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17

Student: ___________________________________________________________________________

1. Under the ________, ________ is to design the program for managing air quality in Canada, and then
turn the monitoring, enforcement, and reporting operations of the program over to the provinces and
territories.
A. National Ambient Air Quality Objectives; the CCME
B. Air Quality Management System; the CCME
C. Clean Air Act; Environment Canada
D. Air Quality Management System; Environment Canada
2. Which of the following does the Clean Air Act give the federal government authority to do?
A. conduct a national program of air-pollution surveillance
B. establish air-quality objectives
C. establish regulations and guidelines for air quality
D. all of the choices are correct
3. The argument that the marginal abatement costs of existing plants are higher than those of new plants
used as a justification for more restrictive emission standards for the former than for the latter is known as
________.
A. cost-effectiveness
B. new-source bias
C. old-source bias
D. the non-degradation dilemma
4. Because the Canadian Ambient Air Quality standards are ________, they will not be efficient unless
________ in all regions.
A. uniform; MAC = MDC
B. uniform; TAC = TDC
C. individual standards; MAC = MDC
D. individual standards; TAC = TDC
5. The federal government regulates emissions from new motor vehicles under the ________ using
________.
A. Clean Air Act; corporate average fuel standards
B. Clean Air Act; a carbon tax
C. Motor Vehicle Safety Act; corporate average fuel standards
D. Motor Vehicle Safety Act; a carbon tax
6. Acid rain was a challenging transboundary issue for Canada and the United States to tackle because
________.
A. scientific information about damages took time to be established
B. the distribution of benefits and costs of reducing SO2 emissions were unequal across and within the
jurisdictions
C. many levels of government were involved
D. all of the choices are correct
7. The phrase "the solution to pollution is dilution" best describes the Ontario government's policy to
________.
A. lobby the U.S. government to reduce emissions of SO2
B. reduce transboundary smog
C. require Inco to lengthen the height of the stack on its smelter
D. cut SO2 emissions by 50 percent
8. The ________ is an agreement between Canada and the United States to reduce ________.
A. Ozone Annex; transboundary smog
B. Ozone Annex; acid rain
C. Clean Air Act; transboundary smog
D. Clean Air Act; acid rain
9. The Canadian Ambient Air Quality Standards are being gradually replaced by National Ambient Air
Quality Objectives.
True False
10. In order to address the non-degradation dilemma, amendments to the U.S. Clean Air Act enacted
stricter technology-based emission standards for non-attainment areas than for "prevention of serious
deterioration" (PSD) areas.
True False
11. Governments may inadvertently slow up the rate of adoption of new pollution-abatement technologies
through the use of new-source bias in the setting of emission standards.
True False
12. The widespread use of technology-based emission standards to control air pollution ensures that the
aggregate marginal abatement cost function is as low as is technically possible.
True False
13. Unlike an emission tax, a fuel tax would provide a direct incentive for drivers to worry about their level
of emissions thus creating an incentive to lower them.
True False
14. List the "Big Five" criteria air contaminants to which Canadians are exposed.

15. List the four policy issues that arise from Canada's regulation of air contaminants.

16. Explain how an incentive-based policy helped to phase out the use of leaded gasoline in Canada.
17. Discuss how the shortcomings of using mandatory emission testing programs like Drive Clean to reduce
emissions could be improved.

