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You are on page 1of 152

for design and verification

of steel structures

Steel&Graphics s.r.l.

Centro Direzionale Serenissima

Via C Nova Zampieri, 4/E 37057 S. Giovanni Lupatoto Verona

(ITALY)

Tel: +39.045.877.85.77 - Mobile: +39.3480338274

mail: francesca.toffali@steel-graphics.com

web:http://www.steel-graphics.com

skype: francesca.toffali-Steel&Graphics

TecnoMETAL Connections

User guide

Table of contents

TecnoMETAL Connections ..................................................................................................................... 4

Calculation setup ................................................................................................................................. 5

Verification environment ...................................................................................................................... 8

Connections list ................................................................................................................................. 9

General data dialog ......................................................................................................................... 15

View 2D dialog ................................................................................................................................ 16

Check data dialog ........................................................................................................................... 17

Menu ................................................................................................................................................ 18

Connections ....................................................................................................................................... 19

EC3 .................................................................................................................................................. 20

001 - End plate to beam flange between H sections .................................................................... 21

002 - Angles connection to column flange between H sections ................................................... 25

003 - Welded plate to beam flange between H sections .............................................................. 28

006 - Angles connection to column web between H sections ...................................................... 31

010 - Angles connection to beam web between H sections ......................................................... 34

014 - Angles connection to beam flange between H sections ...................................................... 37

301 - End plate to beam flange between rectangular hollow and H sections ............................... 40

401 - End plate to beam flange between circular hollow and H sections ..................................... 46

501 - Column H base plate .......................................................................................................... 47

502 - Column U base plate .......................................................................................................... 50

503 - Column L base plate ........................................................................................................... 51

504 - Column square pipe base plate .......................................................................................... 52

505 - Column round pipe base plate ............................................................................................ 53

601_1 - Flange-plated moment splice between H sections .......................................................... 54

602_1 - Flange-plated moment splice between U sections .......................................................... 57

Angles connections summary ....................................................................................................... 58

Welded plate connections summary ............................................................................................. 59

AISC ................................................................................................................................................ 61

001 - End plate to beam flange between H sections .................................................................... 62

002 - Angles connection to column flange between H sections ................................................... 67

003 - Welded plate to beam flange between H sections .............................................................. 71

006 - Angles connection to column web between H sections ...................................................... 74

010 - Angles connection to beam web between H sections ......................................................... 77

014 - Angles connection to beam flange between H sections ...................................................... 80

301 - End plate to beam flange between rectangular hollow and H sections ............................... 83

401 - End plate to beam flange between circular hollow and H sections ..................................... 89

501 - Column H base plate .......................................................................................................... 90

502 - Column U base plate .......................................................................................................... 94

503 - Column L base plate ........................................................................................................... 95

504 - Column square pipe base plate .......................................................................................... 96

505 - Column round pipe base plate ............................................................................................ 97

601_1 - Flange-plated moment splice between H sections .......................................................... 98

602_1 - Flange-plated moment splice between U sections ........................................................ 101

Angles connections summary ..................................................................................................... 102

Welded plate connections summary ........................................................................................... 103

ABNT NBR .................................................................................................................................... 105

001 - End plate to beam flange between H sections .................................................................. 106

002 - Angles connection to column flange between H sections ................................................. 111

003 - Welded plate to beam flange between H sections ............................................................ 114

006 - Angles connection to column web between H sections .................................................... 117

010 - Angles connection to beam web between H sections ....................................................... 120

014 - Angles connection to beam flange between H sections .................................................... 122

301 - End plate to beam flange between rectangular hollow and H sections ............................. 125

401 - End plate to beam flange between circular hollow and H sections .................................... 130

501 - Column H base plate ........................................................................................................ 131

502 - Column U base plate ........................................................................................................ 134

503 - Column L base plate ......................................................................................................... 135

504 - Column square pipe base plate ........................................................................................ 136

505 - Column round pipe base plate .......................................................................................... 137

601_1 - Flange-plated moment splice between H sections ........................................................ 138

602_1 - Flange-plated moment splice between U sections ........................................................ 141

Angles connections summary ..................................................................................................... 142

Welded plate connections summary ........................................................................................... 143

Symbology ....................................................................................................................................... 144

Symbols in the calculation report EC3 .......................................................................................... 145

Symbols in the calculation report AISC ........................................................................................ 148

Symbols in the calculation report ABNT NBR ............................................................................... 150

TecnoMETAL Connections

TecnoMETAL Connections is an application independent from CAD software for fast and immediate

calculation of individual steel connection. Allows the user to calculate and verify the various elements of

the structures referring to the code EC3, AISC-ASD, AISC-LRFD and ABNT NBR.

The verification environment TecnoMETAL Connections allows a versatile and interactive design of

steel connections from the database of TecnoMETAL or create new ones and then updating the same

database. The connections data dialog is shared with other modules and allows you to enter in detail the

characteristics of geometry and materials. To facilitate the design of the connection you have database of

profiles, connections (connections, joint covers and base plates) and materials (steel, welds and bolts).

The program uses and manages databases of building elements, including profiles, materials, bolts, nuts,

connections etc... The databases are available for various nationalities, as the product has a worldwide

distribution. The databases can be placed on the server to become shared datas for all the designers

in the company.

Required actions are handled within the same interface to create the connection and can be inserted

manually or automatically by importing CSV text file containing combinations of load properly organized

in table.

Any modification of the connection is updated along with the design verification. Drawing consists of 2D

projections of the executive and also contains information on bolting and welding. All graphical displays

can be exported in vector format such as DWG or DXF and raster formats such as BMP, GIF, PNG.

The immediate results of the calculation/verification are displayed both on screen and through the

calculation report printable and customizable. You can always get a quick optimization of the union

(change node type, material plates, class bolts and welds etc ...).

The calculation report is in HTML format, so it is a flexible format easily customizable.

Calculation setup

This dialog can be opened from both the "General configuration for calculation" either from the "Work

configuration for calculation." In the first case, you create a default configuration that is loaded to the new

works in the second you define the data of the active work.

ABNT NBR

AISC ASD

AISC LRFD

EC3 - Eurocode 3

With "Unit of measurement:" you select the work units of the verification environment.

You can configure the legislation with the "Setup" button:

Material safety factors used in the verification according to EC3 are:

resistance of cross-sections

resistance of members to instability assessed by member checks

resistance of cross-sections in tension to fracture

resistance of bolts

resistance of welds

resistance of concrete

Material safety factors used in the verification according to ABNT NBR are:

resistance of cross-sections

resistance of cross-sections in tension to fracture

resistance of concrete

resistance of welds

resistance of welds

If is active TecnoMETAL Structural Analysis module, then the setup that appears is full of other information

such as the conditions and the loading, for this setup, see the manual of TecnoMETAL Structural Analysis

module.

For the AISC code you can select the version of year 2005 or 2010:

Verification environment

The verification environment is opened after the creation of the work. After selecting the work using the

right mouse button runs the module TecnoMETAL Connections.

2. Menu Bar

3. Toolbar

4. General data dialog of selected connection

5. View 2D dialog of selected connection

6. Check data dialog of selected connection

7. Connections list

8. Status bar

Connections list

On the left side of the dialog shows the list of unions that have been designed and/or verified.

Using the right mouse button, you can:

create a new connection;

change an already inserted union;

delete a union.

During the creation of the union you also must insert the values of the stresses in the form of load

combinations.

From the list of connections by double-clicking with the left mouse button on the name you can access

the following screen for the modification.

The command shows the initial screen where you can select the shape of the profile A (1) or, alternatively,

if you have to run a base plate (2) or a joint between two profiles (3).

Selecting one of the profiles (1), is displayed to the right choice for the profile B, and further to the right

as the two profiles are combined.

The color of the selected icon means:

"Red" that the verification is available, "Green" that the design is available, "Grey" that will be added in

future versions.

With a double click on the type of union you confirm the selection.

The dialog for the verification of the connection is the same used in TecnoMETAL 4D to draw the

connections.

In this dialog you need to set up profiles Sha.A and Sha.B choosing them from the database, so even

for materials and bolts.

The geometry of the connection can be retrieved from the Database with the button to the right of

the box "Type".

The "Save" button is used to add data to the database from the displayed connection, the button "Delete"

is used to erase the displayed connection.

With the "List..." button, you can view a list of connections in the database.

In the images of reference for the data entry, the values written in "Red" means that the value can be

multiple (ex: 3*200,100,200).

The node is fully drawn in the other dialogs and here you go about populating the list of stresses with the

command "Add Line" or remove from the list with "Delete Line".

At the center of the dialog "Combinations" is located the schematic image showing the orientation of the

union and the direction of the applied forces. The forces drawn here indicate the positive direction. At any

time you can add and remove stress. The stresses N, Tx, Ty, Mx, My are the forces used for verification,

Mxf is the moment in the main direction of the opposite beam to Shape A.

With "Opposite shape" you go to select the beam opposite to the beam solicited, requested information

from the EC3.

The verification is done with the "Verification" button. The union verification automatically opens an HTML

document with a check status and error.

The "Description" field, shown below, can be used to identify the union and will be used as the title in

the calculation report.

The stresses can be imported from a text file of type "*.csv" using "Import file" button. The text file must

contain the stresses organized in a table, each row represents a combination of load and the number of

columns must be equal to 6. The column header is established in the "Index columns".

For example, with the following text file:

Comb;Mx;My;Tx;Ty;N

first;1000;2000;100;200;10

second;1100;2100;110;210;11

third;1200;2200;120;220;12

fourth;1300;2300;130;230;13

You get stress:

General data dialog

With the selection of a connection, you can view its general data. The summary information includes the

code for the calculation and units, the name from the database with its schematic symbol of the union,

and the profiles, in the "Description" field the name of the connection. The "Description" field is editable

in the dialog of the Combinations, below the list of load combinations.

View 2D dialog

With the selection of a connection, you can view a 2D drawing. The draw has the actual size of the

connection and inside you can find the items that are verified. Draw can be exported with the command

in various formats, including "*.dxf", "*.dwg", "*.jpg", "*.png" ...

If the first time you install the program TecnoMETAL, the export command does not operate, you must

manually run the program C:\Steel\TecnoMETAL\VerModule\vdconv.exe and then close it.

Check data dialog

After verifying the connection you can view its calculation report in the "Check Data" dialog.

The report has inside a image of actual connection, a summary data and verification data.

Menu

Utility -> Connections Report

This command creates an HTML file with the calculation report of all the nodes that have been checked.

The choice of what connections print is made through a check mark in the third column of the next image.

Each connection is recognized in the calculation report by its Description, which coincides with the

"Description" field, or if there is no description through its index.

Connections

The checks carried out in accordance with:

EC3: document UNI EN 1993-1-8:2005 Eurocode 3 - Design of steel structures - Part 1-8:

Design of joints. For parts in concrete reference is made to the document UNI EN 1992-1-1:2005

Progettazione delle strutture di calcestruzzo - Parte 1-1: Regole generali e regole per gli edifici. The

symbols used is the one used in the EC3, it still added an attachment to list the symbols used in the

calculation report Symbols in the calculation report EC3;

AISC: document ANSI/AISC 360-05: Specification for Structural Steel Buildings of 9 March 2005

and ANSI/AISC 360-10: Specification for Structural Steel Buildings of 22 June 2010 for the load and

resistance factor (hereinafter LRFD) and allowable stress (hereinafter ASD) design methods;

ABNT NBR: document ABNT NBR 8800:2008 Projeto de estruturas de ao e de estruturas

mistas de ao e concreto de edifcios of 25 August 2008 and document ABNT NBR 14762:2010

Dimensionamento de estruturas de ao constitudas por perfis formados a frio on the limit state

verifications.

001 - End plate to beam flange between H sections

Shear Web Beam B

Compression Web Beam B

Traction Web Beam B

Bending Flange Beam B

Bending Flange

Compression Beam A

Traction Beam A

Bolts

Bearing Beam B

Bearing Flange

Traction Bolt - Plate

Welds

The stresses that can be transmitted from beam A through a flanged connection are:

Axial Load (N)

Shear according to x-x and y-y axes (Tx, Ty)

Bending moment around the axis of maximum inertia x-x (Mx)

In the verification of the welds is also considered the bending moment about the y-y axis (My).

In the verifications of bolts, the stresses are divided as follows:

Mx and N are transmitted through tensile bolts

Tx and Ty are transmitted from all bolts

The Beam B shear verification is carried out at first without considering the stiffeners and then considering

whether there are diagonal stiffeners or web plates.

The shear area is then modified considering the stiffeners.

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

To calculate see Eurocode 3 6.2.6.1.

While is determined with:

Where:

resisting arm, depending on section, knees and type of connection

Compression Web Beam B Verification

If the web of the beam B is subjected to compression then you need verification. The verification considers

the possible presence of transversal stiffeners, diagonal or web plates.

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

To calculate see Eurocode 3 6.2.6.2.

While for see the previous verification "Shear Web Beam B Verification".

Bending Flange Beam B Verification

Within this verification are made valuations on the number of rows of tensile bolts.

To locate the rows of tensile bolts you must find firstly the traction and compression points; the traction

point is in the last row of bolts that is within the shape or the knee joint; the compression point is the

outermost point of the shape or of the knee joint. All the rows of bolts between the intermediate point

(between traction and compression) and the traction point, shall be considered to be tensile.

In the example below there are three rows of tensile bolts.

Once you locate the rows of tensile bolts, Eurocode asks you to evaluate the type of rupture of the flange

using the minimum length of fracture (plasticization) among those possible.

The information of the strength of flange and the information about the bolts allow you to locate the rupture

mode, which can be:

Mode 1: thick flange

Mode 2: bolts and flange

Mode 3: bolts

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

To calculate see Eurocode 3 6.2.6.4.

While see the previous verification "Shear Web Beam B Verification".

Bending Flange Verification

This verification runs if the connection is bolted.

The valuations on tensile rows of bolts, the characteristics of the column, the presence or not of stiffeners

affect this verification.

Once you locate the rows of tensile bolts, EC3 code asks you to evaluate the type of rupture of the flange

using the minimum length of fracture (plasticization) among those possible.

The information of the strength of flange and the information about the bolts allow you to locate the rupture

mode, which can be:

Mode 1: thick flange

Mode 2: bolts and flange

Mode 3: bolts

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

To calculate see Eurocode 3 6.2.6.5.

While for see the previous verification "Shear Web Beam B Verification".

Compression Beam A Verification

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

To calculate see Eurocode 3 6.2.6.7.

While for see the previous verification "Shear Web Beam B Verification".

