POHLIC PE¥ CH¥P²CGHAPH¥

PubIic vs NonpubIic Unlìkc IrìvaIc kcv crvp-
Iographv. Ihcrc ìs no nccd Io sharc kcvs. In-
sIcad. Ihcrc ìs a publìc ¨phonc numbcr' avaìl-
ablc Io anv poIcnIìal uscr and a prìvaIc kcv.
ENCRYPT TRANSMISSION LINE DECRYPT
M C C M
TRANSMISSION LINE
M C C M
ENCRYPT DECRYPT
KEY FILE
TRANSMISSION LINE
KEY FILE
DECRYPT ENCRYPT
M M C C
1
²HAPLCCH
Iublìc lcv CrvpIographv (IlC) ìs bascd on
Ihc ìdca oI a trapdoor IuncIìon ; : A ÷ Y .
ì.c..
« ; ìs onc-Io-onc.
« ; ìs casv Io compuIc.
« ; ìs publìc.
« ;
÷1
ìs dìIculI Io compuIc.
« ;
÷1
bccomcs casv Io compuIc ìI a Irapdoor
ìs known.
¯hus. alIhough ìn convcnIìonal crvpIographv
Ihc prìor cxchangc oI kcvs ìs ncccssarv. Ihìs ìs
noI so ìn publìc kcv crvpIographv.
2
¯hc ìdca oI IlC was IrsI proposcd bv LìIc
and Hcllman ìn 1976. Hcrc arc somc ìmporIanI
IlCs IhaI wc wìll sIudv.
« HS/
« Habìn
« lcrklc-Hcllman
« lcElìccc
« ElGamal
« EllìpIìc Curvc
3
HSA CH¥P²CS¥S²EN
n,j,o: LcInc n = jo whcrc j and o arc largc
prìmcs.
J,c: gcd(c. c(n)) = 1 and cJ = 1(modc(n))
A: A ìs Ihc numbcr rcprcscnIìng Ihc mcssagc
Io bc cncrvpIcd.
C: C ìs Ihc numbcr rcprcscnIìng Ihc ¨Cvphcr-
IcxI' (ì.c.. Ihc cncrvpIcd IcxI).
PubIic InIormation: n. c.
Private InIormation: J.
4
PHINES
/n ìnIcgcr n 1 ìs prìmc ìI 1 and n arc ìIs onlv
dìvìsors.
EucIid: ¯hcrc arc ìnInìIclv manv prìmcs.
II j
1
< j
2
< · · · < j
n
arc Ihc IrsI n prìmcs Ihcn
anv prìmc dìvìsor oI Ihc ìnIcgcr 1 ÷j
1
j
2
· · · j
n
musI bc largcr Ihan j
n
.
¯hc numbcr ¬(n) oI prìmcs < n ìs asvmpIoIì-
callv coual Io
n
lnn
. lorc gcncrallv.
LirichIet-Hadamard-de Ia \aIIee Poussin:
II gcd(o. b) = 1 Ihcn Ihc numbcr ¬
o.b
(n) oI
prìmcs j < n oI Ihc Iorm j = oI ÷b ìs asvmp-
IoIìcallv coual Io
1
c(o)
n
lnn
.
Hertrand's PostuIate Ior anv ìnIcgcr Ihcrc
ìs alwavs a prìmc bcIwccn n ÷ 1 and 2n. /
bcauIìIul clcmcnIarv prooI ìs duc Io Erdos.
Cpen probIem oI Hardy and Vright: Is
Ihcrc a prìmc bcIwccn n
2
and (n ÷1)
2
?
5
Interesting ProbIems with Primes
OIam's ProbIem: SIarI wìIh 1 and wrìIc con-
sccuIìvc ìnIcgcrs ìn a counIcrclockwìsc spìral!
100 99 9B 97 96 95 94 93 92 91
65 64 63 62 61 60 59 5B 57 90
66 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 56 B9
67 3B 17 16 15 14 13 30 55 BB
6B 39 1B 4 3 12 29 54 B7
69 40 19 6 1 2 11 2B 53 B6
70 41 20 7 B 9 10 27 52 B5
71 42 21 22 23 24 25 26 51 B4
72 43 44 45 46 47 4B 49 50 B3
73 74 75 76 77 7B 79 B0 B1 B2
Irìmcs sccm Io lìnc up ìn dìagonals. Can vou
provc or dìsprovc Ihìs? Lo cxpcrìmcnIs!
VhaI ìs raIìo oI prìmcs oI Ihc Iorm n
2
÷n÷17?
How abouI n
2
÷n ÷41? LìIculI problcms!
No sìnglc varìablc polvnomìal wìIh ìnIcgcr co-
cIcìcnIs can gcncraIc all Ihc prìmcs! (HclaIcd
Io HìlbcrI's IcnIh problcm.)
