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Odisha-An Introduction

By
Arun Kumar Upadhyay

Introduction
Odisha is at centre of ancient Bhrata-vara of 9 parts
described in Puras which extended from Arab till
Vietnam and Indonesia. That is why it is place of
Jaganntha, who resides in heart of every being. That
way, history and geography of Odisha is also history of
India and to some extent of the whole world. Puras
state major historic periods divided by 2 glacial flood in
31000 and around 10000 BC as pre modern geological
estimates. Worship of Jaganntha also has varied as per

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these periods. Current phase of history starts after
destruction of world civilization in Mahbhrata war in
3139 BC.
Similar to the centre of Indian history, Odisha is also the
centre of forgeries and manipulations of Indian history.
All the 3 crucial inscriptions-Dhauli about Kalinga war,
Vakataka queen Prabhavati Devi inscription about her
parent family of Gupta kings, and Kharavel inscription
are in Odisha only. There are major Bauddha and Jain
remains here. But, history texts tell almost the exact
opposite to the statements in inscriptions. It is
necessary to write history of Odisha and India in current
perspective of Puras which tallies with world history.
To understand properly, British manipulated dates also
are given.

Index
1. Figures of 2011 census 3
2. Geography 6
3. Forest Resource 12
4. Mineral reserves 16
5. Some national songs of Odisha 17
6. Vedic tradition of Odisha 22
7. Concept and history of Jaganntha 36
8. Ancient towns and sacred places of Odisha 73
9. History as in Puras 85
10. Middle and modern periods 93
11. Ancient Sanskrit literature 110
12. Panchasakha poets and other Oriya texts 116
13. Forest tribes 123
14. Makers of modern Odisha 126
15. Tradition of ocean trade 136
16. Music and dance 141
17. Jain and Bauddha tradition 145

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Chapter 1-Summary of 2011 Census
In census of 2011, population of Odisha was
4,19,47,358 out of which 2,12,01,678 were male and
2,07,45,680 were female. Estimate for later years is
2012-4.27 crores
2013-4.31 crores
2014-4.37 crores
2015-4.43 crores
2016-4.49 crores
2017-4.534 crores
Area of Odisha is 60,119 square miles or 1,55,707
Sq.Kms. Change from 2001 to 2011 census is as
follows-
Year 2011 2001
Population 4,19,74,218 3,68,04,660
Male 2,12,12,136 1,86,60,570
Female 2,07,62,082 1,81,44,090
Increase 14.05% 15.94%
Part of India 3.47% 3.58%
Sex ratio 979 972
Sex ratio in children 941 953
Population density/Km2 270 236
Religion wise numbers in 2011
Hindu 3,93,00,41 93.63%
Christian 11,61,708 2.77%
Muslim 9,11,670 2.17%
Others 4,78,317 1.14%
Unknown 76,919 0.18%
Sikh 21,991 0.05%
Bauddha 13,852 0.03%

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Jain 9,420 0.02%
Urban population in 2011-Rural Urban
Population% 83.31% 16.69%
Total numbers 3,49,70,562 70,03,656
Male 1,75,86,203 36,25,933
Female 1,73,84,359 33,77,723
Increase 11.77% 26.94%
Sex ratio 989 932
Odisha districts with Code numbers-30 districts of
Odisha
370-Bargadh, 371-Jharsuguda, 372-Sambalpur, 373-
Deogadh, 374-Sundargadh, 375-Keonjhar, 376-
Mayurbhanj, 377-Balasore, 378-Bhadrak, 379-
Kendrapada, 380-Jagatsinghpur, 381-Cuttack, 382-
Jajpur, 383-Dhrnkanal, 384-Angul, 385-Nayagadh, 386-
Khordha (Bhubaneswar in this), 387-Puri, 388-Ganjam,
389-Gajpati, 390-Kandhmal, 391-Baudh, 392-
Subarnpur, 393-Balangir, 394-Nuapara, 395-Kalahandi,
396-Raygadha, 397-Nabarangpur, 398-Koraput, 399-
Malkangiri.
Chapter 2-Geography
Odisha is on east coast of India from 17 049 to 22034
north latitude and 81027 to 87029 east longitude. West
Bengal is towards north-east, Jharkhand in north,
Chhatisgarh in west and Andhra Pradesh in south.
It has 5 natural zones-coastal plain land, central
mountains, mountains of north and south, river valleys
and plateau regions.
Coastal belt is from Suvarnarekha river to Rishikulya in
south. It is widest in middle in delta region of Mahanadi
and narrowest near Chilka lake. 6 main rivers deposit
soil in this-Suvarnarekha, Budha Balang, Vaitarani,
Brahmani, Mahanadi, Rishikulya. Three fourth of the
state is mountaneous having valleys of Vaitarani,
Brahmani, Mahanadi, Rishikulya, Vamshadhara,

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Nagavali. Nagavali and Vamshadhara both emerge from
same place in Thuamul Rampur of Kalahandi and flow
parallel till they meet ocean near Vishakhapattanam.
Being a port near 2 branches (Shakha), it is called
Vishakha.
Heart region of India-
Largest continent is Jamb-Dvpa (Jumbo = big in
English) which contains Bhrata. Being a centre of
civilization, it was called Ajanbha-Vara (Aja = unborn,
Brahma, Nbhi = navel, centre). Later on it was called
Bhrata named after Bharata, son of abhadeva or for
feeding the world. Being bounded in north by Himalaya,
it is also called Himavat-vara. Himalaya restricts rain
clouds in this land, so it is called Vara-parvata. Bhrata
vara is region of single rain-system (monsoon). In
south, it is inverted triangle, called akti-trikoa in
Tantra. In north, Himalaya is like crescent moon. Joining
both makes it heart shape which has become symbol of
heart in world.

Sout
Himalaya India
h
India

Triangle Crescent Moon Heart Shape


with vertex
downward
s
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Bhrata vara had 9 parts from Arab to Vietnam.
Central part was main which is inverted triangle as seen
from south. So it was called Kumrik which is first form
of akti.
The Chinese traveller Huensang in 620-640 AD has
stated that Bhrata was called Indu (moon) due to 3
reasons-(1) North boundary Himalaya is in shape of
crescent moon (accurate maps were made then), (2)
Himalaya is cool like moon, (3) Bhrata spreads
knowledge in world like moon spreads light. Greeks
were unable to pronounce Indu correctly and called it
Inde which has become India in English.
Shape of Bhrata is heart by joining inverted triangle in
south and crescent moon in north. Jaganntha resides
at its centre as He lives in heart of everyone (Gt,
18/61). Puri is at centre in north-south and east-west
from Arab to Vietnam.
( /)
Manu (Leader) of India or Agri (Agra = leader) fed the
whole world, so he wascalled Bharata and the country
was called Bhrata. Place of filling (praa) was Pur.
(1)
( /) = Agni is above all on earth, he
radiates light as Angir, feeds and fills us. We may get
Agni who can lead to prosperity. We will fill him with
havi (tax etc.)
(2) ( ///)
= Being the first born, He was our Agri (leader) which is
called Agni.
(3) (Matsya
Pura, 114/5, Vyu Pura 45/76) = Manu (ruler) of
this country is called Bharata for feeding and protecting
world. Nirukta definition also calls this country as
Bhrata.

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Janapadas in Odisha-Janapada is natural region within
country. Kings descendant of Janamejaya ruled Odisha
after him and were called lord of three Kalingas (Tri-
Kalonga-adhipati). Three zones in their state were-(1)
Kosala with capital at Mur or Mura-sima-pattana on
banks of Mahanadi river. Its rulers were called maurya
who subsequently ruled from Magadh. Mura submerged
in Mahanadi reservoir when Hirakud dam was built in
1956. (2) Utkala (uttar or north part of Kalinga)-North of
Mahanadi till Suvarnarekha with capital at Vijayakataka
(present Cuttack). (3) Kalinga-coastal plain from
mahanadi to Godavari. Capital at Konagadha. Capital
shifted to Pishtapuram (Pithapur in Srikakulam district
of AP). Its southwest part was Tri-kalinga or Trilinga
(Telangana) with 3 main iva-lingas.
Odisha Janapada-Geographical units in Puras were-
Dvpa (continents), Vara (country-natural region having
a single rain system, divided by Vara-parvatas or
mountains limiting rain system). In Jamb-dvpa (Asia),
Bhrata-vara is bounded in north by its Vara-parvata
Himlaya, so it is called Himavat-vara also (Himyar by
Al-Biruni in his book Chronology of Ancient Nations).
map of world, north hemisphere was divided into 4
quadrants. One such sheet was Bhrata from equator
till north pole and 450 west to 450 east from Ujjain which
was ancient reference of longitudes. Other shets were-
Bhadrva in east, Ketumla in west, Kuru on opposite
side.
Each Vara was divided into Janapada separated by
Kula-parvatas or major rivers. After Mahbhrata,
descendants of king Janamejaya ruled with capital at
Suvarnapur (Sonepur) with 3 zones and were called Tri-
Kalingdhipati, i.e. rulers of 3 Kalingas. The parts were-
(1) Kosala west Odisha with parts of Chatisgarh, capital
at Mur on Mahanadi bank which was also called

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Murasimapattana in grants. After 1956, this town
submerged into Hirakud reservoir and shifted to Burla.
Subordinate rulers based at Mur (literally meaning
centre of iron ore region, Mura or murrum means iron
ore) were called Maurya. Later on they ruled at
Magadha. (2) Utkala-north and east part of Odisha
between Suvarnarekha and mahanadi with capital at
Vijaya-Kataka (present Cuttack). (3) Kalinga-coastal belt
between Mahanadi and Godavari with Capital at Kona-
garh shifted to Piapuram (present Pithapuram in north
Andhra pradesh). Adjacent hilly region was Trilinga (with
3 main Lingas, Kalinga has main linga as Lingaraj) or
Telangana.
Origin of region names-Source region of Mahanadi is
Kosala (like uprooting Kush or straw), end region was
Toala (saturated). One of wrestlers kill in Dhanua-
yaja of Kamsa in Mahbhrata was Toala from this
region, killed by Balaram.
In spherical geometry, top point of sphere was
Kadamba and bottom point Kalamba. So, anchor of ship
was kalamba (cilumn) and its users (shippers) were
Kalanja. Land of shipping persons was Kalinga and their
head was Kadamba (top of sphere).
North part is Utkala meaning north of Kalinga. It has
shallow sea fit for wooden ships (Uupa), so it was also
called Ura. Rice was exported from this region to
Roman empire, hence rice was called Aurya which
became Oryza in Greek, which is origin of English name
Orissa. By omitting O from Oryza, it has become rice.
Another source of name is Uyn (navel region of
country-term of Yoga) as Odisha is centre of ancient
India. Sri Ram had given charge of Jaganntha worship
to Vibhaa who used Ua-Tantra written by his elder
brother Rvaa (Vlmki Rmyaa, 7/108/28).

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Parts of Odisha have been listed in 3 regions in puras
(e.g. Matsya Pura (114/44-54)-
East India-Tmraliptaka (on name of Tmralipti port of
Utkala)
South India-Kalinga (coast from Mahanadi to Godavari),
abara (Krpatha = Koraput), Daaka (Bastar,
Koraput), Bhogavardhana (south west Odisha)
Vindhya or central region-Mekala (north west Odisha),
Utkala (north Odisha), Aura (north east Odisha),
Kikindhaka (Kandha region), Toala (Mahaandi delta),
Kosala (south Kosala-Raipur, Sambalapur), Naiadha
(navarangpur, Kalahandi), Arpa or Anpa
(Amarakantaka region, source of Mahanadi and
Narmada rivers), Vtihotra (west of Sundargadh).
Rmnujchrya (1017-1137 AD) had come for
inauguration of present Jaganntha temple. He has
stated that Odisha is junction of 2 traditions of
knowledge-Sanskrit tradition was called Pingala (a place
in Jajpur district, prosody), Dravia tradition was called
Tingala (in Tamil and Telugu-both starting with T).
Chapter 3-Forest Resource
As per 2011 report of Odisha Forest Department, there
are a total of 58,136 Km2 of which 26,329 Km2 (45%) is
reserve protected forest, 15,525 Km2 (26.7%) protected
forest and 16,282 Km2 other forests. Forest are in
37.34% land area. Actually, there were only 48,903
Km2 under forests which is 31.41% of land area. This is
forest of different densities. In 2007 forest area was
48,855 Km2. For preservation and development of
forests, Forest department is doing protection and
plantation work with cooperation of people. There are
mainly 4 types of forests-
(1) Semi-Evergreen forests of north-In Mayurbhanj,
Dhenkanal, Athagarh, Puri, Nayagarh, Parlakhemundi,
Koraput, Kalahandi in high mountains and vallies. Trees

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in upper regions are deciduous and lower reaches are
evergreen. Main trees are-Arjun, mango, Kendu,
Champa, Rai, Mand, Nageshwar.
(2) Monsoon forest or warm wet deciduous forest-Lower
regions of Mayurbhanj, Keonjhar and in bordering
regions of Chatisgarh, Andhra. Upper canopy of major
trees consists of-Sal, Asan, Piyasal, Kurum, Kangara,
Dhaura, thick bamboo.
(3) Warm deciduous forest-Balangir, Kalahandi,
Sambalpur, Khariar, Deogarh and Gobindpur divisions.
This consists of mainly Teak and thin bamboos.
(4) Coastal mangroves-These are in Bhitar-kanika
(Balasore) and Mahanadi delta region. Main trees are
Karika, Sundari, Bani, Rai, Guan. These are also called
Hental forest due to mainly Hental shrubs.
There are 2 main Shaka trees in Indian forests. In sub-
Himalaya, sal is called Shaka (=powerful) or Sakhua. In
south, main tree teak is also called Shaka-vana or
Sagwan. Due to heavy rains and peculiar soil, a strip of
Sal forests extends south from Gorakhpur to Sarnath,
Sasaram, Palamau, Singhbhumi, Sundargarh,
Sambalpur, kalahandi, Nawrangpur till Malkangiri.
Siddharth Buddha was called Shakya-muni as he was
born in Shaka forest region of Gorakhpur. Sal forests
exist only till Mathili (meaning Sita who had stayed here
in exile). There is Teak only south of it. Near south limit
of Sal, Sri Ram had cut 7 Sal tees indicated by Sugriva
with a single arrow. Sal region from Gorakhpur to
Palamau is called mini-Shaka Dvipa and Brahmanas of
this region are called Shakadvipi.
Overall position of forests is not good in Odisha or India
as a whole. Odisha was called Aranyak or main forest
region of country. But now timber for common furniture
is imported here from Malayasia and Africa. Here, major
income of forest is from Kendu-leaves which grows in

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degraded forests. This also harms public health by
smoking.
Animals-Odisha was famous for animals since ancient
times. Elephant army of Kalinga was famous in
Mahabharata which had engaged Bhimasen in war. Till
today, kings of Kalinga (coast from Mahanadi to
Godavari) in Puri, Parlakhemundi, Vijaynagar,
Srikakulam are called Gaja-pati (ruler of elephants).
Digvijay Shasan inscription of Janamejaya of 27-11-
3014 BC calls king of Utkal (north Odisha) as Ashva-
pati(king of horses) and Kalinga king as Gajapati. Horse-
stable was called Haya-l and its officers were Hoysal
ruling in Karnatak. There descendants were Bhonsale
(including Shivaji of Maharashtra. Story of Aruni
Uddlak and king Ashvapati is in Chhndogya upaniad.
In name of Uddlak , there was a branch of Krishna
Yajurveda and Udala sub-division in Mayurbhanj.
A tiger project was started in Simalipal (Simali-pahar in
Mayurbhanj) in 850 Km2 to preserve tiger and other
main animals. There are sanctuaries in Ushakothi in
Sambalpur and Chandka near Bhubaneswar. White
tigers are kept in natural environment in Nandan-Kanan
zoo of Bhubaneswar. Panthers and wild buffalo are
found in Ushakothi. Chandka has wild elephants. There
are crocodile parks in Tikarpada (Dhenkanal) of 800 Km 2
and Bhitar-kanika (Jajpur) in 162 Km2. Large size ocean
turtle of 135-180 Kg come from many thousand Kms to
lay eggs in Chilka lake and Bhitar-kanika
List of sanctuaries-1. Simlipal, 2. Bhitarkanika, 3.
satkosia (Tikarpada, Dhenkanal), 4. Hadgarh (Keonjhar,
Mayurbhanj), 5. Nandan-Kanan (Bhubaneswar), 6.
baisipali (Nayagarh), 7. Kothgarh (Baliguda in
Kandhmal), 8. Chandka-Dampada (near Bhubaneswar),
9. Balu-Khand Konark, 10. Kuldiha (Balasore), 11.
Debrigarh (near Hirakud reservoir), 12. Lakhari valley

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(Gajpati), 13. Chilka (Nalaban-Ganjam, in Puri, Khurda
districts), 14. Badarma (Ushakothi-Sambalpur), 15.
Sunabeda (Nuapara district bordering Chatisgarh), 16.
Karlapat (Kalahandi), 17. Gahirmatha (Mahanadi delta).

Chapter 4-Mineral resources of Odisha


Estimates of 2012-13
Mineral Reserve in million tons
Bauxite 1811.223
China clay 313.931
Chromite 159.408
Coal 713710.01
Dolomite 325.994
Fireclay 175.462
Graphite 4.324
Iron ore 4958.258

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Lead, Zinc 4.98
Lime stone 993.718
Heavy metals 226.00
Nickel 174.00
Pyrophilite 8.308
Mineral sand 221.846
Vanadium 2.500
Quartz 70.084
Tin 0.0004
(Raw tin metal is abundant in Malkangiri and is sold in
villages by melting it. It looks like gold at some
temperatures. Probably, it has not been surveyed.)

Chapter 5-Some famous national songs of Odisha


1. Vande Utkala-janan-Knta Kavi Lakmknta
Mahptra
Vande Utkala Janan, chru hsamay, chru bhsamay
janan, janan, janan II1II
Pta payodhi vidhauta arr, Tla-tamla-suobhita tr
ubhratainkla-skara-samr, janan, janan, janan
II2II
Ghana vanabhmi rjita ange, nla bhdharaml sje
tarange
Kala kala mukharita chru vihange, janan, janan,
janan II2II
Sundara li-suobhita ketr, jna-vijna pradarita
netr
Yog-igaa uaja-pavitr, janan, janan, janan II4II

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Sundara mandira maita de, chru kalvali obhia
ve
Puya trthachaya, pra prade, janan, janan, janan
II5II
Utkala suravara darpita geh, arikula-oita-charchita-
deh
Viva bhmaala ktavara sneh, janan, janan, janan
II6II
Kavikulamauli sunandana vandy, bhuvana-vighoita-
krti anindy, Dhanyepuye chiraaraye, janan,
janan, janan II7II

2. Davata stotram (Jayadeva, Aapad meter)


Pralaya payodhi jale dhtavnasi vedam, vihita vahitra
charitramakhedam,
Keava dhta mnaarra, Jaya Jagada hare II1II
Kitirativipulatare tava tihati phe,
dharaidharaakia chakra garihe,
Keava dhta kachchhaparpa, Jaya Jagada hare II2II
Vasati daana-ikhare dhara tava lagn,
aini kalanka-kaleva nimagn I
Keava dhta skara rpa, Jaya Jagada hare II3II
Tava kara-kamala-vare nakhamadbhut ngam,
Dalita Hirayakaipu tanu-bhngam I
Keava dhta Narahari rpa, Jaya Jagada hare II3II
Chhalayasi vikramae Balimadbhuta Vmana,
Pada-nakha-nra-janita jana-pvana I
Keava dhta Vmana rpa, Jaya Jagada hare II5II
Katriya-rudhira-maye jagadapagata-ppam,
Snapayasi payasi amita bhava-tpam I
Keava dhta Bhgupati rpa, Jaya Jagada hare II6II
Vitarasi diku rae dikpati-kamanyam,
Daamukha-mauli balim ramayam I
Keava dhta Raghupati vea, Jaya Jagada hare II7II
Vahasi vapui viade vasanam jaladham,

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Hala-hati-bhi milita yamunbham I
Keava dhta Haladhara rpa, Jaya Jagada hare II8II
Nindasi yaja-vidhe-rahaha ruti-jtam,
Sadaya-hdaya-darita pau-ghtam I
Keava dhta Buddha-arra, Jaya Jagada hare II9II
Mlechchha-nivaha nidhane kalayasi karavlam,
Dhmaketumiva kimapi karlam I
Keava dhta Kalki-ara, Jaya Jagada hare II10II
r Jayadeva kaveridamuditamudram,
u sukhadam ubhadam bhavasram I
Keava dhta daavidha rpa, Jaya Jagada hare II11II
Vedn uddharate jagan nivahate bhgolam ud-vibhrate,
Daityam drayate Balim chhalayate katra-kyam
kurvate I
Paulastyam mrchhayate dakti-kte,
Kya tubhyam namah II12II