18. Describe the Canada-Wide Acid Rain Strategy for Post-2000.

19. Under the ________, ________ is to design the program for managing air quality in Canada, and then
turn the monitoring, enforcement, and reporting operations of the program over to the provinces and
territories.
A. National Ambient Air Quality Objectives; the CCME
B. Air Quality Management System; the CCME
C. Clean Air Act; Environment Canada
D. Air Quality Management System; Environment Canada
20. Which of the following does the Clean Air Act give the federal government authority to do?
A. conduct a national program of air-pollution surveillance
B. establish air-quality objectives
C. establish regulations and guidelines for air quality
D. all of the choices are correct
21. The argument that the marginal abatement costs of existing plants are higher than those of new plants
used as a justification for more restrictive emission standards for the former than for the latter is known as
________.
A. cost-effectiveness
B. new-source bias
C. old-source bias
D. the non-degradation dilemma
22. Because the Canadian Ambient Air Quality standards are ________, they will not be efficient unless
________ in all regions.
A. uniform; MAC = MDC
B. uniform; TAC = TDC
C. individual standards; MAC = MDC
D. individual standards; TAC = TDC
23. The federal government regulates emissions from new motor vehicles under the ________ using
________.
A. Clean Air Act; corporate average fuel standards
B. Clean Air Act; a carbon tax
C. Motor Vehicle Safety Act; corporate average fuel standards
D. Motor Vehicle Safety Act; a carbon tax
24. Acid rain was a challenging transboundary issue for Canada and the United States to tackle because
________.
A. scientific information about damages took time to be established
B. the distribution of benefits and costs of reducing SO2 emissions were unequal across and within the
jurisdictions
C. many levels of government were involved
D. all of the choices are correct
25. The phrase "the solution to pollution is dilution" best describes the Ontario government's policy to
________.
A. lobby the U.S. government to reduce emissions of SO2
B. reduce transboundary smog
C. require Inco to lengthen the height of the stack on its smelter
D. cut SO2 emissions by 50 percent
26. The ________ is an agreement between Canada and the United States to reduce ________.
A. Ozone Annex; transboundary smog
B. Ozone Annex; acid rain
C. Clean Air Act; transboundary smog
D. Clean Air Act; acid rain
27. The Canadian Ambient Air Quality Standards are being gradually replaced by National Ambient Air
Quality Objectives.
True False
28. In order to address the non-degradation dilemma, amendments to the U.S. Clean Air Act enacted
stricter technology-based emission standards for non-attainment areas than for "prevention of serious
deterioration" (PSD) areas.
True False
29. Governments may inadvertently slow up the rate of adoption of new pollution-abatement technologies
through the use of new-source bias in the setting of emission standards.
True False
30. The widespread use of technology-based emission standards to control air pollution ensures that the
aggregate marginal abatement cost function is as low as is technically possible.
True False
31. Unlike an emission tax, a fuel tax would provide a direct incentive for drivers to worry about their level
of emissions thus creating an incentive to lower them.
True False
32. List the "Big Five" criteria air contaminants to which Canadians are exposed.

33. List the four policy issues that arise from Canada's regulation of air contaminants.
34. Explain how an incentive-based policy helped to phase out the use of leaded gasoline in Canada.

35. Discuss how the shortcomings of using mandatory emission testing programs like Drive Clean to reduce
emissions could be improved.

