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2.2. For a soil suppose that, D10 = 0.24, D30 = 0.82 and D60 = 1.81. Calculate the uniformity

coefficient and coefficient of gradation.

Given: Required: Cu =? & Cc =?

D10 = 0.24, D30 = 0.82 and D60 = 1.81

Solution:

D60 1.81 (D30)2 (0.82)2

a. Cu = D10 = 0.24 = 7.54 b. Cc = D60D10 = 1.810.24 =1.55

From this the value of the coefficient of uniformity is between 5 and 20 i.e. 5 <Cu< 20.

Therefore the soil has slightly uniform grain size.

2.4. The following are the result of sieve analysis results:

U.S. Sieve no. mass of soil retained(g) U.S. Sieve no. mass of soil retained(g)

4 0 60 81.8

10 18.5 100 92.2

20 53.2 200 58.5

40 90.5 pan 26.5

a) Determine the percent finer than each sieve and plot a grain size distribution curve.

b) Determine D10, D30 and D60 from a grain size distribution curve

c) Calculate uniformity coefficient, Cu. d) Calculate coefficient of gradation, Cc.

Solution:

a) The solution is determined in the following table. Percent of finer (F) is calculated as:

U.S. Sieve no. Grain size (mm) mass of soil retained(g) Cumulative mass of Percent finer

soil retained(g)

4 4.75 0 0 100

10 2 18.5 18.5 95.61

20 0.85 53.2 71.7 82.98

40 0.425 90.5 162.2 61.5

60 0.25 81..8 244 42.07

100 0.15 92.2 336.2 20.18

200 0.075 58.5 394.7 6.3

Pan - 26.5 421.2 0

Total mass of soil = 421.2

1

Advanced Soil Mechanics Assignment I

100

90

80

70

percent finer

60

D60 =0.42

50

40

30 D30 = 0.19

20

10

D10 = 0.092

0

10 1 0.1 0.01

particle size (mm)

b) From the Grain-size distribution curve the value of D10, D30 & D60 is 0.092mm, 0.19mm

& 0.42mm respectively.

c) Cu = D60/D10 = 0.42 mm/0.092 mm = 4.565

d) Cc = D230/D10 * D60 = (0.19mm)2/(0.092mm * 0.42mm) = 0.93

The coefficient of uniformity is less than five. This indicates the soil has uniform grain size.

2.6 Repeat Problem 2.4 with the following:

U.S. sieve no. Mass of soil retained (g)

4 0

10 41.2

20 55.1

40 80

60 91.6

100 60.5

200 35.6

pan 21.5

Solution:

a) The answer can be described in the following table.

2

Advanced Soil Mechanics Assignment I

U.S. Grain size(mm) Mass of soil retained (g) Cumulative mass Percent finer

sieve no. of soil retained(g)

4 4.75 0 0 100

10 2 41.2 41.2 89.3

20 0.85 55.1 96.3 75.02

40 0.425 80 176.3 54.3

60 0.25 91.6 267.9 30.51

100 0.15 60.5 328.4 14.8

200 0.075 35.6 364 5.6

pan - 21.5 385.5 0

Total = 385.5

The grain-size distribution curve is shown in Figure below.

100

90

80

Percent finer

70

60

D60= 0.5

50

40

30

D30 = 0.26

20

D10 =0.12

10

0

10 1 0.1 0.01

Grain size(mm)

b) From the Grain-size distribution curve the value of D10, D30 & D60 is 0.12mm,

0.26mm & 0.5mm respectively.

c) Cu = D60/D10 = 0.5 mm/0.12 mm = 4.2

d) Cc = D230/D10 * D60 = (0.26mm)2/(0.12mm * 0.5mm) = 1.13

This shows the coefficient of uniformity is less than five. Therefore the soil has uniform

grain size.

2.8. The following are the result of sieve and hydrometer analysis:

a) Draw the grain size distribution curve.

b) Determine the percentage of gravel, sand, silt and clay according to MIT system.

3

Advanced Soil Mechanics Assignment I

d) Repeat part b according to AASHTO system

Analysis Sieve no./grain size grain size(mm) Percent finer

Sieve 40 0.425 100

80 0.18 97

170 0.09 92

200 0.075 90

Hydrometer 0.04mm 74

0.015mm 42

0.008mm 27

0.004mm 17

0.002mm 11

Solution:

a. Grain size distribution curve is shown below.

100

Sieve

90

80

Percent finer

70

60

Hydrometer

50

40

30

20

10

0

1 0.1 0.01 0.001

Grain size(mm)

b. MIT soil classification system classify soils on grain size(mm) as:

Gravel sand silt clay

>2mm 2 0.06mm 0.06 0.002 < 0.002mm

4

Advanced Soil Mechanics Assignment I

Gravel sand silt clay

>2mm 2 0.05mm 0.05 0.002 < 0.002mm

Gravel sand silt clay

76.2 2 mm 2 0.075mm 0. 075 0.002mm <0.002mm

5

Advanced Soil Mechanics Assignment I

2.10. The particle-size characteristics of a soil are given in this table. Draw the particle size

distribution curve.

Size (mm) Percent finer

0.425 100

0.1 92

0.052 84

0.02 62

0.01 46

0.004 32

0.001 22

Determine the percentage of gravel, sand, silt and clay according:

b) According to AASHTO system

Solution:

100

90

80

70

Percent finer

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

1 0.1 0.01 0.001

Particle size(mm)

6

Advanced Soil Mechanics Assignment I

a) Refer the USDA soil classification system in the above question 2.8c. From figure

1.3, we can prepare the following table.

Size (mm) % finer

100 100 100 = 0% gravel

0.425 100 100 83 = 17% sand

0.05 83 83 27 = 56% silt

0.002 27 27 0 = 27% clay

b. Refer the AASHTO soil classification system in the above question 2.8d. From figure

1.3, we can prepare the following table.

Size (mm) percent finer

100 100 100 = 0% gravel

0.425 100 100 90 = 10% sand

0.075 90 90 27 = 63% silt

0.002 27 27 0 = 27% clay

2.12. In hydrometer test, the results are as follows: Gs= 2.70, temperature of water = 23c, t=

120 min and R = 25. What is the diameter, D of the smallest size particles that have sieves

beyond the zone of measurement at that time (that is t = 120 min).

Given Required: D (mm) =?

Gs = 2.7; T = 23 c; R =25 & t = 120 min

Solution: by Gs & T reading in the table we can get the value of K which is K = 0.01297

and by hydrometer reading(R) in the table the value of L is 12.2 cm.

Then from the equation () = ()/()

0.0129712.2

Then () = = 0.01297 0.31885221 = 0.0042

120

D (mm) = 0.0042 mm

***

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