3. Bhrata janan-r Rdhntha Rya


Sarvem no janan, Bhrata-dhara kalpa-lateyam
Janan-vatsala-tanaya-gaaistat,
samyaka arma vidheyam! (repeated)
Himagiri-smantita-mastakamidam, ambudhi-parigata-
prvam
Asmajjanmada-mannada-mania, rauta-
puranamram II1II
Vijanita haram Bhrata-varam, vivotkara-nidnam
Bhrata-armai ktamasmbhih, navamidamaikya
vidham I2I
Bhrata-hita-sampdanameva hi, kryam tvia-
vipkam
Bhrata-varjam na kimapi kryam,
nichitamityasmkam II3II
Bhratamek gatirasmkam, nparsti bhuvi nma
Sarvdau hdayena ca manas, Bhratameva namma
II4II

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4. r Jagannthakam
di ankarchrya (ikhari meter)
Kadchit Klind taa vipina sangtaka-varo
Mudbhr nr vadana kamal svda madhupah I
Ram-ambhu-Brahm-(a)marapati Gaercchita-pado
I
Jaganntha-svm Nayana patha-gm Bhavatu me II1II
Bhuje savye veum irasi ikhipichchham kai-tae,
Duklam netrnte sahachara-kakam vidadhate I
Sad rmad-Vndvana-vasati-ll-parichayo,
Jaganntha-svm Nayana patha-gm Bhavatu me II2II
Mahmbhodhestre kanaka ruchire nla ikhare,
Vasan prsdntah sahaja Balabhadrea balin I
Subhadr madhyasthah sakala-sura-sev-vasarado,
Jaganntha-svm Nayana patha-gm Bhavatu me II3II
Kp prvrah sajala jalada rei-ruchiro,
Ram V Rmah sphuradamala pankeruhamukhah I
Surendrair rdhyah rutiga ikh gta charito,
Jaganntha-svm Nayana patha-gm Bhavatu me II1II
Rathho gachchhan pathi milita bhdeva paalaih,
Stuti prdurbhvam pratipadamupkarya sadayah I
Daysindhurbandhuh sakala jagatm Sindhu-sutay,
Jaganntha-svm Nayana patha-gm Bhavatu me II5II
Param Brahmpah kuvalaya-dalotphulla-nayano,
Nivs nldrau nihita-carao-(a)nanta-irasi I
Rasnand Rdh-sarasa-vapurlingana-sukho,
Jaganntha-svm Nayana patha-gm Bhavatu me II6II
Na vai yche rjyam na cha kanaka mikya vibhavam,
Na yche(a)ham ramym sakala jana kmym
varavadhm I
Sad kle kle Pramatha-patin gta-charito,
Jaganntha-svm Nayana patha-gm Bhavatu me II7II
Hara tvam samsram drutataram asram surapate,

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Hara tvam ppnm vitatim aparm Ydavapate I
Aho dne-(a)nthe nihita charao nichitamidam,
Jaganntha-svm Nayana patha-gm Bhavatu me II8II
Jagannthakam puyam yah pahet prayatah uchih
I
Sarva-ppa viuddhtm Viu-lokam sa gachchhati
II9II

Chapter 6-Vedic Tradition of Odisha


British period books teach us that Oriya was a separate
tribal language which was later on sanskritised by
Aryans. But this was the centre was Indian culture due
to which Jagannha resides here. Till today, Oriya is
closest to Sanskrit and pronounced like pure Sanskrit.
West of Odisha, last letter is pronounced half, here
equal stress is given on all letters. East of Odisha, main
A is spken as O in Bengal to Asam and even in Thailand,
Cambodia, Indonesia. King Bhmibala Atulyatej of
Thailand was called Bhmibola Otulyatej. Prince
Narottama Simhanuk of Cambodia was called Norotom.
Sukara of Indonesia was called Sukaro. North of
Odisha, is spoken as Ri, in south it is Ru. In Odisha,
is spoken as all three types-Ri, Ru, Ra as evident for

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derived words. Amta becomes Amiya, Gha Ghara,
Pcchhati Pchhat (Hindi also).
In all languagaes of world, meters are of 4 quarters. But
Gyatr mantra has 3 parts only for meaning purpose.
Whole Chhanda is a sentence with 3 clauses.
Bhgavata pura was meant to be explanation of
Gyatr Mantra, hence Jaganntha Ds wrote Oriya
Bhgavata also in meters of 3 parts.
Three types of Vedic words are used only in Oriya-(1)
Words related to Indra are used from Odisha to Vietnam
and Indonesia where Indra was Lokapla (ruler of east).
(2) Words related to ocean are in use in coastal south
India including Odisha, (3) words related to Jaganntha.
If Oriya was sanskritized by Aryans, then these words
should have been in use in north and west India also
from where Aryans are supposed to have come.
Words related to Indra-(1) Indra means lord, husband.
Both are not called by name for respect. So, Indra was
called sa-janah = that person, or Balam = power.
Husband is called Sajan and Balam due to that.

( //)
= Without whom people dont win, who is offered at
war time, who is standard for world, and who can defeat
the undefeated-such person is Indra only.
As defeater of undefeated, Indra was called Achyuta-
chyuta. So, kings of Asam were called Chutiy (chyuta).
As rulers tend to become oppressors, this word has
become abuse specially among Asura languages.
Indra was called Ba-mahn which becomes Ba before
M of mahn. This means very big or man with lot of Ba.
Thus, currency of Thailand is called Baht and baa
means big.

( //)

18
(2) Places of Krttikeya-6 mothers of Krttikeya were
akti-Phas in different regions of country which are
now called area headquarters of army. Their names are
given in Taittirya samhit and Brhmaa both-
, , , , , ,
, ( ///-)
As per current uses and meanings in different regions,
the zones of 6 mothers are-1. Dul-in Odisha and
Bengal. Dul temples are popular around Kork region
where Krttikeya had built a victory tower after victory
over Kraucha Dvpa (Skanda Pura). Dulla name is
popular here which means son of Dul. 2. Varayant-
Asam which is heavy rainfall (var) area. 3. Chupuk-
Punjab, Kashmir where Chopra title is common. 4.
Meghayant-Gujrat, rajsthan where Megha (clouds) are
seen with little rain-Meghani, Meghwal titles are
common here. 5. Abhrayant-Maharashtra, Andhra
Pradesh where cyclonic rains (Abhra) are common. 6.
Nitatni-Tamilnadu, Karnataka (Atharva veda 6/136/1
uses this word as herb spreading down-south regions of
country shown down in map).
(3) unah Indra-As radiation energy in space, Indra is
present even in vacuum. As king, Indra owns any
unclaimed property or minerals below ground not
owned by anybody. In both senses, he is called unah
(zero). Land property or minerals of Indra are called
Bhusun whose temples abound in Bhubaneswar
region.
( //) = There is no such place not
occupied by Indra. He covers whole sky or earth like
Megha (cloud), so he is Maghav- (
//)
van (dog), Yuvan (young man), Maghavan (Indra)-all
enter vacant place, so their word forms are similar-
( //). This is referred in ankara-

19
Digvijaya, chapter 8. ankarchrya asked a girl why
she was making a peculiar garland with jewel, gold and
nut in same thread. She replied that even great Pini
also put Indra, dog and young man in same stra
(thread or formula)-

( )
(4) Chinnamast-Vajra (thunderbolt) was main weapon
of Indra. This was called Chinnamast among 10
Mahvidy whose temple is in Sambalpur (Sambal =
cantonment). She has been called great woman who
goes in war-
(
//)
(5) Buhrj-This temple is in Sambalpur. It means
eldest king. As king, Indra was on top of hierarchy, so
he was called vddha-rav, which has become
Buhrj-
( /)
(6) khaala-mai-Person controlling one region
(Khaa) is called Khayata which is used only in
Odisha for Katriyas as Indra was called khaala
(controlling all khaas). khaala-mai temple is in
Bhadrak.
(7) Bra-Person enjoying or using land is called Vra
(=brave) as only brave can retail land- . Thus,
land given in grant is called Vra or Bra in Odisha, e.g.
Bir-maharajpur, Bir-Ramchandrapur ets. Such person
given land is right hand of king, so its enjoyer (Att) is
rightside or south of Indra. Thus, Attbir is south of
Buhrj.
... ( ) (
///)
(8) Goj-gveda (4/40/5), Vj. Yaju. (10/24) use many
words Adrij, taj, Abj, Goj. Go means radiation or

20
Indra in vacant space. Light rays move in straight line
and create life forms, hence Goj means straight rod.
Spread of light from a point is in conical shape, so Goj
also means cone in Oriya. Zone of radiation pressure is
up to Uranus orbit, and that supports or weaves life.
Since Goj does Bayana (weaving) Goj-bayan is
between Sun place at Kork and khaalamai at
Bhadrak. Strong arm of Indra is called Gojit-bhu. Flow
of particles is Vyu of solar system called -daa
which extends till 3000 sun-diameters from sun as per
Viu pur (2/8/2) etc i.e. upto Uranus orbit.
( /) = You are or energy
flow.
(//)- =
Ratha of Sun has 9000 yojana circumference (yojana
here is sun diameter), i.e. about 1500 yojana radius.
-daa is double of this size.

( //)= Indra
has incomparable power with Goj hands. We pray him
for energy.
(9) ok-It is derived from Tokah = son in Rudra-skta.
Indra is worshipped as iva, so in area of Buhrj,
Tok means son. Feminine is ok. This mantra is recited
for offering paddy grains- ... ( //,
/, ///, ///)
(10) Ghanaghana-continuous or quick repetition. Indra
used steady flow (Ghanaghana) of arrows to defeat
many enemies single handedly, so this word is used in
Oriya with same meaning.

( //, , //,
/, ///, /)
(11) Two forms of Jaganntha-Gt describes 2 forms of
Jaganntha- (i) On path of Yoga, one can achieve all His

21
Vibhti (quality, wealth) one by one. That is Mah-
purua form, i.e. higher form of common man. In that
sense, Jaganntha is called Mahbhu (with big hands)-
( /)
(ii) As source of world, Jaganntha is beyond our
imagination. That is described in Bhgavata pura,
hence is called Pura-Purua.
( /)
Being bigger than Mah-purua, this form is also called
Ati-Bai (too big) in Oriya. Jaganntha reciprocates us in
same way as we worship Him- (
/)
Achyutnanda described Him by Yoga, so he was
himself called Mah-Purua. Jaganntha Dsa described
much higher form by Bhgavata pura, so he was
called Ati-Bai.
(11) Rma as the first-For weighing grains, first lot is
called Rma, then we count 2, 3, etc. Reason is that
Jaganntha as Avyaya purua is higher than both Kara
and Akara purua, hence He is called Uttama (best)
Purua or Puruottama. As Puruottama, He appeared
as Rma who never exceeded limits of human ability.
Ka frequently did many things which are beyond
human imagination. Since Rma was Prathita (stated,
first) as Puruottama, Prathama (first) is called Rma.

( /)
(13) Period of Indra-Indra had broken words into basic
sounds with help of Marut. It had 33 consonants as
symbols of 33 Devas and total of 49 letters as symbol
of 49 Marut. Being an arrangement (Chiti = city,
Nagara) of Devas in symbols, it is called Deva-ngar.
This script is still in use from region of Indra in east to
region of Marut in north west part of Bhrata. For
starting Lekha (writing script), Indra was called

22
Lekharabha (source of script)-Ref-Taittirya samhit
(6/4/7), Maitrya samhit (4/5/8), Kva samhit
(27/2), Kapihala samhit (42/3). So, Alekha name is
popular on Odisha being region of Indra. King of Odisha
at time of Kalinga was of Ashoka in 1464 BC has been
called Alekha-sundara (Kalsi inscription near Dehradun).
But he has been dubbed as king of Alexandria which
didnt exist then nor it was on border.
Words related to ocean-Due to shipping trade, many
names are similar in all coastal countries.
(1) Khuiy-A ship is fixed at coast by tying it with a
pillar (Khua). The person receiving the ship and in-
charge of loading-unloading is called Khuiy in
Odisha, Khue in Maharashtra, and Kunte in Nigeria,
Ghana.
(2) Pai-Paa = to deal or barter. Pai = market,
bargainer, thief. Pirates also have been called Pai who
were crushed by Indra (gveda 8/64, 10/108 etc.). Pais
will be found only where there is sea trade. Indologists
see only outside India, not within own country or region.
They see Phoenicians as Pai, not Pa tribe of Odisha.
(3) Nga-Nga means a snake or elephant. It means
curved boundary line or surface and as 7th dimension
of space, it indicates number 7. Ngavthi is circle north
of zodiac in space or north of equator. This was main
shipping route on earth and have Nga tribes all over
world-Aztec (stka Nga of Mexico), Nagaland,
Ngval river of Odisha, Nagpur, Nagapattanam in
Tamilnadu, Nagasaki port of Japan etc. Most kings of
Odisha were of Nga gotra having fleet of ships or
elephant army. Inland Ngas were transporter of goods.
(4) There were 2 types of ships in ocean. One were
driven by bamboo or by ores moved by men. In ocean,
many ships moved with wind energy captured by sails.
Since they borrowed (ychan in sanskrit), they were

23
called Ychaka (Yatch in English). Ychaka title is found
in Maharashtra and Odisha.
(5) Marshaghai-Low land (ghai in Oriya) near sea
becomes smooth (masa) due to water logging. So this
region is called Marshaghai. It has become marsh in
English.
(6) Erasama-This is a block in Mahanadi delta. Ir
means water, Irvat is a river in Burma (Myanmar) and
Thailand and in Punjab. Ir-sam means land which has
water on both sides. This became Erasmus in Greek.
(7) Mua-Literally it means head. In water flow, it
means source as source or root is called top (head in
human body-Gt 15/1). In English also, source point of
water flow is called head. The point where Mahanadi
has single current is called Mundali. When it bifurcates
at mouth of delta, it is called Bi-mundi.
(8) Pka-In Oriya, it means both-to cook, to mix (for
cooking). In vedas, this has been used in both these
meanings. In ocean, all minerals are mixed in water. By
similar mixing of elements in various oceans of space,
world was created. Agent mixing them is called Supara
(bird)-

, ( //) = One
supara entered ocean, he created world by thoughtful
mixing of elements. He tended (Rehi) land like mother,
motherland also looked after.
Rehi = Reddy is used for farmers in Andhra Pradesh
which has largest farming area on coast.
Head of navy was called Supara-Nyaka.
Conspiracy is by mixing many plans, so it is called
Pchyn or Pnche in Oriya.
Je Pnche para ra manda, thra manda pnchanti
Govinda (Jaganntha Dsa)= Those who plan against

24
others, Govinda plans against them. This is essence of a
verse in upaniad-
( /)
(9) Thought from Manu smti-Manu smti tells that ill
gotten wealth increases for a while, then there is
celebration and victory, finally it is destroyed totally-

( /)
Jaganntha Dsa has stated first and last stages-
Adharma dhana bahe bahuta, gal bele jae mula
sahita.
(10) Sayings of Kva branch-Kva yajurveda was
popular only in Odisha. Sayings of literature of this
branch are famous quotes here called Khan (Kva)
Vachana (saying). Another word of atapatha Brhmaa
is Musmus used for crisp mixture which creates mut-
mut sound while chewing. This is used only in north
Odisha-
( ///-)
- - ( //)
( //) ( //) -
=
Persons studying this text were called atapath-a title
here.
(11) Rga-Normally it means tunes of music. In Oriya, it
also means anger. Gt(2/62) tells that anger comes
after Kma. Since anger is Rga, Kma or desire is
called Anu-rga.
(12) Bhva-It used as noun meaning feeling. In Oriya, it
is also verb which means to feel. Examples in Sanskrit
are-

(, )

25

( )
(13) Bhvagrah-Jaganntha Da has mostly addressed
Bhagavn as Bhvagrah i.e. who understands inner
feelings. So, this name is popular in Odisha only.
Another name Dukhishyam is also popular, i.e.
Bhagavn becomes unhappy with trouble of His
devotees.
(14) Asan (unclean), Pari (neighbouring)-These two
words from Dv-supara skta are used only in Oriya.
The verse tells that 2 birds (joint controllers of world, or
man) reside together on same tree. One eats the fruit
with worry about result, another just watches.


( //, //, /, /)
3 verbs mean eating-Bhuj = to consume, Ad = taking
with joy, Ana = eat with worry of result. Any work
should be done without worry of future, so Ana is bad
in Sanskrit & Oriya. Paria = neighbourhood is used
with same meaning in Oriya.
Veda Branches of Odisha-(1) All branches of gveda
were studied here. Its students were called Hot.
(2) Among Yajurveda branches, Kva branch was more
popular here. Kaa Brhmaas of Odisha ruled over
Magadh in 916-833 BC (Puranic chronology). Audala-
kaha branch of Ka yajurveda was in Udala
(Mayurbhanj) and Pinga branch in Ali-Pingal of Jajpur.
(3) Smaveda-Two titles of its branches exist in Odisha-
Kauthum Udgt (Kuth = to throw away, spitting), Ud-
gt = outward singing.
Jaiminya-Ot. Jimu = to consume within. Ota = spread
inside. Prota = spread out.
(4) Atharva veda-Its Muaka branch was only in west
Odisha (region of Mua = iron ore). Its students had

26
title Mua used only in west Odisha. Among 2
available branches-aunaka and Paippalda, Paippalda
was found only in Odisha whose place could be in
Pippali near Puri.

Chapter 7-Concept and history of Jaganntha


Jaganntha has been called Purua in Veda and his
worship is in 16 steps by 16 mantras of Purua skta.
He has himself declared that whole Vedas are His
description only-
(, /)
Bhgavata pura (10/1/20) at start of incarnation of
Ka itself tells that Jaganntha is also called Vsudeva
(place of world), V-kapi, and Purua (living in a pura
= structure), so He is worshipped with Purua skta-
( //)

27
V = which rains (particles of galaxy, stars etc), Kapi
= copy, creation as before. This form of Jaganntha is
Hanumn called Kapi = monkey which copies human
actions. Ka= water or spread matter, Pi = Pib, to drink,
creation by drinking that water.
- , ...
( , /)
In common language, Purua means male, not woman.
But in Vedas, it means every living or non-living body
which is contained in a boundary or Pura (town or
structure).
Gt tells Purua of 4 levels-
(1) Partpara Purua-This is same everywhere, hence
cannot be described, so it is stated round-about (Upa-
varana)-
( - , //)
Other 3 levels are within our perception-
(2) Kara Purua-Physical body seen from outside which
always decays (kaya) with time and finally ends.
(3) Akara Purua-Outer form and construction
changes, but its hidden identity (name, nature, acts)
remains the same. So, it is called Akara (non-
decaying).
(4) Avyaya Purua-If we see the whole society or
system, nothing is lost or gained. Loss at one place is
gain at other. So, it is called Avyaya (not spent). As
sequence of change, it has been called a tree. This is
also chain of births of man.
Jaganntha as Partpara is beyond imagination, but we
see Him as Jna (knowledge), Bala (force), Kriy
(action)-
,
, --
( , /)

28
As totality of Jna, He is Jaganntha, as Bala, He is
Balabhadra and as Kriy, He is Subhadr.
His Avyaya form can be described or seen. That is
beyond Kara and higher than Akara purua also, so
He is called Uttama (best, highest) Purua or
Puruottama (Git 15/16-18)-
, -





There are 4 aspects of Kla (time), corresponding to 4
aspects of Purua. Kla has been defined in many ways
in many Darana (philosophy). It can be termed as
perception of change. There is irreversible change in
Kara aspect, once a stage has gone, it will not come
back. Child becomes young and then old, but old can
never become child. This is Nitya (eternal) Kala, also
called death. Many changes are in cyclic order. natural
cycles of day, month, year are basis of measuring time.
All creation by yajas of men occur in these natural
cycles only, so this is called janya (creative) kla. This is
action of Akara purua who is known by action only.
Seeing the whole system, time is preserved, so that is
called Akaya (conserved) Kla. Partpara Kla is either
too small or too big for human imagination, like
Partpara Purua. These types of time have been
described in chapter 11 of part 3 of Bhgavata pura.
Dru-Brahma- Dru means wood, tree or forest. In all
senses, Jaganntha is like a Dru. Puras have called
Him Dru Brahma and have given many meanings of
that. Example of Skanda Pura, Vaiava Utkala
Khaa, chapters 4 and 28 are quoted below-
- , -

29








= Hari, like a Dru is tm of all deva, Asura,
gandharva, reptiles, Rkasas, intermediate forms and
lives in Chitta (centre of mind, intellect) of every being.
Being its essence and inseparable form, beings
dependent on Him live happily. He is called Dru in
many senses-He removes (dyati) sorrows of world,
gives (dadti) lasting happiness, so it is described as
Brahma as Dru in Vedas.
-







= In beginning, Parabrahma was worshiiped as wooden
idol of Nara-simha (man with lion face). This is form of
Para-Brahma only and is imagined like a Dru as it
breaks all sorrows, gives lasting happiness, and
behaves like a Dru in nature, creator of world, form of
all tm etc.
Its root is in gveda-

( , //)

30
( , ///)
= One super-human Dru is seen floating in great
ocean of world. By approaching that, we can cross that
difficult ocean.
: :
: ( , )
= We get Amta where Jaganntha is at end of ocean
with Balabhadra and Subhadr.
Space is seen in 3 Dhma (levels)-Highest is as
collection of 100 billion galaxies. Its initial form (ditya)
was Aryam (now seen in intergalactic space) and
spread matter ocean is Niyati or Prakti. Middle level is
Galaxy as collection of 100 billion stars. Its ditya is
Varua and ocean is Sarasvn. Lowest level is solar
system whose ditya is Mitra and ocean is Mara. When
we see the unity of different bodies floating in these
oceans we realize highest state.
On earth, 7 oceans of water are around 7 continents. As
Go (cow, productive Yaja) 4 oceans are 4 spheres of
earth-Lithosphere (rocky crust), Biosphere plant animals
on or near surface), Hydrosphere (water bodies),
Atmosphere. By understanding their inter-relation and
chains of creation (7 boundaries, 3x7 materials called
samidh in Purua skta), we realize highest state.
Puras describe it in story form. When Bhagavn Ka
was lying down in forest, a hunter Jar shot him an
arrow by mistake due to which he left body. But the
body was not completely destroyed. It floated as wood
and came near Puri coast from which Jaganntha idol
was made.
Inner meaning is that when human consciousness rises
from lowest level in spinal cord, he reached Anhata
chakra in heart region and sees jaganntha in micro
form, he is released from bonds. Example of
Kahopaniad is given-

31
, , -
,
,


( - /, /, . /, //)
Various meanings of Dru Brahma-
(1) Sequence of creation of world-There are 2 abstract
stages of creation-(i) Partpara (where there is no
distinction in any 2 points), (ii) Mixed duality of iva-
akti (Ardha-Nrvara, half man, half woman form)-
Matter particles are just being separated from energy.
Then there are 5 visible levels-(i) Svyambhuva (self
created) Maala (sphere, enclosure)-Collection of 100
billion galaxies in visible universe.
(ii) Parameh (largest brick) Maala-This is
Brahma, or an egge of the whole universe as
Brahma. Its creating field is called Goloka (region of
radiation) in Brahma-vaivartta-pura, Prakti Khaa,
chapter 3 or Krma (which creates) in Veda. Now it is
seen as Nutrino corona of galaxy about 10 times bigger.
Central rotating disc is called ka-gang (river in sky)
having spiral arm called Ahir-budhnya (snake in flood) in
Vedas and ea-nga. Around sun, the sphere of width
of this arm has 1000 stars called thousand heads of
ea.
(iii) Saura Maala(Solar system)-Sun is one of 100
billion stars of galaxy. Its extent is not defined in
modern astronomy. In Veda and Puras, it is defined in
2 ways. The region in which an object can move in orbit
of sun is Bhmi (earth) of solar system, about 1 lakh
times diameter of sun. The region in which sun light is
more than background of galaxy is Dyu (sky) about 157
lakh times sun-diameter.
(iv) Chndra Maala-Sphere containing moon orbit.

