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Tyler High

Professor: Malcolm Campbell

UWRT 1104 Sec. 004

November 8, 2017

Online Scamming: Unfair, Just, Not a Big Deal? Commented [1]: What do you mean? maybe you
should take out the word just

Reporting a crime should not be as traumatic as the experience of crime itself. Words Commented [2]: add "the" into the sentence and are
you quoting something?
of wisdom that should aspire all Cyber Security companies to reach out to victims and connect

with them on a more heartfelt level. Victims need to be able to feel more safe, when not just on

the internet, but using a computer in general. Only the future holds the answer for these citizens.

Background History

In the mid-1980's, PC related crimes showed up in the United States. PC related crimes

have now brought forth into Internet crimes, and have raised issues with respect to Internet

security. Basically, the Internet has turned into a play area for criminal mischief. Fundamentally,

21st-century technology and Internet openness are giving fields to culprits to utilize old-

fashioned procedures to exploit customers. Lately, Internet crime rates have soared upward. The

FTC detailed that over the past two years, Internet-related-shopping complaints have rose from

being 10% of all consumer complaints to 30% of purchaser objections. A year ago, 75% of

online traders were worried about online fraud and e-crime. This year, over 83% of online

shoppers are fearful that online extortion and e-crime could influence them. It is anticipated that

this year alone, online credit card fraud will increment by 24%. Commented [3]: is this a quote? maybe it should be in
quotations marks or state who quoted it at the end.
Victims of Online Fraud and E-Crime Losses
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Apparently, merchants are very aware of online scams because when they are, the

victimswell they sustain gigantic losses. Internet transactions made with a credit card are

considered as card-not-present transactions. Therefore, merchants have no corrections against

credit card fraud. Essentially, merchants are responsible for the monetary damages of online

fraud because only credit card numbers are needed for an online transaction and a cardholders

signature is not needed. Also, credit card companies require the merchant to pay $25 to $100 in

charge-back fees. Although the monetary costs to merchants are valuable, most merchants say

money is not their primary concern. Merchants are more fearful that when a customer finds out a

merchant has been a victim of online fraud, the merchant will lose customer satisfaction. The

loss of customer satisfaction will be in the form of less site congestion . The merchants who are Commented [4]: delete extra space

victims of online fraud or e-crime feel their sites will lose congestion because customers who

hear of the crime may become worried about the security of the hacked sites.

The Top Ten Dot Cons

There are ten dot cons that are popular on the Net today. Auction fraud is the most Commented [5]: lower case
Commented [6]: maybe you should define what a
common type of online scam. Because the popularity of online auction sites has really popped auction fraud is.
Commented [7]: delete period and insert a comma,
off, they are particularly susceptible to fraud. In 1997, there were 100 reported cases of online you should start a sentence with because

auction fraud. In 1999, there were 10,000. The average victim of online auction fraud loses about

$300 U.S. dollars. The most common type of auction fraud happens when a bidder pays for an

item, but never receives the item.

The Number 2 con is Internet service provider scams. In this scam, a company will sign

customers up for Internet access and then put false charges on the customer's monthly phone bill.

Usually, these scammers make it nearly impossible to cancel future monthly charges and receive

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The Number 3 con is Web site design scams. This type of scam is similar to the ISP

scam. It is based on fraudulent billing. Scammers will call businesses and offer free web pages.

When the business agrees to sign up, the scammers start to charge unreasonable fees.

The Number 4 con is Net porn credit card fraud. Basically, an adult site will ask for a

persons credit card number to supposedly verify that he or she is of age. After obtaining the

credit card number, the scammers start piling up bills on the credit card.

The Number 5 con is the multi-level marketing scam. This scam exploits the American

dream to get rich fast. The scam promises that people will make money through selling products

or services, as well as through products sold by people they recruit to join the program. Commented [8]: reword this

However, the people who purchase the products for resale never obtain them.

The Number 6 and Number 7 cons are very similar. Basically, Number 6 offers people

the opportunity to invest in a business while Number 7 advertises the opportunity to make money

at home. Usually, the make money at home programs need an initial fee to begin the working

process. The investors and people who want to make money from home send an initial

investment or required fee, but never obtain anything in return.

The Number 8 con is travel and vacation fraud. Companies offer luxurious trips at

exquisite prices, then fail to deliver any travel services or low quality travel accommodations.

Some companies add charges after a customer has paid for the vacation.

The Number 9 con is the telephone billing scam. A scammer will offer free access to a

porn site if a viewer or dialer is downloaded. Once the dialer or viewer is downloaded, it

disconnects a customers modem from the Internet and connects back through an international

long-distance number. This results in outrageous long-distance fees and payments.