36. Describe the Canada-Wide Acid Rain Strategy for Post-2000.


17 Key
1. Under the ________, ________ is to design the program for managing air quality in Canada, and then
turn the monitoring, enforcement, and reporting operations of the program over to the provinces and
territories.
A. National Ambient Air Quality Objectives; the CCME
B. Air Quality Management System; the CCME
C. Clean Air Act; Environment Canada
D. Air Quality Management System; Environment Canada
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Difficulty: Easy
Field - Chapter 17 #1
Learning Objective: 17-01 Provide a brief overview of Canadas air pollution control policies.
2. Which of the following does the Clean Air Act give the federal government authority to do?
A. conduct a national program of air-pollution surveillance
B. establish air-quality objectives
C. establish regulations and guidelines for air quality
D. all of the choices are correct
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Difficulty: Easy
Field - Chapter 17 #2
Learning Objective: 17-01 Provide a brief overview of Canadas air pollution control policies.
3. The argument that the marginal abatement costs of existing plants are higher than those of new plants
used as a justification for more restrictive emission standards for the former than for the latter is
known as ________.
A. cost-effectiveness
B. new-source bias
C. old-source bias
D. the non-degradation dilemma
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Difficulty: Easy
Field - Chapter 17 #3
Learning Objective: 17-02 Explain the policy issues that arise from Canadas regulation of air contaminants.
4. Because the Canadian Ambient Air Quality standards are ________, they will not be efficient unless
________ in all regions.
A. uniform; MAC = MDC
B. uniform; TAC = TDC
C. individual standards; MAC = MDC
D. individual standards; TAC = TDC
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Difficulty: Easy
Field - Chapter 17 #4
Learning Objective: 17-02 Explain the policy issues that arise from Canadas regulation of air contaminants.
5. The federal government regulates emissions from new motor vehicles under the ________ using
________.
A. Clean Air Act; corporate average fuel standards
B. Clean Air Act; a carbon tax
C. Motor Vehicle Safety Act; corporate average fuel standards
D. Motor Vehicle Safety Act; a carbon tax
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Difficulty: Easy
Field - Chapter 17 #5
Learning Objective: 17-03 Describe measures that could be taken to reduce emissions from motor vehicles.
6. Acid rain was a challenging transboundary issue for Canada and the United States to tackle because
________.
A. scientific information about damages took time to be established
B. the distribution of benefits and costs of reducing SO2 emissions were unequal across and within the
jurisdictions
C. many levels of government were involved
D. all of the choices are correct
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Difficulty: Easy
Field - Chapter 17 #6
Learning Objective: 17-04 Describe the basic components of the Canada-United States policies to reduce acid rain.
7. The phrase "the solution to pollution is dilution" best describes the Ontario government's policy to
________.
A. lobby the U.S. government to reduce emissions of SO2
B. reduce transboundary smog
C. require Inco to lengthen the height of the stack on its smelter
D. cut SO2 emissions by 50 percent
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Difficulty: Easy
Field - Chapter 17 #7
Learning Objective: 17-04 Describe the basic components of the Canada-United States policies to reduce acid rain.
8. The ________ is an agreement between Canada and the United States to reduce ________.
A. Ozone Annex; transboundary smog
B. Ozone Annex; acid rain
C. Clean Air Act; transboundary smog
D. Clean Air Act; acid rain
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Difficulty: Easy
Field - Chapter 17 #8
Learning Objective: 17-04 Describe the basic components of the Canada-United States policies to reduce acid rain.
9. The Canadian Ambient Air Quality Standards are being gradually replaced by National Ambient Air
Quality Objectives.
FALSE

Canada is moving away from non-binding guidelines (NAAQOs) to Canada wide standards
(CAAQSs) for air quality.

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation


Difficulty: Easy
Field - Chapter 17 #9
Learning Objective: 17-01 Provide a brief overview of Canadas air pollution control policies.
10. In order to address the non-degradation dilemma, amendments to the U.S. Clean Air Act enacted
stricter technology-based emission standards for non-attainment areas than for "prevention of serious
deterioration" (PSD) areas.
FALSE

PSD areas have stricter regulations to maintain the higher existing air quality in these areas in order to
avoid the non-degradation dilemma.

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation


Difficulty: Moderate
Field - Chapter 17 #10
Learning Objective: 17-02 Explain the policy issues that arise from Canadas regulation of air contaminants.
11. Governments may inadvertently slow up the rate of adoption of new pollution-abatement technologies
through the use of new-source bias in the setting of emission standards.
TRUE
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Difficulty: Easy
Field - Chapter 17 #11
Learning Objective: 17-02 Explain the policy issues that arise from Canadas regulation of air contaminants.
12. The widespread use of technology-based emission standards to control air pollution ensures that the
aggregate marginal abatement cost function is as low as is technically possible.
FALSE

Because TBS are not cost-effective, the aggregate marginal abatement cost function is much higher
than it need be, and society is settling for smaller improvements in ambient quality than might be
achieved if control programs were incentive-based and cost-effective.

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation


Difficulty: Easy
Field - Chapter 17 #12
Learning Objective: 17-02 Explain the policy issues that arise from Canadas regulation of air contaminants.
13. Unlike an emission tax, a fuel tax would provide a direct incentive for drivers to worry about their
level of emissions thus creating an incentive to lower them.
FALSE
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Difficulty: Easy
Field - Chapter 17 #13
Learning Objective: 17-03 Describe measures that could be taken to reduce emissions from motor vehicles.
14. List the "Big Five" criteria air contaminants to which Canadians are exposed.