32
(v) Bh-Maala-Earth planet.
Symbol of these 5 stages in sky are 5 root vowels at
start of Mhevara-stra, code letters for Sanskrit
grammer-A, I, U, , . Corresponding symbols of 5
chakras in human spine are 5 inner letters parallel to
the vowels-H, Y, V, R, L. Symbols of 2 higher Chakras in
brain and 2 abstract stages in sky are same-Oum which
has 2 forms-unified and divided in 3.5 parts.
Creation from source to end stage has been called
Reverse Tree in Gt (15/1). Its root is at top and
branches downwards. Individual objects are like leaves
which frequently fall, but chain of creation always
remains the same like a tree.
(2) Material for creation of world-As furniture is made
from tree or wood, Brahma is material out of which the
universe has been created. Thinkers asked within mind
as to what is that forest or tree from which earth and
sky were created and who created and held the
universe.


( //, ///, ///)
They found reply within mind that It is Brahma only
which is tree and forest from which earth and sky were
created and Brahma only holds the universe.

( ///)
There was another doubt-What was base, material, start
of universe, what was the sequence and method by
which Vivakarm (Creator) made earth and sky and
kept them in proper place?


( //, ///)

33
Finally, it is realised that it is Brahma only which is
creator, sequence, method, start, result, foundation etc.
In that sense, creation of world is called Sukta (su =
joined or good, Kta = done). A verse of that meaning in
Gt is usually recited before meals which says that
Brahma is offering, consumption, consumer, means,
end result etc-

(, /)
(3) Silent observer-Brahma is beyond action or results.
It just observes like a tree at road-side observes
passersby without interfering in their work-

(, /)
As symbol of observer, Jaganntha doesnt have full
hands.
(4) Cycle of cause, action, result-Root of tree is like root
thought which gives rise to action. Fruit or final product
of act gives rise to new tree throgh seeds. After result of
action, we start new lines of action. To be frees from
infinite cycle of thought, we have to cut this tree by
surrender to Brahma. Some verses are quoted below-

( /)






(, )


,

34
(, )
(5) Combination of doer and observer-Actions of man
and world are automatic. Both resemble a tree and its
creator, observer aspects are like 2 birds out of which
one eats the fruits and one just watches the tree. Within
man, the 2 birds are called Jva (Eve) and tm (Adam).
In universe as whole Brahma has 2 aspects-Nirviea,
Viia-both forms of Partpara.


( //, //, /, //)
(6) Forest-Combination of infinite cycles of action-result
is forest of universe.
Tree Symbols-
(1) Viu-Viu controls everybody by remaining in
their hearts. Every body is almost independent in his
action. If each system starts interfering with others, all
systems will stop. To maintain world, every system
moves separately like freely vibrating leaves of Pipal
(Ficus religiosa) tree or Avattha.

(, /)
=Certainly, Viu is like Avattha, Rudra is Vaa
(Bunyan) and Brahm is like Palsa.

( //)
= On that tree, birds eat fruit and create new worlds, so
the tree is called Pippala (pib = drink, phala = result).
One who knows this tree as creator (Pitara) can enjoy
its fruits.

( //)
= Oadhi (medicines) reside on Avattha and on its
leaves. It nourishes men and Go (cows, organ, yaja).

35

( //)
= In the tree with good leaves, Deva and Yama eat
together (Yama = end, Srya = source). Here, creator
(father) resides who creates new from old.
(2) iva is perception, knowledge and tradition of
teacher (guru) taught (iya) by which knowledge
spreads and is preserved. This tradition is symbolized
by Bunyan trees whose arial roots create a similar
trees. Guru also by imparting knowledge creates a man
like himself. Secondary trees are students, called
Dumduma (druma = trees, from source druma).
Dumduma can be symbol of Hanumn, incarnation of
iva. At all places of iva, there is Dumduma-
Damadami Takasal at Hara (iva) Mandir in Amritsar,
Dumiyani near Somnath, Dumduma near Lingaraj in
Bhubaneswar, Dumdum near Dakshineswar in Kolkata,
Dumsuma near Kamakhya in Asam.
(3) Brahm is symbolised by Palsa whose branch ends
in 3 leaves. Similarly, creation is from one abstract by 3
Guas, or from Single point (vindu) to 3 vowels of Oum.
Description of world in word form is veda. From root
Atharva veda, 3 branches-k, Yaju, Sma were created.
Root also remained, so Tray (triple) means 4 vedas, 1
root + 3 branches.
( ) - /)
( ///)
( ///)
Eternal incarnations of Jaganntha
In literal Sanskrit, Jagat and Viva-both mean world. But
technically they mean different. Viva is compact visible
world, which can be seen or perceived. Its outer form
called Linga is seen. Lord of Viva is iva, called Viva-
ntha. Viva is a compact closed and complete
structure having 13 levels. Universe, galaxy, solar

36
system, earth, man, cells, atom, nucleus and smaller
levels are all Viva.
Jagat is conscious level which is not seen. There are 14
levels of conscious beings. Their lord is Jaganntha. Its
sleeping form is Viu, active form is Jaganntha.
Visible form of Viu is Sun. As sleeping, it holds planets
in orbit by gravitation. As awaken, it radiates light and
maintains life. So, Sun is called tm of universe.
In first part of Cha-pha, Viu has been called
Jaganntha when he awakes.
3 steps of Viu as Sun are zones of heat, solar wind
and brightness. They have radii of 100, 1000, 1 lakh
sun-diameters.
() ( /)
( //)
( //)
( //)
( //)
Eternal incarnations in space are 5-
Matsya (Fish), Yaja, Varha, Krma, Vmana.
(1) Matsya-100 billion galaxies are floating in great
ocean of visible universe like fishes in water. Galaxies
have been called Drapsa (drops) of that ocean.

(. /) ( //)
( //, //, . . /,
. ///, ///, //, //, . /,
/,/, . ///)
(2) Yaja-Gt (3/10,16) defines yaja as productive
work in a cycle. Creation of world is at 9 levels which
have 9 time cycles. Largest cycle for calculation is day-
night of Brahm which is cycle of creation and
dissolution of Brahma (galaxy). This is Yaja
incarnation.

37
(3) Varha-Varha means cloud and boar both. Both are
mixed states-cloud is mixture of air-water, boar is
animal of land-water. Similarly, spread matter of 3
major spheres-universe, galaxy, solar system is water
of 3 levels-Rasa, or Salil with waves, Ap or Ambha with
waves, Mara. Created compact bodies are Earth of 3
levels-Brahma or Kyap, Solar earth Maitrya, Earth
planet. Intermediate stages are Vaha now seen as
matter in intermediate spaces. These are Aryam
between galaxies, Varua between stars formed of
alcohol, and Mitra in solar system. These 3 are called
ditya (initial form).
( /)
, ( /)
( ///)
( /)
( ///)
( ///)
( ///)
()
( /)
( /)
( ///)
( ///)

( ///)


( //)

( //)
Varha has 5 levels-(1) di-varha-Creation stage of
universe Aryam, (2) Yaja-varha-Creation stage of
galaxy, (3) veta Varha-creation of solar system when

38
light radiation (white = veta) started. (4) Bh-varha-
The material zone whose compact form is earth planet,
As per Vyu pura (6/12), this is 100 yojana high (from
sun) and 10 yojana wide. Earth is between 108-109
sun-diameters from sun, so, Yojana means sun-diameter
here. Earth is 1/108 yojana, i.e. about 1100 part of
Varha. (5) Ema Varha-Ema means nearby. This is
air cover of earth.

( //)
- - ? ,
- ()-
( ///)
( ///)
() - (
///)

( //)
- ( ///)

( ///)
( ) -
( ///)
(4) Krma-This is called base of Brahma. Krma
literally means one who does work. An animal tortoise
of this shape is also called Krma. This is filled only with
radiation, so it has been called Goloka in
Brahmavaivartta pura, Prakti Khaa, chapter 3.
- -- -
- - ( ///)
Its size is stated as 1018 yojanas. Brahma is 1017
yojana, i.e. 1/10 of Krma.

( ) ( , , )

39

( //)
(5) Vmana-Taking sun itself as measuring rod, solar
system diameter (Ratha or body of sun) is stated as 157
lakh yojanas. Within that zone, sun itself is very small or
dwarf (Vmana). Zone of rocky planets till mars is called
Dadhi (curd) Vmana. Size of mars orbit has been
called Dadhi ocean in Bhgavata pura, part 5.
Human incarnations on earth-
Human incarnations are counted as 24 or 10.
Bhskarchrya has given calculation of 24 incarnations
in his mathematics text Llvat. Viu has 4 hands. His
4 weapons, ankha, Chakra, Gad, Padma can be
arranged in 24 ways in 4 hands (4x3x2x 1). If we dont
arrange, collect only then there are 10 methods. All 4
are collected in 1 way. 3 hands in 3 ways (abc, abd,
bcd), 2 hands in 6 ways (ab, ac, ad, bc, bd, cd). Other
view is that creation is by 3 Guas or we view Brahma
in 3 ways-Jna (Jaganntha), Bala (Balabhadra), Kriy
(Subhadr)
,
,
( , /)
Collection of 3 bodies can be in 10 ways-All 3 in one
way, 1 at a time-3 ways, 2 at a time 6 types-first written
object is promonent-ab, ba, ac-ca, bc, cb. 10
incarnations have been described by Jayadeva also, but
he has not counted Ka among incarnations, but as
Brahma himself who incarnates. In stead of K, he has
taken Balarma as incarnation.
Chronology of incarnations has been given very
accurately in puras. Puras and Vedas describe 7
Yojana (length units) and 7 Yugas (cyclic periods), both
terms derived from vern-Yuj-
( //)

40
Historic yugas are of 24,000 years, which is realistic
cycle of glacial floods. Modern theory of Milankovich
tells about 21600 year cycle, which is combination of
apogee cycle of 1 lakh years and precession motion of
earth axis in 26000 years in reverse direction. But
estimates of glacial floods tallies more with Indian cycle
of 24,000 years. This cycle will occur when we take long
term cycle of apogee of 312,000 years.-
1/26000 + 1/312000 = 1/24000
Precession cycle of 26000 years has been called
Manvantara in Brahma pura, which is period from
Svyambhuva Manu to start of Kali in 3102 BC (in time
of Vedavysa). This had 71 yugas of about 360 years
each, out of which 43 yugas were till Vaivasvata Manu
and 28 yugas after him. 24,000 year cycle has 2 halves,
first half is Avasarpi of 12,000 years having Satya,
Tret, Dwpara, kali of 4800, 3600, 2400, 1200 years.
Next half is Utsarpi having yugas in reverseor
ascending order. Cycle of 24000 years is called
Brahmbda. We are currently in 3rd Brahmbda. This
system was defined in time of Vaivasvata Manu, so
Yugas didnt start from Svyambhuva manu, he was in
first Tret. Brahmagupta and Bhskarchrya have
described Bja correction in this cycle only but have not
ststed the logic and called it from remote past.


( ,///)
( ,/
//,)
(//)-


41




, -

()

/-


, (//,)- ...


( //, . /, ///, /)
, -


From Vaivasvata Manu till Kali start, there were 4800 +
3600 + 2400 = 10,80 years which will have 30 yugas of
360 years each. Glacial flood period is taken for 2 yugas
= 720 years (modern estimate 500-1000 years).
Remaining 28 yugas are counted till Kali beginning and
we still say 28th yuga from Vaivasvata Manu. For 10
yugas = 3600 years, there was friendship among Asura
and Devas (2 power groups) then mane became
dominant after Vaivasvata Manu. Period of Deva-Asura
started from Kayapa (17500 BC). Mahbhrata,
Udyoga Parva (230/8-10) tells that north pole of earth
shifted away from Abhijit (vega) and hence a new
calender was started by Krttikeya when rains and year
started from sun in Dhanih star. That was in about
15,800 BC. Since year started with rains (var), it was
called Vara.

42
(//)-





( /)-












Yuga cycle in brief-
Brahmbda 1-(61902-37902 BC)-Maij (mining)
civilization with Yma devas and 4 major classes of men
like 4 Varas today-Sdhya, Mahjika, Tuita,
bhsvara. Devas used aeroplanes.
Brahmbda 2-(37902-13902 BC)- After glacial floods of
31000 BC, Svyambhuva Manu (human Brahm)
started civilization. 10 theories of creation were
summarised in 6 Darana, written Veda Samhits.
Its Avasarpi part was in (37902-25902 BC)
-Satya yuga (37902-33102 BC)
-Tret (33102-29502 BC)-Glacial floods; Svyambhuva
Manu.
-Dvpara (29502-27102 BC)-Development of Vedic
civilization.

43
-Kali (27102-25902 BC) Kali
In Utsarpi, Kali (25902-24702 BC), Dvpara (24702-
22302 BC), Tret (22302-18702 BC)-5 other Manus from
Svrochia to Chkua, 7 Svari Manus. End of era
with ice age in Tret.
Satya yuga (18702-13902 BC)-After ice age, Kayapa
(second Brahm) restated civilization in 17500 BC.
Mineral survey by Pthu is 17100 BC. Calender from
Dhanih (rains) started by Krttikeya in 15800 BC.
Brahmbda 3-(13902 BC-1099 AD)-
Avasarpi (13902-1902 BC)-
Satya yuga (13902-9102 BC)-Vivasvn and Vaivasvata
Manu. Glacial floods after Vaivasvata Yama. abha
Deva restarts civilization.
Tret (9102-5502 BC), Dvpara (5502-3102 BC)-Era
ends with Mahbhrata war in 3138 BC.
Kali (3102-1902 BC)-YUga ends with birth of Mahvra.
Utsarpi (1902 BC-1099 AD)-Kali (1902-702 BC)-Yuga
ends with draka aka in 756 BC.
Dvpara (702 BC-1699 AD)
Tret (1699-5299 AD), Satya yuga (5299-10099 AD)
Development of technology in Tret junction (1699-
1999 AD).
Asura kings-They were is 10 yugas after Kayapa
(17500 BC).
(1) Varha (Boar) incarnation-Fourth Yuga (16422-16062
BC)-Varha crossed ocean to kill Hirayka who ruled
in region of Amazon river (south America). This was
called Pukara Dvpa and as per map division, it was
Rastala (Brahma pura (1/2/20/9-46) describes all
Tala (map parts) and their main kings. Puara Dvpa was
opposite to Pukara (120 west of Ujjain-now called
Bukhara). God was worshipped as Boar in kingdom of
Hirayka. Garua pura (1/87/30) tells that Viu as
Boar (boar mask) killed Hirayka who was enemy of

44
Tejasv, Indra of that time. He had gone with 18
associates and was welcome due to mask of boar. One
day they suddenly killed Hirayka after which Asuras
started hating Boar (continuing in Islam).
(2) Narasimha incarnation (5, 6 yugas, 16062-15342
BC)-Hirayakaipu was king of Libya-Ezypt in Taltala
loka. Narasimha incarnation of Viu was in Narasimha-
ntha in west Odisha which was place of Indras army.
Place of Narasimha is called Balchala in ankara-
digvijaya (now Balangir) meaning place of force,
Paikmal = place of Paika or foot-soldiers. Narasimha
entered capital of Hirayakaipu and after killing him,
his son Prahlda was made king. Hirayka was long
before him in South America, but are called brothers as
they belonged to same power group.
(3) Bali (seventh Yuga, 15342-14982 BC)-He was
grandson of Prahlda and had captured 3 Deva-lokas of
Indra. Then Viu (proper name) appeared as Vmana
(dwarf) near Puri. He took back kingdom of 3 lokas for
Indra on Bhdra ukla 12, called Vmana dvda. As
kingdom of Indra started on that day, rulership of kings
was counted from that day and this system is still
followed in Odisha, called Anka system. First Vmana
dvda after coronation is counted as Zero (nya), so
this day is called uniy. Bali was forced to give back
regions of Indra to avoid bloodshed in war. But many
Asuras felt that Devas could not have taken back their
land by war and they continued war. Another
incarnation of Viu as Krma advised that war is only
for capturing wealth, but unless it is produced, there is
nothing to fight for. So, Asura and Devas agreed to
cooperate in mining, called Samudra-manthana. Asuras
were experts in digging mines, so they came to
Jharkhand and their titles are still on mineral names in
Asura region. Devas were experts in refining rare

45
metals. They went to refine gold from Zimbabwe mines
(called Jmbnada gold) and for silver in Mexico
(Mkika = silver in Sanskrit). Again, war started for
share of mineral wealth in which Rhu was killed by
Viu. This war ended with attack on Kraucha Dvpa
(North America in shape of flying bird) by Krttikeya.
This has been referred as last attack by India 15000
years before Alexander.
(4) Matsya (Fish) incarnation-Devas were supreme after
Vaivasvata Manu in 13,902 BC. After Vaivasvata Yama
(called Jamshed in Zend-Avesta), there were glacial
floods when Viu appeared as Fish to save humanity.
Modern geologival estimates tell that glacial floods
were effective from 11000-10000 BC. Many Puras
also have stated floods after Vaivasvata Yama (teacher
of Kaha Upaniad). His capital Sanyaman (Yemen,
Sana, Amman, Dead sea) 900 west from Amarvat of
Indra. From there, first step in east of Vmana has been
stated at Amarvat of Indra at 900 distance
(Rmyaa, Kikindh Ka, 40/53). At times of
Matsya and Rma birth, there was Prabhava year in
Jovian count (Viu Dharmottara Pura, 82/7-8, 81/23-
24). In Pitmaha system, solar year is called Jupiter
year in 60 year cycle. In Solar system, actual Jupiter
year of 361 days is taken and there are 86 Jupiter years
in 85 solar years. So, both systems match after 85 x 60
= 5100 years. By that count Matsya was in 9533 BC
and Rma in 4433 BC. After floods, abha Deva had
restarted civilization as it was done by Svyambhuva
Manu after floods of 31000 BC. So abha Deva has
been called his descendant. After that, Ikvku
continued tradition of Vaivasvata Manu on 1-11-8576
BC, who has been called son of Vaivasvata Manu (gap of
about 4326 years).