Traction Beam A Verification

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

To calculate see Eurocode 3 6.2.6.8.

While for see the previous verification "Shear Web Beam B Verification".

Bolts Verification

The verification of bolt is conducted by combining the normal strength (due to bending moment and

axial load from beam A) with tangential strength (due to shears) that act on the screw section according

to the criterion:

The calculation report of the connection shows the required strength and compared with their

respective available strength and . The voice represents numerically the left part of the above

inequalities.

The strengths are calculated considering the actual section of the bolt thread.

Bearing Flange and Beam B Verification

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

To calculate see Eurocode 3 3.6.1 and see below:

Where:

in relation to the size of the bolt and the distances from the edge of the plate

ultimate stress of the plate

bolt diameter

thickness of the plate

safety factor

Shear force is divided equally between all bolts, the contribution is given by Tx and Ty forces of the

beam.

Traction Bolt - Plate Verification

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

To calculate see Eurocode 3 3.6.1 and see below:

Where:

lower value between the mean value of the measured distance between the points and

between the flat surfaces of the bolt head or of the nut

thickness of the plate under the bolt head or the nut

ultimate stress of the plate

safety factor

Traction force is divided equally between all bolts, the contribution is given by N e Mx forces of the

beam.

Welds Verification

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

Resistant force is evaluated with the simplified method according to 4.5.3.3, as follows:

Where:

design shear strength of the weld

throat thickness of weld

Stress force is evaluated according to the distribution of welds group (inferior flange, web, upper

flange, inferior knee joint, upper knee joint). Stresses N, Tx, Ty, Mx and My are shared in welds according

to linear elastic theory (elastic material and cross-sections remain plane).

002 - Angles connection to column flange between H sections

Shear Web Beam B

Compression Web Beam B

Bolts on Beam B

Bolts on Beam A

Bearing Beam B

Bearing Beam A

Bearing Angle to Beam B

Bearing Angle to Beam A

Traction Bolt - Plate

Upper and Lower Weld of the Angular

Vertical Weld of Angular

The stresses that can be transmitted from beam A through a angled connection are:

Axial Load (N)

Shear according to x-x and y-y axes (Tx, Ty)

In the verification of the welds the stresses divided as follows:

Tx and Ty are transmitted from the vertical welds of angles

Tx and N are transmitted from horizontal welds of angles

In the verifications of bolts, the stresses are divided as follows:

N, Tx and Ty are transmitted from all bolts

The support is not considered as a structural element.

Shear Web Beam B Verification

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

To calculate see Eurocode 3 6.2.6.1.

While is determined with:

Compression Web Beam B Verification

If the web of the beam B is subjected to compression then you need verification.

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

To calculate see Eurocode 3 6.2.6.2.

While for see the previous verification "Shear Web Beam B Verification".

Bolts Verification

The verification of bolt is conducted by combining the normal strength (due to axial load from beam

A) with tangential strength (due to shears) that act on the screw section according to the criterion:

The calculation report of the connection shows the required strength and compared with their

respective available strength and . The voice represents numerically the left part of the above

inequalities.

The strengths are calculated considering the actual section of the bolt thread.

Bearing Verification

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

To calculate see Eurocode 3 3.6.1 and see below:

Where:

in relation to the size of the bolt and the distances from the edge of the plate

ultimate stress of the plate

bolt diameter

thickness of the plate

safety factor

Shear force is divided equally between all bolts, the contribution is given by Tx and Ty forces for the

bolts on beam B and by N and Ty forces for bolts on beam A.

Traction Bolt - Plate Verification

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

To calculate see Eurocode 3 3.6.1 and see below:

Where:

lower value between the mean value of the measured distance between the points and

between the flat surfaces of the bolt head or of the nut

thickness of the plate under the bolt head or the nut

ultimate stress of the plate

safety factor

Traction force is divided equally between all bolts, the contribution is given by N force of the beam.

Welds Verification

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

Resistant force is evaluated with the simplified method according to 4.5.3.3, as follows:

Where:

design shear strength of the weld

throat thickness of weld

Stress force is evaluated according to the position of the weld and the stresses that are divided in

the welds are N, Tx, Ty.

003 - Welded plate to beam flange between H sections

Shear Web Beam B

Compression Web Beam B

Bolts on Beam A

Bearing Beam A

Bearing on Plate

Weld on Beam B

Weld on Beam A

Bending and Axial load on Plate

The stresses that can be transmitted from beam A through a welded plate connection are:

Axial Load (N)

Shear according to x-x and y-y axes (Tx, Ty)

Bending moment according to x-x axis (Mx) if the plate is welded to Beam A and to Beam B

In the verification of the welds, the stresses are divided as follows:

Tx, Ty, N and Mx are transmitted through the welds of the plate

In the verifications of bolts, the stresses are divided as follows:

N and Ty are transmitted through the bolts

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

To calculate see Eurocode 3 6.2.6.1..

While is determined with:

If the web of the beam B is subjected to compression then you need verification.

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

To calculate see Eurocode 3 6.2.6.2.

While for see the previous verification "Shear Web Beam B Verification".

Bolts Verification

The verification of bolt is conducted by combining the normal strength with tangential strength

(due to axial action and to shear) that act on the screw section according to the criterion:

The calculation report of the connection shows the required strength and compared with their

respective available strength and . The voice represents numerically the left part of the above

inequalities.

The strengths are calculated considering the actual section of the bolt thread.

The normal strength is null because is related to Tx stress which is not transmitted by bolts to the

connection.

Bearing Beam A and on Plate Verification

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

To calculate see Eurocode 3 3.6.1 and see below:

Where:

in relation to the size of the bolt and the distances from the edge of the plate

ultimate stress of the plate

bolt diameter

thickness of the plate

safety factor

Shear force is divided equally between all bolts, the contribution is given by N and Ty forces of the

beam.

Welds Verification

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

Resistant force is evaluated with the simplified method according to 4.5.3.3, as follows:

Where:

design shear strength of the weld

throat thickness of weld

Stress force is evaluated according to the distribution of the welds group according to the linear elastic

theory (elastic material and preservation of flat section).

Bending and Axial load on Plate Verification

In the Plate verification, the stresses that can be transmitted are axial stress N and also bending Mx if

the connection is completely welded.

The verification is satisfied if:

Where:

axial required strength

axial available strength

flexural required strength about x axis

flexural available strength about x axis

Available strengths are evaluated according to gross and net section.

006 - Angles connection to column web between H sections

Shear Web Beam B

Bolts on Beam B

Bolts on Beam A

Bearing Beam B

Bearing Beam A

Bearing Angle to Beam B

Bearing Angle to Beam A

Traction Bolt - Plate

Upper and Lower Weld of the Angular

Vertical Weld of Angular

The stresses that can be transmitted from beam A through a angled connection are:

Axial Load (N)

Shear according to x-x and y-y axes (Tx, Ty)

In the verification of the welds the stresses divided as follows:

Tx and Ty are transmitted from the vertical welds of angles

Tx and N are transmitted from horizontal welds of angles

In the verifications of bolts, the stresses are divided as follows:

N, Tx and Ty are transmitted from all bolts

The support is not considered as a structural element.

Shear Web Beam B Verification

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

To calculate see Eurocode 3 6.2.6.1.

While is determined with:

Bolts Verification

The verification of bolt is conducted by combining the normal strength (due to axial load from beam

A) with tangential strength (due to shears) that act on the screw section according to the criterion:

The calculation report of the connection shows the required strength and compared with their

respective available strength and . The voice represents numerically the left part of the above

inequalities.

The strengths are calculated considering the actual section of the bolt thread.

Bearing Verification

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

To calculate see Eurocode 3 3.6.1 and see below:

Where:

in relation to the size of the bolt and the distances from the edge of the plate

ultimate stress of the plate

bolt diameter

thickness of the plate

safety factor

Shear force is divided equally between all bolts, the contribution is given by Tx and Ty forces for the

bolts on beam B and by N and Ty forces for bolts on beam A.

Traction Bolt - Plate Verification

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

To calculate see Eurocode 3 3.6.1 and see below:

Where:

lower value between the mean value of the measured distance between the points and

between the flat surfaces of the bolt head or of the nut

thickness of the plate under the bolt head or the nut

ultimate stress of the plate

safety factor

Traction force is divided equally between all bolts, the contribution is given by N force of the beam.

Welds Verification

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

Resistant force is evaluated with the simplified method according to 4.5.3.3, as follows:

Where:

design shear strength of the weld

throat thickness of weld

Stress force is evaluated according to the position of the weld and the stresses that are divided in

the welds are N, Tx, Ty.

010 - Angles connection to beam web between H sections

Shear Web Beam B

Bolts on Beam B

Bolts on Beam A

Bearing Beam B

Bearing Beam A

Bearing Angle to Beam B

Bearing Angle to Beam A

Bolt - Plate Traction

Upper and Lower Weld of the Angular

Vertical Weld of Angular

The stresses that can be transmitted from beam A through a angled connection are:

Axial Load (N)

Shear according to x-x and y-y axes (Tx, Ty)

In the verification of the welds the stresses divided as follows:

Tx and Ty are transmitted from the vertical welds of angles

Tx and N are transmitted from horizontal welds of angles

In the verifications of bolts, the stresses are divided as follows:

N, Tx and Ty are transmitted from all bolts

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

To calculate see Eurocode 3 6.2.6.1.

While is determined with:

Bolts Verification

The verification of bolt is conducted by combining the normal strength (due to axial load from beam

A) with tangential strength (due to shears) that act on the screw section according to the criterion:

The calculation report of the connection shows the required strength and compared with their

respective available strength and . The voice represents numerically the left part of the above

inequalities.

The strengths are calculated considering the actual section of the bolt thread

Bearing Verification

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

To calculate see Eurocode 3 3.6.1 and see below:

Where:

in relation to the size of the bolt and the distances from the edge of the plate

ultimate stress of the plate

bolt diameter

thickness of the plate

safety factor

Shear force is divided equally between all bolts, the contribution is given by Tx and Ty forces for the

bolts on beam B and by N and Ty forces for bolts on beam A.

Traction Bolt - Plate Verification

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

To calculate see Eurocode 3 3.6.1 and see below:

Where:

lower value between the mean value of the measured distance between the points and

between the flat surfaces of the bolt head or of the nut

thickness of the plate under the bolt head or the nut

ultimate stress of the plate

safety factor

Traction force is divided equally between all bolts, the contribution is given by N force of the beam.

Welds Verification

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

Resistant force is evaluated with the simplified method according to 4.5.3.3, as follows:

Where:

design shear strength of the weld

throat thickness of weld

Stress force is evaluated according to the position of the weld and the stresses that are divided in

the welds are N, Tx, Ty.

014 - Angles connection to beam flange between H sections

Shear Web Beam B

Compression Web Beam B

Bolts on Beam B

Bolts on Beam A

Bearing Beam B

Bearing Beam A

Bearing Angle to Beam B

Bearing Angle to Beam A

Traction Bolt - Plate

Upper and Lower Weld of the Angular

Vertical Weld of Angular

The stresses that can be transmitted from beam A through a angled connection are:

Axial Load (N)

Shear according to x-x and y-y axes (Tx, Ty)

In the verification of the welds the stresses divided as follows:

Tx and Ty are transmitted from the vertical welds of angles

Tx and N are transmitted from horizontal welds of angles

In the verifications of bolts, the stresses are divided as follows:

N, Tx and Ty are transmitted from all bolts

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

To calculate see Eurocode 3 6.2.6.1.

While is determined with:

If the web of the beam B is subjected to compression then you need verification.

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

To calculate see Eurocode 3 6.2.6.2.

While for see the previous verification "Shear Web Beam B Verification".

Bolts Verification

The verification of bolt is conducted by combining the normal strength (due to axial load from beam

A) with tangential strength (due to shears) that act on the screw section according to the criterion:

The calculation report of the connection shows the required strength and compared with their

respective available strength and . The voice represents numerically the left part of the above

inequalities.

The strengths are calculated considering the actual section of the bolt thread.

Bearing Verification

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

To calculate see Eurocode 3 3.6.1 and see below:

in relation to the size of the bolt and the distances from the edge of the plate

ultimate stress of the plate

bolt diameter

thickness of the plate

safety factor

Shear force is divided equally between all bolts, the contribution is given by Tx and Ty forces for the

bolts on beam B and by N and Ty forces for bolts on beam A.

Traction Bolt - Plate Verification

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

To calculate see Eurocode 3 3.6.1 and see below:

Where:

lower value between the mean value of the measured distance between the points and

between the flat surfaces of the bolt head or of the nut

thickness of the plate under the bolt head or the nut

ultimate stress of the plate

safety factor

Traction force is divided equally between all bolts, the contribution is given by N force of the beam.

Welds Verification

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

Resistant force is evaluated with the simplified method according to 4.5.3.3, as follows:

Where:

design shear strength of the weld

throat thickness of weld

Stress force is evaluated according to the position of the welding and the stresses that are divided

in the welds are N, Tx, Ty.

301 - End plate to beam flange between

rectangular hollow and H sections

Shear Web Beam B

Compression Web Beam B

Traction Web Beam B

Bending Flange Beam B

Bending Flange

Compression Beam A

Traction Beam A

Bolts

Bearing Beam B

Bearing Flange

Traction Bolt - Plate

Welds

The stresses that can be transmitted from beam A through a flanged connection are:

Axial Load (N)

Shear according to x-x and y-y axes (Tx, Ty)

Bending moment around the axis of maximum inertia x-x (Mx)

In the verification of the welds, of bolts and of end flange is also considered the bending moment about

the y-y axis (My).

In the verifications of bolts, the stresses are divided as follows:

Mx, My and N are transmitted through tensile bolts

Tx and Ty are transmitted from all bolts

The Beam B shear verification is carried out at first without considering the stiffeners because they are

not present in this connection.

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

To calculate see Eurocode 3 6.2.6.1.

While is determined with:

Where:

resisting arm, depending on section, knees and type of connection

Compression Web Beam B

If the web of the beam B is subjected to compression then you need verification. The verification considers

the possible presence of transversal stiffeners.

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

To calculate see Eurocode 3 6.2.6.2.

While is determined by:

In this verification you have to consider the presence or not of the stiffeners in addition to the characteristics

of the column. If the connection is welded, the only stiffeners that affect the verification are the web plates;

if the connection is bolted, the stiffeners that affect the verification are all those present.

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

To calculate see Eurocode 3 6.2.6.3.

While for see the previous verification "Shear Web Beam B Verification".

