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# Middle Technical University Electronics Lab.

## Electrical Engineering Technical College 2nd Stage

Electrical Power Technical Engineering Dept. Mohammed D. Altamemi

Experiment-8
NPN & PNP Transistor Characteristics

8-1 Object:
To study the characteristics of NPN and PNP transistors, and to find the (IC - IB)
and (IC - VCE) graphic of transistor.

8-2 Theory:
As we know there are two types of bipolar transistors: PNP and NPN. A
transistor of these type is similar to two assembled diodes. The NPN transistor is the
complementary of the PNP one. This means that there are a current and tensions
opposed in the action of NPN transistor as compared to a PNP one. See the fig. (8-1).

## It is away to see how a transistor operates is through graphics, which indicate

the transistor voltage and current.

## 8-2-1-1 collector curves:

We can obtain information for the collector curves layout in the common
emitter configuration making a circuit as it is indicated in figure (8-2a). the idea is to
change the sources VBB and VDC to obtain different voltages and current in the
transistor. Supposing that IB is adjusted to 10A in figure (8-2a) immediately VDC. Is
varied and the result from IC and VCE are measured. Next, the provided data are
sketched in figure (8-2b), which is a representation of the transistor operation. When
VCE is zero, the collector diode is not inversely polarized, and therefore, the collector
current is very small. For VCE approximately between zero and 1V, the collector
current is increase in a high slop and then it is maintained almost constant. This is
connected with the idea of inverse polarization of the collector diode. The inverse
polarization of this diode takes approximately 0.7V; and once it has reached this level,
the collector gathers all the electrons which come to its depletion layer.
Middle Technical University Electronics Lab.
Electrical Engineering Technical College 2nd Stage
Electrical Power Technical Engineering Dept. Mohammed D. Altamemi

## Figure (8-2) a: NPN circuit to find IC - VCE characteristics, b: IC - VCE

characteristics at 10A, c: IC - VCE characteristics at 20A

## Figure (8-3) IC VCE characteristics of NPN transistor

Above the elbow, the exact value of VCE is not so important because the slop of
these curves is very small. The collector current does not increase considerably when
the VCE voltage varies. Having the transistor a CC of approximately 100, the collector
current is almost 100 times the base current. As that shown in figure (8-3)

If VCE is increased too much, the collector diode passes to breakdown and the
normal action of the transistor is lost. Then the transistor stops working as a current
source. The maximum variation of voltage, in a transistor, is the voltage interval of
the collector-emitter on which the transistor works as a current source. In figure (6-
2b), this voltage interval VCE is between 1V and the breakdown voltage. Mainting the
transistor in this active region and it will operate as controlled current source. If it is
maintained out of this interval, the normal action of the transistor is lost.

If measured of IC and VCE are made for IB=20A, the graphics layout can be
done as it is indicated in figure (8-2c). The curves are similar, except that, above the
elbow, the collector current is approximately equal to 2mA.
Middle Technical University Electronics Lab.
Electrical Engineering Technical College 2nd Stage
Electrical Power Technical Engineering Dept. Mohammed D. Altamemi

8-3 Procedures:
The circuit of NPN transistor is shown in figure (8-4). In this figure we can see
the values of resistors RC and RG.

## Part I: NPN & PNP (IB -IC) characteristics:

Figure (8-4) the circuit connection to find the IB -IC characteristics for
NPN transistor

1. Connect the circuit above with the VBB source such as shown in figure (8-4).
2. Connect ammeter to measure base current IB, and other ammeter to measure
collector current IC.
3. Set the VBB source in the minimum possible voltage turning the potentiometer,
which is next to the source.
4. Set the VCC source until the voltage attaching the collector resistor will be
5. Start to turn the VBB source potentiometer (2.3 to 47) A. And note down the
base ammeter reading on the first empty box of table (8-1) below, also note
down the cc gain for this current.
Table (8-1) the relation between IB and IC for NPN transistor
Base Current (A) Collector Current (mA) cc gain
2.3
4.8
8
12
16
20
29
38
47
Middle Technical University Electronics Lab.
Electrical Engineering Technical College 2nd Stage
Electrical Power Technical Engineering Dept. Mohammed D. Altamemi

The circuit of PNP transistor is shown in figure (8-5). In this figure we can see
the values of resistors RC and RG.

Figure (8-5) the circuit connection to find the IB -IC characteristics for PNP
transistor

6. Repeat the steps (1 to 4) above for the PNP transistor in figure (8-5).
7. Start to turn the VBB source potentiometer (-2.5 to -41) A. And note down the
base ammeter reading on the first empty box of table (8-2) below, also note
down the cc gain for this current.
Table (8-2) the relation between IB and IC for PNP transistor
Base Current (A) Collector Current (mA) cc gain
-2.5
-5.3
-8.8
-13
-17.2
-21.5
-26.5
-36
- 41

## Part II: NPN & PNP Output characteristics:

8. Connect the circuit shown in figure (8-6), notice that in this connection we
will connect the variable source VCC (with help of ammeter) directly with the
transistor collector.
9. Set the voltage sources VBB to have the minimum voltage.
Middle Technical University Electronics Lab.
Electrical Engineering Technical College 2nd Stage
Electrical Power Technical Engineering Dept. Mohammed D. Altamemi

Figure (8-6) the circuit connection to find the IC VCE characteristics for NPN
transistor
10. Begin adjusting the potentiometer so that the base current will be 8A and the
transistor collector voltage will be 1V. Now, note down the current measured
by the ammeter (IC) in table (8-3).
11. Then very the voltage, which gives VCC so that it will be 3V, 6V, and 8V. and
note down the collector current values in table (8-3).

## Table (8-3) the IC VCE characteristics for NPN transistor

At VCE = 1V At VCE = 3V At VCE = 6V At VCE = 8V
IB=8A IC= mA IC= mA IC= mA IC= mA
IB=20A IC= mA IC= mA IC= mA IC= mA
IB=29A IC= mA IC= mA IC= mA IC= mA
IB=42A IC= mA IC= mA IC= mA IC= mA
IB=51A IC= mA IC= mA IC= mA IC= mA

12. Connect the circuit shown in figure (8-7), Set the voltage sources VBB to have
the minimum voltage.
13. Begin adjusting the potentiometer so that the base current will be -8A and the
transistor collector voltage will be 1V. Now, note down the current measured
by the ammeter (IC) in table (8-4).
14. Then very the voltage, which gives VCC so that it will be -3V, -6V, and -8V.
and note down the collector current values in table (8-4).

## Table (8-4) the IC VCE characteristics for NPN transistor

At VCE = -1V At VCE = -3V At VCE = -6V At VCE = - 8V
IB= -8A IC= mA IC= mA IC= mA IC= mA
IB= -20A IC= mA IC= mA IC= mA IC= mA
IB= -29A IC= mA IC= mA IC= mA IC= mA
IB= -42A IC= mA IC= mA IC= mA IC= mA
IB= -51A IC= mA IC= mA IC= mA IC= mA
Middle Technical University Electronics Lab.
Electrical Engineering Technical College 2nd Stage
Electrical Power Technical Engineering Dept. Mohammed D. Altamemi

Figure (6-7) ) the circuit connection to find the IC VCE characteristics for PNP
transistor

8-4 Discussions:
1. Which graph is the correct when we draw the Ic currents versus IB.

## 2. Without measuring, what is the approximate value of the cc gain?

3. With the values of tables (8-1) and (8-2), draw (IB - IC) characteristics of the
NPN and PNP transistors respectively.
4. With the values of tables (8-3) and (8-4), draw the family curves of the
collector current upon a graph paper.