46
(5) Incarnations after Ikvku have been called human
incarnations. There are 30 yugas of 360 years each
from Vaivasvata Manu to end of Dvpara in 3102 BC,
but 28 yugas have been stated, so 2 yugas = 720 years
may be taken as flood period. Periods of main persons
have been stated as per this count of yugas-
Datttreya -10th Yuga (9582-9222 BC)
Mndht-15th Yuga (7782-8422 BC)
Paraurma-19th Yuga (6342-5982 BC)
Rma-24th Yuga (4542-4182 BC)
Vedavysa-28th Yuga (ending in 3102 BC)
Paraurma as Viu has been stated 15 generations
after Baccus who attacked India in 6777 BC as per
Megasthenes quoting Indian texts. After death of
Paraurma, Kollam samvat started in 6177 BC- i.e. 600
year gap for 15 generations.
Vyu Pura, chapter 98 describes this-










(6) Ka incarnation- He left world at age of 125 in
3102 when Kaliyuga started. So, his birth on Bhdra
Ka 8 was on 19-7-3228 BC.
(7) Buddha incarnation was for bluffing and defeating
Asuras. Siddhrtha Buddha (1887-1807 BC) and
Gautama Buddha (death in 463 BC) had not influenced
Asuras but Indians only to divert them from Vedic path.

47
Viu incarnation Buddha was born as son of Ajina
Brahmana in Magadh who formed coalition of 4 kings of
India at Mount Abu in a yaja. King udraka of Malava
was head of this alliance called Mlava Sangha and his
era draka aka started in 756 BC. As per Assyrian
history, Queen Semirami had attacked India around that
time with 35 lakh army collected with cooperation of all
kings of north Africa and central & west Asia. 4kings of
that federation were-Pramara or Parmar, Chapahani or
Chahman (Chauhan), Pratihar (Parihar), ukla
(Chalukya, Solanki, Salunkhe).
, , -




, , /-



, , /-




//-

(8) Kalki-Kalki incarnation is yet to happen, but his
birthday is celebrated on Chatra ukla 12. He will kill
Asuras with sword like a comet (star wars).
, , -


48





After wiping out Asuras, Satya yuga will start again
when Sun, Moon, Jupiter-all 3 will be in Puya star in
same sign. One such moment will occur on 1-8-2038 at
9 AM IST.
Tradition of Jaganntha worship-
(1) Varha incarnation-In time of Varha incarnation,
idol of Jaganntha was made of blue emerald (Indra-
nla-ma)-
Skanda Pura, Vaiava Utkala Khaa, Chapter 2-

---


Followers of Varha were called abara whose literal
meaning is to dig earth like a boar. This word has
become Sbal in Oriya meaning digging implement.
Texts of this tradition are called Vaikhnasa (=digging).
Worship in this form continued till Narasimha
incarnation, when Jaganntha was worshipped as
Narasimha.
Skanda Pura, Vaiava Utkala Khaa, Chapter 2-


Nldri Mahodaya (6/67)-

In India, Narasimha idol has human body with lion face.
Man is called Simha (lion) for praising his bravery. r
Rma also was called Simha for honour, later on it

49
became title of kings. In Ezypt, Sphinx is reverse with
body of lion and head of man.
4 festivals of Varha-Narasimha period are still
observed in Odisha-
(a) 19 year yuga in Krttikeya Calendar-Krttikeya had
started year from Dhanih star which is followed in
Vednga Jyotia.
(, ,) (-)




k jyotia has 19 year yuga in which 5 years are of
Samvatsara type. Other 14 years are of other 4 types-
Id-, pari, idu-, anu-vatsaras. In Yjua jyotia also, in 5
yugas of 5x5 years, there are 6 lost years giving rise to
19 years yuga. Till today, nava-kalevara of Jaganntha
occurs after 19 years. Such yuga does not exist in Srya
siddhnta starting from Vaivasvata Manu.
(b) In Krttikeya period (15,800 BC), rains from Mgha
month when year started and there was Ratha-ytr to
mark that. Even now, there is Ratha-ytr at Konark on
Mgha-ukla 7.
(c) iva-Prvat (parents of Krttikeya) were married on
Jyeha ukla 6. In that period, winter started from that
month. Now, it is height of summer, but it is still called
tala (winter)-ah.
(d) In Deva yuga (Aditi period)-Year started with vernal
equinox in Punarvasu star (17,500 BC). So, Aditi is
called lord of Punarvasu star. Till today, we say in nti-
pha that year ends and starts with Aditi-
( //, //, . /, . //)
Even now, Ratha-ytr or return ytr occurs when sun
is in Punarvasu.

50
(2) In time of Yama, blue idol was buried in sand due to
flood-
, -


(3) Revival by Indradyumna-After floods, Sryavama
king Indradyumna found Jaganntha idol with help of
Vidypati abar before end of Satya-yuga (9102 BC).
Thereafter, worship started with Dru-Mrti (wooden
figure). Indradyumna ruled over islands of east ocean
also, one of which is named Andaman after him. He has
been called in 5 generation after Brahm (after
Svyambhuva Manu, Kayapa, Vivasvn, Vaivasvata
Manu) and must be before Ikvku (8576 BC) and After
abha deva.
, , , -


(4) Ikvku From Ikvku (1-11-8576 BC) till Rma,
Jaganntha was Kula-devat (family god). Before
leaving the world, Rma gave responsibility of
Jaganntha worship to Vibhaa, younger brother of
Rvaa. Rvaa had written Ua-Tantra which could
be origin of name Odisha.
, , -
- -


Padma pura in context of Avamedha yaja of r
Rma has described Jaganntha region south of Gang-
sgara.
(5) Kharavel period-His inscription tells that in year 803
of coronation of Nanda, he repaired Prachi canal in 5th
year of his rule. I.e. his rule started in 835 BC (799

51
years after 1634 BC). After 8 years of his rule, he
defeated invaders at Mathura by his elephant army on
request of Andhra king Satakarni ruling at Magadha.
Actually, there was attack by Assyria at that time. He
performed Rjasya yaja in 11th year of his rule. For
that, he had built a Jana-sada (Parliament). In third year
of his rule, he had invited scholars of Gandharva veda
and repaired Vidydhara nivsa-both related to
Jaganntha tradition.
(6) ankarchrya (509-477 BC)-He set up 4 Phas in
483 BC at Pur (Govardhana), Dwrak, nger,
Badrntha under patronage of king Sudhanv.
ankarchrya had gone upto Nepal and blessed king
Vadevavarman with a son who was named
ankaradeva. Nepal king came with him to Puri and till
today, Nepal king is authorised to worship Jaganntha
like king of Puri.
(7) Haravardhana (605-646 AD)-His capital was at
Thaneshvar (Sthvvara), but he also ruled Odisha.
Huensang has described his Ratha-ytr of 642 AD
which was repeated after 5 years. Nabakalevar is only
festival which is not done every year. Other festivals are
every year.
(8) Ananga Bhimadeva-He had built the present
Jaganntha temple. Jaganntha-sthala-Vttntam
(Jaganntha Sanskrit University, Puri, 2005) tells that it
was built is 3 years with a cost of 12.47 crore gold
coins. Then annual income of Odisha was 50 crore gold
coins. Cost of construction was recovered from offerings
in 3 years. Current history books tells the construction
after 1200 AD when Ananga Bhimadeva was ruling. But,
r Rmnujchrya (1017-1137 AD) had come for
inauguration of temple and his picture with disciple still
exists on walls of Mahlakm temple in campus. So, it
must have been more than 1000 years old. There is a

52
government order of his time that all pilgrims from any
part of country will be given free treatment and food.
(9) Repression in muslim and British period-In 1365,
Firozshah Tuglak had attacked Jajnagar (Jajpur) and
killede all adults from Jajpur to coast about 5 lakh
persons and sold 1.50 lakhs women and children as
slaves (Tarikh-e-Firozshahi). Whole Odisha came under
muslim rule when King Mukundadeva was defeated by
Akbar in 1568 AD. Then as in other places of India,
heavy tax was imposed on all Hindus for pilgrimage. Tax
on Jaganntha darana was abolished in Maratha rule
from 1751-1803. Odisha came under British rule in
1803 AD and heavy tax was imposed on pilgrims from
1806 AD as per Lothian Committee Report. For tax
purpose, pilgrims were divided into 4 categories-(1)
Rich pilgrims (red badge) from north India-Rs 10 each,
(2) Rich pilgrims from South India-Rs 6 each, (3) Rs 2
each from middle class, (4) No fees from lower
categories who were not allowed Darana-1. Loli or
Kasbi, 2. Kulal or Sonari, 3. Machhua, 4. Namsundar or
Chandal, 5. Ghoski, 6. Gujar, 7. Bagdi, 8. Jogi, 9. Kahar,
10. Rajvamshi, 11. Pireli, 12. Chamar, 13. Dom, 14.
Paun, 14. Tor, 16. Banmali, 17. Hadi. On basis of this
report only, Ambedkar wrote in 1932 that lower cast
Hindus are not permitted in temples.
Jaganntha Dhma-(1) Whole world or Universe is
pervaded by Jaganntha as Dru-Brahma-

( , //)
It has 5 meanings as explained above-
(1) Jaganntha is the material with which world is made,
as furniture is made from wood of tree.
(2) He is silent observer like a tree.
(3) Like sequence of root-stem-leaves, Jaganntha is
sum of all cycles of thought-action-result.

53
(4) Tree is basis of living beings, so is Jaganntha.
(5) As wood is seen floating in ocean, galaxies, stars
and planets are floating in vast oceans of space.
Gt also tells that Brahma is everything-action, offer,
consumption, consumer, product, result-

(, /)
2. Dhma-Place on earth surface-Bhrata is heart of
world, so Jaganntha resides. Puri is heart of Bhrata
also, so it is place of Jaganntha. Puri town is at centre
of Bhrata in both north-south and east-west directions.
Dhma has 3 boundaries, Viu-Sahasranma calls Tri-
sm, with 3 Sma or boundaries. First boundary is
Jaganntha temple itself, second is Puri boundary at
Chandanapur (Chandana = cover), third boundary of
Dhma is r-chandana, or Hari-chandana or Ekmra
(Lingarja at Bhubaneswar). As per description of U in
gveda, Dhma is equal to half degree on equator =
55.5 kms. Thus, Lingarja at boundary of Jaganntha is
55.5 kms or 5 yojanas away. On both directions, Dhma
will extend till 10 yojanas. This is stated in Skanda
pura, Vaiava Utkala Khaa, chapter 3 and
Brahma pura-




-



, -

54
3. Conch Region-The region around Jaganntha temple,
5 yojana in all directions is in shape of a Conch
(ankha), so it is called ankha-ketra. In a greater
view, Cambodia (Kambuja = ankha) and Japan
(Pacha-jana = group of 5 islands in Bhgavata,
5/19/30) are also Conch region. Chakra mountain has
been stated in Morocco where Sudarana chakra of
Jaganntha was made (Rmyaa, Kikindh Ka,
42/27).
Ratha-Ytr-Any structure in closed boundary is Pura.
Moving or dynamic Pura is Ratha. Human body is Ratha
as active, One who sees the controller tm within
body, is not reborn-
, /-

= One form of Pra lifts up, another Apna pushes
down. Vmana is in centre worshipped by all Devas.
, /-

= All beings up to Brahm are reborn. But one who
merges with Me (Brahma) is not reborn.
, /- ,
,


= Body is Ratha (chariot), tm is owner,Buddhi is
driver, Mana is ropes to control, organs are horses
which move in their subjects. Thinkers tell that we enjoy
by joint action of tm, organs, Mana.
/-

=Inner tm in Purua (man) is of thumb size residing
in hearts.

55
In space, black hole (Ka) is centre of Brahma
(galaxy). By its attraction, this world (Loka) remains. In
solar system, sun is Vmana (dwarf). As attractor, it is
called Viu. As radiator of energy, it is Indra. By both
actions, when it sustains life, it is Jaganntha. This has
been called awaken form of Viu (Cha pha,
chapter 1). Region of solid planets till Mars orbit is
called Dadhi (curd) Vmana. Region till saturn orbit
(1000 sun diameter radius) is called Chakra (wheel), as
planets till saturn only have visible effect on earth orbit.
There are 3 Dhma (zones) within earth. Outer zones
are successively of double size. Dadhi-vmana is at
Dhma 17, Wheel of solar Ratha is at 20 Dhma. As
image on earth, Dadhivmana is at 170 and Rathaytr
at 200 latitude in Puri.
In space, each creation cycle is a day-night. Creation
needs calm situation, called night. There are 10 stages
of creation-1 abstract and 9 visible. So, creation is
ststed in 10 nights. Man also is born in 10 revolutions of
Moon (273 days). Preta (dual emerging from body on
death) is body of Lunar orbit. That too is formed in 10
days (rotations of earth). So, journey of Jaganntha also
is for 10 days. First day is just opening of eyes, second
day of ha he goes out and returns on 10th day.
//-

, //-
, ///-
Chapter 8-Ancient places of Odisha
1. Cuttack (Kaaka)-It means fort or army which is
obstruction (Kaaka = thorn) for enemy. In time of
descendants of Janamejaya, this was called Vijaya-
kaaka as capital of Utkala (e.g. 17 copper plate in
Inscriptions of Orissa, Vol. IV by Sri Stayanarayan
Rajaguru-Orissa State Museum, 1966). Digvijaya-sana

56
of Janamejaya calls it Kaaka. Fort is surrounded by wall
with doors (Dwra), so it is called Dvrvat (Barbati).
As per iva pura, Vras is on 3 Kaakas and has
Gaur in centre. Similar zone of Cuttack was called
Abhinava (new) Vras by Puruottama Deva-now
called Bidanasi. Three thorns are 2 branches of
Mahnad at start of delta-Mahnad and Kathajodi.
Artificial thorn is Barabati fort within which there is
temple of Cha. After bifurcation, Mahanadi water is
deep and stagnant having long grass called Gandar. So
that area is called Gandarpur. The place where
Mahanadi is divided in 2 branches is called Baimindi
(Bai or dvi = 2). Place up to which it has single head
(Mua) is called Mundali. Near Baimindi, current is
stagnant, so it is called Chahata. There were many ferry
ghats on river bank, called Ports (Pattana), e.g
Madhupatna, Rausapatna, Nuapatna.
2. Places named after rice-Odisha was major producer
of rice and product of nearby regions also was exported
from here. As product of Ura, rice was called Aurya
which became Oryza in Greek, i.e. rice in English. There
are many places near Cuttack named after rice or
paddy-Chauliaganja, Dhanmandala, Salepur, Auli,
Kanika, Rajkanika etc.
3 Tirtol-This is between Cuttack and Paradeep. Places of
akti are in crescent shape from Puri to Jajpur. Tirtol
(Trthval) at centre of outer circle. Other places on this
circle are Kakatpur, Jhankara Sarala, Puri (Vimal) etc.
Their centre is Kapilas (Kailasa).
4. Kandarpur-(Kandarpa-pur)-Kandarpa means
Kmadeva who had killed king ambara. So, his place is
at north boundary of abara region. After Kandapa
became Ananga, he got Anga (west Bengal).
5. Bubaneswar-

57
As boundary of Jaganntha dhma, it is Ekmra (single
tree). As per iva pura, Lingarja is abstract. His
visible form appeared as pillar of fire. As fire, iva has 8
forms, called Vasu. Places of these 8 names are around
Bhubaneswar-(1) Sata-Shankh (on way to Puri, 7 flames
of fire), (2) Jagamara (Yajmra-carrier of Yaja offer or
products), (3) Aiginia (gneya = fire), (4) Chandaka-
Chaa = intense fire), (5) Damana (Damun = fire),
(6) Retanga, (7) Kishan-nagar (Knuret = fire), (8)
Niali (Agni + li = chain of fire).
In another way, Bhubaneswar is just north of heart
region in Puri. In human body, Bhuvanevar resides
here is ocean of nectar (Bindu-sgar near Lingaraj), on
cot (Macha) of iva (Mancheshwar), in Chintmai
Pha (Chintmavara) under Kalpavka (Ekmra =
number one among trees). This region like other places
of iva is called region of Bunyan (Vaa), whose root is
Baragadh, stem is Jagamar, crown (Mua) is
Baramunda, and secondary trees are Dumduma (Druma
= tree, from original druma.). So, Temple of
Bhuvanevar is adjacent of left side of Lingaraja. The
summary of Bhuvanevar description in Dev-
Bhgavata Pura is given by ankarchrya in
Saundarya-Lahar, 8 which is geography of this town-
,

,

6. Barang-Near every major fort, there was a minor fort
for supply of food, water etc., called Bahiranga (outer
part). Bahiranga of Cuttack is Baranga. There is Bagalo-
Baharana near village Bagalo-Gadh, Baran (Aligadh)
near Delhi fort, Baran near Kota in Rajsthan.
7. Pur-This is among 7 major cities of Bhrata. Others
were called with some prefix with Puri, but Jaganntha

58
Puri was called Pur only. The country doing Bharaa
(filling) is Bhrata, centre doing Praa (making up
shortage) was Pur. Region of fresh underground water
on coast is also called Pur. East cost is Udaya-giri
(place of rising sun), west coast is Ratnagiri or Srysta
(Surat). Hill west from Puri is called Varunei as Varua is
lord of west. Skanda-pura, Setu Khaa, chapter 4-6
tells Chakra-trtha on coast south of Fulla-gram up to
Dev-Pattan. This is north part of Puri where Dev river
joins sea. Skanda-pura, Puruottama Khaa, (16,
17/1, 29/38, 34/35) tells Daapura near Indradyumna
pond near temple.
8. Jwlevara-As per Skanda-pura, Rev Khaa,
Ba Asura had captured towns of Brahm
(Brahmapur), Viu (Puri), iva (Bhubaneswar). Banpur
town lies between these 3 towns. To attack these, iva
sent Ba (arrow, missiles) from r-mountain
(Srisailam). These arrows after destroying towns formed
a net (Jal) beyond them, so it was called Jaleswar or
place of flame (Jwl).
9. Dpevara-Matsya pura (191/41, 193/80) state that
rama of Vysa was here and due to its fear, Mahanadi
river returned and turned right. This is near Rourkela on
confluence of Shankh-Koyal rivers called Vedavyas. As
he was born in a Dvpa (island), he was called
Dvaipyana.
10. Agastya rama- Yogin Tantra (Part 2, 1/29, 4/44,
136, 138, 5/160, 164), Nlamata Pura (128-137),
Skanda Pura (K Khaa, Chapter 3) tell Agastya
Linga on banks of Suvara-Mukhar river. Rmyaa
(Yuddha Ka, 126/41-42, Uttara Ka 82/3) tell it on
Godvar bank. Rmyaa, Araya Ka (11/42) tells it
east of Nasik. There are 4 places of this name-(1) 38
Km. south east of Nasik, (2) Agastya Ka in Tirunelveli
district of Tamilnadu, origin of Tmrapar river, (3)

59
Agastya village on banks of Mandakini, 20 kms from
Rudraprayag in Gadhwal, (4) One small temple of
Agastya near Jagatsimhpur in Odisha. Old riverbed here
could be Nyankumat river.
11. Utkalvartaka-Matsya Pura (13/45) and Uttara
Matsya (22/64) call it sacred place of Utkal. Vyu
Pura (uttara 15/82) calls it Um-Tunga.
12. Krpatha-Vyu Pura (Uttara, 26/187),
Raghuvama (15/90) mention it. Rmyaa, Uttara
Ka (102/5-8) calls it Kru-patha. After Rma-Rvaa
war, it was named Angadya. This was region of Bli,
where sal region ends in Maithili poilice station area.
Here, Rma had pierced 7 sal trees with a single arrow.
Places of Bli are nearby-Balimela, Baliguda. Cloth
round loins was called Lnja which means tail also like
monkey. For tradition of loin cloth and sea journeys
(Vana-nidhi), they were called Vnara. For punishment,
people were sent here. The Forest (Araya) for
punishment (Daa) was called Daakraya and the
path to that prison (Kr) was Kr-patha or Koraput.
Bli ruled east ocean also. The Kr in Nikobar or in
water (Pani) was called Kala-pani or Car-Nokobar island.
Kiribati in Pcific and Carpathea in Romania also mean
the same.
13. Karanja-Skanda pura, Rev Khaa (chapters 4-6
and Matsya Pura (190/11) mention Karanjevara iva
temple here. That could be Karanjia of Keonjhar.
14. Siddha-ketra-There are many Siddha-ketras-Vyu
pura (uttara 15/13-14) tells this in Kalinga. Others
are-Siddhrama of Vivmitra on bank of Gang
(Vyghrasara or Buxar in Bihar), on Mandkin bank
between Kanchanajangh and Dhaul-giri (Rmyaa,
Kikindh ka, 44/33). There is a Siddhantha temple
in Talagadh village near Naraj where Mahnad is
divided in 2 branches. On one side is Varha region

