You are on page 1of 4

Samantha Arda


-outgrowths of oral epithelium
Parotid gland (penetrates upper Excretes saliva (ptyalin) moistens food
lip) Secretes digestive enzymes
Submaxillary gland
Sublingual gland
Molar gland
Lips Bounds oral cavity
Vestibule Separates lips and teeth
Hard palate Anterior of roof of oral cavity; houses nasopalatine ducts Supported by pre/maxillary and palatine bones
Soft palate Posterior part; houses nasopharynx Lacks bony support
Nasopalatine ducts Connect mouth and nasal cavities through incisive
Tongue Filiform papillae Anterior; hard and spine-like (pointed posteriorly) Amniote definitive tongue:
-fused 4 swellings (primary tongue + tuberculum
Fungiform papillae Remainder of the tongue impar + 2 lateral lingual swellings
-invaded by voluntary muscles (from
Vallate papillae 4-6 fungiform papillae in a V-shaped row hypobranchial muscles)
-innervated by 12th cranial nerve (hypoglossal)
*papillae: with microscopic taste buds
Push food to pharynx
Frenulum Fold for attachment of tongue to oral cavity floor
Flattened papillae Bears openings of ducts of submaxillary and sublingual
Isthmus of the fauces Opening of the free border of the palate; leads into
Tonsillar fossa Contains palatine tonsil
Palatine tonsil Filters air; proliferate from 2nd gill pouches
Glassopalatine arch Anterior fold/boundary of tonsillar fossa
Pharyngopalatine arch Posterior fold/boundary of tonsillar fossa
Nasopharynx Part of pharynx dorsal to soft palate
Posterior nares / choanae Internal ends of nasal passages Shoved backward to separate food and
respiratory passages
Eustachian tubes Connect pharynx with cavity of middle ear
Esophagus Passage of food (mouth stomach); DORSAL to the Lined by stratified epithelium (*crop/ingluvies:
larynx enlargement in birds)
Lies in the mediastinum
Epiglottis Guards entrance into respiratory tract (larynx) seal off the windpipe during eating
Body of the hyoid -from 2nd and 3rd gill arches Narrow bar of bone
Anterior horn or cornua -supports base of tongue Long, slender; chain of 4 bony pieces (last:
-for muscle origin and insertion articulates w/ tympanic bulla)
Posterior horn or cornua Short; united to larynx
Larynx Glottis Opening of the larynx
(voice box) Thyroid cartilage Supports ventral wall of larynx Shield-shaped; from 4th and 5th gill arch
- Cricoid cartilage Forms ring around larynx
constitutes Arytenoids Supports dorsal rim of glottis
the True vocal cords Produce sound Not cords, but folds of lateral wall of larynx
Adams (medial)
apple False vocal cords
Trachea / wind pipe Passage of air Walls stiffened by cartilaginous rings
Thyroid gland Has secretion for normal growth and sexual development Flat elongated body; epithelial invagination from
pharyngeal floor
Isthmus of the thyroid gland Connects caudal ends of 2 lobes of thyroid glnad
Pleural cavity / pleural sac Houses the lungs
Parietal pleura CHEST Lines the pleural cavity; forms mediastinal septum From inner and outer wall of the hypomere
Visceral pleura LUNGS Lines the lungs
Mediastinal septum Partition from heart to median ventral line Consist of 2 median walls of pleural sacs;
separates at the heart
Mediastinum Space between mediastinal septum
Diaphragm Separates pleural from peritoneal cavity Muscle: originribs, sternum, vertebrae;
Used in respiration (contracts flattens air rushes insertioncentral tendon
into lungs) Fused pleuroperitoneal fold + transverse septum
Central tendon of the Insertion of the diaphragm
Lungs Left lobe For respiration Anterior, middle (larger) and posterior lobes
Right lobe *composed of alveoli (air cells) (Larger than left) Ant, middle, post lobes (medial,
lateral lobules)
Radix / root of the lung Attachment of lungs Found: artery, vein, bronchus/air tube
Pulmonary ligament Attachment of lung to dorsal thoracic wall Fold of the pleura
Caval fold Supports postcaval vein Dorsal fold of mediastinal septum
Postcaval vein From liver to heart (bring deoxygenated blood)
Pericardial sac / parietal Tissue enclosing the heart
pericardium *along with mediastinum (next to visceral)
Pericardial cavity Houses the heart; space between pericardial sac and Portion of the coelom
Visceral pericardium Lines the heart (inseparably adherent) Continuous w/ pericardial sac where blood
*pinakamadikit vessels enter
Thymus Mass of gland tissue; part of immune system Younger specimen = larger thymus
Derived from endodermal lining of embryo gill
Dorsal aorta Largest artery, carries oxygenated blood Lies in the mediastinum
Abdominal / peritoneal cavity Houses digestive tract
Peritoneum Lines the peritoneal cavity
Parietal peritoneum Lines the body wall
Visceral peritoneum / serosa Lines the viscera
Dorsal mesentery Double-walled membrane formed when visceral & Intact in mammals
Ventral mesentery parietal walls meet Persists only in liver and urinary bladder
Stomach Cardia Area of junction of stomach and esophagus
Cardiac end of Region of stomach adjacent to cardia digestion of food.
