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Advanced Soil Mechanics Assignment I

2.2. For a soil suppose that, D10 = 0.24, D30 = 0.82 and D60 = 1.81. Calculate the uniformity
coefficient and coefficient of gradation.
Given: Required: Cu =? & Cc =?
D10 = 0.24, D30 = 0.82 and D60 = 1.81
Solution:
D60 1.81 (D30)2 (0.82)2
a. Cu = D10 = 0.24 = 7.54 b. Cc = D60D10 = 1.810.24 =1.55

From this the value of the coefficient of uniformity is between 5 and 20 i.e. 5 <Cu< 20.
Therefore the soil has slightly uniform grain size.
2.4. The following are the result of sieve analysis results:
U.S. Sieve no. mass of soil retained(g) U.S. Sieve no. mass of soil retained(g)
4 0 60 81.8
10 18.5 100 92.2
20 53.2 200 58.5
40 90.5 pan 26.5
a) Determine the percent finer than each sieve and plot a grain size distribution curve.
b) Determine D10, D30 and D60 from a grain size distribution curve
c) Calculate uniformity coefficient, Cu. d) Calculate coefficient of gradation, Cc.
Solution:
a) The solution is determined in the following table. Percent of finer (F) is calculated as:

U.S. Sieve no. Grain size (mm) mass of soil retained(g) Cumulative mass of Percent finer
soil retained(g)
4 4.75 0 0 100
10 2 18.5 18.5 95.61
20 0.85 53.2 71.7 82.98
40 0.425 90.5 162.2 61.5
60 0.25 81..8 244 42.07
100 0.15 92.2 336.2 20.18
200 0.075 58.5 394.7 6.3
Pan - 26.5 421.2 0
Total mass of soil = 421.2

The grain-size distribution curve is shown in Figure below.


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Advanced Soil Mechanics Assignment I

100

90

80

70
percent finer

60
D60 =0.42
50

40

30 D30 = 0.19

20

10
D10 = 0.092

0
10 1 0.1 0.01
particle size (mm)

Figure 1.0 Grain-size distribution curve

b) From the Grain-size distribution curve the value of D10, D30 & D60 is 0.092mm, 0.19mm
& 0.42mm respectively.
c) Cu = D60/D10 = 0.42 mm/0.092 mm = 4.565
d) Cc = D230/D10 * D60 = (0.19mm)2/(0.092mm * 0.42mm) = 0.93
The coefficient of uniformity is less than five. This indicates the soil has uniform grain size.
2.6 Repeat Problem 2.4 with the following:
U.S. sieve no. Mass of soil retained (g)
4 0
10 41.2
20 55.1
40 80
60 91.6
100 60.5
200 35.6
pan 21.5

Solution:
a) The answer can be described in the following table.

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Advanced Soil Mechanics Assignment I

U.S. Grain size(mm) Mass of soil retained (g) Cumulative mass Percent finer
sieve no. of soil retained(g)
4 4.75 0 0 100
10 2 41.2 41.2 89.3
20 0.85 55.1 96.3 75.02
40 0.425 80 176.3 54.3
60 0.25 91.6 267.9 30.51
100 0.15 60.5 328.4 14.8
200 0.075 35.6 364 5.6
pan - 21.5 385.5 0
Total = 385.5
The grain-size distribution curve is shown in Figure below.

100

90

80
Percent finer

70

60
D60= 0.5
50

40

30
D30 = 0.26
20
D10 =0.12
10

0
10 1 0.1 0.01
Grain size(mm)

Fig 1.1 grain-size distribution curve


b) From the Grain-size distribution curve the value of D10, D30 & D60 is 0.12mm,
0.26mm & 0.5mm respectively.
c) Cu = D60/D10 = 0.5 mm/0.12 mm = 4.2
d) Cc = D230/D10 * D60 = (0.26mm)2/(0.12mm * 0.5mm) = 1.13
This shows the coefficient of uniformity is less than five. Therefore the soil has uniform
grain size.
2.8. The following are the result of sieve and hydrometer analysis:
a) Draw the grain size distribution curve.
b) Determine the percentage of gravel, sand, silt and clay according to MIT system.