Bending Flange Beam B Verification

This verification can be done only with bolted connection and the bolts must be inside of the beam B flange.

Within this verification are made valuations on the number of rows of tensile bolts.

To locate the rows of tensile bolts you must find firstly the traction and compression points; the traction

point is in the last row of bolts that is within the shape or the knee joint; the compression point is the

outermost point of the shape or of the knee joint. All the rows of bolts between the intermediate point

(between traction and compression) and the traction point, shall be considered to be tensile.

In the example below there are three rows of tensile bolts.

Once you locate the rows of tensile bolts, Eurocode asks you to evaluate the type of rupture of the flange

using the minimum length of fracture (plasticization) among those possible.

The information of the strength of flange and the information about the bolts allow you to locate the rupture

mode, which can be:

Mode 1: thick flange

Mode 2: bolts and flange

Mode 3: bolts

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

To calculate see Eurocode 3 6.2.6.4.

While see the previous verification "Shear Web Beam B Verification".

Bending Flange Verification

This verification is carried out if the neutral axis intersects the projection of the shape onto the end flange,

condition that occurs with large bending moments.

In this situation the verification is satisfied if:

Where:

solicitant stress on steel section consisting of end flange and any reinforcements (the

section is identified by the neutral axis translated in the following image)

yield stress

In the following drawing it is represented the resistant section:

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

To calculate see Eurocode 3 6.2.6.7.

While for see the previous verification "Shear Web Beam B Verification".

Bolts Verification

The verification of bolt is conducted by combining the normal strength (due to bending moment and

axial load from beam A) with tangential strength (due to shears) that act on the screw section according

to the criterion:

The calculation report of the connection shows the required strength and compared with their

respective available strength and . The voice represents numerically the left part of the above

inequalities.

The shear stress is distributed equally between all bolts present, while the axial and bending stresses are

distributed through an elastic distribution. This distribution considers the contact surface between flange

and beam B, that works only in compression, and bolts.

The strengths are calculated considering the actual section of the bolt thread.

Bearing Flange and Beam B Verification

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

To calculate see Eurocode 3 3.6.1 and see below:

Where:

in relation to the size of the bolt and the distances from the edge of the plate

ultimate stress of the plate

bolt diameter

thickness of the plate

safety factor

Shear force is divided equally between all bolts, the contribution is given by Tx and Ty forces of the

beam.

Traction Bolt - Plate Verification

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

To calculate see Eurocode 3 3.6.1 and see below:

Where:

lower value between the mean value of the measured distance between the points and

between the flat surfaces of the bolt head or of the nut

thickness of the plate under the bolt head or the nut

ultimate stress of the plate

safety factor

Traction force is the maximum that is obtained from "Bolts Verification"

Welds Verification

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

Resistant force is evaluated with the simplified method according to 4.5.3.3, as follows:

Where:

design shear strength of the weld

throat thickness of weld

Stress force is evaluated according to the weld position. The stresses that are divided onto the welds

are N, Tx, Ty, Mx, My.

401 - End plate to beam flange between

circular hollow and H sections

Shear Web Beam B

Compression Web Beam B

Traction Web Beam B

Bending Flange Beam B

Bending Flange

Compression Beam A

Bolts

Bearing Beam B

Bearing Flange

Traction Bolt - Plate

Welds

For verification see paragraph 301 - End plate to beam flange between rectangular hollow and H sections.

501 - Column H base plate

Concrete Compression

Plate Bending

Anchor Rods

Evaluation Anchor Rods Length

Shear Heel in X direction

Shear Heel in Y direction

Welds

The stresses that can be transmitted from beam A through a flanged connection are:

Axial Load (N)

Shear according to x-x and y-y axes (Tx, Ty)

Bending moment around the x-x and y-y axes (Tx, Ty)

In the verifications of anchor rods, the stresses are divided as follows:

N, Tx, Ty, Mx, My are distributed over all the anchor rods.

The verification is made by comparing the required stress and the available stress:

if the verification is satisfied

The tension in the concrete and in the steel is obtained by analyzing a reinforced concrete section; in

this section the concrete works only by compression and the steel both by compression that by traction.

Resistant stress is evaluated with:

Where:

is the foundation joint material coefficient, depending on characteristic strength of the

grout between the plinth and base plate

concentration factor linked to the geometry of the plinth

design cylinder compressive strength

Plate Bending

This verification is carried out if the neutral axis intersects the projection of the shape on the base plate,

condition that occurs with large bending moments.

In this situation the test is satisfied if:

Where:

required stress on steel section consisting of base plate and any reinforcements (the

section is identified by the neutral axis translated the following image)

yield stress

In the following drawing it is represented the resistant section:

Anchor rods verification is conducted by combining the normal strength (due to bending moment and

axial load from beam A) with tangential strength (due to shears) that act on the rod section according

to the criterion:

The calculation report of the connection shows the required strength and compared with their

respective available strength and . The voice represents numerically the left part of the above

inequalities.

The strengths are calculated considering the actual section of the thread rod.

Once the anchor rods is verified, the anchor length is calculated; it is determined by the balance between

the maximum traction force and the strength of adhesion on the anchor rods:

Where:

nominal rod diameter

rod stress

bond stress (see EC2)

Shear Heel Verifications

The shear heel is considered dipped in concrete and its projected area ( ) in x-x and y-y direction

allows you to calculate the shear strength in the corresponding direction.

If you have the shear heel, all the shear stress is transferred from the anchor rods to the heel; the

verification is satisfied if:

Where:

required strength

available strength obtained according to

concrete area

design compressive strength of concrete

Welds Verifications

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

Resistant force is evaluated with the simplified method according to 4.5.3.3, as follows:

Where:

design shear strength of the weld

throat thickness of weld

Stress force is evaluated according to the weld position. The stresses that are divided onto the welds

are N, Tx, Ty, Mx, My.

502 - Column U base plate

The strength verification of base plate concerns:

Concrete Compression

Plate Bending

Anchor Rods

Evaluation Anchor Rods Length

Shear Heel in X direction

Shear Heel in Y direction

Welds

503 - Column L base plate

The strength verification of base plate concerns:

Concrete Compression

Plate Bending

Anchor Rods

Evaluation Anchor Rods Length

Shear Heel in X direction

Shear Heel in Y direction

Welds

504 - Column square pipe base plate

The strength verification of base plate concerns:

Concrete Compression

Plate Bending

Anchor Rods

Evaluation Anchor Rods Length

Shear Heel in X direction

Shear Heel in Y direction

Welds

505 - Column round pipe base plate

The strength verification of base plate concerns:

Concrete Compression

Plate Bending

Anchor Rods

Evaluation Anchor Rods Length

Shear Heel in X direction

Shear Heel in Y direction

Welds

601_1 - Flange-plated moment splice between H sections

Connection Plates Axially Loaded

Connection Plate Shear Loaded

Beam A Axially Loaded

Beam A Shear Loaded

Beam B Axially Loaded

Beam B Shear Loaded

Web Bolts

Flange Bolts

Web Bearing on the Beam

Web Bearing on the Plates

Flange Bearing on the Beam

Flange Bearing on the Plates

The stresses that can be transmitted from beam A through the joint are:

Axial Load (N)

Shear according to x-x and y-y axes (Tx, Ty)

Bending moment around the x-x and y-y axes (Mx, My)

The connection is verified in presence of flange plates and/or web plates. If there are both flange plates

that web plates then the stresses are so divided:

Tx, Mx and My are transferred through the plates on the flanges

Ty is transferred through the plates on the web

N is transferred in part by plates on the flange and in part by the plates on the web

The verification considers the contribution of axial and bending strengths.

If the joint is in traction, the axial strength for holed elements is determined according to:

If the joint is compressed, the axial strength for holed elements is determined according to:

Where:

gross area

yield stress

net area

ultimate stress

The bending strength (with subscript x and y) for holed elements is determined according to:

The first term of comparison is the plastic strength, the third term is flexural strength of the net section,

the second and the fourth term were added to put an upper limit on the plastic strength.

Where:

plastic module

elastic module

plastic module of the net section from holes

elastic module of the net section from holes

The comparison for the verification is as follow:

The shear strength for holed elements is determined according to:

Where:

gross area

yield stress

net area

ultimate stress

The comparison for the verification is as follow:

Where:

Bolts Verification

The verification of bolt is conducted by combining the normal strength (due to bending moment and

axial load from beam A) with tangential strength (due to shears) that act on the screw section according

to the criterion:

The calculation report of the connection shows the required strength and compared with their

respective available strength and . The voice represents numerically the left part of the above

inequalities.

The strengths are calculated considering the actual section of the bolt thread.

Bearing Verification

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

To calculate see Eurocode 3 3.6.1 and see below:

Where:

in relation to the size of the bolt and the distances from the edge of the plate

ultimate stress of the plate

bolt diameter

thickness of the plate

safety factor

602_1 - Flange-plated moment splice between U sections

Connection Plates Axially Loaded

Connection Plate Shear Loaded

Beam A Axially Loaded

Beam A Shear Loaded

Beam B Axially Loaded

Beam B Shear Loaded

Web Bolts

Flange Bolts

Web Bearing on the Beam

Web Bearing on the Plates

Flange Bearing on the Beam

Flange Bearing on the Plates

The stresses that can be transmitted from beam A through the joint are:

Axial Load (N)

Shear according to x-x and y-y axes (Tx, Ty)

Bending moment around the x-x and y-y axes (Mx, My)

The connection is verified in presence of flange plates and/or web plates. If there are both flange plates

that web plates then the stresses are so divided:

Tx, Mx and My are transferred through the plates on the flanges

Ty is transferred through the plates on the web

N and My are transferred in part by plates on the flange and in part by the plates on the web

For verification see 601_1 - Flange-plated moment splice between H sections.

Angles connections summary

In the strength verification of the connection with angles are visualized these verifications, their symbols are:

BT Shear Web Beam B

BC Compression Web Beam B

BB Bolts on Beam B

AB Bolts on Beam A

BR Bearing Beam B

AR Bearing Beam A

LBR Bearing Angle to Beam B

LAR Bearing Angle to Beam A

PT Bolt - Plate Traction

SSI Upper and Lower Weld of the Angular

SV Vertical Weld of Angular

Connection Description BT BC BB AB BR AR LBR LAR PT SSI

002 Beam H connected to flange of Beam H

006 Beam H connected to web of Beam H

010 Beam H rotated to web of Beam H

014 Beam H rotated to flange of Beam H

018 Beam H outer to Beam U

022 Beam H inner to Beam U

026 Beam H rotated inner to Beam U

030 Beam H rotated outer to Beam U

102 Beam U connected to flange of Beam H

106 Beam U connected to web of Beam H

110 Beam U rotated to web of Beam H

114 Beam U rotated to flange of Beam H

118 Beam U outer to Beam U

122 Beam U inner to Beam U

126 Beam U rotated inner to Beam U

130 Beam U rotated outer to Beam U

Welded plate connections summary

These are the verifications that are visualized in the strength verification of the angles connection. The

symbols used for verification are:

BT Shear Web Beam B

BC Compression Web Beam B

AB Bolts Beam A

AR Bearing Beam A

PR Bearing Beam B

SPB Welds Plate Beam B

SPA Welds Plate Beam A

PA Bending and Axial load on Plate

Connection Description BT BC AB AR PR SPB SPA PA

003 Beam H connected to flange of Beam H

007 Beam H connected to web of Beam H

011 Beam H rotated to web of Beam H

015 Beam H rotated to flange of Beam H

019 Beam H outer to Beam U

023 Beam H inner to Beam U

027 Beam H rotated inner to Beam U

031 Beam H rotated outer to Beam U

033 Beam H to Rectangular Pipe

035 Beam H rotated to Rectangular Pipe

037 Beam H to Round Pipe

039 Beam H rotated to Round Pipe

103 Beam U connected to flange of Beam H

107 Beam U connected to web of Beam H

111 Beam U rotated to web of Beam H

115 Beam U rotated to flange of Beam H

119 Beam U outer to Beam U

123 Beam U inner to Beam U

127 Beam U rotated inner to Beam U

131 Beam U rotated outer to Beam U

133 Beam U to Rectangular Pipe

135 Beam U rotated to Rectangular Pipe

137 Beam U to Round Pipe

139 Beam U rotated to Round Pipe

001 - End plate to beam flange between H sections

Shear Web Beam B

Yielding Web Beam B

Buckling Web Beam B

Crippling Web Beam B

Bending Flange Beam B

Bending Flange

Bolts

Bearing Beam B

Bearing Flange

Welds

The stresses that can be transmitted from beam A through a flanged connection are:

Axial Load (N)

Shear according to x-x and y-y axes (Tx, Ty)

Bending moment around the axis of maximum inertia x-x (Mx)

In the verification of the welds is also considered the bending moment about the y-y axis (My).

In the verifications of bolts, the stresses are divided as follows:

Mx and N are transmitted through tensile bolts

Tx and Ty are transmitted from all bolts

The Beam B shear verification is carried out at first without considering the stiffeners and then considering

whether there are diagonal stiffeners or web plates.

The shear area is then modified considering the stiffeners.

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

To calculate see AISC 360 J10.6.

While is determined with:

Where:

resisting arm, depending on section, knees and type of connection

Yielding Web Beam B Verification

The yield verification is done whether the Web Beam B is subjected to compression or is subjected to

traction. The verification considers the possible presence of Web stiffening like diagonal stiffeners or web

plates.

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

To calculate see AISC 360 J10.2.

While for see the previous verification "Shear Web Beam B Verification"

Buckling Web Beam B Verification

The buckling verification must be regarded with single or double concentrated forces if these are applied

on both sides of the column. In this verification have influence both the characteristics of the column

that the presence or absence of the stiffeners. The verification considers the possible presence of Web

stiffening like diagonal stiffeners or web plates.

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

To calculate see AISC 360 J10.5.

While is determined with:

The crippling verification must be regarded with single concentrated forces (only compression) or double

forces. In this verification have influence both the characteristics of the column that the presence or

absence of the stiffeners. The verification considers the possible presence of Web stiffening like diagonal

stiffeners or web plates.

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

To calculate see AISC 360 J10.3.

While for see the previous verification "Bucklng Web Beam B Verification".

Bending Flange Beam B Verification

The verification procedure follows the design guide AISC Design Guide 16 - Flush And Extend Multiple-

Row Moment End-Plate Connections, 2002 that describes a method based on the following principles:

the yield line determines the resistant plastic moment of the plate, once you know the geometry of

the plate, the geometry of the shape and the yield strength of the material;

the tensile strength of the bolt considers the prying force, once you know the geometry of the plate,

the geometry and the material of bolts;

the appropriate type of connections based on considerations of stiffness or moment-rotation.

