions that
challenge the hypothesis.
To test hypotheses and if they are disproved, they should be abandoned completely.

Question # 3 of 15 ( Start time: 05:43:59 PM ) Total Marks: 1


In which way does a ratio scale measurement differ from an interval measurement?
Select correct option:
It measures larger or smaller scores on some underlying dimension.
It implies the existence of an absolute zero value.
It requires the mutual exclusivity of all cases.
It requires that exhaustiveness is applied to all observations.

Question # 4 of 15 ( Start time: 05:45:04 PM ) Total Marks: 1


Which of the following is false with regard to the benefits of multiple-choice questions over open-
ended questions?
Select correct option:
Multiple-choice questions are easier to design
Multiple-choice questions are less costly for coding and data processing
Multiple-choice questions are quicker to administer
The use of multiple-choice questions results in higher cooperation for self-administered
surveys

Question # 6 of 15 ( Start time: 05:47:14 PM ) Total Marks: 1


Which of the following is NOT a longitudinal study?
Select correct option:
Trend study
Census study

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Panel study
Cohort study

uestion # 5 of 15 ( Start time: 05:46:05 PM ) Total Marks: 1


Quantitative researcher's preoccupation with generalization is an attempt to:
Select correct option:
Develop the law like findings of the natural sciences.
Boost their chances of publication.
Enhance the internal validity of their research.
Demonstrate the complex techniques of statistical analysis

Question # 6 of 15 ( Start time: 05:47:14 PM ) Total Marks: 1


Which of the following is NOT a longitudinal study?
Select correct option:
Trend study
Census study
Panel study
Cohort study

Question # 7 of 15 ( Start time: 05:48:45 PM ) Total Marks: 1


What is a relationship between the literature survey and the theoretical framework?
Select correct option:
Provides a solid foundation for developing the latter
Literature survey helps in the identification of the relevant variables
The theoretical framework explains the theory underlying these relations
All of the gven options

ks: 1
The elaboration of the variables in the theoretical framework addresses which type of qestions?
Select correct option:
Why we expect certain relationships to exist
How we expect certain relationships to exist
Both of the given questions
None of the given questions
http://vustudents.ning.com

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Question # 9 of 15 ( Start time: 05:50:46 PM ) Total Marks: 1
Cover letter must include the following information, except:
Select correct option:
How was the respondent selected?
Data collecting tools
Motivation for the respondent
Importance of research topic which is going to be conducted

Question # 10 of 15 ( Start time: 05:51:48 PM ) Total Marks: 1


The most critical areas of an article to read is;
Select correct option:
Results section
Introduction
Abstract
Limitations

Question # 11 of 15 ( Start time: 05:53:00 PM ) Total Marks: 1


Research may differ along a series of dimensions. Which of the following may be applied to this
statement?
Select correct option:
The type of data collected.
The data-collection technique.
The level of manipulation used to elicit data collection.
All of the given options

Question # 12 of 15 ( Start time: 05:53:52 PM ) Total Marks: 1


All of these are characteristics of scientific methods of research except, it is;
Select correct option:
Cumulative
Deterministic

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Unethical
Rationalism

Question # 13 of 15 ( Start time: 05:54:22 PM ) Total Marks: 1


One of the preoccupations of quantitative researchers is with generalization, which is a sign of:
Select correct option:
External validity
Internal reliability
External reliability
Internal validity

uestion # 14 of 15 ( Start time: 05:55:06 PM ) Total Marks: 1


How is nominal data presented?
Select correct option:
In order
In discrete categories
Units of equal distance
Data where there is a true zero

uestion # 15 of 15 ( Start time: 05:55:50 PM ) Total Marks: 1


Detailed and unambiguous instructions are particularly important for:
Select correct option:
Computer-assisted telephone surveys
Mail surveys
Computer-assisted personal interviews
Internet surveys

Question # 1 of 15 ( Start time: 06:02:53 PM ) Total Marks: 1


A one tailed hypothesis predicts-----------
Select correct option:
The future
The lottery result
The frequency of the effect
The direction of the effect

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Question # 2 of 15 ( Start time: 06:03:51 PM ) Total Marks: 1
Which type of questions should be first in a questionnaire or interview?
Select correct option:
Questions about demographics such as age and gender
Questions about attitudes and behaviors
Most easy question
Difficult questions

Question # 3 of 15 ( Start time: 06:04:58 PM ) Total Marks: 1


Bias is defined as;
Select correct option:
The distortion of responses based on gender, ethnicity, race, or language
A lack of validity
A lack of reliability
A poor interpretation of a student's score