60
Baramba and other side is Dhaulgiri. There is Varha
temple in Jajpur also.
15. Maipur-Mahbhrata, Avamedha, chapter 79,
calls this capital of Kalinga. This could be Manika-
pattana near Chilka lake.
16. Blevara-Rising sun is called Bla (child). So, the
east town on coast is called Baleswar. Form of Dev is
called Rama, which is now Remuna.
17. Mayrabhanja-Peacock (Mayra) danced here in
natural surroundings. Bamboo forest near this is called
Khiching which is said to be place of Kchaka (bamboo)
who was commander of king Vira of Mahbhrata.
18. Brahmapura-Named after Brahm. Wholesale
market near this was Ganjam (Ganja = to store). Retail
market was Chhatrapura as small shops function under
Chhatra (umbrella). Vegetable market in Cuttack also is
called Chhatra bajar.
19. Kodala, Aska-These were mineral towns. Kodal =
dug with Kudal or spade. Ayaska = mineral.
20. Golanthara-This was Golla Janapada, birth place of
Chakya, founder of Maurya empire. People here are
Argolla. Paddy was stored here in Golla or Ku made of
bamboo or paddy husk. So, traders here are called
Kum and surname of Chakya was Kauilya.
21. Therubli-In Tamil, Tiru = r, word of respect. This
was place of Bli.
22. Pusingh, Jalatara. Shoulder = Prastha (Sanskrit)
pu, Singa = horns. On hill top. Money flows like Jala
= water. So, the market place below it was Jalatara.
There are many places named Jalada in Jharkhand,
Bengal, Asam. Merchants cheat in market, so, Jalatara
means cheat also.
23. Malkangiri-Old name is Mlyavanta Giri. r Rma
had stayed here during exile. When St was having
bath without clothes under a water-fall, local women

61
laughed at her. They were cursed by St that they
would not wear any clothes. Till 50 years ago, Bonda
women remained naked. Place of stay of St is still
called Maithil (= from Mithil). The water fall flows
through Rmagiri about which Klidsa has mentioned
in Meghadta that it has been made pious by bath of
St.
24. Klh-H = soil, Kl = black. Soil is black in
Kalahandi.
25. Thuamul-Rampur-Thua = source. This is source of 2
rivers-Ngval, Vamadhr.
26. Dabugaon-Dabu = money. Old market place.
27. Nowrangpur-Capital of old kings of Nala dynasty.
Nowranga means 9 colours, colourful place. Persons in
capital are clever, so it also means cheating.
28. Borigumma-Gulma is a military unit of about 100
persons. This was border town with army camp.
29. Baudh, Phulbani-Place of Sumedh Buddha of
mahendra mountain. Old college Pupa-pura is called
Phulbani.
30. Sambalpur-Sambala means army camp. Weapon
power of Indra was Chhinna-mast (Samalevar as
presiding deity) is here. As king, Indra was at top of
hierarchy, hence called Buhrj (Bddha-rav in
Sanskrit).
31. Hirakud= Diamond mine. Diamond is found in
Mahanadi bed till Baudh.
32. Rajgangpur-Ocean where Gang river merges is
called Gang-sgara. Ruler of that ocean were called
Ganga kings of Odisha. Their place is Rajgangapur.
33. Rourkela-Roul or Raval means knight. Their main
place. Kal means bigger place. Khurda (kudra is
small).
34. Badbil-Bila means farming land which is dug. Bigger
digging is for mines. This is mine region.

62
35. Balangir-It is place of Narasimha-ntha whose main
quality was Bala (force). First ankarchrya of Puri
Pha had done Tapa here.
36. Paikmal-Paik = Padtika (foot soldiers). Army area in
narasimha period.
35. Bhatli-place of Bhaa (sepoys).
36. Burla-Barla = layer of leaves as in palm tree. Coal
and other minerals are in layers. Their miners also are
called Barla.
37. Angul-Ai = curved nail for control of elephant. Gola
= group. Place of elephant army was called Anugola.
Other such places also exist-Anugol in Belgam district of
Karnataka was place of elephant army of Maratha kings.
Another Ongole is between Vijaywada and Chennai.
40. Ersama-Ir = water. Sam = equally. Land on whose
both sides water exists is Ir-sam called Erasmus in
Greek. This isn Mahanadi delta.
41. Marshaghai-Marsh = Masa = smooth slippery.
Ghi = low land. Low soft land is Marshaghai (Marsh in
English).
Words related to incarnations-
Related to Varha-abar tribe-They dug earth. Digging
rod also is called Sbal. Varha or boar also digs earth.
Places on boar name are Soro (in Bhadrak), Sukarpada
(Kendrapada).
Krma-Literal meaning is tortoise. Verb root means
worker. Those who worked in farms are Kurm. Place of
farming is Khamar, their owners are Khamr (title in
Odisha). They are called Kamma in Telugu, Khmer in
Combodia. During Krma period, Asuras had come for
mining. Their titles are still based on Greek names of
minerals-Munda (Sanskrit for iron ore), Hembram-
mercury, Oram-Aurum means gold, Khalko
Chalcopyrite, copper ore. Toppo-Topaz, Minz-washing
ores like fish in water. Sinku-Tin (Stanic). Hansada=

63
refining like Hansa. Kerketa =marking mine on map
(Karkata means compass).
Vmana-Yaja (Makh) of Asura king Bali was being done
in town of ukra (Kvya). These places are now Mecca,
Kaba in Arab. Similar places in Odisha are Jajpur,
Medinipur. Capital of Indonesia also is Yajakart =
Jakarta. On Bhdra month 12 day of bright half, Indra
got his land from bali who went to Ptla. So, kingship
is counted from that day called Suniya (zero) and
people start ocean journey.
Paraurma-Many people who helped Paraurma were
from this land-abara, Kalinga, Aura. Aghorantha was
disciple of his father who had helped him. His place is
Ghogharnath near Rourkela. Paraurma used battle
axe (ng), so his places of army are called Tangi in
Odisha.
Rma period-Related places are Balimela, Maithili,
Malkangiri, Daakraya, Kandha tribe of Kikindh.
Bli was friend of Rvaa, so Rvaa name is common
here in Gajpati district. Place of ka (Bear, name of
human tribe) is called ka or ya mountain. Payo
river emerges from that mountain. On its bank at
Chyavana rama, amas brother atrughna had come
for Avamedha and proceeded to Nlchala (place of
Jaganntha), Ratna-tal and Chakrnk (Chakra-trtha
in Puri).
Ka period-Jar abar was step brother of Ka who
became king of abaras. His place was Jar river (Jira
river near Bargadh) which was also place of Jarsandha,
king of Magadh in Mahbhrata time. Elephant (Gaja)
army of Kalinga was famous in Mahbhrata war. Even
now, kings of Odisha are called Gajapati. iupla was
king of west part whose father was Dantavaktra.
Dantakur town of Bastar in Chhattisgarh is named after

64
him. His descendant was Kharavel ruling Odisha. There
is iupla-garh in Bhubaneswar.
Buddha-3 out of 28 Buddhas were in Odisha. Disciple of
Dpankara Buddha was king Indra-bhti of Odisha after
whome Lama tradition and baul songs started. Maitreya
Buddha was in Dhnya-kaaka (Cuttack). Sumedh
Buddha was in Baudha. Colleges of that period are
Lalitgiri and Pushpagiri.

Chapter 9-Puric history of Odisha


1. Krttikeya Period-Time of Indras commander
Krttikeya is given in Mahbhrata, vana Parva (230/8-
10) as 15,800 BC. His 6 army headquarters have been
called 6 mothers-Dul (Bengal, Odisha region),
Abhrayant (Andhra, Mahrra), Meghayant (Gujrat,
Rajsthan), Varayant (Asam), Nitatni (Tamilnadu),
Chupuk (Punjab-Chopra title)-Taittirya Samhit
(4/4/5/10), Taittirya Brhmaa (3/1/4/4). Dul was near
Kork where victory tower in sea had been set up by
Krttikeya after victory over Kraucha Dvpa. One name
of Krttikeya is Vaikha i.e. son of Vikh. His mother
could be from Vishakhapattan where 2 rivers (kh)
meet ocean-Ngval, Vamadhr.

65
Indra with help of Marut started script which had 49
letters for 49 Marut. For 33 Devas, consonants from K to
H were kept. It was a Nagar (town) of Devas in symbols,
so it was called Devangar. So, Indra was called
Lekharabha (initiator of writing)-(Taittirya samhit
6/4/7, Maitrya samhit 4/5/8, Kapihala Samhit
42/3) and Chapter on Srya-tanu-lekhana (writing on
sun shaped golden disc) in Mrkaeya pura. For
Indra as Lekharabha, name Alekha is popular in
Odisha. Name of Odisha king has been mentioned as
Alekha-sundara in Kalsi inscription of Maurya Ashok at
time of Kalinga war in 1464 BC. This has been made
Alexandria by western writers which didnt exist then.
Pirates in Indra period were Pai which is called Pa
now. Places related to Varha, Krma, Narasimha have
been written already.
2. Before Mahbhrata-Matsya pura (48/77), Vyu
pura (99/85) tell about 5 sons of queen Sude of
Virochanas son Bali by Drghatam-Anga, Vanga,
Kalinga, Suhma, Pudra who ruled 5 regions in their
names. These were Anga (East Bihar, west Bengal),
Vanga (Bangladesh), Suhma (utkala, Midnapur), Pura
(Purnea). Yaytis son Turvasu (about 8,000 BC) of
Chandra or Puru-vama ruled here (south east Bharata).
His descendants till Duyanta ruled Odisha (Viu
pura, 4/10).
After Mahbhrata-After murder of king Parkita,
grandson of Yudhihira by Takaka Nga, his son
Janamejaya defeated Ngas after 27 years and wiped
out their 2 towns later called as Moin-jo-daro (place of
dead), Hadappa (heap of bones). He was asked to
repent for these murders for which he gave land grants
at 5 places when there was solar eclipse at Puri on 27-
11-3014 BC (Jaybhyudaya aka 89 Plavanga year,
Krttika Amvsy). These were published in Mysore

66
Antiquary in June 1901 and the dates given by all 5
Indian styles were checked by Kosla Vepa in 2007 at
Dallas in USA. This was published in-Astronomical
Dating of Events & Select Vignettes from Indian History.
Digvijaya-sana of Janamejaya counts years from
coronation of Parkita on 25-8-3102 BC when Pavas
went for Abhyudaya and Jaya-samvatsara started. So, it
is called Jaybhyudaya aka. Later kings of Odisha from
Janamejaya family adopted same format of grant
papers. Most grants were on day of solar eclipse which
is considered auspicious. Odisha kings used Vijaya-
samvatsara from date of Digvijaya-sana of
Janamejaya in 3013 BC. They ruled from Sonpur over 3
regions-Kosal with capital at Mur (centre of iron ore
region) submerged in Hirakud reservoir in 1956, Utkala
with capital at Vijaya-Kaaka (Cuttack), kalinga with
capital at Kongaa (later on Pithapur. All grants of
Janamejaya and his family kings-












In first verse, 10 witnesses are listed out of which 2 are
still used in land deeds of Odisha- (= till sun &
moon exist) Date of Kedarnath grant of Janamejaya is-

67
()
----
His descendants of Vyghrapada Gotra (Baghel) are still
in Odisha. Sri Chandrashekhar Sinha Samant (1831-
1904), author of Siddhnta-Darpaa was also from
same family line. Dates of Pu family kings are given
in-Inscriptions of Orissa, Vol. IV by Sri Stayanarayan
Rajaguru-Orissa State Museum, 1966-() --
--

() ----
---
() - -
---
Modern historians place these grants in period of
Harshavardhana and 4 other kingdoms in same period
which is obvious error of about 3600 years. In that
period, Harshavardhana himself ruled Odisha whose
Ratha-ytr has been described by Huensang.
Kharavel-He was descendant of Chedi king iupla
who had been killed in Rjasya yaja of Yudhihira by
Ka in 3153 BC. Chedi state was in south west Odisha
and Bastar of Chhatisgarh. Remains of his fort iupla-
gaha and inscriptions at Khaagiri caves exist. Their
lines are-(1) Constructed Gopura (palace, office) after
coronation, (2) In second year conquered Mushik
(Hyderabad on Musi river) by defeating Stakar with
cavalary, (3) Invited scholars of Gandharva vidy in
third year, (4) in fourth year repaired Vidydhara
building (University), (5) In fifth year, repaired Panas
(Prch canal) built by Nanda after 803 years. Nanda
was coronated in 1504 kali = 1634 BC. So, Kharavel
coronation was in 1634-(803-4) = 835 BC. (6) In
seventh year, did Rjasya yaja, collected tax and
gave grants. (7) Ruled from Vji-gha-v (place of

68
cavalry). (8) In eighth year, chased out Yavana king
Dimit from Mathura. This was to help Magadh kings who
were unable to counter invaders. Andhra rule had
started in Magadh in 833 BC. Mathura attack date
tallies with Assyrian history telling that they attacked
India after 850 BC. (9) In ninth year, constructed
Agrahra for Brhmaas, Mahvijaya (Secretariat) and
quarters for army. Here, dates were given in Kali era
which were destroyed by British as usual to destroy
Indian chronology. Use of kali era shows that draka
aka of 756 BC had not stated yet. (10) By tenth year of
rule, he controlled whole Bhrata by Sma-dma
(friendly rule). (11) Ploughed palace of king Avi by
plough pulled by donkey. (12) Conquered Uttarpatha in
12th year and brought idol of Kalinga-Jina. Colected tax
from Magadh and Anga. (13) In 13th year, constructed
house for Bhikus on Kumr hill.
Maurya Ashoka-Officers of Mur under Pava kings
were called Maurya. Mahpadmamananda had captured
area of Pavas. Within 12 years, Mauryas of Mur
captured rule of Magadh. As per Sarnath inscription,
Ashoka (1472-1436 BC) had attacked Kalinga in 8th
year of his rule. There is no mention as to how many
died in that war. Bauddha text Divyvadna in its
chapter Aokvadna that Bauddhas complained to
Ashoka that Jain people insulted Buddha by showing
that he was touching feet of Mahavira (Khandagiri cave
figure). On this, Ashoka had killed 12,000 Jaina monks.
Main dispute was that Mauryas were rulers of west part
of Odisha only and wanted to capture east part Kalinga
also which controlled ports. Even Kalinga princess
Karubaki who married Ashoka constructed a pond in
port town of Bhagalpur only. Fake story of mass violence
in Kalinga war and adoption of Buddhism was created in
1893 by Vincent Smith as 1/3 population of Odisha was

69
killed by artificial famine due to massive exports of
foodgrain by Ravenshaw, Commissioner of Orissa. So a
story was planted that Indian kings and followers of
jaganntha, Jain etc were equally murderous and only
Bauddhas were non-violent. Murder of 12,000 jain
monks cannot be called non violence.
After Maurya rule (1534-1218 BC), Magadh was ruled by
Shunga (1218-918 BC). Then Kava kings ruled (918-
833 BC). Kava branch of Yajurveda was in Odisha only,
so they were definitely Brhmas from Odisha. Then 33
Andhra kings ruled Magadh in 833-327 BC after which
all Greek authors have written attack by Alexander in
326 BC. But they shifted Maurya period back by 1300
years for destroying Indian history. Kharavel had ruled
at start of Andhra rule and Andhra king Protsanga
has praised him for help in chasing foreign attack. In
Gupta period (327-82 BC), Odisha was under their rule.
Vakatak king of western Odisha was married to
Prabhavati Devi, daughter of Gupta king Samudragupta.
Only by inscription of Prabhavati Devi, we get list of
Gupta kings till son of Samudragupta. After Gupta
period, Paramar king Vikramaditya of Ujjain ruled the
whole country from 82 BC to 19 AD. After his death, his
empire disintegrated into 18 parts and each state
started using local language in official work. India was
attacked from all sides. Finally, his grandson chased out
invaders and started livhana aka in 78 AD which is
in use with Vikrama samvat since 57 BC. Then India was
most powerful and Jesus Christ with his disciple took
shelter in India. Inscription on St Thomas mount in
Chennai tells that St. Thomas came in 82 AD. Thus,
invasion in that period is baseless which was stopped
by Kharavel long back. In 483 BC, king Sudhanv set up
4 Phas of ankarchrya including Govardhana Pha
at Puri.

70
Chapter 10-Middle and Modern age
Kings of Middle era-Puric Chronology
Main calendars-(1) Yudhihira coronation (Yudhihira
aka) 17-12-3139 BC, Kaliyuga start on 17-2-3102 BC,
Parkita coronation (Jaybhyudaya aka)-25-8-3102
BC, Laukika aka in Kashmir on death of Yudhihira
from 3077 BC.
(2) Jaina Yudhihira aka (King of K becomes
Sanys as Prvantha)-2634 BC.
(3) iunga aka (on death of first king of iunga
dynasty-Kauzad era of Burma)-1954 BC
(4) Nanda Cornation-1634 BC
(5) draka aka-756 BC.
(6) Chhamna (Chpa) aka used by Varhamihira-
612 BC
(7) rHara aka-456 BC.

71
(8) Vikramditya Samvat-57 BC
(9) livhana aka-78 AD.
(10) Kalachuri or Chedi aka-246 AD-Was it end of
Kharavel dynasty?
(11) Valabh Bhanga-End of later Gupta line in Gujrat-
319 AD.
(12) Bhsvat aka (atnanda) in Odsha-1099 AD.
(13) Kapilendra aka-1435 AD (Kapilendra Bhsvat)
Magadha kings-22 of Brhadratha ynasty-3138-2132 BC
Pradyota dynasty 5 kings (2132-1994 BC)
iunga dynasty 10 kings-1994-1634 BC-Mahvra,
last jaina Trthankara (birth on 11-3-1904 BC, Chaitra
ukla 13.). Capital at Pataliputra in 4 year of Udyi rule.
Nanda dynasty-1634-1534 BC.
12 kings of maurya dynasty-1534-1218 BC-
Chandragupta (1534-1500BC), Vindusra (1500-1472
BC), Ashoka (1472-1436). Another Ashoka of Kashmir
(1448-1400 BC) had become Bauddha due to which
local Bauddhas invited Bauddhas from central Asia to
attack. Kashmir was destroyed by that attack.
(Rjatarangi)
10 kings of unga dynasty-1218-918 BC
4 kings of Kava dynasty-918-833 BC.
33 Kings of ndhra dynasty-833-327 BC
Gupta period-427-82 BC. At start, Alexander attacked
in326 BC. His commander re-attacked in time of
Samudragupa-in time of second king Samudragupta
(320-269 BC).
Vikramditya (82BC-19 AD) ruled over the whole
country including Odisha. His samvat from 57 BC is still
followed. After his death, country was broken into 18
parts and each was adopting own language. Invaders
entered from all directions including Chinese from
north. They were chased away by his grandson
livhana who started his aka in 78 AD. Oriya

72
literature started in that period (Sarasvat
Kahbharaa, 2/15).
Some ancient kings of Odisha-In Mahbhrata,
rutyudha, king of Kalinga was killed by Bhmasen. His
2 sons also were killed-Ketumn, akradeva (Bhma
parva, chapter 54).
Another Kalinga king Chitrngada is named in nti
Parva (4/2-3). A King Bhadrasen of Kalinga is mentioned
by Kauilya in his book Artha-stra. His brother
Vrasena became king after killing him. (, -
- ) ,
(/)
Ananga-He was killed for torturing children. (,
, )
Dadhivhana and his son Karakau (skin irritation)
were in time of Bhagavn Mahvra ( , )
Modern chronology has been grossly confused as
Britishers placed start of Maurya period in 327 BC and
Indian authors cannot think independently. They think
that Kharavel revolted against Mauryas. Mauryas were
from west Odisha only and Kharavel helped them in
chasing invaders as clearly indicated in his and other
inscriptions. After livhana (hya Rja) in 78-138
AD, Kalinga was ruled by Mhar dynasty till 600 AD. In
same period, Sharabhapuriya kings ruled in west
Odisha. Then ailodbhav kings of Kalinga established
strong navy and one branch ruled over Cambodia also.
Around 1100 AD, Rajendra Chola had come with his
navy to Jaganntha Puri. Then he proceeded to
Pashupatinath in Nepal and brought Rudrka seeds
which he planted in Great Nikobar. 500 such trees still
exist there. His tour was pilgrimage only and not an
attack. Thereafter, king Nishanka Malla of Simhal has
called himself from Kalinga in 1187 AD.

