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AS1684

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http://www.docstoc.com/docs/139519457/AS16842-SS-Bracing-Example

Bracing Example

Wind

Wi d classification

l ifi ti - N2

Single storey

L - shaped

h d

Gable & hip roofs

C ili h

Ceiling height

i ht 2400

2400mm

Eaves 600mm

o

R f pitch

Roof it h 22

22.55

Bracing Example

N2

Single storey

L- shaped

Gable & hip roofs

Wind

Ceiling height 2400mm direction 2

Wind

Eaves 600mm direction

d ect o 1

o

Roof pitch 22.5

22.5o

7500

600 600 6300 600

10700

8600 7400

20400

Bracing Design Process (Clause 8.3.1)

1. Determine the wind classification Clauses 1.4.2 & 1.5 & AS4055/AS1170.2

2. Determine the wind pressure Clause 8.3.2 & Tables 8.1 to 8.5

3. Determine the area of elevation Clause 8.3.3 and Figure 8.2(A) or (B)

5.

- Sub-floors Clause 8.3.5

- Walls Clause 8.3.6, Tables 8.18 and 8.19

7. C

7 Connection

ti off b

bracing

i tto Cl

Clause 8

8.3.6.9

3 6 9 and

d 8.3.6.10

8 3 6 10

roof/ceilings (at walls) and floors

AS1684.2 pg112

1. Determine the Wind Classification

AS/NZS 1170

1170.22

N2

(provided by structural engineer,

building professional or local building authority)

2. Determine the wind pressure

(for both wind directions)

Tables 8

8.1

1 to 8

8.5

5 [pgs 116

116124]

124]

Need:

the roof pitch,

the width of the building, and

whether there are any flat walls, skillion ends,

gable or hip ends.

pressures within the one wind direction.

2.1 Determine the wind pressure

(for Wind direction 1)

See Table 8.1 [pg 116] and Table 8.2 [pg 117]

Hip End

NOTE: For wind direction 1,

adopt this elevation as the

wind blowingg onto the flat

surface of the gable end will

produce a higher force

compared to wind blowing Hip roof

on the opposite hip end

elevation. Gable end

1

Gable end (with Hip other end)

Hip roof (long length of building)

2.1 Determine the wind pressure

(for Wind direction 1 Gable end)

1

Pressure (Gable end)

= 0.92kPa

0 92kP (kN/m2)

2.1 Determine the wind pressure

(for Wind direction 1 Hip end Long length of building)

Table 8

8.2

2 is used for

determining the

pressure on single

p g or

upper storey

elevations where the

wind direction is at

90o to a ridge and for

wind speeds N1,

N1 N2N2,

N3 & N4.

Interpolation

permitted

Answer rounded up

to the nearest 0.05

22.5

0.65

6.3m

2.1 Determine the wind pressure

(for Wind direction 1 Hip end Long length of building)

= 0.65kPa (kN/m2)

2.2 Determine the wind pressure

(for Wind direction 2 Hip end Long length of building)

Roof pitch = 22.5 determining the

pressure on single or

upper storey elevations

where the wind direction

is at 90o to a ridge and

for wind speeds N1, N2,

N3 & N4.

NOTE: Table 8.2 is

W = 7.4m applicable as the roof

runs the long length of

b ildi and

building d contains

t i a

hip or gable end.

Interpolation

permitted

Answer rounded up

to the nearest 0.05

22.5

0.65

7.4m

2.2 Determine the wind pressure

(for Wind direction 2 Hip end Long length of building)

W = 7.4m

Therefore,, pressure

p ((Hip

p end))

= 0.65kPa (kN/m2)

3.1 Determine the Area of Elevation

- Discussion

accurately, high levels of precision are not really warranted and

therefore use of calculation methods (as used in this example),

planimeters or by scaling from drawings would all be acceptable.

NOTE: The area of elevation of the triangular portion of eaves

overhang up to 1000mm wide may be ignored Figure 8.2(B),

Note 3 [pg 114].

The following method has been used in this example to calculate

the area of elevation of the triangular roof section:

Area of Roof

= W/2 x W/2 TanX

T X + 0.15

01 xW

The triangular part of eaves is ignored.

X

150 mm nominal

allowance

ll for

f depth

d th rooff

frame, battens and roofing.

Increase this if necessary i.e.

W for exposed rafter roofs.