Question # 6 of 15 ( Start time: 07:06:45 PM ) Total Marks: 1


To explain, predict, and/or control phenomena are the goal of----------------------
Select correct option:
Tradition
Inductive logic
Deductive logic
The scientific method

Question # 7 of 15 ( Start time: 07:08:14 PM ) Total Marks: 1


Preliminary Data Collection may be considered as part of --------------.
Select correct option:
Descriptive research
Explananory research
Exploratory research
All of the given options

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Question # 8 of 15 ( Start time: 07:08:52 PM ) Total Marks: 1
A ______ scale only assigns numbers to objects to classify the objects according to the
characteristic of interest.
Select correct option:
Ratio
Nominal
Interval
Dichotomous

Question # 9 of 15 ( Start time: 07:09:47 PM ) Total Marks: 1


What is the basis of the Scientific Method?
Select correct option:
To test hypotheses in conditions that are condusive to its success.
To formulate a research problem and disprove the hypothesis.
To formulate a research problem, test the hypothesis in carefully controlled conditions that
challenge the hypothesis.
To test hypotheses and if they are disproved, they should be abandoned completely.

Question # 10 of 15 ( Start time: 07:11:09 PM ) Total Marks: 1


Cover letter must include the following information, except:
Select correct option:
How was the respondent selected?
Data collecting tools
Motivation for the respondent
Importance of research topic which is going to be conducted

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of a good research topic?


Select correct option:
It is ethical.
It can be investigated through the collection and analysis of data.

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It focuses on a philosophical or ethical issue.
It is theoretically or practically significant.

Question # 13 of 15 ( Start time: 07:14:30 PM ) Total Marks: 1


A variable is:
Select correct option:
Any characteristic of interest that can take on more than one value
Defined as the groups manipulated in experimental research
The complete set of scores we use in statistical analysis
Completely specified only in observational research

A measure has high internal consistency reliability when:


Select correct option:
Multiple observers make the same ratings using the measure.
Participants score at the high end of the scale every time they complete the measure.
Multiple observers obtain the same score every time they use the measure.
Each of the items correlates with other items on the

Question # 15 of 15 ( Start time: 07:17:26 PM ) Total Marks: 1


Which type of question is most likely to be used when the researcher is just starting to explore
what people think about a particular topic?
Select correct option:
Closed-ended
Open-ended sure
Structured
Semi structured

uestion # 1 of 15 ( Start time: 07:18:59 PM ) Total Marks: 1


The validity of a measure refers to the:
Select correct option:
Particular type of construct specification
Comprehensiveness with which it measures the construct

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Accuracy with which it measures the construct
Consistency of the measurement

Time consumed in mall intercept interview is-------------.


Select correct option:

High
Moderate
Low
Nil

Question # 2 of 15 ( Start time: 07:19:57 PM ) Total Marks: 1


Which of the following is not a function of clearly identified research questions?
Select correct option:
They guide your literature search.
They keep you focused throughout the data collection period.
They make the scope of your research as wide as possible.
They are linked together to help you construct a coherent argument.

When accessing the internet, which of these steps is the most essential?
Select correct option:

Recording the full URL


Noting the access dates
Downloading material to be referenced
They are all equally important

Question # 4 of 15 ( Start time: 07:22:00 PM ) Total Marks: 1


All the persons involved in the collection of data and supervision of data collection process are
called;
Select correct option:

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Fieldworkers
Researchers
Research assistants
None of the given options

Question # 5 of 15 ( Start time: 07:23:06 PM ) Total Marks: 1


Which of the following is a research method that allows a researcher to get information about a
large number of subjects relatively inexpensively and easily?
Select correct option:
Naturalistic observation
Case study
Laboratory observation
Survey

Which of the the following is not included in Objects?


Select correct option:

Tables
People
Books
Weight

Question # 5 of 15 ( Start time: 07:23:06 PM ) Total Marks: 1


Which of the following is a research method that allows a researcher to get information about a
large number of subjects relatively inexpensively and easily?
Select correct option:
Naturalistic observation
Case study
Laboratory observation
Survey

Question # 6 of 15 ( Start time: 07:24:10 PM ) Total Marks: 1


Which type of question is most likely to be used when the researcher is just starting to explore
what people think about a particular topic?

http://vustudents.ning.com 306
Select correct option:
Closed-ended
Open-ended
Structured
Semi structured

Which of the following is the best hypothesis statement to address the research question, "What
impact will the new advertising campaign have on use of Brand B?"
Select correct option:

The new advertising campaign will impact Brand B usage.