73
In 1243, Tughral Khan attacked from Bengal side as per
Tabqat-i-Nasiri, but he was badly defeated in Jajpur.
In 1365, Firozshah Tughlak attacked Jajnagar (Jajpur) as
per Tarikh-e-Firozshahi and killed all persons above 17
years till coast. Remaining 1.50 lakh children and
women were tied and marched till Gazni to be sold as
slaves.
Ganga Dynasty-Its first king was Indravarman-1
whose capital was at Dantapur. There is a grant of 39th
year of his rule of 537 AD (i.e. start of rule in 499 AD).
King Devendravarman (652-682 AD) took his capital at
Kalinganagar. Anantavarman Cholaganga made his
capital at Cuttack in 1135 AD which is called birth of
Cuttack. But this town has been mentioned in
Janamejaya grants also of 3014 BC. Construction of
present Jaganntha temple started in his period which
was completed in time of Ananga Bhmadeva. Then,
Narasimhadeva built Korka temple. But, time of
Jaganntha temple should be 200 years earlier as
Pra-Prati was done by Rmnujchrya whose
figure still remains on walls of Mahlakm temple. His
time was (1017-1137 AD). Probably epoch of Bhsvat
(1099 AD is related to start of this temple.
Chronology from middle ages (From Odisha govt 2014
yearbook)-
1115 AD-Start of construction of present Jaganntha
temple. (It should be slightly earlier as indicated
above).
1147-1156 AD- Rule of Kmrava-6 ruled.
1156-1170-Rghava Deva
1170-1198-Ananga Bhmadeva-3
1234-1245-Langula Narasimha Deva. Sun temple at
Korka.
1264-1278-Bhnudeva-2

74
1278 AD-Chandrik Dev, daughter of Ananga
Bhmadeva-3 constructs Ananta Vsudeva temple in
Bhubaneswar.
1278-1305-Narasimha Deva-2
1306-1328-Bhnudeva-2
1328-1352-Narasimha Deva-3
1352-1378-Bhnudeva-3
1378-1414-Narasimhadeva-4
1414-1434-Bhnudeva-4
1435-1467-Kapilendra Deva starts rule of Srya Vama.
Kapilendra aka from 1435 AD.
1464-Spread of rule from Ganga river to Tiruchirapalli of
Tamilnadu. Title of Gajapati Gauevara Nava-koi
Kara Klavargevara (protector of 9 crore Hindus).
Sarala Das writes Mahbhrata in Oriya.
1467-1497-Rule of Puruottama Deva.
1497-1540-Pratparudra Deva
1542-1549-Govinda Vidydhara of Bhoi dynasty rules.
1560-1568-Mukunda Deva of Chalukya dynasty rules.
Kl Paha destroys 606 temples. His descendants still
use title Kl-Paha with great pride.
1568-Suleman Karrani conquers Odisha. Foreign rule
starts.
1590-Mughal invasion on odisha.
1592-War with Mughal and Afghans on Svarnarekha
river bank. Mughals capture Saranga-gadh fort.
1593-Khurda king surrenders before Mughal
commander Mansingh. His descendants still use
Mansingh title.
1611-1617-Division of Odisha into Gadjat and
Mughalabandi by king Todarmal.
1617-Subedar Mukarram Khan invades Khurda.
1625-Dutch post set up in Pipli in Balasore.
1633-Bristish east India Company sets up first factory at
Haripur coast.

75
1660-1667-Khan-e-Daura becomes Subedar of Odisha.
1671-Aurangzeb grants tax-free trade to east India
Company.
1751-Start of Maratha rule.
1766-East India Company conquers ganjam.
1803-British capture Barbati fort of Cuttack.
1817-Paik rebellion suppressed (started in 1804)
1835-Ghumsar revolt.
1862-Vir Suredra Sai of Sambalpur surrenders before
Major Impey.
1866-Cuttack Commissioner Ravenshaw procures and
exports all paddy causing famine which killed 1/3
population about 35 lakhs by starving. Called 9 Anka
famine (Year 9 of rule of king Divya Simha Deva).
1882-Utkal Sabha formed by Gauri Shankar Roy.
1895-Meeting at Cuttack under Madhusudan Das for
joining of Oriya speaking regions in Odisha.
1898-Madhusudan Das elected to Bengal Assembly.
1898-Utkal Samgh Sammilani formed.
1907-Application to Royal Commission for Odisha state.
1909-Satyabadi Vana Vidyalay set up on 12 August.
1911-Bihar-Odisha separated from Bengal.
1912-Balasore conference for Odisha state.
1913-Orissa Ryot Bill passed.
1914-Gopabandhu Dash starts Satyabadi monthly from
Sakhigopal, printed in Asha Press Brahmapur.
1915-Bagha Jatin becomes martyr.
1916-Bamra Sura-Tarangini Sarasvata Samiti awards
Sarasvati title to Fakir Mohan Senapati.
1917-Madhu Babu starts Oriya paper.
1918-Satyabadi press starts in Sakhigopal.
1919-Samaj weekly starts from 4 October.
1920-Baripada-Bangiriposi railway line (37.20 Km)
opens.
1921-Mahatma Gandhi visits Odisha on March 24.

76
1922-Harekrushna Mahatab jailed for 1 year on July 18
for instigating Kanika revolt.
1923_Madhu Babu resigns from Bihar-Odisha ministry.
1924-Oriya Women Forum set up at Brahmapur. First
meeting at Cuttack.
1925- Gandhi visits Odisha on August 9.
1926-Gopabandhu Dash starts Widow shelter in Puri
and their education starts under Acharya Harihar Das.
1927-Gandhi visits Odisha. Serious floods in Balasore.
Kalicharan Patnaik given title of Kavichandra by
Gajapati Ramachandra Deva-4.
1928-Gandhi visits Sambalpur. Utkalamani Gopabandhu
Dash expires.
1929-Utkal Pradesh Congress Committee meets at
Cuttack.
1930-Salt agitation ay Inchudi in Balasore. Utkal
Pradesh Congress Committee meets at Balasore on June
20.
1931-Krushna Chandra Narayan Gajapati demands
separate Odisha in Round table Conference, London on
January 16.
1932-Second Round Table Conference accepts demand
for Odisha state on September 7.
1933-First English daily New Odisha starts from Asha
Press, Brahmapur by Shashibhushan Rath with help of
Lingaraj Panigrahi.
1934-Gandhi comes to Odisha on May 5.
1935-Kaliaboda Gurudwara built at Cuttack by Sardar
Kartar Singh, Professor of Chemistry in Ravenshaw
College. Guru Nanak had stayed here on way to Puri.
1936-Separate Odisha state formed on April 1.
1937-First Oriya cabinet formed.
1938-Gandhi attends annual meeting of Gandhi Seva
Sangh on March 25 at Delang, Puri district. Baji Rout
dies in Police firing.

77
1939-Subash Chandra Bose visits Cuttack on August 5
with Jay Prakash Narayan. Congress ministry resigns on
November 4. Major General Bezelgate killed in Ranpur
in Puri Distt (now in Nayagadh). Religious endowment
set up. Rabindra Nath Thakur comes to Puri.
1940-Oriya theater set up at Cuttack by Kalicharan
Patnaik. Prof. Artaballabh Mohanty edits Madala Panji.
1941-Raghu Diwakar hanged for murder of Bazelgate.
1942-9 persons killed in police firing at Lunia and 29 at
Iram.
1943-Oriya song broadcast fro Calcutta radio station.
1944-Odisha PM Krushna Chandra Narayan Gajpati
resigns on June 30.
1945-British airforce bombs Azad Hind Fauj base near
Rangoon killing Oriya people mostly from Ganjam. New
colleges set up at Balasore, Sambalpur, Puri from July.
1946-Gandhi visits Odisha on 29 January. Odisha
Governor lays foundation stone for dam at Hirakud.
Central Rice Research Institute set up at Cuttack.
1947-Daring flight by Biju Patnaik to Indonesia to bring
their leaders to safety. Princely states merged with
Odisha.
1948-Foundation stone for new capital at Bhubaneswar.
High Court and Radio station set up at Cuttack.
1949- Capital shifted from Cuttack to Bhubaneswar.
Balangir district formed.
1950-Map of Odisha with 13 districts published.
1951-PM Jawaharlal Nehru visits Jharsuguda on
December 13.
1952-Biju Patnaik donates 1000 Pounds to UNESCO for
Kalinga Award. Oriya and English used for government
work.
1953-Rourkela Steel Plant set up.
1954-Agricultural College set up in Bhubaneswar. Law
passed for use of Oriya in official work.

78
1955-Bhudan land distributed among landless.
1956-Engineering College set up in Burla. Sarangadhar
Das, head of Prajamandal dies. Work starts for Rourkela
steel plant.
1957-Hirakud dam inaugurated by Jawaharlal Nehru.
Oriya Sahitya Academy set up. National Park in Simlipal.
Foundation stone of Bhubaneswar Museum by President
Rajendra Prasad.
1958-Mihirsen swims across English Chanel.
Dandakaranya project starts.
1959-Lalit kala Academy set up. Vir Surendra Sai
Medical College in Burla.
1960-Government Archives at Bhubaneswar. Nandan-
kanan zoo, Blind schools set up in Bhubaneswar. First
volume of Oriya Vishvakosha published by Jnanamandal
edited by Binod Kanungo.
1961-Odisha Vidhan Saudh inaugurated. Rourkela
Engineering College opened.
1962-Jawaharlal Nehru lays foundation stone for
Paradeep port. Sainik School in Bhubaneswar. Work
starts on Express highway from Daitari to Paradeep.
Odisha Agriculrure University set up.
1963-Russian astronaut Valentina Tereshcova visits
Odisha. Utkala University opens.
1964-Foundation stone of Talcher Thermal power
station laid by Jawaharlal Nehru.
1965-Chaukidari system in villages abolished.
1966-After death of PM Sri Lal Bahadur Shastri,
Biswanath Das becomes President of Bharat Lokasevak
Mandal.
1967-Universities set up in Brahmapur and Sambalpur.
Pandit Nilakanth Das expires.
1968-President opens Sambalpur University. Freedom
fighter and Litterateur Radhanath rath awarded Padma-
vibhushan.

79
1969-Varahgiri Venkat Giri becomes President on 24
August.
1970-Biju Patnaik forms Utkal Congress.
1971-Sri Jagannath Sanskrit University set up. Acharya
Harihar Das expires. Lance Nayak Albert Ekka gets
Parama Vira Chakra for Bangladesh war.
1972-Severe cyclone on Odisha coast.
1973-Traffic starts on Cuttack-Paradeep railway line.
Navy training centre starts at Chilka.
1974-Maharaj Krushna Chandra Gajapati Narayana
Deva expires.
1975-Dr. J. V. Bolton honoured in Odisha Assembly for
his work on fakir Mohan Senapati literature. Crocodile
Research centre for salt water set up in Bhitar Kanika.
1976-Bonded Labour Abolition Act, 1976 passed.
1977-Fisheries Research Centre set up at
Kaushalyaganga.
1978-Severe cyclone in Bandhagoda of Keonjhar. Upper
Indravati project starts.
1979-IMFA trust starts Sarala Awards.
1980-Prince Charles of UK visits Odisha. Indonesia
Government awards Bhumi-putra award to Biju Patnaik.
1981-Aluminium factory (NALCO) set up at Angul.
1982-Indian Road Congress annual meeting at
Bhubaneswar on October 23.
1983-Central Sahitya Academy award to Dr.
Harekrushna Mahtab for his book Gaon-Majlis.
1984-PM Indira Gandhi lays foundation of Ordnance
factory at Saitala in Balangir and Talcher-Sambalpur rail
link. Odisha Vijnan Academy and OREDA set up. 2
former CMs Biswanath das and Nabakrushna
Chaudhary expire.
1985-Sarvoday leader Rama Devi expires. First state
level Loka Adalat at Cuttack.

80
1986-Padmasri award to Binod Kanungo, founder of
Jnanamandal. Foundation of Pathani Samanta
Planetorium.
1987-Ex CM Dr. H K Mahtab expires. Jawaharlal Nehru
indoor stadium opened at Cuttack. Harekrushna Mahtab
State Library opened in Bhubaneswar. Jnanapith award
to Sacchhidananda Routray.
1988-Dalai Lama visits Odisha. Cuttack TV centre
opens.
1989-Bhubaneswar Stock Exchange opens. Ib Thermal
Power plant foundation stone. 1000 years of Cuttack
town. Sri Rabi ray is Speaker of Loksabha. Agni missile
tested at Chandipur.
1990-Justice Rangnath Mishra becomes Chief Justice of
India.
1991-Literateur Kalindi Charan Panigrahi expires.
Women Development Cooperative formed.
1992-Singer Balkrishna Das dies. 13 districts of Odisha
divided into 30 districts.
1994-Simlipal Reserved forest declared Bio-reserve.
Justice G T Nanavati becomes Chief Justice of Odisha.
1995-Indonesia awards highest civilian award Vinatanga
Jasuttama (Vaianteya Yaottama) to Biju Patnaik.
1996-Naba-Kalebar of Jaganntha at Puri.
1997-Demice of Ex-CM Sri Biju Patnaik, Archeologist
Satyanarayan Rajguru, Odisi Dancer Samyukta
Panigrahi.
1998-Demice of Samaj editor Radhanath Ratha, Social
worker Malati Chaudhari. Traffic starts on Sambalpur-
Talcher rail line. Third SAARC conference at Khurda.
1999-Agni-2 missile successfully tested from Chandipur.
Super Cyclone on Odisha coast on 28-29 October. More
than 12,000 died. Kujang Gandhi Narayan Viravar
Samant expires. Sri M M Rajendran becomes Odisha
Governor.

81
2000-Sri Navin Patnaik becomes Odisha CM on March 5.
Odisha Culture University set up. Freedom fighter
Chintamani Panigrahi expires. Profession tax imposed in
Odisha. Second World Oriya conference in Rourkela.
Draught in Odisha.
2001-Floods in Odisha.
2002-Draught in Odisha.
2003-Flood in Odisha. Justice Sujit Burman Roy is Chief
Justice of Odisha.
2004-Padmasri awards to-Hockey player Dilip Tirkey,
Dance Guru Maguni Charan Das, Dramatist Manoranjan
Das. Kendriya Sahitya Academy award to Dr. Prafulla
Mohanty. Rupa Mishra tops IAS examination. Sri Navin
patnaik becomes CM for second term. Demices-Odisi
Guru Kelucharan Mahapatra, Padmasri Sacchhidananda
Routray, Poet Guru Prasad Mohanty, Poet Purnananda
dani, Novelist Kishoricharan Das, ex-CM Nilamani
Routray. Sri Rameshwar Thakur becomes Governor of
Odisha.
2005-Demices-Author Chintamani Behera, Justice Naba
Kishor Das. Chief whip of BJD Sri Sankarshan naik dies
in accident. VAT, Financial liability bill, Right to
Information Act, Information Commission. Education
satellite plan.
2006-Agreement for Kirtania port in Balasore. Sports
Academy set up. Agreement for Vedanta University at
Puri. Gopbandhu Rural Scheme and KBK plans started.
Ex-CM Nandini Satpathy expires. Panchayat elections
held at 3 levels.
2007-Ashok Ganguly becomes CJ and Muralidhar
Chandrakant Bhandare Governor of Odisha. 150th
anniversary of 1857 Freedom struggle in old assembly
house.
2008-Police Commissionerate starts in Cuttack-
Bhubaneswar. Kalpana Das climbs Mount Everest.

82
Ashok Chakra to Pramod Satpathy killed in Nayagadh
Arms loot. New Agriculture policy-2008 announced.
2009-Sri Navin Patnaik becomes CM for third term.
Historian Manmathnath Das expires. Chess player
Padmini Rout gets Ekalabya award. Janaki Ballabh
Patnaik gets Atibadi Jagannath award. Arjun award to
Hockey player Ignes Tirkey.
2010-National Youth Festival 15 in Kalinga Stadium,
Bhubaneswar. Padmasri awards to Musician Raghunath
Panigrahi, Hockey player Ignes Tirkey, Guru Mayadhar
Rout. Padma Vibhushan to Heart Surgeon Ramakanta
Panda. Weightlifting gold medal in Commonwealth
games tO Ravikumar. Bronz medal for yatching in Asian
games to Pratima Puhan and Prabha Minz. Bhajan
Samrat Bhikhari Bala expires. Biju Patnaik award to
scintists Kulamani Panda and Rajanikanta Chaudhari.
2011-English names Orissa and Oriya changed to
Odisha and Odia on November1 in Government of India
Gazette. Ganjam declared best district in help to
physically challenged. Jayadeva award to film maker
Apurba Kisore Bir. Arjuna award to Ravi Kumar. 3 Odiyas
climb mount Everest-Ganesh Chandra Jena, Yogavyas
Bhoi, Devidatta Panda. Padmabhushan to Sitakanta
Mahapatra. Sand artist Sudarshan Patnaik gets
international recognition. Odisha Gram Panchayat Rules
1964 amended to give 50% reservation to women.
Author Narayan Puraseth dies. Saha Commission starts
inquiry into mineral scam.
2012-Demice-Justice Ranganath Mishra, Freedom
fighter and ex-minister Nityananda Mahapatra, Odisi
Guru Harekrushna Behera, Critique Jatindra Mohanty,
Painter Ajit Kesari Roy. Tagore Academy Ratna award to
Guru Mayadhar Rout, Gopal Chandra Panda,
Nilamadhav Panigrahi. Medscape award to Dr.
Ramakanta Panda.

83
2013-Justice Adarsh Kumar Goyal becomes CJ and Sri S
C Jamir Governor of Odisha. Maritime Museum at Zobra
in Cuttack. Jnanapith award to Pratibha Roy. Community
Policing starts. Separate agriculture budget. Ban of
tobacco production, sale and use. Agriculture and Youth
policies announced. Sarala Award to Manorama
Mahapatra. Public Service Act passed.
2014-Ex-speaker of assembly Yudhishthir Das expires.
Odiya declared classical language, Sri Navin Patnaik
becomes CM for fourth term. Women policy announced.
Retirement age extended to 60 years from 58.

Chapter 11-Sanskrit Literature


1. Mdhava Nidna-Three ancient Samhit (texts) of
yurveda are called Bhat-tray (big three)-Charaka,
Suruta, Vgbhaa. Later 3 major texts are called
Laghu-tray (small triple)-Mdhava Nidna, Bhva
Praka, rngadhara Samhit. Original name of
Mdhava Nidna was Roga-vinichaya (diagnosis of
disease), but it was written by Mdhava Kara of Odisha,
so it was called Mdhava-Nidna. Due to its fame, it
was translated into Persian in time of Caliph Harun-al-
Rashid. Diagnosis was usually by seeing nerves by

84
holding wrist (Kara), so Mdhava had Kara title which is
common in Odisha.
2. Klidsa-There were 3 famous Klidsa stated in
Shitya Mmns of Rjaekhara. First Klidsa was
dramatist who has called himself in time of king
Agnimitra unga (1158-1108 BC) in his drama
Mlavikgnimitram. He wrote 3 dramas. Second
Klidsa was poet and one of 9 jewels in court of
Vikramditya of Ujjain (82 BC-19 AD). After 3 epics-
Raghuvama, Meghadta, Kumrasambhava, he wrote
astrology text Jyotirvidbharaa in which he has
described Vikramditya and his 9 jewels. His
Meghadta epic describes places of south Odisha in
great detail, so he appears to be from Odisha. Third
Klidsa was has described himself from Pr in
Maharashtra in Chid-gagana-chandrika. He was
contemporary of a Bhoja king and Prophet Mohammad.
3. atnanda-His famous astronomy text is Bhsvat.
Being short method for Pacha-siddhntik of
Varhamihira, it was called Pacha-siddhntik-
Bhsvat. He was son of ankara and Sarasvat of Puri
and epoch of his texts was Kali 4200 (1099 AD). It has
been mentioned in Padmvata epic of Raskhan 500
years later.
4. Vivantha Kavirja-His Sitya Darpaa is most
famous text of its subject. His patron was Bhnudeva
(1414-1434 AD). His other works are-Rghava Vilsa,
Kuvalaya Charita epic, Prabhvat Pariaya drama,
Praasti Ratnval, Kvya Praka Darpaa, Narasimha
Vijaya, Mlat Madhukara.
5. Jayadeva-He was in 12th century. His epic Hta-
Govinda is famous whose Davatra stotra is sung for
Odishi dance. As per Bhaviya pura, he had written a
book on Nirukta (vedic dictionary) also. Some
astronomy texts of Kerala have quoted methods of his

85
Algebra text. One of the early commentaries on Gta-
Govinda is by R Kumbh, king of Mewar.
6. Rmachandra Mahptra-His title was Kaula
Bharaka. His book ilpa Praka was published in
2005 with English translation by Bettina Baumer,
Rajendra Prasad Das and Alice Boner.
7. Puruottama Mira- His patron was Gajapati
Nryaa Deva of Parlakhemundi. He wrote Sangta
Nryaa in 17th century. This was published with
English translation in 2009.
8. Viu arm-Author of Pacha-tantra. He was from
Golla Janapada (Golanthara) as per Jain texts. He was
called Chakya due to his town Chaaka (place of
Chra wrestler with Kamsa of Mathura) and family
title was Kauilya as paddy was kept in Kui made of
straw in his area. He became teacher in Takail
university and after founding Maurya empire, wrote
famous book on polity-Arthastra.
9. Bhaa Nryaa-Ve Samhra poetry in time of king
Mdhavarja of ailodbhava dynasty.
10. Murri Mira-His epic Anargha Rghava is
mentioned by Rjaekhara.
11. Govardhana chrya-ry Saptaat.
12. Udayana chrya was younger brother of
Govardhana. Wrote commentaries on Naiadha Charita
of rhara and Gta Govinda of Jayadeva.
13. Bopadeva-Mugdhabodha grammer (13th century)
14. Vidydhara-Ekval on poetry. Narasimha Deva was
patron.
15. rdhara Svm-ankarchrya of Govardhana Pha
Puri. Wrote commentary on Bhgavata Pura.
16. Kumrila Bhaa-Jinavijaya epic tells his period as
(557-493 BC). He was born in Jayamangal village on
south bank of Mahnad. He was disciple of Jaina Muni
Klakchrya of Ujjain (599-527 AD). When he revived

86
Vedic tradition, some Jaina persons called it treachery
with Jaina Guru. For repentance he burnt himself in slow
fire of straw in Sangama at Prayga. He asked
ankarchrya to take help of his student Maana
Mira on Son river bank. He was greatest scholar of
Mmns. Many commentaries of his book Tantra
Vrttika are published.
17. Kavichandra Ray Divkara Mira- His patron was
Krishandevaray of Vijayanagar (1509-1530)-Abhinava
Gta Govinda, Bhrata Mt epic.
18. Kavichandra Jvadevchrya (1478-1550)-Bhakti
Bhgavata epic.
19-Ka Mira-Prabodha Chandrodaya.
20. Jayadeva chrya-Pya Lahar, Vaiava Ml.
21. Lakmdhara Bhaa-Sarasvat Vijaya.
22. Rmaka Bhaa-Pratpa Alantam.
23. Ray Ramananda-Officer under Prataprudra Deva.
Jaganntha Vallabha, Govinda Vallabha. His neice
Mdhav Ds wrote drama Puruottama Deva.
24. Jaganntha Mira-Rasa Kalpadruma.
25, Gangdhara Mira-Kosalnanda epic (about
Chauhan kings of Sambalpur-Balangir)
26. Baijala Deva-with Chauhan king of Patna. Prabodha
Chandrika (grammer book)
27. Kadsa Baajen Mahptra-Emissary of
Gajapati Mukunda Deva in court of Mughal king Akbar.
Gta Praka.
28. Mrkaeya Mira-Daagrva Vadha epic, Prkta
Sarvasvam.
29. Haladhara Mira (in time of Gajapati Narasimha
Deva)-Vasantotsava epic, Sangta Kalpalat, Haladhara
Krik (grammer).
30. Hari Nayak-Hari Nyaka Ratnaml, Viama
Praka.

