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Theory Author Case Argument

Neo-utilitarianism vs. Social Constructivist John Ruggie US identity Everything in neo-utilitarianism

Conservatism - post war actions of the US reflect (neorealism and neoliberalism) are
their identity as a nation based on assumptions

Norm life cycle Constructivist Finnemore, Sikkink Red Cross, Voting for women We argue that norms evolve in a three-
- The cases used started off as issues stage ''life
to some states and eventually cycle'' of emergence, ''norm cascades,''
prospered into norms and internalisation, and that each stage
is governed by different motives,
mechanisms, and behavioural logics.
Bandwagoning for Profit Realist but not neo-realist Schweller napoleonic wars, italian wars Revisionist states want to change
- the wars made states choose sides. the status quo. These states
bandwagon for their own profit

Bandwagoning and balancing are not

opposites; they are opposite systemic
conditions(balancing=maintain status
quo, bandwagoning=change in system)

Omnibalancing Realist Stephen David Ethiopia and Eritrea States will appease/align with
secondary threat / adversaries in
order to focus on internal threat
Soft balancing Realist Pape and Paul Turkey Hard balancing may not happen
but soft balancing will
Rationality vs. Psychology Constructivist-Psychology Mercer European Union Emotions can solve collective action
-we feeling, European identity yadda problems/problems of strategic
yadda, in-group cooperation, out- interaction through trust and identity
group discrimination

Diversionary Theory of War / Realist Levy China vs. Philippines and Japan diversionary theory is waging external
Diversionary Foreign Policy Externalization of internal conflict conflict to divert attention from
may be designed primarily to influence internal crises
the outcome of the struggle for
political power in a state, as illustrated
by the Soviet interventions in
Czechoslovakia (1968) and
Afghanistan (1980), the U.S.
intervention in the Dominican
Republic (1965), and numerous other
interventions by the strong in the
internal political affairs of their weaker