The new advertising campaign will increase Brand B trial.
The new advertising campaign will cause increased Brand B usage at the expense of Brand C.
The new advertising campaign will increase Brand B's market penetration

Question # 6 of 15 ( Start time: 07:28:46 PM ) Total Marks: 1


After you locate a source, you should write down all details of the reference, except;
Select correct option:
Full names of the authors
Titles
Volumes
Price

Question # 7 of 15 ( Start time: 07:29:18 PM ) Total Marks: 1


Which of the following is the least obtrusive and most accurate method for recording data in an
interview?
Select correct option:
Note taking
Videotaping
Audiotaping
Writing notes after the interview

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Question # 8 of 15 ( Start time: 07:30:25 PM ) Total Marks: 1
Which of the following is not an unethical issue?
Select correct option:
Invoicing irregularities
Avoiding legal liability
Misrepresenting results
None of the given options

Question # 9 of 15 ( Start time: 07:30:57 PM ) Total Marks: 1


Detailed and unambiguous instructions are particularly important for:
Select correct option:
Computer-assisted telephone surveys
Mail surveys
Computer-assisted personal interviews
Internet surveys

10 of 15 ( Start time: 07:32:06 PM ) Total Marks: 1


If a researcher was studying the use of various instructional approaches to the "multiple
intelligences" of his students, he is likely to be conducting which type of research?
Select correct option:
Basic
Applied
Evaluation
Grounded theory

uestion # 11 of 15 ( Start time: 07:32:46 PM ) Total Marks: 1


The independent variable is;
Select correct option:
The variable manipulated in order to observe its effects
The variable that is measured
The free spirited variable
A confounding variable

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Question # 12 of 15 ( Start time: 07:33:39 PM ) Total Marks: 1
Which of the following statements is false?
Select correct option:
Discrete variables allow measurement of an infinite number of fractions of units of
measurement.
Discrete variables can only have whole number values.
Continuous numbers can only have whole number values.
Continuous measures do not allow for scores that fall between two number values.

Question # 13 of 15 ( Start time: 07:35:01 PM ) Total Marks: 1


Research may differ along a series of dimensions. Which of the following may be applied to this
statement?
Select correct option:
The type of data collected.
The data-collection technique.
The level of manipulation used to elicit data collection.
All of the given options

Question # 14 of 15 ( Start time: 07:35:33 PM ) Total Marks: 1


To explain, predict, and/or control phenomena are the goal of----------------------
Select correct option:
Tradition
Inductive logic
Deductive logic
The scientific method

Question # 15 of 15 ( Start time: 07:36:19 PM ) Total Marks: 1


Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of a good research topic?
Select correct option:
It is ethical.
It can be investigated through the collection and analysis of data.
It focuses on a philosophical or ethical issue.
It is theoretically or practically significant.

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Question # 1 of 15 ( Start time: 07:38:57 PM ) Total Marks: 1
If a measure is consistent over multiple occasions, it has:
Select correct option:

Inter-rater reliability
Construct validity
Internal validity
Test-retest reliability

Question # 2 of 15 ( Start time: 07:40:20 PM ) Total Marks: 1


What research is?
Select correct option:

A lab experiment
A report
A systematic Enquiry
A procedure

Question # 3 of 15 ( Start time: 07:40:57 PM ) Total Marks: 1


An operational definition is:
Select correct option:

One that bears no relation to the underlying concept.


An abstract, theoretical definition of a concept.
A definition of a concept in terms of specific, empirical measures.
One that refers to opera singers and their work.

Question # 4 of 15 ( Start time: 07:41:59 PM ) Total Marks: 1


Which type of question is most likely to be used when the researcher is just starting to explore
what people think about a particular topic?
Select correct option:

Closed-ended
Open-ended

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Structured
Semi structured

Question # 5 of 15 ( Start time: 07:42:30 PM ) Total Marks: 1


Which type of questions should be first in a questionnaire or interview?
Select correct option:

Questions about demographics such as age and gender


Questions about attitudes and behaviors
Most easy question
Difficult questions

Question # 6 of 15 ( Start time: 07:43:20 PM ) Total Marks: 1


Which of the following terms represents the most general, broad concept?
Select correct option:

Test
Assessment
Measurement
Instrument

Question # 7 of 15 ( Start time: 07:44:10 PM ) Total Marks: 1


Which of the following is not an example of deception?
Select correct option:

A part of the truth is not communicated to the respondent


To observe code of ethics
To leak out information regarding any confidential matter
To create bias between respondents before the survey

Critical decision area in questionnaire construction is__________ .