3.1 Determine the Area of Elevation

(for Wind Direction 1)

3.75m 22.5o 0.15m

1 53m

1.53m

CL

1.2m

2 4m

2.4m

FL

10.7m 7.4m

NOTE: Wind force on the area below half wall height goes straight

into floor and does not add to the wall racking (bracing) force.

3.1 Determine the Area of Elevation

(for Wind Direction 1 Gable end)

Hi E

Hip End

d + Gable

G bl End

E d

Area Roof

= 0.5x7.4x1.53 +

Hip End Area Gable End Area 0.15x7.4 (depth of

3.75m roof frame)

1 53m

1.53m 6 77m2 (say)

= 6.77m

= 7.4x1.2

7 4 1 2 (half wall

height)

= 8.88m2

10.7m 7.4m

Total Gable End Area

= 6.77+8.88

6 77+8 88

= 15.7m2 (say)

3.1 Determine the Area of Elevation

(for Wind Direction 1 Hip end Long length of Building)

1.3m

1.2m

Area Roof

= 10.7x1.3

10 7x1 3 +

(10.7-0.6)x0.15

5 3 2 ((Approx)

= 15.43m pp ) 10.7m 7.4m

Area Wall

= 10.7x1.2 ((half wall Total Hip End Area

height)

= 12.84m2 = 15.43+12.84 = 28.3m2 (say)

3.2 Determine the Area of Elevation

(for Wind Direction 2)

(Eaves 600mm)

4.3m

= (19.2+0.6)x1.53

- (0.5x(4.3-0.6)x1.53)

(0 5 (4 3 0 6) 1 53) 1 2m

1.2m

+ (19.2+0.6)x0.15

30 43m2 (say)

= 30.43m

0.6m

19.2m

Area Wall

=19 2x1 2 (half wall

=19.2x1.2

height)

= 23.04m2

Total Area Wind Direction 2

= 30.43 + 23.04 = 53.5m2 (say)

4. Calculate the racking force

(for both Wind Directions)

U th

Use the fformula:

l

(kN) (m2) (kPa) - (kN/m2)

separate calculations to end up with a total racking

force in each of the two wind directions

directions.

4. Calculate the racking force

(for both Wind Directions)

U th

Use the fformula:

l

(kN) (m2) (kN/m2)

Gable = 15.7m2 x 0.92 = 14.44kN

28 3 2 x 0.65

Hi = 28.3m

Hip 0 65 = 18

18.40kN

40kN

= 32.8kN (say)

= 53.5m2 x 0.65kPa = 34.8kN (say)

5. Design the wall bracing systems

possible usually one diagonal brace per wall and two

(opposing) wherever space permits in long walls.

the allowable limits for angle braces.

walls and

and, where possible

possible, at the corners of the

building Clause 8.3.6.6 [pg 148].

AS1684.2 p141

5. Design the wall bracing systems (cont.)

in and multiply this by the bracing capacity.

capacity is 0.8kN

0 8kN per metre.

metre

pairs. Do not allow single braces to be less

than 1.8m or exceed 2.7m in wall length.

the maximum 2 2.7m

7m length for a single brace

brace.

5.1 Design the wall bracing systems

(for Wind Direction 1)

+ 2.7 + 2.2 + 2.7 + 2.2 = 35.4 m

NOTE: 1.8m minimum

bracing

g length

g for diagonal

g

2.7 2.7

bracing.

2.7 2.7

35.4m of bracing

g x 0.8kN/m

2.7

= 28.3kN (say)

2.7 1.8 2.7

2.7

Additional bracing

2.7

2.2

(racking force) required

22

2.2 = 32.8

32 8 28.3

28 3

2.2 2.7

= 4.5kN

5.1 Design the wall bracing systems

(for Wind Direction 1)

0.9m on the dining room corner and 1

panel @ 0.9m at Bed 2 will add

6.12kN (1.8m x 3.4kN/m) of racking

force to wind direction 1, thereby

exceeding the 4.0kN

4 0kN required.

required Adopt

type (g) [pg 143].

(plasterboard) can also be

used in certain instances

0.9 0.9 refer Section 4.3 following.

AS1684.2 p143

5.2 Design the wall bracing systems

(for Wind Direction 2)

+ 2.7

2 7 + 2 = 28

28.4m

4m

NOTE: 1.8m minimum bracing

length for diagonal bracing.