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The Number 10 con is the Net health care scam. Sellers will convince consumers of

miracle cures for serious and terminal illnesses. The cures are supposedly proven to

eradicate the illnesses. However, the cures are usually ineffective. Sometimes, customers receive

nothing in return for their payment.

Past Efforts to Get a Handle on E-Crime

In 1986 when PC crimes were becoming popular, the United States Congress passed the

Computer Fraud and Abuse Act. The act outlaws certain cyberspace activities like espionage,

information violations, invasion of government computers, fraud, hacking/viruses, password

trafficking, and extortion. Penalties for these crimes can range as high as 10 years in prison for

first offenses, and as high as 20 years for repeat criminals. Also, fines are often charged for first

time violations.

However, the act has flaws. Apparently, it mandates that a cyber crook cannot be pursued

unless he or she has caused at least $5,000 worth of vandalism. Also, the act does not allow law

enforcement officials to have jurisdiction over district and state lines. In order to catch a cyber

crook a trace must be put into order. This trace usually is routed through a number of service

providers in many states. Therefore, the act inadvertently allows cyber crooks to escape law

enforcement officials.

Recently, the Senate has reacted to increased rates in e-crime and has sought out to pass

bills to amend the act. Senate Bill 2092 would allow law enforcement officials to have

nationwide jurisdiction to track down cyber crooks. Senate Bill 2448 seeks to broaden the

definition of damages so the $5,000 limit can be reached more easily. The new definition of

damages would include the cost of responding to an offense, the cost of a damage assessment,

lost revenue, and consequential damages.

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International efforts to control e-crime are underway as well. The Group of Eight leading Commented [9]: does this need to be upper case
Commented [10]: is this a name of a group why is
industrial nations agreed to work as a whole to combat international cybercrime. Their goal is to upper case?

create common law enforcement standards.

A treaty drafted by the Council of Europe has been considered that would allow law Commented [11]: maybe add a comma and a
enforcement to monitor Internet communications. Also, the treaty would outlaw the possession

of hacking software and require ISPs to preserve detailed logs of network activity. This

international collaboration is hopeful to create a climate where e-commerce can be conducted

with confidence and safety. However, the treaty has not yet been approved because it has raised

free speech and privacy concerns.

In early November, the British government announced it would spend $35.79 million on

a package to help local police combat hackers and pedophiles who use the Internet. Almost

every developed nation with Internet access has recently proved to be all in, to combat e- Commented [12]: delete comma

crime. Commented [13]: elaborate more, how do you know


It seems as if worldwide efforts are being focused on reducing online scams. However,

there is really no truly effective judicial standard for punishing cyber crooks. The Computer

Fraud and Abuse Act allows criminals to slip through its loopholes, and European nations have

just recently begun to draft legislation outlawing online criminal behavior. For the time being,

the most obvious way to avoid falling victim to a cyber crook is to become an educated

consumer and avoid Internet activities that are known for their mischief and tricks which

eventually lead to fraud.

Commented [14]: maybe share you thoughts a little

about it at the end, it seems as if you are just stating a
lot of facts but everything looks good.
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Works Cited

Alexander, Max and Jones, Meghan. 10 Online Scams You Need to Be Aware of-and How to

Avoid Them. Readers digest. 7 May 2017. Accessed 6 November 2017.

Brenoff, Ann. How A Billion-Dollar Internet Scam Is Breaking Hearts And Bank Accounts.
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HuffPost. 20 July 2017, 1:10PM. Updated 27 July 2017. Accessed 6,

November 2017.

Eichelberger, Erika. What I Learned Hanging Out With Nigerian Email Scammers. Mother

Jones. 20 March 2014, 10:00AM. Accessed 6, November 2017.

Evans, Martin. Cyber crime: One in 10 people now victim of fraud or online offences, figures

show. The Telegraph, News. 21 July 2016, 10:20AM. Accessed 6

November 2017.

Goldman, David. Low-tech Internet scams harvest billions of dollars. CNN News. 26 July 2011, 7:44AM. Accessed 6 November 2017.

James, Randy. A Brief History of Cybercrime. TIME. 1 June 2009.

Accessed 6 November 2017.

Kristof, Kathy. 6 red flags for online dating scams. CBS News. 20 October 214,

5:30AM. Accessed 6 November 2017.

Sullivan, Bob. Online job listing an ID theft scam. NBC News. 4 November

2002. Accessed 6 November 2017.

Sullivan, Bob. The Internets most successful scams. NBC News. 21 March

2010, 9:00AM. Accessed 6 November 2017.