Select correct option:

Question content
Question wording
Response strategy
All of the given options

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Question # 9 of 15 ( Start time: 07:45:53 PM ) Total Marks: 1
Cover letter must include the following information, except:
Select correct option:

How was the respondent selected?


Data collecting tools
Motivation for the respondent
Importance of research topic which is going to be conducted

Question # 10 of 15 ( Start time: 07:46:51 PM ) Total Marks: 1


Which of the following steps of the scientific method is exemplified by the researcher reviewing
the literature and focusing on a specific problem that has yet to be resolved?
Select correct option:

Identify a topic.
Describe the procedures to collect information.
Analyze the collected information.
State the results of the data analysis.

Question # 11 of 15 ( Start time: 07:47:56 PM ) Total Marks: 1


Which of the following is false with regard to the benefits of multiple-choice questions over open-
ended questions?
Select correct option:

Multiple-choice questions are easier to design


Multiple-choice questions are less costly for coding and data processing
Multiple-choice questions are quicker to administer
The use of multiple-choice questions results in higher cooperation for self-administered surveys

Question # 12 of 15 ( Start time: 07:49:23 PM ) Total Marks: 1


When you are confident that the experimental manipulation produced the changes you measured
in the dependent variable, your study probably has good ______ validity.
Select correct option:

http://vustudents.ning.com 312
Construct
Internal
External
Causal

Question # 13 of 15 ( Start time: 07:50:45 PM ) Total Marks: 1


Which one of the following tasks is NOT accomplished by theoretical framework?
Select correct option:

Elaborate the relationship among the variables


Explain the logic underlying the relationship between the variables.
Describe the nature, and direction of the relationships among the variables.
Relates the previous studies.

Question # 14 of 15 ( Start time: 07:52:17 PM ) Total Marks: 1


Rationalism is the application of:
Select correct option:

Research solution
Logic and arguments
Reasoning
Previous findings

A review that only demonstrates familiarity with an area is rarely published but it often is part of
an educational program is which type of review?
Select correct option:

Integrative reviews
Theoretical reviews

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Self-study reviews
Historical reviews

Question # 1 of 15 ( Start time: 07:57:10 PM ) Total Marks: 1


Which of the following is an excellent way to enhance the validity of interview data collection?
Select correct option:

Spend an extended period of time in the field.


Obtain participant trust.
Recognize your own biases
Spend time in field,obtain participant trust, recognize biases.

Question # 2 of 15 ( Start time: 07:58:05 PM ) Total Marks: 1


All of the following are true about theories, except;
Select correct option:

They organize and summarize existing knowledge about a topic.


They are tentative until the facts prove them true.
They provide possible explanations for the phenomenon under study.
They lead to testable hypotheses through the process of deduction.

Question # 3 of 15 ( Start time: 07:58:38 PM ) Total Marks: 1


Which of the following terms represents the most general, broad concept?
Select correct option:

Test
Assessment
Measurement
Instrument

Question # 4 of 15 ( Start time: 07:58:55 PM ) Total Marks: 1


Which of the following steps of the scientific method is exemplified by the researcher reviewing
the literature and focusing on a specific problem that has yet to be resolved?
Select correct option:

Identify a topic.
Describe the procedures to collect information.

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Analyze the collected information.
State the results of the data analysis.

Question # 5 of 15 ( Start time: 07:59:11 PM ) Total Marks: 1


Which of the following is a research method that allows a researcher to get information about a
large number of subjects relatively inexpensively and easily?
Select correct option:

Naturalistic observation
Case study
Laboratory observation
Survey

Question # 6 of 15 ( Start time: 07:59:39 PM ) Total Marks: 1


What is an hypothesis?
Select correct option:

A prediction of a relationship between certain variables.


An experiment that tests certain predictions.
An independent variable.
A dependent variable.

Question # 7 of 15 ( Start time: 08:00:31 PM ) Total Marks: 1


Why, as scientists, do we not want to rely on authority for explanations?
Select correct option:

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Those in authority are often wrong.
Those in authority cannot be challenged.
Those in authority rely too much on objective information.
Those in authority often have no common sense.