stomach secretion of gastric juices as well as mucus which
Lesser curvature Concave anterior surface of stomach helps to coat its lining, preventing erosion by
Greater curvature Larger convex posterior surface gastric juices.
Fundus Saclike bulge to the left of the cardia; stores undigested secretion of gastric hormones.
food and also the gases released
Body of stomach Remainder of the stomach CHYME
Pylorus Junction of stomach and small intestine
Pyloric valve Constriction marking the junction/pylorus
Rugae Marked ridges for greater absorptive area
Gastrosplenic ligament Portion of the greater omentum between spleen (helps
fight certain kinds of bacteria; immune system) and
Mesogaster Peritoneum covering the stomach
Greater omentum Covers the liver; extension of the mesogaster Consist of 2 separate walls
Protects abdominal viscera Owes its origin to the rotation of the stomach
Lesser peritoneal sac Cavity within greater omentum
Lesser omentum / gastro- Portion of the mesogaster; passes from lesser curvature
hepato-duodenal ligament) to posterior surface of liver
Gastrohepatic ligament Portion of lesser omentum from lesser curvature to liver
Hepatoduodenal ligament Portion of lesser omentum from liver to small intestine
Contains the bile duct and hepatic portal vein
Liver (right, left, caudate lobes) Secretes bile: assist in digestion of fat Lobes subdivided: median and lateral (large: left
Store excess glycogen, produce urea, control of lateral, right median)
substances in the blood Diverticulum from small intestine
Gall bladder Stores bile
Cystic duct Passage of bile from gall bladder
Bile duct Passage of bile to the intestine Stalk of liver outgrowth
Common bile duct Union of cystic and hepatic ducts; bile to duodenum
Hepatic portal vein Right and dorsal to bile duct
Foramen epiploicum Entrance into cavity of omentum
Falciform ligament From between the 2 medial lobes of the liver to the
medial ventral line (taas ng diaphragm)
Coronary ligament Attaches liver to the central tendon of the diaphragm; Anterior connection of liver to septum
likod ng falciform ligament
Intestine Absorptive function in digestion
Mesoduodenum Part of dorsal mesentery supporting the duodenum Contains the pancreas
Duodenum Duodorenal Attaches duodenum to the right kidney
-1st portion ligament
Jejunum Portions beyond the duodenum
Small intestine villi Finger-like projections of mucous membrane; increase
surface area
Ileocolic valve Elevation at the junction of large and small intestine
Pancreas Secrete pancreatic juice into duodenum (impt for Dorsal to greater curvature of stomach
*Islets of Langerhans: produce insulin for carb
Pancreatic ducts Passage of pancreatic juices Joins common bile duct where it enters the
Ampulla of Vater Swollen chamber where bile and pancreatic ducts unite
Large Caecum Slight projection at the junction of small and large
intestine intestine
Ascending, Absorbs water
Mesocolon Mesentery of the colon
Rectum Terminal portion of descending colon Completely separated from urogenital ducts (no
Urinary bladder Pear-shaped reservoir for urine In amniote embryos: allantois (respiratory
Medial ligament Ventral mesentery; extends to medial ventral line
Lateral ligament Near exit of bladder from peritoneal cavity
Lymph glands Part of lymphatic system
Lymph nodules / Peyers patches Aggregations of lymph nodules (portions of lymphatic
system); monitoring intestinal bacteria


Right and left kidneys Bean shaped; removes waste METANEPHROI; Retroperitoneal
*collecting tubules, pelvis, ureter: outgrowth of
mesonephric duct
Hilus Concavity in the medial face (ourside) opening in an organ where blood vessels, nerves,
and other ducts enter and leave