Within this verification are made valuations on the number of rows of tensile bolts.

To locate the rows of tensile bolts you must find firstly the traction and compression points; the traction

point is in the last row of bolts that is within the shape or the knee joint; the compression point is the

outermost point of the shape or of the knee joint. All the rows of bolts between the intermediate point

(between traction and compression) and the traction point, shall be considered to be tensile.

Once you locate the rows of tensile bolts, AISC code asks you to evaluate the type of rupture of the flange

using the minimum length of fracture (plasticization) among those possible.

The information of the strength of flange and the information about the bolts allow you to locate the rupture

mode, which can be:

thick flange rupture

bolts rupture without prying force

thin flange rupture

flange rupture

bolts rupture with prying force

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

The variable is the resistant bending strength of the end plate, for its calculation refer to AISC Design

Guide 16. The value of considers the flange and/or bolts strength depending on the type of rupture.

While for see the previous verification "Shear Web Beam B Verification".

Bending Flange Verification

This verification runs if the connection is bolted.

The valuations on tensile rows of bolts, the characteristics of the column, the presence or not of stiffeners

affect this verification.

Once you locate the rows of tensile bolts, AISC code asks you to evaluate the type of rupture of the flange

using the minimum length of fracture (plasticization) among those possible.

The information of the strength of flange and the information about the bolts allow you to locate the rupture

mode, which can be:

thick flange rupture

bolts rupture without prying force

thin flange rupture

flange rupture

bolts rupture with prying force

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

The variable is the resistant bending strength of the end plate, for its calculation refer to AISC Design

Guide 16. The value of considers the flange and/or bolts strength depending on the type of rupture.

While for see the previous verification "Shear Web Beam B Verification".

Bolts Verification

The verification of bolt is conducted by combining the normal strength (due to bending moment and

axial load from beam A) with tangential strength (due to shears) that act on the screw section according

to the criterion:

The calculation report of the connection shows the required strength and compared with their

respective available strength and . The voice represents numerically the left part of the above

inequality.

The strengths are calculated considering the actual section of the bolt thread.

Bearing Flange and Beam B Verification

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

To calculate see AISC 360 J3.10 and see below:

Where:

net distance, in the direction of the force, between the edge of the hole and an adjacent

hole or the edge of connected material

thickness of connected material

bolt diameter

ultimate tensile stress of connected material

LRFD ASD

where: where:

Shear force is divided equally between all bolts, the contribution is given by Tx and Ty forces of the

beam.

Welds Verification

The welds that are verified are those between the beam and the end plate or, in the absence of the end

plate, between the A beam and the B beam.

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

Strength force is chosen as the minimum between the welding strength force and the strength forces

of connected materials.

The strength of the weld is:

Where:

nominal resistant stress for the welds

electrode classification number (electrode E60 means FEXX=60 [ksi])

throat thickness of weld

The strength of material connected to the welding is:

Where:

yield stress of connected part

welding contact area

LRFD ASD

where:

where:

Required strength is evaluated according to the distribution of welds group (inferior flange, web, upper

flange, inferior knee joint, upper knee joint). Stresses N, Tx, Ty, Mx and My are shared in welds according

to linear elastic theory (elastic material and cross-sections remain plane).

002 - Angles connection to column flange between H sections

Shear Web Beam B

Buckling Web Beam B

Bolts on Beam B

Bolts on Beam A on Web

Bolts on Beam A on Flange

Bearing Beam B

Bearing Angle to Beam B

Bearing Beam A on Web

Bearing Angle to Beam A on Web

Bearing Beam A on Flange

Bearing Angle to Beam A on Flange

Welds on Beam B

Welds on Web of Beam A

Welds on Flange of Beam A

The stresses that can be transmitted from beam A through a angled connection are:

Axial Load (N)

Shear according to x-x and y-y axes (Tx, Ty)

Bending moment around the axis of maximum inertia x-x (Mx) only if you have both top and bottom

angles

The support is not considered as a structural element, unless it is made by the upper and lower angles.

Shear Web Beam B Verification

The shear verification of the beam B is carried out in the absence of stiffeners and the shear area is

then determined according to the profile.

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

To calculate see AISC 360 J10.6.

While is determined with:

Where:

resistant arm, depending on section and equal to the height of the beam A

Buckling Web Beam B Verification

The conditions of such verification are: single concentrated force, or double if applied on both sides of

the column, and the absence of stiffeners.

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

To calculate see AISC 360 J10.5.

While is determined with:

The verification of bolt is conducted by combining the normal strength (due to bending moment and

axial load from beam A) with tangential strength (due to shears) that act on the screw section according

to the criterion:

The calculation report of the connection shows the required strength and compared with their

respective available strength and . The voice represents numerically the left part of the above

inequality.

The strengths are calculated considering the actual section of the bolt thread.

The bending moment Mx is considered only if there are both top and bottom angles; in this case the tensile

stress on the bolts of these angles shall also consider the prying action, see "Steel Construction Manual",

9-10. The prying action on these bolts depends on the size of the angles and of their position.

Bolts on Beam A on Web Verification

The verification of bolt is conducted by combining the normal strength (due to the axial action just in

case there is only the left or right angle) with tangential strength (due to shears) that act on the screw

section according to the criterion:

The calculation report of the connection shows the required strength and compared with their

respective available strength and . The voice represents numerically the left part of the above

inequality.

The strengths are calculated considering the actual section of the bolt thread.

Bolts on Beam A on Flange Verification

The strength verification of the bolt is considered only if there are both top and bottom angles. It is

conducted by combining the normal strength (always null) with tangential strength (due to shears)

that act on the screw section according to the criterion:

The calculation report of the connection shows the required strength and compared with their

respective available strength and . The voice represents numerically the left part of the above

inequality.

The strengths are calculated considering the actual section of the bolt thread.

Bearing Verification

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

To calculate see AISC 360 J3.10 and see below:

Where:

net distance, in direction of the force, between the edge of the hole and an adjacent

hole or the edge of the connected material

thickness of the connected material

bolt diameter

ultimate tensile stress of connected material

LRFD ASD

where:

where:

The shear force is the maximum shear stress between those of the bolts.

Welds Verification

The welds are checked with three groups of welds:

contact plane between angles and Beam B

contact plane between angles and web Beam A

contact plane between angles and flange Beam A

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

The resistant force is the minimum between that of the weld and those of connected materials.

The strength of the weld is:

Where:

nominal resistant stress for welds

electrode classification number (electrode E60 means FEXX=60 [ksi])

throat thickness of weld

The strength of the material connected to the weld is:

Where:

yield stress of the connected part

contact area of the weld

LRFD ASD

Design strength: Allowable strength:

where:

where:

Required strength is evaluated according to the distribution of the weld group according to linear elastic

theory (elastic material and cross-sections remain plane).

003 - Welded plate to beam flange between H sections

Buckling Web Beam B

Bolts

Bearing Beam A

Bearing on Plate

Weld on Beam B

Weld on Beam A

Bending and Axial load on Plate

The stresses that can be transmitted from beam A through a welded plate connection are:

Axial Load (N)

Shear according to x-x and y-y axes (Tx, Ty)

Bending moment according to x-x axis (Mx) if the plate is welded to Beam A and to Beam B

In the verification of the welds, the stresses are divided as follows:

Tx, Ty, N and Mx are transmitted through the welds of the plate

In the verifications of bolts, the stresses are divided as follows:

N and Ty are transmitted through the bolts

The conditions of such verification are: single concentrated force, or double if applied on both sides of

the column, and the absence of stiffeners.

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

To calculate see AISC 360 J10.5.

While is determined with:

Where:

plate width

Bolts Verification

The verification of bolt is conducted by combining the normal strength (always null) with tangential

strength (due to shears) that act on the screw section according to the criterion:

The calculation report of the connection shows the required strength and compared with their

respective available strength and . The voice represents numerically the left part of the above

inequality.

The strengths are calculated considering the actual section of the bolt thread.

The normal stress is null as related to stress Tx which is not transmitted by bolts.

Bearing Beam A and on Plate Verification

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

To calculate see AISC 360 J3.10 and see below:

Where:

net distance, in direction of the force, between the edge of the hole and an adjacent

hole or the edge of the connected material

thickness of the connected material

bolt diameter

ultimate tensile stress of connected material

LRFD ASD

where:

where:

The shear force is the maximum shear stress between those of the bolts.

Welds Verification

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

The resistant force is the minimum between that of the weld and those of connected materials.

The strength of the weld is:

Where:

nominal resistant stress for welds

electrode classification number (electrode E60 means FEXX=60 [ksi])

throat thickness of weld

The strength of the material connected to the weld is:

Where:

yield stress of the connected part

contact area of the weld

LRFD ASD

Design strength: Allowable strength:

where:

where:

Required strength is evaluated according to the distribution of the weld group according to linear elastic

theory (elastic material and cross-sections remain plane).

Bending and Axial load on Plate Verification

The stresses that can be transmitted in the plate verification are the axial stress N and the bending Mx,

if the connection is completely welded.

The verification is satisfied if:

Where:

axial required strength

axial available strength

flexural required strength about x axis

flexural available strength about x axis

Available strengths are evaluated according to gross and net section.

006 - Angles connection to column web between H sections

Bolts on Beam B

Bolts on Beam A on Web

Bolts on Beam A on Flange

Bearing Beam B

Bearing Angle to Beam B

Bearing Beam A on Web

Bearing Angle to Beam A on Web

Bearing Beam A in Flange

Bearing Angle to Beam A on Flange

Welds on Beam B

Welds on Web of Beam A

Welds on Flange of Beam A

The stresses that can be transmitted from beam A through a angled connection are:

Axial Load (N)

Shear according to x-x and y-y axes (Tx, Ty)

Bending moment around the axis of maximum inertia x-x (Mx) only if you have both top and bottom

angles

The support is not considered as a structural element, unless it is made by the upper and lower angles.

Bolts on Beam B Verification

The verification of bolt is conducted by combining the normal strength (due to bending moment and

axial load from beam A) with tangential strength (due to shears) that act on the screw section according

to the criterion:

The calculation report of the connection shows the required strength and compared with their

respective available strength and . The voice represents numerically the left part of the above

inequality.

The strengths are calculated considering the actual section of the bolt thread.

The bending moment Mx is considered only if there are both top and bottom angles; in this case the tensile

stress on the bolts of these angles shall also consider the prying action, see "Steel Construction Manual",

9-10. The prying action on these bolts depends on the size of the angles and of their position.

Bolts on Beam A on Web Verification

The verification of bolt is conducted by combining the normal strength (due to axial action if there is

only the right or the left angle) with tangential strength (due to shears) that act on the screw section

according to the criterion:

The calculation report of the connection shows the required strength and compared with their

respective available strength and . The voice represents numerically the left part of the above

inequality.

The strengths are calculated considering the actual section of the bolt thread.

Bolts on Beam A on Flange Verification

The strength verification of the bolt is considered only if there are both top and bottom angles. It is

conducted by combining the normal strength (always null) with tangential strength (due to shears)

that act on the screw section according to the criterion:

The calculation report of the connection shows the required strength and compared with their

respective available strength and . The voice represents numerically the left part of the above

inequality.

The strengths are calculated considering the actual section of the bolt thread.

Bearing Verification

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

To calculate see AISC 360 J3.10 and see below:

Where:

net distance, in direction of the force, between the edge of the hole and an adjacent

hole or the edge of the connected material

thickness of the connected material

bolt diameter

ultimate tensile stress of connected material

LRFD ASD

where:

where:

The shear force is the maximum shear stress between those of the bolts.

Welds Verification

The welds are checked with three groups of welds:

contact plane between angles and Beam B

contact plane between angles and web Beam A

contact plane between angles and flange Beam A

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

The resistant force is the minimum between that of the weld and those of connected materials.

The strength of the weld is:

Where:

nominal resistant stress for welds

electrode classification number (electrode E60 means FEXX=60 [ksi])

throat thickness of weld

The strength of the material connected to the weld is:

Where:

yield stress of the connected part

contact area of the weld

LRFD ASD

where:

where:

Required strength is evaluated according to the distribution of the weld group according to linear elastic

theory (elastic material and cross-sections remain plane).

010 - Angles connection to beam web between H sections

Bolts on Beam B

Bolts on Beam A on Web

Bearing Beam B

Bearing Angle to Beam B

Bearing Beam A on Web

Bearing Angle to Beam A on Web

Welds on Beam B

Welds on Web of Beam A

The stresses that can be transmitted from beam A through a angled connection are:

Axial Load (N)

Shear according to x-x and y-y axes (Tx, Ty)

The verification of bolt is conducted by combining the normal strength (due to axial load from beam A)

with tangential strength (due to shears) that act on the screw section according to the criterion:

The calculation report of the connection shows the required strength and compared with their

respective available strength and . The voice represents numerically the left part of the above

inequality.

The strengths are calculated considering the actual section of the bolt thread.

Bolts on Beam A on Web Verification

The verification of bolt is conducted by combining the normal strength (due to axial action if there is

only the right or the left angle) with tangential strength (due to shears) that act on the screw section

according to the criterion:

The calculation report of the connection shows the required strength and compared with their

respective available strength and . The voice represents numerically the left part of the above

inequality.

The strengths are calculated considering the actual section of the bolt thread.

Bearing Verification

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

To calculate see AISC 360 J3.10 and see below:

net distance, in direction of the force, between the edge of the hole and an adjacent

hole or the edge of the connected material

thickness of the connected material

bolt diameter

ultimate tensile stress of connected material

LRFD ASD

where:

where:

The shear force is the maximum shear stress between those of the bolts.

Welds Verification

The welds are checked with two groups of welds:

contact plane between angles and Beam B

contact plane between angles and web Beam A

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

The resistant force is the minimum between that of the weld and those of connected materials.

The strength of the weld is:

nominal resistant stress for welds

electrode classification number (electrode E60 means FEXX=60 [ksi])

throat thickness of weld

The strength of the material connected to the weld is:

Where:

yield stress of the connected part

contact area of the weld

LRFD ASD

where:

where:

Required strength is evaluated according to the distribution of the weld group according to linear elastic

theory (elastic material and cross-sections remain plane).