Question # 8 of 15 ( Start time: 08:00:57 PM ) Total Marks: 1


A measure has high internal consistency reliability when:
Select correct option:

Multiple observers make the same ratings using the measure.


Participants score at the high end of the scale every time they complete the measure.
Multiple observers obtain the same score every time they use the measure.
Each of the items correlates with other items on the measure.

Question # 9 of 15 ( Start time: 08:01:36 PM ) Total Marks: 1


Which of the following is least likely to occur as an ethical problem with e-research?
Select correct option:

People are not likely to be able to stop once they have begun participating.
Informed consent cannot be completely monitored.
Debriefing could be avoided.
Privacy could be invaded.

Question # 10 of 15 ( Start time: 08:02:04 PM ) Total Marks: 1


One of the preoccupations of quantitative researchers is with generalization, which is a sign of:
Select correct option:

External validity
Internal reliability
External reliability
Internal validity

Question # 11 of 15 ( Start time: 08:02:32 PM ) Total Marks: 1


A one tailed hypothesis predicts-----------
Select correct option:

The future

http://vustudents.ning.com 316
The lottery result
The frequency of the effect
The direction of the effect

Question # 12 of 15 ( Start time: 08:02:45 PM ) Total Marks: 1


Hypothesis refers to ________:
Select correct option:

The outcome of an experiment


A conclusion drawn from an experiment
A form of bias in which the subject tries to outguess the experimenter
A tentative statement about the relationship

Theoretical framework is trying to develop a ______ model of our study.


Select correct option:

Functional
Conceptual
Operational
Practical

Question # 14 of 15 ( Start time: 08:04:54 PM ) Total Marks: 1


Which of the the following is not included in Objects?
Select correct option:

Tables
People
Books
Weight

Question # 15 of 15 ( Start time: 08:05:21 PM ) Total Marks: 1


Which of the following is a discrete variable?
Select correct option:

Age
Nationality

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Test score
Income

Question # 1 of 15 ( Start time: 08:07:52 PM ) Total Marks: 1


Which of the following is an excellent way to enhance the validity of interview data collection?
Select correct option:
Spend an extended period of time in the field.
Obtain participant trust.
Recognize your own biases
Spend time in field,obtain participant trust, recognize biases.

Question # 2 of 15 ( Start time: 08:08:27 PM ) Total Marks: 1


Ms. Roshi has been coordinating the Annual Festival at her school for the last several years. She
wants to be sure the students and parents enjoy the festival again this year. On which source is
she LEAST likely to rely when making decisions about what to do?
Select correct option:
Tradition
Personal experience
Research
Expert opinion

Question # 3 of 15 ( Start time: 08:09:05 PM ) Total Marks: 1


The ______ is only useful if the concepts, ideas, questions, etc. to be investigated are both
testable and falsifiable.
Select correct option:
Independent Variable
Dependent Variable
Experimental Method
Scientific Method

Which of the following is a research method that allows a researcher to get information about a
large number of subjects relatively inexpensively and easily?
Select correct option:
Naturalistic observation
Case study
Laboratory observation
Survey

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Question # 5 of 15 ( Start time: 08:09:58 PM ) Total Marks: 1
What is the main purpose of pilot testing?
Select correct option:
To accumulate responses
To identify respondent
To identify potential problems
To evaluate the research

Question # 6 of 15 ( Start time: 08:10:23 PM ) Total Marks: 1


What is one way that distortions can be produced in self report data?
Select correct option:
Lying
Social desirability bias
Faulty memory
All of the given options

Question # 7 of 15 ( Start time: 08:10:47 PM ) Total Marks: 1


Which of the following statements is false?
Select correct option:
Discrete variables allow measurement of an infinite number of fractions of units of
measurement.
Discrete variables can only have whole number values.
Continuous numbers can only have whole number values.
Continuous measures do not allow for scores that fall between two number values.

Question # 8 of 15 ( Start time: 08:11:33 PM ) Total Marks: 1


If a researcher was studying the use of various instructional approaches to the "multiple
intelligences" of his students, he is likely to be conducting which type of research?
Select correct option:

http://vustudents.ning.com 319
Basic
Applied
Evaluation
Grounded theory

uestion # 9 of 15 ( Start time: 08:11:49 PM ) Total Marks: 1


Critical decision area in questionnaire construction is__________ .
Select correct option:
Question content
Question wording
Response strategy
All of the given options

http://vustudents.ning.com

Question # 10 of 15 ( Start time: 08:12:26 PM ) Total Marks: 1


Quantitative research has been criticised because:
Select correct option:
The measurement process suggests a spurious and artificial sense of accuracy.
The reliance on instruments and procedures makes it high in ecological validity.
It underestimates the similarities between objects in the natural and social worlds.
It has no validity.