The "Big Five" criteria air contaminants include: 1) nitrogen oxides; 2) sulphur oxides; 3) particulate
matter; 4) carbon monoxide and 5) volatile organic compounds.

Difficulty: Easy
Field - Chapter 17 #14
Learning Objective: 17-01 Provide a brief overview of Canadas air pollution control policies.
15. List the four policy issues that arise from Canada's regulation of air contaminants.

The policy issues include: 1) the non-degradation dilemma; 2) the differential treatment of new versus
existing sources; 3) the uniformity of standards under the Canadian Ambient Air Quality Standards
(formerly called National Ambient Air Quality Objectives or NAAQOs); and 4) the inefficiency of
using command-and-control approaches.

Difficulty: Easy
Field - Chapter 17 #15
Learning Objective: 17-02 Explain the policy issues that arise from Canadas regulation of air contaminants.
16. Explain how an incentive-based policy helped to phase out the use of leaded gasoline in Canada.

When unleaded gasoline first appeared on the market, it was more expensive than leaded giving
drivers whose vehicles were supposed to burn unleaded fuel an incentive to "misfuel" by buying
leaded fuel instead. In 1989, the federal government implemented an additional excise tax on leaded
gasoline of 1 cent per litre. Six provinces followed suit by increasing their own taxes on leaded gas.
The tax differential between leaded and unleaded gasoline ranged from 1.5 to 3 cents per litre. Not
only did misfuelling disappear, but most motorists switched to the now-cheaper unleaded gasoline and
by 1992, leaded gasoline had disappeared from the retail market.

Difficulty: Moderate
Field - Chapter 17 #16
Learning Objective: 17-03 Describe measures that could be taken to reduce emissions from motor vehicles.
17. Discuss how the shortcomings of using mandatory emission testing programs like Drive Clean to
reduce emissions could be improved.

While mandatory testing is an expensive way to ensure that people maintain their vehicles when only
a small proportion of the total number of vehicles tested actually exceed emission standards. Instead,
the program could be scaled down so only older vehicles or specific models (with maintenance
problems) are tested. Another potential problem is that annual testing does not ensure day to day
compliance with standards. To address this issue, remote sensing could also be used to detect high-
pollution vehicles. Other more cost-effective ways to address the problems of emissions from vehicles
include expanded buy-back programs for older vehicles and higher fuel taxes.

Difficulty: Moderate
Field - Chapter 17 #17
Learning Objective: 17-03 Describe measures that could be taken to reduce emissions from motor vehicles.
18. Describe the Canada-Wide Acid Rain Strategy for Post-2000.

The Canada-Wide Acid Rain Strategy for Post-2000 calls for: 1) new SO2 emissions targets in eastern
Canada; 2) pursuing further emissions reduction commitments from the United States; 3) ensuring the
adequacy of acid rain science and monitoring; and 4) minimizing growth in emissions in areas that
currently have low emissions levels of SO2.