014 - Angles connection to beam flange between H sections

Buckling Web Beam B

Bolts on Beam B

Bolts on Beam A on Web

Bearing Beam B

Bearing Angle to Beam B

Bearing Beam A on Web

Bearing Angle to Beam A on Web

Welds on Beam B

Welds on Web of Beam A

The stresses that can be transmitted from beam A through a angled connection are:

Axial Load (N)

Shear according to x-x and y-y axes (Tx, Ty)

The buckling verification must be considered with single concentrated force or double if they are applied

on both sides of the column. The verification is carried out in the absence of stiffeners.

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

To calculate see AISC 360 J10.5.

While is determined with:

The verification of bolt is conducted by combining the normal strength (due to axial load from beam A)

with tangential strength (due to shears) that act on the screw section according to the criterion:

The calculation report of the connection shows the required strength and compared with their

respective available strength and . The voice represents numerically the left part of the above

inequality.

The strengths are calculated considering the actual section of the bolt thread.

Bearing Verification

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

To calculate see AISC 360 J3.10 and see below:

net distance, in direction of the force, between the edge of the hole and an adjacent

hole or the edge of the connected material

thickness of the connected material

bolt diameter

ultimate tensile stress of connected material

LRFD ASD

where:

where:

The shear force is the maximum shear stress between those of the bolts.

Welds Verification

The welds are checked with two groups of welds:

contact plane between angles and Beam B

contact plane between angles and web Beam A

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

The resistant force is the minimum between that of the weld and those of connected materials.

The strength of the weld is:

nominal resistant stress for welds

electrode classification number (electrode E60 means FEXX=60 [ksi])

throat thickness of weld

The strength of the material connected to the weld is:

Where:

yield stress of the connected part

contact area of the weld

LRFD ASD

where:

where:

Required strength is evaluated according to the distribution of the weld group according to linear elastic

theory (elastic material and cross-sections remain plane).

301 - End plate to beam flange between

rectangular hollow and H sections

Shear Web Beam B

Yielding Web Beam B

Buckling Web Beam B

Crippling Web Beam B

Bending Flange Beam B

Bending Flange

Bolts

Bearing Beam B

Bearing on Flange

Welds

The stresses that can be transmitted from beam A through a flanged connection are:

Axial Load (N)

Shear according to x-x and y-y axes (Tx, Ty)

Bending moment around the axis of maximum inertia x-x (Mx)

In the verification of the welds, of bolts and of end flange is also considered the bending moment about

the y-y axis (My).

In the verifications of bolts, the stresses are divided as follows:

Mx, My and N are transmitted through tensile bolts

Tx and Ty are transmitted from all bolts

The Beam B shear verification is carried out at first without considering the stiffeners because they are

not present in this connection.

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

To calculate see AISC 360 J10.6.

While is determined with:

Where:

resisting arm, depending on section, knees and type of connection

Yielding Web Beam B Verification

The yield verification is made whether the web of the beam B is subject to compression or is subject to

traction. The verification considers the possible presence of flange reinforcements.

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

To calculate see AISC 360 J10.2.

While to calculate see previous verification "Shear web beam B verification".

Buckling Web Beam B Verification

The buckling verification must be considered with single concentrated force or double if they are applied

on both sides of the column. The verification is carried out in the absence of stiffeners. The verification

considers the possible presence of flange reinforcements.

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

To calculate see AISC 360 J10.5

While is determined with:

The crippling verification must be considered with single concentrated force (only compression) or double.

In this verification have influence both the characteristics of the column that the presence or not of the

stiffeners. The verification considers the possible presence of flange reinforcements

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

To calculate see AISC 360 J10.3.

While to calculate see previous verification "Buckling web beam B verification".

Bending Flange Beam B Verification

This verification can be done only with bolted union and bolts must to be inside of the flange of beam B.

The verification procedure follows the design guide "AISC Design Guide 16-Flush And Extend Multiple-

Row End-Plate Moment Connections, 2002" which describes a method based on the following principles:

the yield line determines the resistant plastic moment of the plate, once you know the geometry of

the plate, the geometry of the shape and the yield strength of the material;

the tensile strength of the bolt considers the prying force, once you know the geometry of the plate,

the geometry and the material of bolts;

the appropriate type of connections based on considerations of stiffness or moment-rotation.

Within this verification are made valuations on the number of rows of tensile bolts.

To locate the rows of tensile bolts you must find firstly the traction and compression points; the traction

point is in the last row of bolts that is within the shape or the knee joint; the compression point is the

outermost point of the shape or of the knee joint. All the rows of bolts between the intermediate point

(between traction and compression) and the traction point, shall be considered to be tensile.

In the following example there are two rows of tensile bolts.

Once you locate the rows of tensile bolts, AISC code asks you to evaluate the type of rupture of the flange

using the minimum length of fracture (plasticization) among those possible.

The information of the strength of flange and the information about the bolts allow you to locate the rupture

mode, which can be:

thick flange rupture

bolts rupture without prying force

thin flange rupture

flange rupture

bolts rupture with prying force

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

The variable is the bending resistant stress of the end flange and for its calculation see "AISC Design

Guide 16". The value of considers the flange strength and/or of bolts depending on the type of rupture.

While to calculate see previous verification Shear Web Beam B.

Bending Flange Verification

This verification is carried out if the neutral axis intersects the projection of the shape onto the end flange,

condition that occurs with large bending moments.

In this situation the verification is satisfied if:

Where:

required moment obtained from tensile force on the anchor rods depending on their

distance from the neutral axis shifted

available moment on steel section consisting of end flange and any reinforcements (the

section is identified by the neutral axis shifted in the following image)

In the following drawing it is represented the resistant section:

Bolts Verification

The verification of bolt is conducted by combining the normal strength (due to axial and bending actions

exercised by the beam) with tangential strength (due to shears) that act on the section of the rod

according to the criterion:

The calculation report of the connection shows the required strength and compared with their

respective available strength and . The voice represents numerically the left part of the above

inequality.

The shear stress is distributed equally between all bolts present, while the axial and bending stresses are

distributed through an elastic distribution. This distribution considers the contact surface between flange

and beam B, that works only in compression, and bolts.

The strengths are calculated considering the actual section of the bolt thread.

Bearing Flange and Beam B Verification

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

To calculate see AISC 360 J3.10 and see below:

Where:

net distance, in the direction of the force, between the edge of the hole and an adjacent

hole or the edge of connected material

thickness of connected material

bolt diameter

ultimate tensile stress of connected material

LRFD ASD

where:

where:

Shear force is divided equally between all bolts, the contribution is given by Tx and Ty forces of the

beam.

Welds Verification

The welds that are verified are those between the beam and the end plate or if there is not the end plate,

those between the beam A and the beam B.

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

The resistant force is the minimum between that of the weld and those of connected materials.

The strength of the weld is:

nominal resistant stress for welds

electrode classification number (electrode E60 means FEXX=60 [ksi])

throat thickness of weld

The strength of the material connected to the weld is:

Where:

yield stress of the connected part

contact area of the weld

LRFD ASD

Design strength: Allowable strength:

where:

where:

Required strength is evaluated according to the distribution of the weld group according to linear elastic

theory (elastic material and cross-sections remain plane).

401 - End plate to beam flange between

circular hollow and H sections

Shear Web Beam B

Yielding Web Beam B

Buckling Web Beam B

Crippling Web Beam B

Bending Flange Beam B

Bending Flange

Bolts

Bearing Beam B

Bearing on Flange

Welds

For verification see paragraph 301 - End plate to beam flange between rectangular hollow and H sections.

501 - Column H base plate

Anchor Rods

Concrete Compression

Plate Bending

Anchor Rods Length

Shear Heel in X direction

Shear Heel in Y direction

Welds

The stresses that can be transmitted from beam A through a base plate connection are:

Axial Load (N)

Shear according to x-x and y-y axes (Tx, Ty)

Bending moment around the x-x and y-y axes (Mx, My)

Anchor rods verification is conducted by combining the normal strength (due to bending moment and

axial load from beam A) with tangential strength (due to shears) that act on the rod section according

to the criterion:

The calculation report of the connection shows the required strength and compared with their

respective available strength and . The voice represents numerically the left part of the above

inequality.

The strengths are calculated considering the actual section of the thread rod.

Concrete Compression Verification

The verification is made by comparing the required stress and the available stress:

if the verification is satisfied

The tension in the concrete and in the steel is obtained by analyzing a reinforced concrete section; in

this section the concrete works only by compression and the steel both by compression that by traction.

Resistant stress is evaluated with:

LRFD ASD

Design strength: Allowable strength:

where:

where:

if 2005 version, 0.65 otherwise

if 2005 version, 2.31 otherwise

Where:

characteristic cube compressive strength (Rck)

Plate Bending Verification

This verification is carried out if the neutral axis intersects the projection of the shape on the base plate,

condition that occurs with large bending moments.

In this situation the test is satisfied if:

Where:

required strength obtained from tensile force on the anchor rods depending on their

distance from the neutral translated axis

available strength on steel section consisting of end flange and any reinforcements (the

section is identified by the neutral translated axis in the following image)

In the following drawing it is represented the resistant section:

Anchor Rods and their length

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

The tensile strength of the anchor rod is evaluated by choosing the least of the following resistances:

anchor in tension (D.5.1 - Steel strength of anchor in tension)

concrete breakout (D.5.2 - Concrete breakout strength of anchor in tension)

pullout of anchor (D.5.3 - Pullout strength of anchor in tension)

concrete on contact face of the head reinforcement (D.5.4 - Concrete side-face blowout strength of

a headed anchor in tension)

To calculate refer to appendix D of the "ACI Committee, Building Code Requirements for Structural

Concrete (ACI 318M-08) and Commentary, 2008".

The solicitant force is chosen as the maximum among those obtained by verifying the anchor rods.

Shear Heel

The shear heel is considered dipped in concrete and its projected area ( ) in x-x and y-y direction

allows you to calculate the shear strength in the corresponding direction.

If you have the shear heel, all the shear stress is transferred from the anchor rods to the heel; the

verification is satisfied if:

Where:

required strength

available strength obtained according to

concrete area

To calculate see AISC 360 J8.

Welds Verification

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

Resistant force is chosen as the minimum force between that of weld and the others of connected

materials.

The strength of the weld is:

nominal resistant stress for welds

electrode classification number (electrode E60 means FEXX=60 [ksi])

throat thickness of weld

The strength of the material connected to the weld is:

Where:

yield stress of the connected part

contact area of the weld

LRFD ASD

where:

where:

Required strength is evaluated according to the distribution of the weld group according to linear elastic

theory (elastic material and cross-sections remain plane).

502 - Column U base plate

The strength verification of base plate concerns:

Anchor Rods

Concrete Compression

Plate Bending

Anchor Rods Length

Shear Heel in X direction

Shear Heel in Y direction

Welds

503 - Column L base plate

The strength verification of base plate concerns:

Anchor Rods

Concrete Compression

Plate Bending

Anchor Rods Length

Shear Heel in X direction

Shear Heel in Y direction

Welds

504 - Column square pipe base plate

The strength verification of base plate concerns:

Anchor Rods

Concrete Compression

Plate Bending

Anchor Rods Length

Shear Heel in X direction

Shear Heel in Y direction

Welds

505 - Column round pipe base plate

The strength verification of base plate concerns:

Anchor Rods

Concrete Compression

Plate Bending

Anchor Rods Length

Shear Heel in X direction

Shear Heel in Y direction

Welds

601_1 - Flange-plated moment splice between H sections

Connection Plates Axially Loaded

Connection Plate Shear Loaded

Beam A Axially Loaded

Beam A Shear Loaded

Beam B Axially Loaded

Beam B Shear Loaded

Web Bolts

Flange Bolts

Web Bearing on the Beam

Web Bearing on the Plates

Flange Bearing on the Beam

Flange Bearing on the Plates

The stresses that can be transmitted from beam A through the joint are:

Axial Load (N)

Shear according to x-x and y-y axes (Tx, Ty)

Bending moment around the x-x and y-y axes (Mx, My)

The connection is verified in presence of flange plates and/or web plates. If there are both flange plates

that web plates then the stresses are so divided:

Tx, Mx and My are transferred through the plates on the flanges

Ty is transferred through the plates on the web

N is transferred in part by plates on the wing and in part by the plates on the web

The verification considers the contribution of axial and bending strengths.

If the joint is in traction, the axial strength for holed elements is determined according to:

LRFD ASD

where:

where:

If the joint is compressed, the axial strength for holed elements is determined according to:

LRFD ASD

Design strength: Allowable strength:

where:

where:

Where:

gross area

yield stress

net area

ultimate stress

The bending strength (with subscript x and y) for holed elements is determined according to:

LRFD ASD

where:

where:

The first term of comparison is the plastic strength of the gross section, the second is flexural strength

of the net section.

Where:

plastic module

elastic module

plastic module of the net section

elastic module of the net section

If the element is subjected only to axial stress, this is verified if:

If the element is subjected to axial stress and bending moment in the principal axis, this is verified if:

If the element is subjected to axial stress and bending moment in two axes and , this is verified if:

If the element is subjected to axial stress and bending moment in two axes and , this is verified if:

The shear strength for holed elements is determined according to:

LRFD ASD

where:

where:

Where:

gross area

yield stress

net area

ultimate stress

The comparison for the verification is as follows:

Where:

Bolts Verification

The verification of bolt is conducted by combining the normal strength with tangential strength that

act on the section of the rod according to the criterion:

respective available strength and . The voice represents numerically the left part of the above

inequality.

The strengths are calculated considering the actual section of the bolt thread.

Bearing Verification

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

To calculate see AISC 360 J3.10 and see below:

Where:

net distance, in the direction of the force, between the edge of the hole and an adjacent

hole or the edge of connected material

thickness of connected material

bolt diameter

ultimate tensile stress of connected material

LRFD ASD

where:

where:

The shear force is the maximum shear stress between those of the bolts.

602_1 - Flange-plated moment splice between U sections

Connection Plates Axially Loaded

Connection Plate Shear Loaded

Beam A Axially Loaded

Beam A Shear Loaded

Beam B Axially Loaded

Beam B Shear Loaded

Web Bolts

Flange Bolts

Web Bearing on the Beam

Web Bearing on the Plates

Flange Bearing on the Beam

Flange Bearing on the Plates

The stresses that can be transmitted from beam A through the joint are:

Axial Load (N)

Shear according to x-x and y-y axes (Tx, Ty)

Bending moment around the x-x and y-y axes (Mx, My)

The connection is verified in presence of flange plates and/or web plates. If there are both flange plates

that web plates then the stresses are so divided:

Tx, Mx and My are transferred through the plates on the flanges

Ty is transferred through the plates on the web

N and My are transferred in part by plates on the flange and in part by the plates on the web

For verification see 601_1 - Flange-plated moment splice between H sections.