Question # 11 of 15 ( Start time: 08:13:38 PM ) Total Marks: 1


A good qualitative problem statement:
Select correct option:
Defines the independent and dependent variables
Conveys a sense of emerging design
Specifies a research hypothesis to be tested
Specifies the relationship between variables that the researcher expects to find.

Question # 12 of 15 ( Start time: 08:14:43 PM ) Total Marks: 1


Which of the following is the least appropriate research problem?
Select correct option:
Does studying Latin improve the standardized vocabulary test scores of seventh grade

http://vustudents.ning.com 320
students?
Does drilling fifth grade students with multiplication facts improve their standardized test
scores?
What is the relationship between students' math attitudes and math achievement?
Should students have access to controversial novels in school?

Question # 13 of 15 ( Start time: 08:15:57 PM ) Total Marks: 1


Which one of the following is not an assumption of science?
Select correct option:
There are reoccurring patterns in the world.
Events happen because of preceding causes.
We can discover solutions to problems of interest.
Theoretical explanations must agree with common sense.

Question # 14 of 15 ( Start time: 08:16:48 PM ) Total Marks: 1


In which way does a ratio scale measurement differ from an interval measurement?
Select correct option:
It measures larger or smaller scores on some underlying dimension.
It implies the existence of an absolute zero value.
It requires the mutual exclusivity of all cases.
It requires that exhaustiveness is applied to all observations.

Question # 15 of 15 ( Start time: 08:17:16 PM ) Total Marks: 1


The key objective of data analysis is to:
Select correct option:
Calculate statistics
Understand relationships between variables
Obtain the distribution of responses for each question
Create tables which display the survey results

Measurement reliability refers to the:


Select correct option:

Accuracy of the scores

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Consistency of the scores
Dependency of the scores
Comprehensiveness of the scores

uestion # 3 of 15 ( Start time: 08:22:59 PM ) Total Marks: 1


All of the following are true about theories, except;
Select correct option:

They organize and summarize existing knowledge about a topic.


They are tentative until the facts prove them true.
They provide possible explanations for the phenomenon under study.
They lead to testable hypotheses through the process of deduction.

An operational definition is:


Select correct option:

One that bears no relation to the underlying concept.


An abstract, theoretical definition of a concept.
A definition of a concept in terms of specific, empirical measures.
One that refers to opera singers and their work.

Question # 6 of 15 ( Start time: 08:25:33 PM ) Total Marks: 1


Which of the following is an example of a dilemma that might face feminist business researchers
conducting qualitative interviews with women?
Select correct option:

What role to adopt when interviewing male managers?


How many female employees should be interviewed for a representative sample?
How to overcome the issue of false consciousness?
What data to use when publishing findings?

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Question # 7 of 15 ( Start time: 08:27:05 PM ) Total Marks: 1
How can we determine if a test has good validity?
Select correct option:

It produces the same result when it is given at different times to the same group of people
It produces the same result no matter which version of the test is used
It measures what it is supposed to measure
All of the questions on it can be answered accurately by the subject

uestion # 8 of 15 ( Start time: 08:27:54 PM ) Total Marks: 1


Which of the following is most beneficial to read in an article?
Select correct option:

Methods
Introduction
Figures
References

Question # 9 of 15 ( Start time: 08:28:57 PM ) Total Marks: 1


Quantitative research has been criticised because:
Select correct option:

The measurement process suggests a spurious and artificial sense of accuracy.


The reliance on instruments and procedures makes it high in ecological validity.
It underestimates the similarities between objects in the natural and social worlds.
It has no validity.

Question # 10 of 15 ( Start time: 08:30:27 PM ) Total Marks: 1


------------------surveys are more impersonal than face-to-face interviews.
Select correct option:

Mail
Recorded Interview
Focus group
Telephone

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Question # 11 of 15 ( Start time: 08:30:49 PM ) Total Marks: 1
Which of the following statements is false?
Select correct option:

Discrete variables allow measurement of an infinite number of fractions of units of measurement.


Discrete variables can only have whole number values.
Continuous numbers can only have whole number values.
Continuous measures do not allow for scores that fall between two number values.