1.8

2 = 22.7kN

22 7kN (say)

1.8

1.8

2.7

2.0

2.0

Additional bracing

2.4

2.7

2.0 (racking force) required

= 34.8

34 8 22.7

22 7

2.7 2.7

2.0

= 12.1kN

5.2 Design the wall bracing systems

(for Wind Direction 2)

Sheathing in plywood, panels on the

lounge/dining room side (2 panels @

1.2m) and 1 panel @ 1.2m at bed 3,

will add 12.2kN

12 2kN (3.6m

(3 6m x 3

3.4kN/m)

4kN/m) of

racking force to wind direction 2,

therebyy exceedingg the 12.1kN

2 required.

Adopt type (g) [pg 143].

1.2

1.2 1.2

AS1684.2 p143

5.3 Nominal bracing

achieved, assess whether nominal bracing

can be used.

example

p because most walls require q a

structural brace. Nominal wall bracing

is also not evenlyy distributed throughout

g

the building and therefore can be

ignored

g see Clauses 8.3.6.2 and

8.3.6.3 page 140.

6. Maximum spacing

p g of bracing

g walls

construction, the maximum distance

between braced walls (at right angles to the

building length or width) is 9.0m Clause

8.3.6.7 [pg 149].

6. Maximum spacing

p g of bracing

g walls Cont.

single

i l storey

t construction,

t ti th

the maximum

i

distance between braced walls (at right

angles

l tto the

th building

b ildi llengthth or width)

idth) iis

determined from Tales 8.20 & 8.21

respectively.

ti l

For the

F th lower

l storey

t off two

t storey

t

construction, refer Clause 8.3.6.7 [pg 149].

Fixing of Bottom of Bracing Walls

7. Connection of bracing - floors

walls shall be fixed at the ends of the bracing

panel and, if required,intermediately to the

floor frame or concrete slab with connections

determined from Table 8.18.

(Cl

(Clause 8

8.3.6.10)

3 6 10)

AS1684.2 p155

7.1 Fixing of Bottom of Bracing Walls

Ceiling diaphragm

Nominal fixings

only, see Table 9.4

7.1 Fixing of Bottom of Bracing Walls Cont.

(i e ply bracing panels) with a capacity up

(i.e.

to and including 3.4 kN/m require nominal

fixing only

only.

Note: This applies to bottom plate fixing only and

does not relate to Tie Down requirements.

requirements

bottom plate fixing is required, such as a

masonry nail, screw or bolt at 1200mm

maximum centers see Table 9.4 [pg 167].

Fixing of Top of Bracing Walls

7.2 Fixing of Top of Bracing Walls

Ceiling diaphragm

7.2 Fixing of Top of Bracing Walls Cont.

top with structural connections of

equivalent

q shear capacity

p y to the bracingg

capacity of that particular bracing wall

(Clause 8

8.3.6.9)

3 6 9)

8 22 p152

8.22, p152-155.

155

AS1684.2 p151

7.2 Fixing of Top of Bracing Walls Cont.

plate look at the (in this case) truss plan

plate, plan.

And.

1. Determine what direction the walls are

running in relation to the trusses

trusses.

Wall p

parallel to roof

Wall

W ll trusses

perpendicular

to roof

trusses Roof Trusses

Plan view

7.2 Fixing of Top of Bracing Walls Cont.

f

from Table

T bl 8.22

8 22

7.2 Fixing of Top of Bracing Walls Cont.

of that individual wall can be resisted by the

connection.

For our diagonal braces (maximum 2.7 m

horizontal length), the force to be resisted by

the connection at the top of the brace wall is:

2 7m x 0.8

2.7m 0 8 (kN/m) = 2.16

2 16 kN

Connection of braced walls parallel to trusses

7.2 Fixing of Top of Bracing Walls Cont.

p

Table 8.22 diagram (a)

Timber cleats or

90 x 35 mm F8 metal brackets

nogging on flat (both sides) to

locate internal

wall frame

end as per Table 90 x 35 cleat

8.22 diagram (a)

Bracing wall

Provide clearance

where

h rooff is

i trussed

d

Connection of braced walls perpendicular to trusses

Connection of braced internal walls

abutting external walls

Connection of braced internal walls

abutting

g external walls - alternative detail

with manufacturers specifications.

Internal bracing

g

wall

Acknowledgement

TPC Solutions Pty Ltd (Vic)

Timber Queensland

Place Designs

g (Qld)

Forest & Wood Products Australia

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