Angles connections summary

In the strength verification of the connection with angles are visualized these verifications, the numbe

verifications are:

1. Shear Web Beam B

2. Buckling Web Beam B

3. Bolts on Beam B

4. Bolts on Beam A on web

5. Bolts on Beam A on Flange

6. Bearing Beam B

7. Bearing Angle to Beam B

8. Bearing Beam A on Web

9. Bearing Angle to Beam A on Web

10. Bearing Beam A on flange

11. Bearing Angle to Beam A on Flange

12. Welds on Beam B

13. Welds on Web of Beam A

14. Welds on Flange of Beam A

Connection Description 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

002 Beam B connected to Flanged Beam H

006 Beam H connected to web of Beam H

010 Beam H rotated to web of Beam H

014 Beam H rotated to flange of Beam H

018 Beam H outer to Beam U

022 Beam H inner to Beam U

026 Beam H rotated inner to Beam U

030 Beam H rotated outer to Beam U

102 Beam U connected to flange of Beam H

106 Beam U connected to web of Beam H

110 Beam U rotated to web of Beam H

114 Beam U rotated to flange of Beam H

118 Beam U outer to Beam U

122 Beam U inner to Beam U

126 Beam U rotated inner to Beam U

130 Beam U rotated outer to Beam U

Welded plate connections summary

These are the verifications that are visualized in the strength verification of the angles connection, the

verification's numbers are

1. Bending Web Beam B

2. Bolts

3. Bearing Beam A

4. Bearing on Plate

5. Plate Welded on Beam B

6. Plate Welded on Beam A

7. Bending and Axial load on Plate

Connection Description 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

003 Beam H connected to flange of Beam H

007 Beam H connected to web of Beam H

011 Beam H rotated on Web Beam B (*)

015 Beam H rotated to flange of Beam H

019 Beam H outer to Beam U

023 Beam H inner to Beam U

027 Beam H rotated inner to Beam U (*)

031 Beam H rotated outer to Beam U

033 Beam H to Rectangular Pipe

035 Beam H rotated to Rectangular Pipe

037 Beam H to Round Pipe

039 Beam H rotated to Round Pipe

103 Beam U connected to flange of Beam H

107 Beam U connected to web of Beam H

111 Beam U rotated to web of Beam H (*)

115 Beam U rotated to flange of Beam H

119 Beam U outer to Beam U

123 Beam U inner to Beam U

127 Beam U rotated inner to Beam U (*)

131 Beam U rotated outer to Beam U

133 Beam U to Rectangular Pipe

135 Beam U rotated to Rectangular Pipe

137 Beam U to Round Pipe

139 Beam U rotated to Round Pipe

(*) in these connections some type of plate are not verifiable.

001 - End plate to beam flange between H sections

Shear Web Beam B

Yielding Web Beam B

Buckling web Beam B

Crippling Web Beam B

Bending Flange Beam B

Bending Flange

Bolts

Bearing Beam B

Bearing on Flange

Welds

The stresses that can be transmitted from beam A through a flanged connection are:

Axial Load (N)

Shear according to x-x and y-y axes (Tx, Ty)

Bending moment around the axis of maximum inertia x-x (Mx)

In the verification of the welds is also considered the bending moment about the y-y axis (My).

In the verifications of bolts, the stresses are divided as follows:

Mx and N are transmitted through tensile bolts

Tx and Ty are transmitted from all bolts

The Beam B shear verification is carried out at first without considering the stiffeners and then considering

whether there are diagonal stiffeners or web plates.

The shear area is then modified considering the stiffeners.

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

To calculate see ABNT NBR 8800 5.7.7.

While is determined with:

Where:

resisting arm, depending on section, knees and type of connection

Yielding Web Beam B Verification

The yield verification is done whether the Web Beam B is subjected to compression or is subjected to

traction. The verification considers the possible presence of Web stiffening like diagonal stiffeners or web

plates or flange stiffeners.

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

To calculate see ABNT NBR 8800 5.7.3.

While for see the previous verification "Shear Web Beam B Verification"

Buckling Web Beam B Verification

The buckling verification must be regarded with single or double concentrated forces if these are applied

on both sides of the column. In this verification have influence both the characteristics of the column

that the presence or absence of the stiffeners. The verification considers the possible presence of Web

stiffening like diagonal stiffeners or web plates or flange stiffeners.

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

To calculate see ABNT NBR 8800 5.7.6.

While is determined with:

The crippling verification must be regarded with single concentrated forces (only compression) or double

forces. In this verification have influence both the characteristics of the column that the presence or

absence of the stiffeners. The verification considers the possible presence of Web stiffening like diagonal

stiffeners or web plates or flange stiffeners.

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

To calculate see ABNT NBR 8800 5.7.4.

While for see the previous verification "Buckling Web Beam B Verification".

Bending Flange Beam B Verification

The verification procedure follows the design guide AISC Design Guide 16 - Flush And Extend Multiple-

Row Moment End-Plate Connections, 2002 that describes a method based on the following principles:

the yield line determines the resistant plastic moment of the plate, once you know the geometry of

the plate, the geometry of the shape and the yield strength of the material;

the tensile strength of the bolt considers the prying force, once you know the geometry of the plate,

the geometry and the material of bolts;

the appropriate type of connections based on considerations of stiffness or moment-rotation.

Within this verification are made valuations on the number of rows of tensile bolts.

To locate the rows of tensile bolts you must find firstly the traction and compression points; the traction

point is in the last row of bolts that is within the shape or the knee joint; the compression point is the

outermost point of the shape or of the knee joint. All the rows of bolts between the intermediate point

(between traction and compression) and the traction point, shall be considered to be tensile.

In the drawing above, there are three rows of tensile bolts.

Once you locate the rows of tensile bolts, this code asks you to evaluate the type of rupture of the flange

using the minimum length of fracture (plasticization) among those possible.

The information of the strength of flange and the information about the bolts allow you to locate the rupture

mode, which can be:

thick flange rupture

bolts rupture without prying force

thin flange rupture

flange rupture

bolts rupture with prying force

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

The variable is the resistant bending strength of the end plate, for its calculation refer to AISC Design

Guide 16. The value of considers the flange and/or bolts strength depending on the type of rupture.

While for see the previous verification "Shear Web Beam B Verification".

Bending Flange Verification

This verification runs if the connection is bolted.

The valuations on tensile rows of bolts, the characteristics of the column, the presence or not of stiffeners

affect this verification.

Once you locate the rows of tensile bolts, this code asks you to evaluate the type of rupture of the flange

using the minimum length of fracture (plasticization) among those possible.

The information of the strength of flange and the information about the bolts allow you to locate the rupture

mode, which can be:

thick flange rupture

bolts rupture without prying force

thin flange rupture

flange rupture

bolts rupture with prying force

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

The variable is the resistant bending strength of the end plate, for its calculation refer to AISC Design

Guide 16. The value of considers the Shear flange and/or bolts strength depending on the type of

rupture.

While for see the previous verification "Shear Web Beam B Verification".

Bolts verification

The verification of bolt is conducted by combining the normal strength (due to bending moment and

axial load from beam A) with tangential strength (due to shears) that act on the screw section according

to the criterion:

The calculation report of the connection shows the required strength and compared with their

respective available strength and . The voice represents numerically the left part of the above

inequality.

The strengths are calculated considering the actual section of the bolt thread.

Bearing Flange and Beam B Verification

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

To calculate see ABNT NBR 8800 6.3.3.3 or ABNT NBR 14762 10.3.4 and 10.3.5 depending on

whether the connected shape is a hot rolled section or a cold-formed with a thickness less than 4.75 [mm].

See the case of laminate shape with standard hole below:

Where:

net distance, in the direction of the force, between the edge of the hole and an adjacent

hole or the edge of connected material

thickness of connected material

bolt diameter

ultimate tensile stress of connected material

Shear force is divided equally between all bolts, the contribution is given by Tx and Ty forces of the

beam.

Welds Verification

The welds that are verified are those between the beam and the end plate or, in the absence of the end

plate, between the A beam and the B beam.

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

Strength force is chosen as the minimum between the welding strength force and the strength forces

of connected materials and it changes depending on welded shape (hot rolled section or cold-formed)

and depending on the type of weld (penetration or fillet).

The strength of the weld is:

Where:

electrode classification number (electrode E60 means FEXX=60 [ksi])

throat thickness of weld

safety factor of welds strength

The strength of the connected material depending on the type of the welded shape or on the type of the

weld.

Required strength is evaluated according to the distribution of welds group (inferior flange, web, upper

flange, inferior knee joint, upper knee joint). Stresses N, Tx, Ty, Mx and My are shared in welds according

to linear elastic theory (elastic material and cross-sections remain plane).

002 - Angles connection to column flange between H sections

Shear Web Beam B

Buckling web Beam B

Bolts on Web B

Bolts on Beam A on Web

Bolts on Beam A on Flange

Bearing Beam B

Bearing Angle to Beam B

Bearing Beam A on Web

Bearing Angle to Beam A on Web

Bearing Beam A on Flange

Bearing Angle to Beam A on Flange

Welds on Beam B

Welds on Web of Beam A

Welds on Flange of Beam A

The stresses that can be transmitted from beam A through a angled connection are:

Axial Load (N)

Shear according to x-x and y-y axes (Tx, Ty)

Bending moment around the axis of maximum inertia x-x (Mx) only if you have both top and bottom

angles

The support is not considered as a structural element, unless it is made by the upper and lower angles.

Shear Web Beam B Verification

The shear verification of the beam B is carried out in the absence of stiffeners and the shear area is

then determined according to the profile.

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

To calculate see ABNT NBR 8800 5.7.7.

While is determined with:

Where:

resistant arm, depending on section and equal to the height of the beam A

Buckling Web Beam B Verification

The conditions of such verification are: single concentrated force, or double if applied on both sides of

the column, and the absence of stiffeners.

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

To calculate see ABNT NBR 8800 5.7.6.

While is determined with:

The verification of bolt is conducted by combining the normal strength (due to bending moment and

axial load from beam A) with tangential strength (due to shears) that act on the screw section according

to the criterion:

The calculation report of the connection shows the required strength and compared with their

respective available strength and . The voice represents numerically the left part of the above

inequality.

The strengths are calculated considering the actual section of the bolt thread.

The bending moment Mx is considered only if there are both top and bottom angles; in this case the tensile

stress on the bolts of these angles shall also consider the prying action, see "Steel Construction Manual",

9-10. The prying action on these bolts depends on the size of the angles and of their position.

Bolts on Beam A on Web Verification

The verification of bolt is conducted by combining the normal strength (due to the axial action just in

case there is only the left or right angle) with tangential strength (due to shears) that act on the screw

section according to the criterion:

The calculation report of the connection shows the required strength and compared with their

respective available strength and . The voice represents numerically the left part of the above

inequality.

The strengths are calculated considering the actual section of the bolt thread.

Bolts on Beam A on Flange Verification

The strength verification of the bolt is considered only if there are both top and bottom angles. It is

conducted by combining the normal strength (always null) with tangential strength (due to shears)

that act on the screw section according to the criterion:

The calculation report of the connection shows the required strength and compared with their

respective available strength and . The voice represents numerically the left part of the above

inequality.

The strengths are calculated considering the actual section of the bolt thread.

Bearing Verification

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

To calculate see ABNT NBR 8800 6.3.3.3 or ABNT NBR 14762 10.3.4 and 10.3.5 depending on

whether the connected shape is a hot rolled section or a cold-formed with a thickness less than 4.75 [mm].

See the case of laminate shape with standard hole below:

Where:

net distance, in direction of the force, between the edge of the hole and an adjacent

hole or the edge of the connected material

thickness of the connected material

bolt diameter

ultimate tensile stress of connected material

The shear force is the maximum shear stress between those of the bolts.

Welds Verification

The welds are checked with three groups of welds:

contact plane between angles and Beam B

contact plane between angles and web Beam A

contact plane between angles and flange Beam A

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

The resistant force is the minimum between that of the weld and those of connected materials and it

changes depending on welded shape (hot rolled section or cold-formed) and depending on the type of

weld (penetration or fillet).

The strength of the weld is:

Where:

electrode classification number (electrode E60 means FEXX=60 [ksi])

throat thickness of weld

safety factor of welds strength

The strength of the connected material depending on the type of the welded shape or on the type of the

weld.

Required strength is evaluated according to the distribution of welds group according to linear elastic

theory (elastic material and cross-sections remain plane).

003 - Welded plate to beam flange between H sections

Buckling Web Beam B

Bolts

Bearing Beam A

Bearing on Plate

Weld on Beam B

Weld on Beam A

Bending and Axial load on Plate

The stresses that can be transmitted from beam A through a welded plate connection are:

Axial Load (N)

Shear according to x-x and y-y axes (Tx, Ty)

Bending moment around the axis x-x (Mx) if the plate is welded both to beam A and to beam B

In the verification of the welds the stresses are divided as follows:

Tx, Ty, N and Mx are transmitted from the welds of the plate

In the verifications of bolts, the stresses are divided as follows:

N and Ty are transmitted from all bolts

The conditions of buckling verification are: single concentrated force, or double if applied on both sides

of the column, and the absence of stiffeners.

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

To calculate see ABNT NBR 8800 5.7.6.

While is determined with:

Where:

plate width

Bolts Verification

The verification of bolt is conducted by combining the normal strength (always null) with tangential

strength (due to shears) that act on the screw section according to the criterion:

The calculation report of the connection shows the required strength and compared with their

respective available strength and . The voice represents numerically the left part of the above

inequality.

The strengths are calculated considering the actual section of the bolt thread.

The normal stress is null as related to stress Tx which is not transmitted by bolts.

Bearing Beam A and on Plate Verification

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

To calculate see ABNT NBR 8800 6.3.3.3 or ABNT NBR 14762 10.3.4 and 10.3.5 depending on

whether the connected shape is a hot rolled section or a cold-formed with a thickness less than 4.75 [mm].

See the case of laminate shape with standard hole below.

Where:

net distance, in direction of the force, between the edge of the hole and an adjacent

hole or the edge of the connected material

thickness of the connected material

bolt diameter

ultimate tensile stress of connected material

The shear force is the maximum shear stress between those of the bolts.

Welds Verification

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

The resistant force is the minimum between that of the weld and those of connected materials and it

changes depending on welded shape (hot rolled section or cold-formed) and depending on the type of

weld (penetration or fillet).

The strength of the weld is:

Where:

electrode classification number (electrode E60 means FEXX=60 [ksi])

throat thickness of weld

safety factor of welds strength

The strength of the connected material depending on the type of the welded shape or on the type of the

weld.