When you are confident that the experimental manipulation produced the changes you measured
in the dependent variable, your study probably has good ______ validity.
Select correct option:

Construct
Internal
External
Causal

Question # 13 of 15 ( Start time: 08:32:55 PM ) Total Marks: 1


Which type of question is most likely to be used when the researcher is just starting to explore
what people think about a particular topic?
Select correct option:

Closed-ended
Open-ended
Structured
Semi structured

What is the basis of the Scientific Method?


Select correct option:

To test hypotheses in conditions that are condusive to its success.


To formulate a research problem and disprove the hypothesis.
To formulate a research problem, test the hypothesis in carefully controlled conditions that
challenge the hypothesis.
To test hypotheses and if they are disproved, they should be abandoned completely.

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Question # 15 of 15 ( Start time: 08:34:44 PM ) Total Marks: 1
What is the variable called that a researcher manipulates in an experiment?
Select correct option:

Dependent variable
Independent variable
Extraneous variable
None of the given options

Q1. All the persons involved in the collection of data and supervision of data collection
process are called
i. Fieldworkers
ii. Researchers
iii. Research assistants
iv. None of the given options

Q2. While terminating the interview, the fieldworker should not do one of the following:
i. He should record all the responses made by the interviewee before leaving.
ii. He should thank the interviewee.
iii. He should close the interview hastily.
iv. He should answer all the questions the respondent asks concerning the nature
and purpose of the study.

Q3. Which one of these is a type of Interviewee bias?


i. The respondent does not tell his true income, age, or contact information.
ii. The fieldworker fails to probe the interviewee properly.
iii. The fieldworker contacted the wrong person for interview.
iv. The fieldworker asks the questions in wrong order.

Q4. A magazine conducts a survey and asks its readers to cut the questionnaire from the
magazine, fill it and send it via mail. It is a type of
i. Purposive sampling

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ii. Snowball sampling
iii. Sequential sampling
iv. Convenience sampling

Q5. The height distribution of a few students in a school is an example of


i. Statistic
ii. Population
iii. Parameter
iv. Element
Q6. A researcher wants to conduct a survey of the drug users. Which type of sampling
technique will be most appropriate here?
i. Sequential sampling
ii. Snowball sampling
iii. Quota sampling
iv. Convenience sampling
Q7. When there is a need to apply different data collection methods to different parts of
the population, the best sampling method would be
i. Double sampling
ii. Cluster sampling
iii. Stratified random sampling
iv. Systematic random sampling

Q8. The sampling technique in which every element of the population has an equal,
nonzero
probability of being selected in a sample, is called
i. Probability sampling
ii. Convenience sampling
iii. Purposive sampling
iv. Quota sampling

Q9. Target population is also called

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i. Population
ii. Survey population
iii. Population element
iv. Population frame

Q10. Which one of them is the method for probing the respondent?
i. Repeat the question
ii. Give an expectant pause
iii. Repeat the respondents reply
iv. All of the given options

Up to 37 Lessons

1. Which is not a source of existing statistics?


A. Government
B. International agencies
C. Personal interviews
D. Private sources

2. Followings are the advantages of secondary data except


A. Non-Reactivity
B. Selective survival
C. Low cost
D. Spontaneity

3. Following are the disadvantages of secondary data except


A. Longitudinal analysis
B. Sampling bias
C. Coding difficult

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D. Incompleteness

4. The coding of the secondary data may be difficult because of


A. Differences in content or subject matter
B. Lack of standardization
C. Differences in length and format
D. All of these

5. The researcher must be concerned about the following problems while using
secondary data in research.
A. Validity
B. Reliability
C. Both of these
D. None of these

Fill in the blanks


1. Validity problems occur when the researchers theoretical definition does not
match that of the government agency or organization that collected the
information.
2. Reliability problems occur when official definition or the method of collecting
Information changes over time.
3. Secondary data refer to information gathered by someone other than the
researcher conducting the present study.
4. Experiments are best for topics where the researcher controls a situation and
manipulates an Independent variable.
5. A social indicator is any measure of wellbeing used in policy.

1. In ___________, the researcher attempts to control and/ or manipulate the variables in


the study.