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Advanced Soil Mechanics Assignment I

c) Repeat part b according to USDA system


d) Repeat part b according to AASHTO system
Analysis Sieve no./grain size grain size(mm) Percent finer
Sieve 40 0.425 100
80 0.18 97
170 0.09 92
200 0.075 90
Hydrometer 0.04mm 74
0.015mm 42
0.008mm 27
0.004mm 17
0.002mm 11
Solution:
a. Grain size distribution curve is shown below.

100
Sieve
90

80
Percent finer

70

60
Hydrometer
50

40

30

20

10

0
1 0.1 0.01 0.001
Grain size(mm)

Fig 1.2 grain size distribution of sieve and hydrometer analysis


b. MIT soil classification system classify soils on grain size(mm) as:
Gravel sand silt clay
>2mm 2 0.06mm 0.06 0.002 < 0.002mm

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Advanced Soil Mechanics Assignment I

From the figure 1.2, we can prepare the following table.

Size (mm) % finer

100 100 100 = 0% gravel

0.425 100 100 85 = 15% sand

0.06 85 85 11 = 74% silt

0.002 11 11 0 = 11% clay

c. USDA system classify soils on grain size as:


Gravel sand silt clay
>2mm 2 0.05mm 0.05 0.002 < 0.002mm

From the figure 1.2, we can prepare the following table.

Size (mm) % finer

100 100 100 = 0% gravel

0.425 100 100 80 = 20% sand

0.05 80 80 11 = 69% silt

0.002 11 11 0 = 11% clay

d. AASHTO system classify soil based on grain size as:


Gravel sand silt clay
76.2 2 mm 2 0.075mm 0. 075 0.002mm <0.002mm

From the figure, we can prepare the following table.

Size (mm) % finer

100 100 100 = 0% gravel

0.425 100 100 90 = 10% sand

0.075 90 90 11 = 79% silt

0.002 11 11 0 = 11% clay

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Advanced Soil Mechanics Assignment I

2.10. The particle-size characteristics of a soil are given in this table. Draw the particle size
distribution curve.
Size (mm) Percent finer
0.425 100
0.1 92
0.052 84
0.02 62
0.01 46
0.004 32
0.001 22
Determine the percentage of gravel, sand, silt and clay according:

a) According to USDA system


b) According to AASHTO system

Solution:

Particle size distribution curve is shown in figure below

100

90

80

70
Percent finer

60

50

40

30

20

10

0
1 0.1 0.01 0.001
Particle size(mm)

Fig 1.3 Particle size distribution curve

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Advanced Soil Mechanics Assignment I

a) Refer the USDA soil classification system in the above question 2.8c. From figure
1.3, we can prepare the following table.
Size (mm) % finer
100 100 100 = 0% gravel
0.425 100 100 83 = 17% sand
0.05 83 83 27 = 56% silt
0.002 27 27 0 = 27% clay
b. Refer the AASHTO soil classification system in the above question 2.8d. From figure
1.3, we can prepare the following table.
Size (mm) percent finer
100 100 100 = 0% gravel
0.425 100 100 90 = 10% sand
0.075 90 90 27 = 63% silt
0.002 27 27 0 = 27% clay
2.12. In hydrometer test, the results are as follows: Gs= 2.70, temperature of water = 23c, t=
120 min and R = 25. What is the diameter, D of the smallest size particles that have sieves
beyond the zone of measurement at that time (that is t = 120 min).
Given Required: D (mm) =?
Gs = 2.7; T = 23 c; R =25 & t = 120 min
Solution: by Gs & T reading in the table we can get the value of K which is K = 0.01297
and by hydrometer reading(R) in the table the value of L is 12.2 cm.
Then from the equation () = ()/()
0.0129712.2
Then () = = 0.01297 0.31885221 = 0.0042
120

D (mm) = 0.0042 mm

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