87
31. Gajapati Nryaa Deva (king of Paralakhemundi)-
Sangta Nryaa, Alankra Chandrik.
32. Kaviratna Puruottama Mira-Guru of Gajapati
Nryaa Deva. Yamaka Bhgavata epic, Nldri ataka,
Anargha Rghava drama, Rmachandrodaya.
33. Vsudeva Ratha-Ganga Vamnucharitam (1770
AD).
34. Nitynanda Raghuntha Trtha (17th century)-r
Ka Llmta, Gta Mukunda.
36. Baladeva Vidybhaa (of Remuna in Balasore)-
Govinda Bhya on Brahmastra in 1730. Commentary
on Stavaml of Rupa Gosvami.
37. Raghuntha Dsa-Kla Niraya, rddha Niraya,
Dharma stra, Nya Ratnval, Amarakoa k,
Vardhamna Praka (Commentary on Vardhamna
grammer), Kraka Niraya, Utpala Tarangi, Shitya
Bhaa, Vanadurg Pj, Ktantra Vistra, kepa,
Vaidya Kalpalat, Nighrtha Praka etc.
38. Yog Praharja Mahptra (Of Nandapur in Koraput,
18th century)-Vidy Hdaynanda, Sankipta Smti
Darpaa.
39. King Puruottama Deva-Trika ea, Hrval,
Ekkara Koa, Dvirpa Koa.
40. ambhukara Vjapey (In time of Ganga King
Narasimha Deva2, in 1279-1303 AD)-rddha Paddhati,
Vivha Paddhati, ambhukara Paddhati, Smrtta
Ratnval etc.
41. r Chandraekhara Simha Smanta (Khandapara,
1831-1904) Astronomy text Siddhnta Darpaa
(Published in 1899 by Calcutta University, in 1999 with
mathematical commentary by Arun Kumar Upadhyay).
42. Vivantha Mahptra-Kch Vijaya epic.
Modern Sanskrit poets are Chandrashekhar Mishra,
Prabodh Kumar Mishra, Sudarshan Acharya,

88
Chandrashekhar Sadangi, Prafulla Kumar Mishra,
Harekrishna Satapathi, Gopal Krishna Dash etc.

Chapter 12-Pacha sakh and traditional


literature
1. Odiya script-Mainly 2 scripts were used in India-
(1) Devangar by Indra and Marut-It has33 consonants
k to h as symbols of 33 Devas, so it was called
Devangar. By adding 16 vowels, it had 49 letters like
49 Maruts. It is used from east (region of Indra) to north
west (region of Marut). Whole world is described by
letters from A to H, so man as image of world is called
Aham. This is body. By adding its Knower (Ketraja) by
3 letters Ka, Tra, Ja-52 letters indicate 52 Siddha
Phas. This is Siddha order. Forms of letters have been
changing with time, but its order has remained the
same for at least 20, 000 years.
(2) Brhm-This was started by Svyambhuva Manu and
revived by abha Deva as per Jaina tradition.
Sequence of letters is same but there are 3 sounds for
each vowel and some extra letters making it 63 or 64
letters. South India has 2 types of L. Odiya imbibes both
traditions.
In addition, there are scripts for special purposes. For
naming quarters of 27 nakatras, we use 20 consonants
added with 5 vowels a, i, u e, o-which are similar to
Roman script. For 108 parts of nakatras we add 12
letters making it 37 letters. All signs used in Vedas have
17x17 = 289 letters. It has 1 , 36x3 vowels and 36x5
consonants.
Odiya is centre of all traditions of India. In north has
Ri sound, south uses Ru sound. Odiya has both and a
third sound Ra. Similarly, west part gives half accent on
last letter. East part first A is read like o. Odiya has

89
exact equal stress on all letters like Sanskrit. vowel
has small and long forms, but is not used in any word.
Its only used is that Locket (Lkti) is of that shape and
number 9 in Odiya, Hndi are similar to in Bangla. This
shows that basic structure of script was the same all
over India.
But in British period, separate type-faces were built for
each region and a theory was made that every region
had separate culture on which Vedic culture was
imposed by Aryans invading from north west. But there
are about 50 special Vedic words used only in Oriya.
Had it been imposed from west, these words would
have occurred in west also.
In Bauddha period, dual number words of Sanskrit were
stopped as it was stopped in Russian by Stalin.
Traditional Chhandas (meters) of Odiya are similar to
Vedic Chhandas based on letter count. There are some
irregular meters called Daa, e.g. iva-Tava by
Rvaa. Oriya Mahbhrata of Sral Dsa is also in
Daa Chhanda. Chhanda is also written as Chhnda in
Oriya. As Daa is irregular meter, indisciplined person
is called Daa in Oriya.
As per Sarasva Kahbharaa (2/15), literature in
Prkta started in time of king livhana (78-128 AD).
Before that it was used by common men but not in
literature. At present, literature in popular languages in
available only from 8 century written by disciples of
Gorakhantha. Jaina and Bauddha texts also were
written around that time in popular languages which
change with time. Now we have to imagine what could
have been original Sanskrit form and then translate.
Sanskrit remained eternal language.
Main available texts of Ntha tradition are iu Veda
and Gorakha Samhit. In British pattern, our literature
is classified as aiva or Vaiava texts which is not

90
correct. Devotee of Jaganntha does not avoid worship
of iva, Durg or Hanumn. Temples of all exist in
Jaganntha temple Puri. Another text of Ntha tradition
is Rudra-Sudh-Nidhi.
There is old tradition of Koili songs in Oriya. Koyal
(cuckoo) is given message for conveying in these
songs. Koil means temple in Tamil which is used in Oriya
also (Vaikuha Koili).
Two more ancient texts are found-Kalasa Chautisa of
Bacchha Dsa. Here verses start with 34letters from K
to H and Ka. Another is Vichitra Rmyaa of
Siddhevara Dsa. Some persons think that Sral Dsa
himself was called Siddhevara Dsa before Sanysa.
Among old poets, Sral Dsa is most famous whose
earlier name was Siddhevara Pari. His works are-
Sral Mahbhrata, Vilank Rmyaa, Cha
Pura, Lakm Nryaa Vachanik. Gopnth Mohanty
thinks him of 10th century.
Pacha-Sakh Poets-There were many famous Sanskrit
poets in Odisha since long ago. Around time of
Chaitanya 5 main Oriya saint poets were called Pacha-
sakh (= 5 friends)-(Matta = mad) Balarma Dsa, (Ati-
bai) Jaganntha Dsa, (Mah-purua) Achyutnanda,
Ananta Dsa, Yaovanta Dsa. They were not of same
period, but being of same tradition, they are called 5
friends. Their philosophy was Snkhya, whose teacher
was called Pacha-ikha. Their works are-
Balarma Dsa-Jagamohana Rmyaa, Lakm Pura,
Vednta Sra, Gupta Gt, Nma Mhtmya, Bhva
samudra, Kamalalochana Chautisa, Knta Koili etc.
Jaganntha Dsa-His Bhgavata is most famous and it
was recited in every village of Odisha in a house called
Bhgavata ung. His other works are-Artha Koili, Dru
Brahma Gt, nya Bhgavata, Dhruva Stuti etc.

91
Achyutnanda Dsa-His Mlik is very famous which
describes future incidents similar to works of
Nostradamus in France. There were 16 Pothis (plates of
copper or palm leaves) which are blank but his reply is
printed for any mental querry. His other works are-
nya Samhit, Chaurs Yantra, Gurubhakti Gt, Khila
Harivama, Gupta Bhgavata, Kaivartta Gt, Kla-
Nirghaa, Teraha Janma araa, Brahma Ekkara
Gt, Gopla Ogla, Bhva Samudra, Garua Gt,
Brahma ankuli, Ananta Vaa Gt, Kl Kalpa Gt, Aa
Gjar, Gjar Rsa, Brahma Kual, Mahgupta
Padmakalpa, Chausahi Paala, Chheylisa Paala,
Chaubsa Paala, Dasa Pala, Nitya Rsa, Manmatha
Chandrik, iva Kalpa, Achyutnanda Janma araa,
Chitta Bodha, Rsa Ml, Pachasakh Bhajana.
Chaurs Yantra are 84 centres in human body which
give 84 powers. His Bhaviya Mlik, gata Bhaviya
Lekhan, Bhaviya Parrdha, Jiphla Mlik are
popular.
Ananta Dsa is also called iu Ananta and there is a
place name near Bhubaneswar. Meaning of old
iunga dynasty was same. His main works are-
Chumbaka Mlik, Nlagiri Charita, Udaya Bhgavata,
Hetu Udaya Bhgavata, Artha Tr Pranottara,
Bhakti-mukti Pradyaka Gt.
Books by Yaovanta Dsa are-iva Svarodaya,
Premabhakti-Brahma Gt, tma-pratyaya Gt, Govinda
Chandra.
These poets have expressed complicated Vedic
concepts in simple short sentences. Many times their
single line is more accurate than 10 pages commentary.
Only one example is given from Jaganntha Dsa-
Je Pche Para ra manda, thra manda pchanti
Govinda = If one plans bad for somebody, his bad is
planned by God.

92
vetvatara Upaniad (5/5) uses same words-
,
6 Gosvm-By adding Mahtm Arakita Dsa, they are
called 6 Gosvm. His works are-Mahmaala Gt,
Bhakti k, Saptnga Adbhut Samhit, Tattvasra Gt.
Most famous poet after Pachasakh is Upendra
Bhanja. He was from Bhanja royal family of
Brahmapura. His most famous work is Vaideha-Vilsa
which is story of Rma and every line starts with letter
va (or ba). His other works are-Koi Brahma Sundar,
Lvayavat.
Later traditional poets are-
iu ankara Dsa-Ubhila.
Deva Durlabha Dsa-Rahasya Majar
Krttika Dsa-Rukmi Vivha.
Rmachandra Patnaik-Hrval.
Dnaka Dsa-Rasa Kallola.
Abhimanyu Smantasimhr-Vidagdha Chintmai.
Kavisrya Baladeva Ratha-Champ, Charita Kvya type
works.
Brajantha Baajena-Chatura Vinoda.
Bhima Bhoi was a famous saint of 19th century whose
teachings are called Mahim Dharma. He was blind, but
his teachings were written by his disciples out of which
many are missing. Available texts are-Stuti Chintmai,
Brahma Nirpaa Gt, di Anta Gt, Chauts Grantha
Ml, Nirveda Sdhan, ruti Niedha Gt, Manusabh
Maala, Mahim Vinoda (4 parts, unpublished), Bhat
Bhajanaml, Bangala ha Bhajana. Mahim means
worship of formless. Saints of this sect always move on
feet.

93
Chapter 13-Forest People
2001 census counts 62 tribes in Odisha out of which
Khond are 17.1%-total number is 13,95,643. Next are
Gond 9.6%. With other 6 main tribes-Santhal, Kol,
Munda, Saur, Savara, Bhotta (Bhatra) they constitute
64.2% of tribals. Bhumij, Bhuiyan, Oram, Paraja and
Kisan are about 3 lakhs. Other 44 tribes are about 8.8%.
5 tribes are on verge of extinction-Chemchu, Manki,
Desua Bhumij, Ghar, Tharua.
As per Pur and historic traditions, tribals are of 5
origins-
(1) bara-These were in time of Varha incarnation
about 17,000 BC whose main work was digging. That
was time of king Pthu also who did extensive mining.
abara has become Sbal in Oriya meaning digging rod.
Original text of Mns is bara Bhya. Meaningless
Mantras of iva tradition are bara.
(2) Shipping-Persons transporting goods on land or in
sea were called Nga (snake). They were spread all
over world-Nagasaki in Japan, stka Nga (Aztec) of
Mexico. Indian places were Nagarkoil, Nagpur,
Ahicchhatra etc.
Most kings of Odisha are of Nga gotra. Path north of
equator was called Nga-Vthi. Arjuna had married Nga
princess Ulp of Manipur. Rmas elder son Kush had

94
married Nga girl Kumudvat. Ships were tied with
Kha pole at ports. So, the persons in charge of
loading unloading are called Khui in Odisha, Khe in
Mahrra and Nigeria. Pirates were called Pai in
Vedas (gveda 8/64, 10/108 etc). They are Pa tribe of
Odisha who have been made Christians. Brhmaas
related to trade have titles Pi, Pigrah.
(3) Mining-After Bali gave back 3 lokas to Indra, some
Asuras were not satisfied and continued war. To resolve,
Krma suggested joint mining whose product could be
shared. Asuras were experts in digging, so they worked
in pits called hot mouth of Vsuki. From same region,
Yavanas were chased out by king Sagara in about 6762
BC who settled in Greece which was called Ionia after
that. So, the names of those Asuras have become
mineral names in Greek language. Some are Sanskrit
names also like Munda (Munda = iron ore, Mura = its
powder, Murrum). Aurum is gold in Greek, Oram title.
Topaz miners are Toppo. Copper ore is Chalcopyrite from
Greek Xalco (Khalko title). Supporting wall of mine pit is
hard like tortoise called Ekka (Greek) or Kacchhapa
(Sanskrit). Tin miners are Sinku (Stanic), workers of
blast furnace are Sinku (unit of heat in Sanskrit),
Mercury miners are Hembram. Persons refining ores are
Minz (Mna = fish) or Hansada (Hansa removes water
from milk). Compass (Karkaa) is used for indicating
mine place-they are called Kerketta.
(4) Invaders-Chapter 1 of Cha Pha tells about Kol
terrorists. They could be from India itself or from
Australia where bears are called Cola. In Rmyaa
period they were called ka (bear). ka mountain is
in west Odisha, Chhatisgarh.
(5) Old kings-Rulers of Kikindh in Rmyaa period
are Kandh tribe. They wore Lanji like tail of monkeys.
There is one Lanjigarh in Kalahandi. In time of Akbar,

95
central India was ruled by queen Durgavati whose
husband was from Lanjigarh. They are called Rja-
Goa (king Gonds).

Chapter 14-Makers of Modern Odisha


In British period persons of their two earlier centres
Madras (Chennai now) & Calcutta aligned with them
early and were dominant in government jobs. Books
also were published in those regions only. Odisha had
mostly officers and landlords of Bengal. Mostly books
published in Calcutta were available here in Bangla or
English. South Odisha was under Madras Presidency.
Even now, many old police manuals in Telugu are found
in Koraput, Ganjam districts. Leading persons of Odisha
in British period tried very hard to revive Odiya culture
and language and unite Odiya speaking regions. In
1866, Commissioner Ravenshaw of Odisha exported
most rice of Odisha causing famine in which 35 lakh
persons died due to starving. Then Delta canal scheme
was started. Mayurbhanj king set up Medical Colege (in
his name rrma Chandra Bhanja or SCB ) and
Ravenshaw College at Cuttack (now autonomous
university). To hide mass murders by British by starving,

96
a story was created that Indians were equally
murderous and only Bauddhas were non violent. So a
fiction of invasion by Maurya Ashoka (from Odisha only)
was created who killed 11 lakh persons in Kalinga war
and became Bauddha to denounce violence. But
Bauddha text Divyvadna tells that he had killed
12,000 Jaina monks in stead of renouncing violence.
Important makers of modern Odisha are-
(1) Fakirmohan Senapati-Born on 14-1-1843 in
Mallikashpur of Baleswar. Wrote many books for social
uplift. Novels are-Chha Ma ha Guha (Ma and
Guha are land measures), Mmun, Pryachit,
Lachhama. Short stories-Revat, Patent Medicine,
Randipua Ananta. Wrote his autobiography-Am Jivan
Charita. Translated Rmyaa and Mahbhrata and
wrote many poems for which he is called Vysa-Kavi.
(2) Utkala Gaurav Madhusudan Das-Born in
Satyabhamapur of Cuttack district on 28-4-1848. He
was the first Odiya to pass MA, BL from Calcutta
university. Odisha was part of 3 different states and
officers ignored Odiyas. He put pressure for single state
for Odiyas and formed Utkal Sabha for social and
economic development. Later on he dissolved it and
formed Utkal Sammilani. His efforts united all Oriyas for
development and rise. Oriya movement continued
parallel to freedom struggle and Utkalamani
Gopabandhu Dash also joined. He became MLA and
minister in Government of Bihar-Odisha. Resigned in
1923 on principles. He had started Oriya weekly in 1917
which highlighted neglect of Oriyas by government. He
was first Oriya legislator in central assembly and went
to England for demand of Odisha state. Expired on 4-2-
1934. He was called Madhu Barrister or Utkala Gaurab
also.

97
3 Gangadhar Meher- Born in a weaver family of
Sambalpur district in Barpali village on 9-8-1862,
rvaa Prim. He couldread only up to class 5, but
has done great contribution to Oriya literature. His
poems are-Praaya vallar, Kcahaka Vadha, Indumat,
Utkala-Lakm, Ayodhy Dya, Kavitkallola, Arghya
Thl, Ahaly Stava, Mahim Bhrat Bhvan, Kumra
Janmotsava, Bhakti Upahra, Padmin, Kavit Ml,
Kaka Sangta. Prose works-tma Jvan, r Nparja
Simha, Purana Kavi Fakirmohan, Svargya Kntha
Pa, Eha ki Prithvi ra Shabda?, Shikshita, Ashikshita o
Shikshabhimani. He combines ornamental language of
Upendra Bhanja with nature description of Radhanath
Ray. He died on 4-4-1924.
4. Sriram Chandra Bhanjadeva-He was born in Royal
family of Mayurbhanj on 17-12-1871. Became king on
15-8-1892 and did many works of development. Pandit
Gopabandhu Das was his friend and guide. He
constructed narrow gauge Rupsa-Bangiriposi line and
dams at Haladiha and Haladiya for irrigation. Increased
number of primary schools from 44 to 300.
5. Utkalamani Gopabandhu Das-Born on 9-10-1877. He
was called Utkalamani by nationalist professor Prafulla
Chandra Ray on 28-6-1924 for his works of Odisha pride
and progress. In 1909, he set up school at Satyabadi
with help of Pandit Nilakanth Das. Later on Pandit
Godavarish Mishra and Acharya Harihar also joined.
Formed Utkal Sabha with Madhusudan Das for
unification of Odisha. At Dhalabhumi in Jharkhand also
he set up Oriya school. Started Samaj weekly for
development of Oriya culture. Later on it became daily.
For next 80 years, Samaj meant newspaper, though
many other dailies also had come up. He was a freedom
fighter and nationalist writer. His main works are-Bandi
ra Atmakatha, Avakash Chinta.