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1. Experiment
2. Hypothesis
3. Theoretical framework
4. Research design

2. In an experimental research study, the primary goal is to isolate and identify the effect
produced by the ____.
1. Dependent variable
2. Extraneous variable
3. Independent variable
4. Confounding variable

3. A measure is reliable if it provides consistent ___________.


1. Hypothesis
2. Results
3. Procedure
4. Sensitivity

4. The interview in which questions are already prepared is called ________.


1. Telephonic interview
2. Personal interview
3. Unstructured interview
4. Structured interview

5. The numerical description that describe sample may be expected to differ from those
that describe population because of random fluctuations inherent in sampling process.
1. Sampling design
2. Non-probability sampling

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3. Sampling error
4. Probability sampling

6. In ______________ , each population element has a known and equal chance of


selection.
1. Purposive sampling
2. Quota sampling
3. Stratified sampling
4. Simple random sampling

7. ______ is the evidence that the instrument, techniques, or process used to measure
concept does indeed measure the intended concepts.
1. Reliability
2. Replicability
3. Scaling
4. Validity

8. A researcher is interested in studying why the new math of the 1960s failed. She
interviews several teachers who used the new math during the 1960s. These teachers are
considered as:
1. Primary sources
2. Secondary Sources
3. External critics
4. Internal critics

9. Which of the following is NOT true about stratified random sampling?

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1. It involves a random selection process from identified subgroups
2. Proportions of groups in the sample must always match their population
proportions
3. Disproportional stratified random sampling is especially helpful for getting large
enough subgroup samples when subgroup comparisons are to be done
4. Proportional stratified random sampling yields a representative sample

10. Experimental design is the only appropriate design where_________ relationship can
be established.
1. Strong
2. Linear
3. Weak
4. Cause and Effect

1. Which one of the following sets is the measure of central tendency?


a. Mean, standard deviation, mode
b. Mean, median, standard deviation
c. Arithmetic mean, median, mode
d. Standard deviation, internal validity, mode

2. In lab experiment the effect of Variables is controlled to evaluate the


causal relationship.
a. Extraneous
b. Moderate
c. Intervening
d. All of the above

3. Internal validity refers to .


a. Researchers degree of confidence.

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b. Generalizability
c. Operationalization
d. All of the above

4. Which of the following is the weakest experimental design?


a. One group pretest-posttest design
b. Quasi- experimental design
c. Two group posttest only design
d. Ex post facto design

5. How many times the students appear in the research class is the example of
_________.
a. Intensity
b. Space
c. Frequency
d. Direction

6. Disadvantage of content analysis is .


a. Researcher can increase the sample size
b. Provides access on the subjects to which researcher does have physical access.
c. Sometime documents provide incomplete account to the researcher
d. Spontaneous feelings can be recorded when they occurred

7. Which of the following statement is incorrect with respect to An


experimental design is a set of procedures specifying:
a. How the test units (subjects) are to be divided into homogenous sub samples.

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b. What independent variables or treatments are to be measured?
c. What dependent variables are to be measured?
d. How the extraneous variables are to be controlled?

8. Time consumed in mall intercept interview is .


a. High
b. Moderate
c. Low
d. Nil

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9. Teacher should create a friendly environment in the classroom this is the


type of .
a. Leading question
b. Loaded question
c. Double Barreled
d. Burdensome question

10. Departmental stores selected to test a new merchandising display system is


the example of .
a. Quota sampling
b. Convenience sampling
c. Judgmental sampling
d. Purposive sampling

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1. ___________research is based on naturalism.
A. Field research
B. Descriptive research
C. Basic research
D. Applied research
2. Personal interviews conducted in shopping malls are known as_________
A. Mall interviews
B. Mall intercept interviews
C. Brief interviews
D. None of the given options

3. ____________is used to obtain the freest opinion of the respondent, by asking


general question before a specific question.
A. Research technique
B. Qualitative technique
C. Funnel technique
D. Quantitative technique

4. In, ____________the interviewer and members jointly control the pace and
direction of the interview.
A. Field interview
B. Telephonic interview
C. Both A and B
D. None of the given options

5. Randomization of test units is a part of ______________


A. Pretest

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B. Posttest
C. Matching
D. Experiment

6. Which one of the following sets is the measure of central tendency?


a. Mean, standard deviation, mode
b. Mean, median, standard deviation
c. Arithmetic mean, median, mode
d. Standard deviation, internal validity, mode

7. Internal validity refers to .


a. Researchers degree of confidence.
b. Generalizability
c. Operationalization
d. All of the above
8. How many times the students appear in the research class is the example of
_________.
a. Intensity
b. Space
c. Frequency
d. Direction

9. Time consumed in mall intercept interview is .


a. High
b. Moderate
c. Low
d. Nil

10. Departmental stores selected to test a new merchandising display system is


the example of .
a. Quota sampling

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b. Convenience sampling
c. Judgmental sampling
d. Purposive sampling

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