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REPORT WRITING

DESIGNING QUESTIONNAIRES
OBJECTIVES

To maximise response rate


How to administer? How to establish rapport?
How to explain purpose of survey?
How to remind those who have not responded?

To obtain accurate relevant information for


the survey
Think carefully of the questions
How to ask?
How to order the questions?
What is the general layout of the
questionnaire?
TYPES OF QUESTIONS
Open questions +ve: allows exploration
- ve: difficult to analyse

Closed questions
+ve: easy & quick to fill in
minimise discrimination
easy to analyse
easy to report results
-ve: doesnt allow exploration
forced to choose
THE BASIC PROCESS

1. Defining research aims


2. Identifying respondents
3. Designing questionnaires
4. Administering questionnaires
5. Analysing data
6. Writing report
DEFINING RESEARCH AIMS
HOW?
- identify academic research aims
- review relevant literature
- do preliminary research among target
subjects
WHY?
- determine the direction of questionnaire
design
- help select questions relevant, concise,
efficient
IDENTIFYING RESPONDENTS
POPULATION
SAMPLE
SUBJECTS / RESPONDENTS

Members are representative of the identified


population
Targeted response rate: 30-35 responses
Common return rate: 20% of the sent
questionnaires
DESIGNING QUESTIONNAIRES
3 ELEMENTS:

a) Determine questions to be asked


b) Select question type & specify wording
c) Design questionnaire sequence & overall
layout
DETERMINE QUESTIONS ASKED
ISSUE QUESTION FOCUS

What reasons might Is the respondent looking for:


respondents give for enrolling career change
into an MBA programme? career advancement
higher remuneration

Could past experience affect How many years work


the reasons? experience does respondent
have?
Could educational What is the highest
background and attainment educational qualification
affect the reasons? obtained?

What subject area(s) is this


qualification in?
SELECT QUESTION TYPE
Open vs Closed Questions
Open : What do you think are the reasons for
football hooliganism? _____________
Closed: I think football hooliganism is caused by
(tick if appropriate)
Lack of discipline at home
Players behaviour on pitch
Family breakdown
Poor schooling
Violence on tv
Others (pls specify)
SELECT QUESTION TYPE

Single vs Multiple Response


Which of the following means do you use to travel to
college?
Bus
Car
Bike
What is your most usual means of travelling to college? (Tick
one box only)
Bus
Car
Bike
SELECT QUESTION TYPE

Ranked Responses

Place in order of importance to you the following features of


a camping holiday
(indicate by numbering from 1-4 in order where 1 is the most
important)
Open air
Mobility
Cost
People
Atmosphere
SELECT QUESTION TYPE
Rated Responses (e.g Likert Scales)

(Circle the number under the initials that applies. VI=Very


Important; I=Important; N=Neutral; U=Unimportant;
VU=Very Unimportant)
Indicate your view of the following aspects of a camping h
holiday?
VI I N U VU
Community life 1 2 3 4 5
Low cost 1 2 3 4 5
Outdoor life 1 2 3 4 5
Ability to move around 1 2 3 4 5
WORDING OF QUESTION
1. Use short simple sentences
2. Ask for one piece of information at a time
3. Avoid negatives / double negatives
4. Ask precise questions
5. Ensure respondents have necessary
knowledge
6. Determine level of details
7. Be tactful when asking sensitive issues
8. Minimise bias
9. Avoid leading questions
WORDING OF QUESTION
1. Use short simple sentences

2. Ask for one piece of information at a time

Please rate the lecturer in terms of his/her content and


presentation.

a) Please rate the lecturer in terms of his/her content


b) Please rate the lecturer in terms of his/her
presentation.
WORDING OF QUESTION
3. Avoid negatives / double negatives
Small group teaching should not be abolished
Small group teaching should continue

Are you against a ban on smoking?

Do you agree to a ban on smoking?


WORDING OF QUESTION
4. Ask precise questions

a) avoid technical terms

b) specify frame of reference

How often did you borrow books from PTAR


library?

How many books have you borrowed from the


PTAR library within the past six months?
WORDING OF QUESTION
5. Ensure respondents have necessary knowledge

Do you agree with the recommendations in the university on


traffic congestion in UiTM?

which recommendation?

assume everyone knows about the report/


recommendations
WORDING OF QUESTION
6. Determine level of details
- ask for exact level of details
-dont ask for unnecessary details

7. Be tactful when asking sensitive issues


- difficult to obtain truthful answers

Have you ever copied other students answers in a degree exam?


WORDING OF QUESTION
a) Casual approach
By the way, do you happen to have copied other students answers
in a degree exam?

b) Numbered card approach


Please tick one or more of the following items which
correspond to how you have answered degree exam
questions in the past
.
.
Copy from other students
WORDING OF QUESTION
c) Everybody approach
As we all know, most medical students have copied other students
answers in degree exams. Do you happen to be one of them?

d) Other people approach


John copies answers in a degree exam from Jean.

Do you feel John is wrong? If yes, what penalty should be


imposed for John? or
Have you done the above? Or
Would you consider doing the above?
WORDING OF QUESTION
6. Minimise bias
Within the past month, how many lectures have you missed due to your
evening job?

Within the past month, how many times did your evening
commitment clash with lectures?

7. Avoid leading questions


Do you agree with the majority of people that the health service is
failing?
SEQUENCE OF QUESTIONS

General to particular
Easy to difficult
Factual to abstract
Start with closed questions
Dont start with demographic questions