Required strength is evaluated according to the distribution of welds group according to linear elastic

theory (elastic material and cross-sections remain plane).

Bending and Axial load on Plate Verification

The stresses that can be transmitted in the plate verification are the axial stress N and the bending Mx,

if the connection is completely welded.

The verification is satisfied if:

Where:

axial required strength

axial available strength

flexural required strength about x axis

flexural available strength about x axis

Available strengths are evaluated according to gross and net section.

006 - Angles connection to column web between H sections

Bolts on Beam B

Bolts on Beam A on Web

Bolts on Beam A on Flange

Bearing Beam B

Bearing Angle to Beam B

Bearing Beam A on Web

Bearing Angle to Beam A on Web

Bearing Beam A in Flange

Bearing Angle to Beam A on Flange

Welds on Beam B

Welds on Web of Beam A

Welds on Flange of Beam A

The stresses that can be transmitted from beam A through a angled connection are:

Axial Load (N)

Shear according to x-x and y-y axes (Tx, Ty)

Bending moment around the axis of maximum inertia x-x (Mx) only if you have both top and bottom

angles

The support is not considered as a structural element, unless it is made by the upper and lower angles.

Bolts on Beam B Verification

The verification of bolt is conducted by combining the normal strength (due to bending moment and

axial load from beam A) with tangential strength (due to shears) that act on the screw section according

to the criterion:

The calculation report of the connection shows the required strength and compared with their

respective available strength and . The voice represents numerically the left part of the above

inequality.

The strengths are calculated considering the actual section of the bolt thread.

The bending moment Mx is considered only if there are both top and bottom angles; in this case the tensile

stress on the bolts of these angles shall also consider the prying action, see "Steel Construction Manual",

9-10. The prying action on these bolts depends on the size of the angles and of their position.

Bolts on Beam A on Web Verification

The verification of bolt is conducted by combining the normal strength (due to axial action if there is

only the right or the left angle) with tangential strength (due to shears) that act on the screw section

according to the criterion:

The calculation report of the connection shows the required strength and compared with their

respective available strength and . The voice represents numerically the left part of the above

inequality.

The strengths are calculated considering the actual section of the bolt thread.

Bolts on Beam A on Flange Verification

The strength verification of the bolt is considered only if there are both top and bottom angles. It is

conducted by combining the normal strength (always null) with tangential strength (due to shears)

that act on the screw section according to the criterion:

The calculation report of the connection shows the required strength and compared with their

respective available strength and . The voice represents numerically the left part of the above

inequality.

The strengths are calculated considering the actual section of the bolt thread.

Bearing Verification

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

To calculate see ABNT NBR 8800 6.3.3.3 or ABNT NBR 14762 10.3.4 and 10.3.5 depending on

whether the connected shape is a hot rolled section or a cold-formed with a thickness less than 4.75 [mm].

See the case of laminate shape with standard hole below.

Where:

net distance, in direction of the force, between the edge of the hole and an adjacent

hole or the edge of the connected material

thickness of the connected material

bolt diameter

ultimate tensile stress of connected material

The shear force is the maximum shear stress between those of the bolts.

Welds Verification

The welds are checked with three groups of welds:

contact plane between angles and Beam B

contact plane between angles and web Beam A

contact plane between angles and flange Beam A

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

The resistant force is the minimum between that of the weld and those of connected materials and it

changes depending on welded shape (hot rolled section or cold-formed) and depending on the type of

weld (penetration or fillet).

The strength of the weld is:

Where:

electrode classification number (electrode E60 means FEXX=60 [ksi])

throat thickness of weld

safety factor of welds strength

The strength of the connected material depending on the type of the welded shape or on the type of the

weld.

Required strength is evaluated according to the distribution of welds group according to linear elastic

theory (elastic material and cross-sections remain plane).

010 - Angles connection to beam web between H sections

Bolts on Beam B

Bolts on Beam A on Web

Bearing Beam B

Bearing Angle to Beam B

Bearing Beam A on Web

Bearing Angle to Beam A on Web

Welds on Beam B

Welds on Web of Beam A

The stresses that can be transmitted from beam A through a angled connection are:

Axial Load (N)

Shear according to x-x and y-y axes (Tx, Ty)

The verification of bolt is conducted by combining the normal strength (due to bending moment and

axial load from beam A) with tangential strength (due to shears) that act on the screw section according

to the criterion:

The calculation report of the connection shows the required strength and compared with their

respective available strength and . The voice represents numerically the left part of the above

inequality.

The strengths are calculated considering the actual section of the bolt thread.

Bolts on Beam A on Web Verification

The verification of bolt is conducted by combining the normal strength (due to axial action if there is

only the right or the left angle) with tangential strength (due to shears) that act on the screw section

according to the criterion:

The calculation report of the connection shows the required strength and compared with their

respective available strength and . The voice represents numerically the left part of the above

inequality.

The strengths are calculated considering the actual section of the bolt thread.

Bearing Verification

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

To calculate see ABNT NBR 8800 6.3.3.3 or ABNT NBR 14762 10.3.4 and 10.3.5 depending on

whether the connected shape is a hot rolled section or a cold-formed with a thickness less than 4.75 [mm].

See the case of laminate shape with standard hole below.

Where:

net distance, in direction of the force, between the edge of the hole and an adjacent

hole or the edge of the connected material

thickness of the connected material

bolt diameter

ultimate tensile stress of connected material

The shear force is the maximum shear stress between those of the bolts.

Welds Verification

The welds are checked with two groups of welds:

contact plane between angles and Beam B

contact plane between angles and web Beam A

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

The resistant force is the minimum between that of the weld and those of connected materials and it

changes depending on welded shape (hot rolled section or cold-formed) and depending on the type of

weld (penetration or fillet).

The strength of the weld is:

Where:

electrode classification number (electrode E60 means FEXX=60 [ksi])

throat thickness of weld

safety factor of welds strength

The strength of the connected material depending on the type of the welded shape or on the type of the

weld.

Required strength is evaluated according to the distribution of welds group according to linear elastic

theory (elastic material and cross-sections remain plane).

014 - Angles connection to beam flange between H sections

Buckling Web Beam B

Bolts on Beam B

Bolts on Beam A on Web

Bearing Beam B

Bearing Angle to Beam B

Bearing Beam A on Web

Bearing Angle to Beam A on Web

Welds on Beam B

Welds on Web of Beam A

The stresses that can be transmitted from beam A through a angled connection are:

Axial Load (N)

Shear according to x-x and y-y axes (Tx, Ty)

The buckling verification must be considered with single concentrated force or double if they are applied

on both sides of the column. The verification is carried out in the absence of stiffeners.

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

To calculate see ABNT NBR 8800 5.7.6.

While is determined with:

The verification of bolt is conducted by combining the normal strength (due to axial load from beam

A) with tangential strength (due to shears) that act on the screw section according to the criterion:

The calculation report of the connection shows the required strength and compared with their

respective available strength and . The voice represents numerically the left part of the above

inequality.

The strengths are calculated considering the actual section of the bolt thread.

Bolts on Beam A on Web Verification

The verification of bolt is conducted by combining the normal strength (due to axial action if there is

only the right or the left angle) with tangential strength (due to shears) that act on the screw section

according to the criterion:

The calculation report of the connection shows the required strength and compared with their

respective available strength and . The voice represents numerically the left part of the above

inequality.

The strengths are calculated considering the actual section of the bolt thread.

Bearing Verification

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

To calculate see ABNT NBR 8800 6.3.3.3 or ABNT NBR 14762 10.3.4 and 10.3.5 depending on

whether the connected shape is a hot rolled section or a cold-formed with a thickness less than 4.75 [mm].

See the case of laminate shape with standard hole below.

Where:

net distance, in direction of the force, between the edge of the hole and an adjacent

hole or the edge of the connected material

thickness of the connected material

bolt diameter

ultimate tensile stress of connected material

The shear force is the maximum shear stress between those of the bolts.

Welds Verification

The welds are checked with two groups of welds:

contact plane between angles and Beam B

contact plane between angles and web Beam A

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

The resistant force is the minimum between that of the weld and those of connected materials and it

changes depending on welded shape (hot rolled section or cold-formed) and depending on the type of

weld (penetration or fillet).

The strength of the weld is:

Where:

electrode classification number (electrode E60 means FEXX=60 [ksi])

throat thickness of weld

safety factor of welds strength

The strength of the connected material depending on the type of the welded shape or on the type of the

weld.

Required strength is evaluated according to the distribution of welds group according to linear elastic

theory (elastic material and cross-sections remain plane).

301 - End plate to beam flange between

rectangular hollow and H sections

Shear Web Beam B

Yielding Web Beam B

Buckling Web Beam B

Crippling Web Beam B

Bending Flange Beam B

Bending Flange

Bolts

Bearing Beam B

Bearing on Flange

Welds

The stresses that can be transmitted from beam A through a flanged connection are:

Axial Load (N)

Shear according to x-x and y-y axes (Tx, Ty)

Bending moment around the axis of maximum inertia x-x (Mx)

In the verification of the welds, of bolts and of end flange is also considered the bending moment about

the y-y axis (My).

In the verifications of bolts, the stresses are divided as follows:

Mx, My and N are transmitted through tensile bolts

Tx and Ty are transmitted from all bolts

The Beam B shear verification is carried out at first without considering the stiffeners because they are

not present in this connection.

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

To calculate see ABNT NBR 8800 5.7.7.

While is determined with:

Where:

resisting arm, depending on section, knees and type of connection

Yielding Web Beam B Verification

The yield verification is made whether the web of the beam B is subject to compression or is subject to

traction. The verification considers the possible presence of flange reinforcements.

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

To calculate see ABNT NBR 8800 5.7.3.

While to calculate see previous verification "Shear web beam B verification".

Buckling Web Beam B Verification

The buckling verification must be considered with single concentrated force or double if they are applied

on both sides of the column. The verification is carried out in the absence of stiffeners. The verification

considers the possible presence of flange reinforcements.

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

To calculate see ABNT NBR 8800 5.7.6.

While is determined with:

The warping verification must be considered with single concentrated force (only compression) or double.

In this verification have influence both the characteristics of the column that the presence or not of the

stiffeners. The verification considers the possible presence of flange reinforcements

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

To calculate see ABNT NBR 8800 5.7.4.

While to calculate see previous verification "Buckling web beam B verification".

Bending Flange Beam B Verification

This verification can be done only with bolted union and bolts must to be inside of the flange of beam B.

The verification procedure follows the design guide "AISC Design Guide 16-Flush And Extend Multiple-

Row End-Plate Moment Connections, 2002" which describes a method based on the following principles:

the yield line determines the resistant plastic moment of the plate, once you know the geometry of

the plate, the geometry of the shape and the yield strength of the material;

the tensile strength of the bolt considers the prying force, once you know the geometry of the plate,

the geometry and the material of bolts;

the appropriate type of connections based on considerations of stiffness or moment-rotation.

Within this verification are made valuations on the number of rows of tensile bolts.

To locate the rows of tensile bolts you must find firstly the traction and compression points; the traction

point is in the last row of bolts that is within the shape or the knee joint; the compression point is the

outermost point of the shape or of the knee joint. All the rows of bolts between the intermediate point

(between traction and compression) and the traction point, shall be considered to be tensile.

In the following example there are two rows of tensile bolts.

Once you locate the rows of tensile bolts, AISC code asks you to evaluate the type of rupture of the flange

using the minimum length of fracture (plasticization) among those possible.

The information of the strength of flange and the information about the bolts allow you to locate the rupture

mode, which can be:

thick flange rupture

bolts rupture without prying force

thin flange rupture

flange rupture

bolts rupture with prying force

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

The variable is the bending resistant stress of the end flange and for its calculation see "AISC Design

Guide 16". The value of considers the flange strength and/or of bolts depending on the type of rupture.

While to calculate see previous verification Shear Web Beam B.

Bending Flange Verification

This verification is carried out if the neutral axis intersects the projection of the shape onto the end flange,

condition that occurs with large bending moments.

In this situation the verification is satisfied if:

Where:

required moment obtained from tensile force on the anchor rods depending on their

distance from the neutral axis shifted

available moment on steel section consisting of end flange and any reinforcements (the

section is identified by the neutral axis shifted in the following image)

In the following drawing it is represented the resistant section:

Bolts Verification

The verification of bolt is conducted by combining the normal strength (due to axial and bending

actions exercised by the beam) with tangential strength (due to shears) that act on the section of the

rod according to the criterion:

The calculation report of the connection shows the required strength and compared with their

respective available strength and . The voice represents numerically the left part of the above

inequality.

The shear stress is distributed equally between all bolts present, while the axial and bending stresses are

distributed through an elastic distribution. This distribution considers the contact surface between flange

and beam B, that works only in compression, and bolts.

The strengths are calculated considering the actual section of the bolt thread.

Bearing Flange and Beam B Verification

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

To calculate see ABNT NBR 8800 6.3.3.3 or ABNT NBR 14762 10.3.4 and 10.3.5 depending on

whether the connected shape is a hot rolled section or a cold-formed with a thickness less than 4.75 [mm].

See the case of laminate shape with standard hole below.

Where:

net distance, in the direction of the force, between the edge of the hole and an adjacent

hole or the edge of connected material

thickness of connected material

bolt diameter

ultimate tensile stress of connected material

Shear force is divided equally between all bolts, the contribution is given by Tx and Ty forces of the

beam.

Welds Verification

The welds that are verified are those between the beam and the end plate or if there is not the end plate,

those between the beam A and the beam B.

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

The resistant force is the minimum between that of the weld and those of connected materials and it

changes depending on welded shape (hot rolled section or cold-formed) and depending on the type of

weld (penetration or fillet).

The strength of the weld is:

Where:

electrode classification number (electrode E60 means FEXX=60 [ksi])

throat thickness of weld

safety factor of welds strength

The strength of the connected material depending on the type of the welded shape or on the type of the

weld.

Stress force is evaluated according to the distribution of welds group (inferior flange, web, upper flange,

inferior knee joint, upper knee joint). Stresses N, Tx, Ty, Mx and My are shared in welds according to

linear elastic theory (elastic material and cross-sections remain plane).

401 - End plate to beam flange between

circular hollow and H sections

Shear Web Beam B

Yielding Web Beam B

Buckling Web Beam B

Crippling Web Beam B

Bending Flange Beam B

Bending Flange

Bolts

Bearing Beam B

Bearing on Flange

Welds

For verification see paragraph 301 - End plate to beam flange between rectangular hollow and H sections.