Difficulty: Moderate
Field - Chapter 17 #18
Learning Objective: 17-04 Describe the basic components of the Canada-United States policies to reduce acid rain.
19. Under the ________, ________ is to design the program for managing air quality in Canada, and then
turn the monitoring, enforcement, and reporting operations of the program over to the provinces and
territories.
A. National Ambient Air Quality Objectives; the CCME
B. Air Quality Management System; the CCME
C. Clean Air Act; Environment Canada
D. Air Quality Management System; Environment Canada
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Difficulty: Easy
Field - Chapter 17 #1
Learning Objective: 17-01 Provide a brief overview of Canadas air pollution control policies.
20. Which of the following does the Clean Air Act give the federal government authority to do?
A. conduct a national program of air-pollution surveillance
B. establish air-quality objectives
C. establish regulations and guidelines for air quality
D. all of the choices are correct
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Difficulty: Easy
Field - Chapter 17 #2
Learning Objective: 17-01 Provide a brief overview of Canadas air pollution control policies.
21. The argument that the marginal abatement costs of existing plants are higher than those of new plants
used as a justification for more restrictive emission standards for the former than for the latter is
known as ________.
A. cost-effectiveness
B. new-source bias
C. old-source bias
D. the non-degradation dilemma
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Difficulty: Easy
Field - Chapter 17 #3
Learning Objective: 17-02 Explain the policy issues that arise from Canadas regulation of air contaminants.
22. Because the Canadian Ambient Air Quality standards are ________, they will not be efficient unless
________ in all regions.
A. uniform; MAC = MDC
B. uniform; TAC = TDC
C. individual standards; MAC = MDC
D. individual standards; TAC = TDC
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Difficulty: Easy
Field - Chapter 17 #4
Learning Objective: 17-02 Explain the policy issues that arise from Canadas regulation of air contaminants.
23. The federal government regulates emissions from new motor vehicles under the ________ using
________.
A. Clean Air Act; corporate average fuel standards
B. Clean Air Act; a carbon tax
C. Motor Vehicle Safety Act; corporate average fuel standards
D. Motor Vehicle Safety Act; a carbon tax
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Difficulty: Easy
Field - Chapter 17 #5
Learning Objective: 17-03 Describe measures that could be taken to reduce emissions from motor vehicles.
24. Acid rain was a challenging transboundary issue for Canada and the United States to tackle because
________.
A. scientific information about damages took time to be established
B. the distribution of benefits and costs of reducing SO2 emissions were unequal across and within the
jurisdictions
C. many levels of government were involved
D. all of the choices are correct
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Difficulty: Easy
Field - Chapter 17 #6
Learning Objective: 17-04 Describe the basic components of the Canada-United States policies to reduce acid rain.
25. The phrase "the solution to pollution is dilution" best describes the Ontario government's policy to
________.
A. lobby the U.S. government to reduce emissions of SO2
B. reduce transboundary smog
C. require Inco to lengthen the height of the stack on its smelter
D. cut SO2 emissions by 50 percent
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Difficulty: Easy
Field - Chapter 17 #7
Learning Objective: 17-04 Describe the basic components of the Canada-United States policies to reduce acid rain.
26. The ________ is an agreement between Canada and the United States to reduce ________.
A. Ozone Annex; transboundary smog
B. Ozone Annex; acid rain
C. Clean Air Act; transboundary smog
D. Clean Air Act; acid rain
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Difficulty: Easy
Field - Chapter 17 #8
Learning Objective: 17-04 Describe the basic components of the Canada-United States policies to reduce acid rain.
27. The Canadian Ambient Air Quality Standards are being gradually replaced by National Ambient Air
Quality Objectives.
FALSE

Canada is moving away from non-binding guidelines (NAAQOs) to Canada wide standards
(CAAQSs) for air quality.

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation


Difficulty: Easy
Field - Chapter 17 #9
Learning Objective: 17-01 Provide a brief overview of Canadas air pollution control policies.
28. In order to address the non-degradation dilemma, amendments to the U.S. Clean Air Act enacted
stricter technology-based emission standards for non-attainment areas than for "prevention of serious
deterioration" (PSD) areas.
FALSE

PSD areas have stricter regulations to maintain the higher existing air quality in these areas in order to
avoid the non-degradation dilemma.

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation


Difficulty: Moderate
Field - Chapter 17 #10
Learning Objective: 17-02 Explain the policy issues that arise from Canadas regulation of air contaminants.
29. Governments may inadvertently slow up the rate of adoption of new pollution-abatement technologies
through the use of new-source bias in the setting of emission standards.
TRUE
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Difficulty: Easy
Field - Chapter 17 #11
Learning Objective: 17-02 Explain the policy issues that arise from Canadas regulation of air contaminants.
30. The widespread use of technology-based emission standards to control air pollution ensures that the
aggregate marginal abatement cost function is as low as is technically possible.
FALSE

Because TBS are not cost-effective, the aggregate marginal abatement cost function is much higher
than it need be, and society is settling for smaller improvements in ambient quality than might be
achieved if control programs were incentive-based and cost-effective.