98
6. Pandit Nilakanth Das-Born on 5-8-1884 at
Ramchandrapur in Puri. After primary education in
village, admitted to Jila School, Puri. Passed BA in 1909
and went to Calcutta for MA and BL. On return in 1911,
became Headmaster of Satyabadi school. Later on he
became Professor of Oriya and Philosophy, but resigned
in non-cooperation movement. Became member of
Utkal Pradesh Congress Committee and executive
member of All India Congress Committee also. Started a
newspaper Seva from Sambalpur. After 9 months, he
returned to his village Ramachandrapur. In 1932, he
was sent to Jail for 6 months for taking part in freedom
movement. On return, contested election on advice of
Gopabandhu Das and became member of central
assembly. Took part in Shimla conference 1926. Became
president of state congress on death of Gopabandhu
Das in 1928. Resigned from Assembly and took part in
salt agitation in which he was in jail for 6 months. He
started movement against untouchability and worked
for welfare of lower classes. Again he was elected to
assembly. Edited Oriya monthly Nava Bharata in 1933.
After death of Madhusudan das in 1934, responsibility
of freedom struggle fell on his shoulders and he called
Mahatma Gandhi to Odisha. Became president of
Pradesh Congress Committee when Odisha was formed
a state in 1936. Congress got 36 out of 60 seats under
his leadership. He formed a committee to set up a
University whose proposal led to establishment of Utkal
University. He was elected as MLA from Svadhin
Janasangh in 1951. In 1955, on request of Nehru, joined
Congress again. The same year, he became Pro-VC of
Utkal University. He was re-elected to state assembly in
1957 and remained as Speaker till 1961 July. He expired
on 6th November, 1967.

99
7. Maharaja Krushnachandra Gajapati Narayan
Dev-He was born as son of Parlakhemundi king
Gaurcahndra Gajapati Narayan Deva on 26-4-1892.
After education in Madras, he became king in 1913. He
organized annual meeting of Utkal sabha in 1914 at
Parlakhemundi for development of education and
culture. In 1916, Bristish government appointed him
honorary Commissioner of land army. He constructed
narrow gauge railway line between Naupada-
Parlakhemundi. Built a library for research in palace.
Became main member of Madras Justice Party and was
nominated as a member of Royal Commission on
Agriculture. Elected as member of madras Legislative
assembly. In 1930-31, demanded separate Orissa state
in London Round Table Conference. In 1934, he
proposed before Parliamentary committee merger of
Parlakhemundi in Orissa. He was given title of Maharaja
in 1936. In 1937, he became Chief of the first non-
Congress ministry. He was invited in 1941 to form
ministry and became Chief Minister. Remained member
of Constituent Assembly in 1947-50. He was life
member of Royal Arts Society, Royal Asiatic Society,
London and Utkal University. Was awarded LLD degree
by Utkal University. Expired on 25-5-1974.
8. Dr. Harekrushna Mahtab-He was born as son of
Krushnachandra Das and Tohfa Devi in village Agarpada
in undivided Balasore district on 21-11-1899. After
passing matriculation from Bhadrak Hish School, took
admission in Ravenshaw College. Left studies midway
for taking part in freedom struggle. Started Prajatantra
weekly from balasore in 1923. Was imprisoned on
charge of sedition in 1922. Became member of Bihar-
Orissa Legislative Assembly in 1924. Went to jail in
1930 for taking part in salt agitation. Started Harijan
movement in 1934 and opened his parental temple for

100
all. In 1938, as President of Public Enquiry Committee,
recommended abolition of princely states and their
merger in Odisha. Went to jail in 1941 for agitation
against princely states and again in 1942 for Quit India
Movement. Remained Chief Minister of Orissa in 1946-
50. Was Union cabinet Minister fr Commerce & Industry
in 1950-52. He was parliamentary general secretary of
Congress in 1952-55 and Governor of Bombay in 1955-
56. After resigning as Governor, became Chief Minister
of Orissa in 1956-60. He is rightly called maker of
modern Orissa for merger of princely states, formation
of capital in Bhubaneswar, construction of Hirakud dam
etc. Was elected member of Loksabha in 1962. He was
MLA in 1967, 1971, 1974. Set up Prajatantra Prachar
Samiti in Cuttack from where Prajatantra daily is still
being published. Many other books also have been
published here and a Sanskrit College is functioning.
Twice he was elected President of Odisha Sahitya
Academy and then of Odisha Sangit Natak Academy. He
was famous historian and author. Andhra University
awarded him Doctorate in Literature and Saugar
University in Law. Was awarded Kendriya Sahitya
Academy award in 1983 for his serial Gan-majlis in
Prajatantra. He wrote many books such as History of
Orissa, Beginning of End (both in English). This great
son of Odisha expired on 2-1-1987.
9. Raja Bahadur Ramchandra Mardaraj Dev-Born
as son of Raja Harihar Mardaraj and Rani Kanakmanjari
Devi of Khallikot on 13-1-1900. He was brought up by
Geverness Harvey Dunn who called him Eric. On
untimely death of his father on 20-7-1909, he was sent
for school education to Madras where he was admitted
to Newlington school. Studied up to age of 21 in
Christian College then became king on 14-1-1921 on
attaining age of 21. In 1924, he demanded separate

101
Orissa stated before Phillip-Duff Committee. On 17-21
December, both members of committee stayed at his
house and he arranged a grand public meeting. Later
on, ODonnel Commission gave opinion against
formation of Orissa state. But Ramchandra Mardadev
was not disheartened and again pleaded against it in
Madras assembly. Demanded Orissa state in Utkal
Sabha meeting on 21-8-1932 as proposed by Phillip-
Duff Committee. In 1933, he went to third Round table
Conference at London. Arranged Orissa meet on 12th
January, invited India Minister Sir Samuel Hore and got
his concurrence for Orissa state. Accordingly,
parliamentary committee was formed and separate
Orissa state was formed as per article 289 of
Government of India Act, 1935. Raja Sahib continued
his drive for development of Odisha. He expired on 23-
1-1963.
10. Bijayananda (Biju) Patnaik-Son of Sri
Lakshminarayan Patnaik. Birth on 5-3-1916. Educated
upto B.Sc. Wife-Smt. Jnana Patnaik. Had 2 sons and a
daughter. Businessman and industrialist, hobby of
aviation. Toured many countries like Britain, America,
Russia, France, Indonesia. In student life, he had gone
from Cuttack to Peshavar by cycle. He became pilot in
Indian aviation company. He gave secret help to leaders
of Quit India Movement for which he was jailed for 30
months. In freedom struggle of Indonesia, he brought its
Premier Mr. Sultan Siharir by plane to Delhi by risking his life.
At time of Pak invasion on Kashmir in 1947, he landed first
aircraft there. He came back to Orissa and set up industries
here. Became President of Pradesh Congress Committee and
then member of All India Congress Committee also. Congress
got unprecedented victory under his leadership in 1961 mid
term polls in Orissa. Remained Chief Minister in 1961-63 and
resigned under Kamraj Plan. Established Kalinga Airways.
Donated 1000 pounds for Kalinga Award for science by

102
Unesco. He was elected to assemble in 1952, 1967, 1961
from Jagannathprasad, Sorada and Chaudwar. Was elected
from 1971, 1974 from Rajnagar of Cuttack. Remained
Chairman of Orissa Planning Commission in 1971-71. Became
member of Loksabha in 1977 and remained Union Minister till
1979. Again became MP from Kendrapada in 1980, 1984.
Became leader of opposition in assembly after resigning from
union cabinet. On 5-3-1990, he again became Chief Minister
of Orissa. He was elected MLA from Bhubaneswar in 1995
and became leader of opposition for second time. He expired
on 17-4-1997 in Escorts hospital Delhi.

Chapter 15-History of Shipping and trade


Shipping trade was being done since remote past in
India and is mentioned at many places in Vedas also.
Shipping can be found only in coastal region and cannot

103
be traced in so-called Harappa civilization, or in Punjab,
UP.
Unfortunately, no book is available about shipping trade
or construction of ships in Odisha. Last book on ship
building in India is Yukti-Kalpataru by king Bhoj.
According to that, there were 2 main types of ships-
common ships plied in rivers or coast. Special ships
were very large and could move anywhere in deep
seas. Alexander had invaded with about 2 lakh army
out of which 120 thousand remained. This army with
arms, equipments and 2 lakh looted bullocks and other
loots were transported by ships available on Karachi
coast in a single trip. In 1992, USA had to make 5 trips
to send its army to Iraq. 300 years after Alexander, king
Vikramaditya of Ujjain had 4 lakh boats under him
which included ships on Odisha coast also.
Vikramaditya had constructed 4 Yogini temples out of
which one is located near Bhubaneswar which is stated
of 8th century without any basis. Vikramaditya had
invaded Bengal and Cambodia also with his navy as
described by Kalidas of his court in chapter 22 of
Jyotirvidbharaa-
,

,

,

,

Sometime after that, Kauinya from Odisha coast had
gone to Cambodia and ruled there. ailodbhava kings of
Odisha had established r-Vijaya kingdom there. r-
Vijaya kings were un challenged rulers of south China
sea and Indian ocean and used to send navy in nearby

104
islands to protect their shipping trade. Most persons of
Sumatra island have migrated from kalinga coast. Till
1000 AD, r-Vijaya kingdom retained supremacy on
seas which was replaced by Rajendra Chola of Kerala.
Many persons think that Rajendra Chola had conqured
Odisha also. But during his naval expedition, he had
come to Puri coast only for pilgrimage of Jaganntha.
Then he proceeded to Bhagalpur by Ganga river and
then to Nepal. He brought Rudrka seeds from
Pashupatinath and planted them at Great Nicobar island
out of which 500 trees are still surviving having age of
1000 years.
Fahien from China had come via west Himalayas. But
hill route was very tough, so he returned via sea. He
boarded ship at Tamralipti port in north Odisha which
went first to Simhal and then to Canton of China via
south of Nocobar abd Singapore. Authors of China and
Japan have stated that Canton port of China always had
100-150 ships from Kalinga. Fahien was surprised by 2
things-The ship was so big that it carried 1500 persons
which their foods. Further, it didnt follow coast line, but
went straight into deep sea. Chinese ships could travel
only along coast line. To know position of ship and its
direction, it is necessary to know latitude and longitude
and direction which was called 3 problems of astronomy
in India. Method of longitude outside India was known
only in 1480 via Turkish navy after which Columbus
could plan his journey in 1492. In Kerala, many Vkya-
karaa (sentences for memorising formula) for easy
calculation in ocean. Shippers of Odisha also must be
using these short methods, but such books are not
available now.
Roman historian Pliny has written that Rome was losing
at least 100 million money every year equal to 500
Staria of gold for imports from India. Main imports from

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India were rice, silk, cotton cloth, wheat, sugar,
turmeric, spices, til oil, sandalwood, teak, ebony,
diamond, copper, garnet and other gems. India was
importing gold, horse, silver, tin, ruby, glass, lead etc.
Paddy was being exported from Odisha, so it was called
Oryza (Aurya) which has become word rice. Most
minerals are near Odisha coast only, so their export
could be only from here. Sri Nabin Kumar Sahu in his
History of Orissa has mentioned that silk was being sent
from Sambalpur to Rome which has been mentioned by
Roman historians.
Odisha was inporting gold from Zambeji river mines of
Africa which has been called Jmbnada gold in
Puras. Due to regular contact with Africa, figure of
Ziraff is engraved in Konark temple.
Names of places and titles in Odisha are based on
shipping. Coast of north Odisha is shallow which is
suitable for wooden boats (Uupa), so that region was
called Ura. South part has deep coast which needs
deep anchor called Kalamba in Sanskrit. So port town is
called Kalamba (Colombo of Srilanka). Persons using
Kalamba are Kalanga and their country is Kalinga.
Pattana means port, so there are at least 100 places on
coast and river banks called Pan. Navigator of ship is
called Mangaraj, commander of fleet is Behera (fleet is
called Be in Hindi), shippers are called Mjh which
are common titles in Odisha. Origin of capital name
Patna in Bihar also is Praka-pattana (light house) for
riverine port. Place of construction of ships could be
near Vishakhapattanam or Mikapattana. One place
for transporting goods is called Bahanga bajar
(Bahanga = bamboo beam for carrying goods). There
were many light houses on coast, e.g. at Konark.
References-India and World Civilization-D P Singhal
The vision of India-Sisir Kumar Mitra

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Main Currents of Indian Culture-S. Natarajan
Hinduism: Its Contribution to Science and Civilization-
Prabhakar Balavant Machwe
History of Post-war Southeast Asia-John F. Cady
The Soul of India-Amaury de Riencourt (Suvarnabhumi)
Foreign Trade and Commerce in Ancient India-Prakash
Chandra Prasad
Indian Shipping: A History of thr Sea-Borne Trade and
Maritime Activity of the Indians From the Earliest
Times-Radha Kumud Mookerjee
The Ideals of the East with Special Reference to the Art
of Japan-Prof Kakasu Okakura
India and the World-Buddha Prakash
Ancient Hinduized states of the Far East-George Coedes

Chapter 16-Music
Music has 3 parts-Gyana, Vdya, Ntya (singing,
instruments, dance). Gyana is rhythmic recitation of
poem. Odiya poetry has meters of both types-count of
letters (syllables), count of accent of 1 or 2 units of a
letter. The meters here are combination of north and
south India. Recitation of Odiya meters is almost like

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Vedic recitation. Some main tunes are-Hansadhruv,
Pachama Bar, Chokhi, Kalya hr, Kedra,
Kedra Gaua, Pahiy kedra, Kmod, Chint
Bhairava, Rjahansa. Out of 6 traditional Rga and 36
Rgin, Odisha uses 24 Rga-Rgin. Kharavel had
constructed a hall for music and had organized music
festivals also. There are dance halls in many temples of
Konark and Bhubaneswar.
There are 4 main types of songs in Odishi-
1. Chitrakal-Here, tune (rga) and rhyme (tla) are
more important that poetry and words. Kavisrya
Baladeva Ratha has composed many songs of this type.
2. Dhruvapada-First line of a song is called Dhruva or
Ghoa which is repeated after each stanza.
3. Chitrapada-Ornamental composition in which words
are their sequence is more important.
4. Pachal-This is of many clauses and of 2 types-
Adhruva and Sadhruva. Sadhruva has 1 Ghoa. One
example of Adhruva Pachal is Chauts. Odishi has its
own special Chhanda, Rga & Tla. In Pad, words are
spoken at fast pace with changing tune. In Chauts,
lines start with 34 letters from k to h in that order.
Odishi music has effect of many ancient texts-
Sangtrava Chandrik, Gta Praka, Sangta Kal
Lat, Nya Manoram, Sangta Sara, Sangta
Nryaa. Present Odishi dance is influenced mostly by
Gta Govinda of Jayadeva.
Main folk songs here are-Jhmara, Yog Gt, Kendar
Gt, Dhuduk Vdya, Prahlda Nka, Pl, Sankrtana,
Mogal Tams, Gti Nya, Kahei Ncha, Kel Ncha,
Gho Ncha, Daa Ncha. Every tribe has its own
song and style.
Dances-(1) Gotpa Ncha-Got could mean Gotra or 1
(Goie in Odiya). This is by one boy. It is mentioned
during time of king Pratparudradeva (1497-1540 AD).

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(2) Mahr Ncha-This was done by Devads in
temples. In rule of Choaganga Deva, Mahr or
Devad were appointed in Puri temple. Thereafter, king
Anagabhmadeva constructed dance hall (Ntya
Maapa) in Jaganntha temple. There were many
types of Mahr-Nchun, Bhara Gon, Bhtara Gon,
Gausan. Samprad Niyoga danced only within
temple. There were many rules for Mahr women-
-They were married with Jaganntha at age of 9.
-They will dance in festivals only after worship of
Jaganntha.
-They will not look towards audience.
-Dance will be only as per sacred texts.
-They will put on only clean clothes.
(3) Chhau Ncha-This started in Mayurbhanj. This was
related to war motions. It has 3 main types-Saraikela,
Puruli, Mayurbhanj Chhau.
(4) Ghumur (Ghumar)-Its figures are on Konark
temple and is mentioned in Sral Mahbhrata. This
was court dance in Kalahandi state. Instruments like
Ghumur, hola, Nina, Mdala are played. Usually, it
is performed in Nuakhai and Dashahara in Kalahandi.
(5) Pl, Dsakhi-Pl is musical drama based on
Pura stories. Ornamental words are used with dance
and story is woven with imagination. In Dsakhi, a
wooden piece is struck for tune. Pl is of 3 types-
Baihak-dance while sitting, hi-standing dance, B-
2 groups challenge each other.
(6) Dances of western Odisha-
Songs of children-Chhioli, Humobul, Dol Gta.
Songs of elder children-Sajan, Chhta, Daka, Bhekan.
Songs of youth-Radarakeli, Jphla, Mla jaa,
Beimna, Gunchhka, lakh.
Songs of labours-Karm, Jhumar in which Vivakarm
and Karman are worshipped.

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There are many types of dancers-Da, Dhanga,
Mudga, Ghumar, Sdhan, Sabara-Sabar, nachan-
Bajaniy, Sanchara.
Odishi dance-Odishi is among 5 ancient dance forms of
India which are mentioned in Nya-stra of Bharata
Muni. In Indian temples, only 2 classical dances are
performed-Odishi and Bharata-Nyam. Udayagiri cave
has a picture of king Kharavel watching dance with 2
queens. Later on, it became associated with Mahr
dance of temples. Odishi dance and music-both are
classical. In modern era, Guru Kelucharan Mahapatra,
Sanjukta Panigrahi, Aruna Mohanty etc have spread its
popularity in whole world.

Chapter 17-Jain and Bauddha tradition


Misconception has been spread that these traditions
started in 6th century BC by Mahvra and Buddha.
Actually, Mahvra was the last among 24 Trthankaras.
Even before them, there were Jaina Trthankaras who
were called Parameh (7 human Brahm described in
Mahbhrata, nti Parva, chapter 348). Jaina and Vedic
traditions started together with Brahm, Veda is eternal
knowledge which links 3 worlds-cosmic, earth, human
body. Jaina texts are for different as per time period and
capability of readers. Jaina texts were in local language

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and vanished when the language itself ceased to be in
use. Vaidika tradition starting with Svyambhuva Manu
(29000 BC)-that is called Brahma Sampradya. It was
revived in time of Vaivasvata Manu (13900 BC) called
ditya Sampradya. 7 Manus in this period are 7
Parameh of Jaina tradition.
After glacial floods of 10000 BC, Jaina Trthankara
tradition started with abhadeva. Jaina texts mention
only the name after Sanysa which makes it difficult to
trace their historic place. 8 generations after
Yudhihira, king of Kashi became Sanys as
Prvantha and Jaina Yudhihira era started with that
in 2634 BC. Odisha kings Karakau and Dadhivmana
were his disciples. Later on, Kharavel had constructed
shelter for Jaina saints at Kumr Parvata. But in every
era, there were Jaina Munis and householders.
Bauddha tradition tells about 28 Buddhas among whom
the first was Kayapa (17500 BC). Some Buddhas were
not from India. At least 2 were from China-Fan (could be
Kayapa), Amitbha Buddha (Kka Bhuu) whose
teaching to Rvaa is called Lankvatra Stra. Main
Buddhas of India were-Siddhrtha (1887-1807 BC),
Gautama Buddha (483-550 BC). In addition, Sarnath
inscription of Maurya Ashoka tells 4 other Buddhas.
Fahien has given times and birth places of 4 other
Buddhas. According to him, Maitreya Buddha was born
in Dhanyakataka (present Cuttack) 150 years after
death of Siddhartha Buddha (i.e. in 1657 BC). Acharya
Narendradeva in his book Bauddha Dharma aur
Darshana has stated that king Indrabhti of Odisha was
disciple of Dpankara Buddha. Descendants of
Indrabhti started Lm tradition which became
popular in Tibet. Lakmnkar, daughter of Indrabhti
wrote Baul songs which were popular in Bengal.

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Another ancient Buddha was Sumedh who gave Dk
to Paraurma after Dhanua-yaja in Mithil when r
Rma was married. His teachings are in Tripur Rahasya
and he is sage of Cha-Pha also. He was called
Sumedh Buddha by Bauddhas. 10 mahvidy taught
by him were called 10 Praj-Pramit. His place is still
called Baudh district of Odisha. There are remains of
Bauddha schools in Pushpagiri and Lalitagiri.
Viu incarnation Buddha was born as son of Ajina
Brhmaa in Magadha. In time of Kharavel, Asura
invasion had reached till Mathura where Kharavel
elephant army had to go for helping Magadh kings. For
that, Kharavel had been praised by ndhra king
Protsanga of Magadha. After defeat in Mathura, Asura
queen Semirami collected combined army of 35 lakhs
with help of all kings of north Africa, central and west
Asia. To stop this, Viu Buddha formed Mlava-gaa
under Mlav king draka when his aka started in
756 BC. This incarnation only of Buddha was for counter
Asuras.

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