501 - Column H base plate

Anchor Rods

Concrete Compression

Plate Bending

Anchor Rods Length

Shear Heel in X direction

Shear Heel in Y direction

Welds

The stresses that can be transmitted from beam A through a base plate connection are:

Axial Load (N)

Shear according to x-x and y-y axes (Tx, Ty)

Bending moment around the x-x and y-y axes (Mx, My)

Anchor rods verification is conducted by combining the normal strength (due to bending moment and

axial load from beam A) with tangential strength (due to shears) that act on the rod section according

to the criterion:

The calculation report of the connection shows the required strength and compared with their

respective available strength and . The voice represents numerically the left part of the above

inequality.

The strengths are calculated considering the actual section of the thread rod.

Concrete Compression Verification

The verification is made by comparing the required stress and the available stress:

if the verification is satisfied

The tension in the concrete and in the steel is obtained by analyzing a reinforced concrete section; in

this section the concrete works only by compression and the steel both by compression that by traction.

Resistant stress is evaluated with:

Where:

characteristic cube compressive strength (Rck)

Plate Bending Verification

This verification is carried out if the neutral axis intersects the projection of the shape on the base plate,

condition that occurs with large bending moments.

In this situation the test is satisfied if:

Where:

required strength obtained from tensile force on the anchor rods depending on their

distance from the neutral translated axis

available strength on steel section consisting of end flange and any reinforcements (the

section is identified by the neutral translated axis in the following image)

In the following drawing it is represented the resistant section:

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

The tensile strength of the anchor rod is evaluated by choosing the least of the following resistances:

anchor in tension (D.5.1 - Steel strength of anchor in tension)

concrete breakout (D.5.2 - Concrete breakout strength of anchor in tension)

pullout of anchor (D.5.3 - Pullout strength of anchor in tension)

concrete on contact face of the head reinforcement (D.5.4 - Concrete side-face blowout strength of

a headed anchor in tension)

To calculate refer to appendix D of the "ACI Committee, Building Code Requirements for Structural

Concrete (ACI 318M-08) and Commentary, 2008".

The solicitant force is chosen as the maximum among those obtained by verifying the anchor rods.

Shear Heel

The shear heel is considered dipped in concrete and its projected area ( ) in x-x and y-y direction

allows you to calculate the shear strength in the corresponding direction.

If you have the shear heel, all the shear stress is transferred from the anchor rods to the heel; the

verification is satisfied if:

Where:

required strength

available strength

concrete area

To calculate see ABNT NBR 8800 6.6.5.

Welds Verification

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

The resistant force is the minimum between that of the weld and those of connected materials and it

changes depending on welded shape (hot rolled section or cold-formed) and depending on the type of

weld (penetration or fillet).

The strength of the weld is:

Where:

electrode classification number (electrode E60 means FEXX=60 [ksi])

throat thickness of weld

safety factor of welds strength

The strength of the connected material depending on the type of the welded shape or on the type of the

weld.

Required strength is evaluated according to the distribution of welds group according to linear elastic

theory (elastic material and cross-sections remain plane).

502 - Column U base plate

The strength verification of base plate concerns:

Anchor Rods

Concrete Compression

Plate Bending

Anchor Rods Length

Shear Heel in X direction

Shear Heel in Y direction

Welds

503 - Column L base plate

The strength verification of base plate concerns:

Anchor Rods

Concrete Compression

Plate Bending

Anchor Rods Length

Shear Heel in X direction

Shear Heel in Y direction

Welds

504 - Column square pipe base plate

The strength verification of base plate concerns:

Anchor Rods

Concrete Compression

Plate Bending

Anchor Rods Length

Shear Heel in X direction

Shear Heel in Y direction

Welds

505 - Column round pipe base plate

The strength verification of base plate concerns:

Anchor Rods

Concrete Compression

Plate Bending

Anchor Rods Length

Shear Heel in X direction

Shear Heel in Y direction

Welds

601_1 - Flange-plated moment splice between H sections

Connection Plates Axially Loaded

Connection Plate Shear Loaded

Beam A Axially Loaded

Beam A Shear Loaded

Beam B Axially Loaded

Beam B Shear Loaded

Web Bolts

Flange Bolts

Web Bearing on the Beam

Web Bearing on the Plates

Flange Bearing on the Beam

Flange Bearing on the Plates

The stresses that can be transmitted from beam A through the joint are:

Axial Load (N)

Shear according to x-x and y-y axes (Tx, Ty)

Bending moment around the x-x and y-y axes (Mx, My)

The connection is verified in presence of flange plates and/or web plates. If there are both flange plates

that web plates then the stresses are so divided:

Tx, Mx and My are transferred through the plates on the flanges

Ty is transferred through the plates on the web

N is transferred in part by plates on the wing and in part by the plates on the web

The verification considers the contribution of axial and bending strengths.

If the joint is in traction, the axial strength for holed elements is determined according to:

If the joint is compressed, the axial strength for holed elements is determined according to:

Where:

gross area

yield stress

net area

ultimate stress

The bending strength (with subscript x and y) for holed elements is determined according to:

The first term of comparison is the plastic strength of the gross section, the second is flexural strength

of the net section.

Where:

plastic module

elastic module

plastic module of the net section

elastic module of the net section

If the element is subjected only to axial stress, this is verified if:

If the element is subjected to axial stress and bending moment in the principal axis, this is verified if:

If the element is subjected to axial stress and bending moment in two axes and , this is verified if:

The shear strength for holed elements is determined according to:

Where:

gross area

yield stress

net area

ultimate stress

The comparison for the verification is as follow:

Where:

Bolts Verification

The verification of bolt is conducted by combining the normal strength (due to bending moment and

axial load from beam A) with tangential strength (due to shears) that act on the screw section according

to the criterion:

The calculation report of the connection shows the required strength and compared with their

respective available strength and . The voice represents numerically the left part of the above

inequality.

The strengths are calculated considering the actual section of the bolt thread.

Bearing Verification

The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied

To calculate see ABNT NBR 8800 6.3.3.3 or ABNT NBR 14762 10.3.4 and 10.3.5 depending on

whether the connected shape is a hot rolled section or a cold-formed with a thickness less than 4.75 [mm].

See the case of laminate shape with standard hole below.

Where:

net distance, in direction of the force, between the edge of the hole and an adjacent

hole or the edge of the connected material

thickness of the connected material

bolt diameter

ultimate tensile stress of connected material

The shear force is the maximum shear stress between those of the bolts.

602_1 - Flange-plated moment splice between U sections

Connection Plates Axially Loaded

Connection Plate Shear Loaded

Beam A Axially Loaded

Beam A Shear Loaded

Beam B Axially Loaded

Beam B Shear Loaded

Web Bolts

Flange Bolts

Web Bearing on the Beam

Web Bearing on the Plates

Flange Bearing on the Beam

Flange Bearing on the Plates

The stresses that can be transmitted from beam A through the joint are:

Axial Load (N)

Shear according to x-x and y-y axes (Tx, Ty)

Bending moment around the x-x and y-y axes (Mx, My)

The connection is verified in presence of flange plates and/or web plates. If there are both flange plates

that web plates then the stresses are so divided:

Tx and Mx are transferred through the plates on the flanges

Ty is transferred through the plates on the web

N and My are transferred in part by plates on the flange and in part by the plates on the web

For verification see 601_1 - Flange-plated moment splice between H sections.

Angles connections summary

See paragraph Angles connections summary in "AISC" connections verification.

Welded plate connections summary

See paragraph Welded plate connections summary in "AISC" connections verification.

Symbols in the calculation report EC3

The symbols used in calculation report are mostly the same as those used in the Eurocode.

Gross section area

Net area of section subjected to shear

Area of rods used in base plates

Lateral area of shear heel

Shear area of Beam B

Width of base plate

Beam A Beam that applies the load to the connection

Beam B Usually column, beam that receives the load

Effective width of Beam B web in compression

Effective width of weld

Effective width of Beam A web in tension

Effective width of Beam B web in tension

Design punching shear resistance of the bolt head and the nut

Height of base plate

Load combination used for verification

Bond stress (see EC2)

Design bearing resistance of bolt

Design compressive cylindrical strength of concrete

Design resistance of the Beam A flange and web in compression

Characteristic compressive cylindrical strength of concrete

Design tensile strength of concrete

Characteristic tensile strength of concrete

Average tensile strength of concrete

Design resistance of the Beam B web in compression

Number of rows that are in traction

Resistant stress of concrete

Design tension resistance of a T-stub flange:

Mode 1: Complete yielding of the flange

Mode 2: Bolt failure with yielding of the flange

Mode 3: Bolt failure

Design strength of bolt in tension

Required strength of bolt in tension

Design tension resistance of the Beam A web

Design resistance of an unstiffened Beam B web subject to transverse tension

Design shear strength of bolt

Required shear strength of bolt

Design shear strength of a weld

Design strength of weld

Required strength of weld

Steel yield stress

Concentration factor tied to the geometry of the plinth

Anchorage length of anchor rods

Plastic resistant moment of Beam A

Bending moment to verify the base plate

Design resistant bending moment about x-x axis

Design resistant bending moment about y-y axis

Design axial resistant strength

Type of rupture

Characteristic compressive cubic strength of concrete

Available ratio

Required ratio

Thickness of base plate

Elastic modulus about x-x axis of net section

Elastic modulus about y-y axis of net section

Plastic modulus about x-x axis of net section

Plastic modulus about y-y axis of net section

Required shear strength given by Beam A axial-bending stress

Plastic shear resistance of a column web panel

Elastic modulus of base plate

Plastic modulus of Beam A

Multiplier to determine the effective length

This factor considers the long-term effects on the tensile strength and the adverse effects

resulting from the way in which the load is applied

The configuration parameter of the connection

Foundation joint material coefficient, depending on characteristic strength of the grout between

the plinth and base plate

Reduction factor due to long welds

Correlation factor; see the definition in EN 1993-1-8:2005 4.5.3.2 (6)

This factor is connected to the quality of adhesion condition and to the position of the bar

This factor is connected to the quality of adhesion condition and it refers to the diameter of the bar

Web slenderness of Beam B

Diameter of the rods used in base plates

Reduction factor for instability of the web of Beam B

Stress in base plate

Stress in concrete

Reduction factor for shear interaction

Symbols in the calculation report AISC

The symbols used in calculation report are mostly the same as those used in the AISC code.

Throat thickness of weld

Net area of section subjected to shear

Area of steel part connected to the weld

Gross section area

Lateral area of shear heel

Shear area of Beam B

Resistant arm

Load combination used for verification

Nominal diameter of the bolt

Nominal resistant stress of base material connected to the weld

Compression resistant stress in concrete

Compressive cylindrical stress of concrete

Electrode classification number (electrode E60 means FEXX=60 [ksi])

Required stress to compression on the concrete

Tensile ultimate stress

Nominal resistant stress for welds

Yield stress

Anchorage length

Net distance, in the force direction, between the edge of the hole and an adjacent hole or

the edge of the connected material

Available bending strength of the end flange/base plate

Available bending moment about x-x axis

Available bending moment about y-y axis

Required bending strength of base plate

Torque strength

Required bending moment strength in X direction

Required bending moment strength in Y direction

Axial strength

Available tensile force of anchor

Design tensile force applied to anchor

Available axial strength

Available strength to heel bearing in the concrete

Nominal resistant strength to tensile for a bolt

Reduction factor due to the prying force

Maximum prying action to inner bolts (inside)

Maximum prying action to external bolts (outside)

Available welds strength

Available strength to local bending flange

Available bearing strength

Characteristic compressive cubic strength of concrete

Available tensile bolt strength

Available shear bolt strength

Local buckling available strength of web of Beam B

Crippling available strength of web of Beam B

Shear panel available strength of web of Beam B

Yielding available strength of web of Beam B

Nominal bearing strength

Required strength for welds / shear heel

Required tensile bolt strength

Required shear bolt strength

Available ratio

Elastic modulus of base plate

Required ratio

Elastic modulus about x-x axis of net section

Elastic modulus about y-y axis of net section

Thickness of base plate / connected plate

Minimum Bolt Pretension

Beam A Beam that applies the load to the connection

Beam B Usually column, beam that receives the load

Required shear strength given by Beam A axial-bending stress

Shear strength in X direction

Shear strength in Y direction

Plastic modulus about x-x axis of net section

Plastic modulus about y-y axis of net section

Yield line length

Resistance factor (LRFD)

Resistance factor for base material of the welds (Base Material) (LRFD)

Resistance factor for the welds (Weld) (LRFD)

Safety factor (ASD)

Safety factor for base material of the welds (Base Material) (ASD)

Safety factor for the welds (Weld) (ASD)

Symbols in the calculation report ABNT NBR

The symbols used in calculation report are mostly the same as those used in the ABNT NBR code.

Throat thickness of weld

Lateral area of shear heel

Net area of section subjected to shear

Gross section area

Shear area of Beam B

Resistant arm

Load combination used for verification

Nominal diameter of the bolt

Characteristic compressive cylindrical strength of concrete

Available bearing strength

Electrode classification number (electrode E60 means FEXX=60 [ksi])

Available strength

Required strength

Available tensile bolt strength

Nominal tensile bolt strength

Required tensile bolt strength

Available shear bolt strength

Required shear bolt strength

Available welds strength

Tensile ultimate stress

Yield stress

Anchorage length

net distance, in the force direction, between the edge of the hole and an adjacent hole or

the edge of the connected material

Available bending strength of the end flange

Available bending strength of the base plate

Required bending strength of the base plate {ex }

Torque strength

Required bending moment strength in X direction

Available bending moment strength in X direction

Required bending moment strength in Y direction

Available bending moment strength in Y direction

Axial strength

Available axial force

Design tensile force applied to anchor

Reduction factor due to the prying force

Maximum prying action to inner bolts (inside)

Maximum prying action to external bolts (outside)

Available strength to local bending flange

Characteristic compressive cubic strength of concrete

Available ratio

Required ratio

Thickness of base plate / connected plate

Minimum Bolt Pretension

Beam A Beam that applies the load to the connection

Beam B Usually column, beam that receives the load

Shear strength in X direction

Shear strength in Y direction

Elastic modulus of base plate

Elastic modulus about x-x axis of net section

Elastic modulus about y-y axis of net section

Plastic modulus about x-x axis of net section

Plastic modulus about y-y axis of net section

Yield line length

Safety factor for yielding

Safety factor for rupture

Safety factor for concrete

Safety factor for welds

Safety factor for welds

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