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation


Difficulty: Easy
Field - Chapter 17 #12
Learning Objective: 17-02 Explain the policy issues that arise from Canadas regulation of air contaminants.
31. Unlike an emission tax, a fuel tax would provide a direct incentive for drivers to worry about their
level of emissions thus creating an incentive to lower them.
FALSE
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Difficulty: Easy
Field - Chapter 17 #13
Learning Objective: 17-03 Describe measures that could be taken to reduce emissions from motor vehicles.
32. List the "Big Five" criteria air contaminants to which Canadians are exposed.

The "Big Five" criteria air contaminants include: 1) nitrogen oxides; 2) sulphur oxides; 3) particulate
matter; 4) carbon monoxide and 5) volatile organic compounds.

Difficulty: Easy
Field - Chapter 17 #14
Learning Objective: 17-01 Provide a brief overview of Canadas air pollution control policies.
33. List the four policy issues that arise from Canada's regulation of air contaminants.

The policy issues include: 1) the non-degradation dilemma; 2) the differential treatment of new versus
existing sources; 3) the uniformity of standards under the Canadian Ambient Air Quality Standards
(formerly called National Ambient Air Quality Objectives or NAAQOs); and 4) the inefficiency of
using command-and-control approaches.

Difficulty: Easy
Field - Chapter 17 #15
Learning Objective: 17-02 Explain the policy issues that arise from Canadas regulation of air contaminants.
34. Explain how an incentive-based policy helped to phase out the use of leaded gasoline in Canada.

When unleaded gasoline first appeared on the market, it was more expensive than leaded giving
drivers whose vehicles were supposed to burn unleaded fuel an incentive to "misfuel" by buying
leaded fuel instead. In 1989, the federal government implemented an additional excise tax on leaded
gasoline of 1 cent per litre. Six provinces followed suit by increasing their own taxes on leaded gas.
The tax differential between leaded and unleaded gasoline ranged from 1.5 to 3 cents per litre. Not
only did misfuelling disappear, but most motorists switched to the now-cheaper unleaded gasoline and
by 1992, leaded gasoline had disappeared from the retail market.

Difficulty: Moderate
Field - Chapter 17 #16
Learning Objective: 17-03 Describe measures that could be taken to reduce emissions from motor vehicles.
35. Discuss how the shortcomings of using mandatory emission testing programs like Drive Clean to
reduce emissions could be improved.

While mandatory testing is an expensive way to ensure that people maintain their vehicles when only
a small proportion of the total number of vehicles tested actually exceed emission standards. Instead,
the program could be scaled down so only older vehicles or specific models (with maintenance
problems) are tested. Another potential problem is that annual testing does not ensure day to day
compliance with standards. To address this issue, remote sensing could also be used to detect high-
pollution vehicles. Other more cost-effective ways to address the problems of emissions from vehicles
include expanded buy-back programs for older vehicles and higher fuel taxes.

Difficulty: Moderate
Field - Chapter 17 #17
Learning Objective: 17-03 Describe measures that could be taken to reduce emissions from motor vehicles.
36. Describe the Canada-Wide Acid Rain Strategy for Post-2000.

The Canada-Wide Acid Rain Strategy for Post-2000 calls for: 1) new SO2 emissions targets in eastern
Canada; 2) pursuing further emissions reduction commitments from the United States; 3) ensuring the
adequacy of acid rain science and monitoring; and 4) minimizing growth in emissions in areas that
currently have low emissions levels of SO2.

Difficulty: Moderate
Field - Chapter 17 #18
Learning Objective: 17-04 Describe the basic components of the Canada-United States policies to reduce acid rain.
17 Summary
Category # of Questions
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 26
Difficulty: Easy 28
Difficulty: Moderate 8
Field - Chapter 17 36
Learning Objective: 17-01 Provide a brief overview of Canadas air pollution control policies. 4
Learning Objective: 17-01 Provide a brief overview of Canadas air pollution control policies. 4
Learning Objective: 17-02 Explain the policy issues that arise from Canadas regulation of air contaminants. 6
Learning Objective: 17-02 Explain the policy issues that arise from Canadas regulation of air contaminants. 6
Learning Objective: 17-03 Describe measures that could be taken to reduce emissions from motor vehicles. 8
Learning Objective: 17-04 Describe the basic components of the Canada-United States policies to reduce acid rain. 8