Ureter (metanephric duct) Passage of urine In females: dorsal to horns of uterus; Males:
dorsal to ductus deferens
Renal sinus (*renal artery, renal Cavity within hilus; where renal artery & vein and
vein) beginning of ureter pass
Renal pelvis Expanded beginning of ureter
Renal papilla Where openings of collecting tubules are In the renal pelvis
Collecting tubules + renal papilla = renal pyramid
Cortex Peripheral; contains renal corpuscles and looped
portions of kidney tubules
Medulla Central; marked by collecting tubules
Urinary bladder Reservoir of urine Covered by peritoneum and median & lateral
Apex / vertex Free anterior end of bladder
Fundus Posterior portion
Medial and lateral ligaments
Urethra Neck of the bladder In embryos: urethra = urogenital sinus
Rectovesical pouch (male) Pouch between bladder and rectum
Vesico-uterine pouch (female) Pouch between bladder and uterus
Ovaries Egg production *corpora lutea (if preggers): represent follicles
from which the eggs were discharged
Graafian follicles Contains egg/ovum
Muellerian ducts / oviducts Ducts of the ovaries; tube that links the ovary to the
Uterine / Fallopian tube Uppermost portion of oviduct; eggs travel from the
ovaries to the uterus (nasa likod ng ovary)
Ostium with fimbriae (Slit) where fallopian tube opens *Fimbriae: border of ostium; overarching the
Horn of uterus Posterior part of oviduct
Broad Mesovarium Mesentery of the ovary
ligament of Mesosalpinx Mesentery of the Fallopian tube
the uterus Mesometrium Peritoneum supporting the horns of the uterus
Round ligament of the uterus Extends from horn to the body wall Perpendicular to broad ligament
Body of uterus Single tube where the horns unite *Womb = body + horns
*Bipartite type: vagina fused, lower parts of uteri
*Cervix: lower end of uterus
Vagina Posterior to uterus
Labia major and vulva
Clitoris (Homologous to the penis)
Urogenital canal/sinus Where urethra and vagina unite
Anal glands/sacs Secrete odoriferous substance of sexual nature To either side of rectum
Scrotum Houses the testes
Spermatic cord Contains ductus deferens/vas deferens, blood vessels
and nerves
External & Internal inguinal rings Ends of the inguinal canal
Urogenital canal/sinus Common tube to deferent duct and urethra
Prostate gland Secretion casues secretion of seminal vesicles to Enlargement in junction between deferent duct
coagulate produce plug; secrete prostate fluid and urethra
Bulbourethral glands / Cowpers Swellings in urogenital canal; add fluids to semen
gland which protect sperm
Penis Glans of the penis Pointed projection of the penis Bears spines for copulation
Urogenital opening Tip of the glans; exit of urine and sperm
Corpora cavernosa Cylindrical bodies in the penis; distended with blood
during copulation to project penis out of the prepuce
Cavernous urethra Portion of the urogenital canal in the penis; dorsal
Crura of the penis Where the 2 cavernous bodies diverge Attached to ischia
Prepuce Covers the penis
Testis Vaginal sac Cavity where the testis lies Part of peritoneal cavity
Tunica vaginalis Lines the vaginal sac (nakadikit mismo sa testis)
Mesorchium Between testis and wall of vaginal sac
Gubernaculum Ligament in scrotal wall where testis is attached Homologous to round ligament of uterus
Epididymal duct (head, Coiled ductus deferens on dorsal surface of testis; Derived from mesonephros
body tail) conducts sperm
Head: receives efferent ductules from testis
Tail: where gubernaculum is attached
Amnion Sac around embryo
Placenta Connection between embryo and maternal tissues CHORIOALLANTOIC PLACENTA; ZONARY type
Umbilical cord Conveys umbilical blood vessels to and from
embryonic part of placenta
*no direct connection bet embryo and mother