6
EOLEH'S ²C²IEN² FONC²ICN
c(n) ìs Ihc numbcr oI non-ncgaIìvc ìnIcgcrs
lcss Ihan n whìch arc rclaIìvclv prìmc Io n.
n c(n) n c(n) n c(n)
1 0 10 4 19 1B
2 1 11 10 20 B
3 2 12 4 21 12
4 2 13 12 22 10
5 4 14 6 23 22
6 2 15 B 24 B
7 6 16 B 25 20
B 4 17 16 26 12
9 4 1B 6 27 1B
Some Important \aIues oI c(n):
n c(n) = CondìIìons
j j ÷1 j prìmc
j
n
j
n
÷j
n÷1
j prìmc
: · | c(:) · c(|) gcd(:. |) = 1
j · o (j ÷1) · (o ÷1) j. o prìmc
7
NONHEH ²HECH¥
ExampIe 1: II ìs casv Io gcncraIc c such IhaI
gcd(c. c(n)) = 1. sìncc
[¦c < n : gcd(c. c(n)) = 1¦[ = c(c(n))
ExampIe 2: j = 101. o = 113. n = 11413.
¯hcn c(n) = (j ÷1)(o ÷1) = 11200 = 2
6
5
2
7.
So anv ìnIcgcr noI dìvìsìblc bv 2. 5. 7 can bc
uscd as a publìc kcv. Vc can choosc c = 3533.
Usìng Ihc Euclìdcan algorìIhm wc casìlv com-
puIc c
÷1
mod 11200 = 6597.
ExampIe 3: j = 5. o = 7. n = 35. Can choosc
c = 11. IcI Ihc mcssagc bc A = 12. How do
wc compuIc 12
11
mod 35?
Vc wìll rcvìcw scvcral conccpIs Irom Numbcr
¯hcorv.
B
HCV I² VCHPS
HSA Encryption: A ÷ 1(A) := A
c
= C mod
n
HSA Lecryption: C ÷ 1(C) := C
J
= A mod
n.
Vhen and Vhy it Vorks: Hccall IhaI c(n) =
(j ÷ 1)(o ÷ 1). Ior HS/ Io work A < n.
gcd(c. (j ÷ 1)(o ÷ 1)) = 1. j and o arc prìmc
and Jc = 1(mod(j ÷1)(o ÷1)).
HSA works because: C
J
= (A
c
)
J
= A
cJ
=
A
1÷I(j÷1)(o÷1)
(modn)
/ssumc IhaI gcd(A. o) = gcd(A. j) = 1. ¯hcn
bv IcrmaI's IìIIlc ¯hcorcm:
C
J
= A(A
j÷1
)
I(o÷1)
= A(1)
I(j÷1)
= A(modj)
C
J
= A(A
o÷1
)
I(j÷1)
= A(1)
I(o÷1)
= A(modo)
¯hcrcIorc C
J
= A(modn).
9
Hepresentations oI Numbers
Hepresentations ìn basc b.
n mod b = o
I
b
I
÷o
I÷1
b
I÷1
÷· · · ÷o
0
mod b
= o
0
]
n
b
| mod b = o
I
b
I÷1
÷o
I÷1
b
I÷2
÷· · · ÷o
1
= o
1
.
.
.
]
n
b
í
| mod b = o
í
Usìng Ihìs IacI wc can wrìIc an algorìIhm Ior
changìng Ihc rcprcscnIaIìon oI a numbcr ìnIo
anv basc.
3URFHGXUH bo:c b cajon:íon (n. b)
o := n
I := 0
ZKLOH o ,= 0
o
I
:= o mod b
o := ]
o
b
|
I := I ÷1
HQGZKLOH
UHWXUQ (o
I÷1
· · · o
1
o
0
)
b
10
CPEHA²ICNS CN NONHEHS
Addition oI Iwo I-bìI numbcrs can bc donc ìn
Iìmc O(I).
010110101
11010010
110000111
NuItipIication oI Iwo I-bìI numbcrs can bc
donc ìn Iìmc O(I
2
).
1011
110
0000
1011
1011
100010
EoIh arc wcll-known algorìIhms. CI coursc
Ihcrc arc ¨IasIcr' algorìIhms (scc lnuIh's: ¨/rI
oI CompuIcr Irogrammìng').
Exponentiation oI Iwo I-bìI numbcrs can bc
donc ìn Iìmc O(I
3
).
11
ExampIe: j = 5. o = 7. n = 35.
Can choosc c = 11. IcI Ihc mcssagc bc A =
12. ¯o compuIc 12
11
mod 35.
IìrsI wrìIc (11)
10
= (1011)
2
. ¯hcn calculaIc
A
11
= A
1·2
3
÷0·2
2
÷1·2
1
÷1·2
0
= (A
1·2
2
÷0·2
1
÷1·2
0
)
2
A
= ((A
1·2
1
÷0·2
0
)
2
A)
2
A
= ((A
2
)
2
A)
2
A
¯hc Iormal algorìIhm ìs as Iollows: CompuIc
Ihc bìnarv rcprcscnIaIìon oI c =
¸
I÷1
í=0
c
í
2
í
. whcrc
I = ]log
2
| and pcrIorm Ihc Iollowìng algo-
rìIhm:
3URFHGXUH cajoncn|ío|íon (a. c. n)
: := 1
IRU í = I ÷1 GRZQWR 0 GR
: := :
2
mod n
LI c
í
= 1 WKHQ : := : · a mod n
UHWXUQ a
c
mod n
12
²INING A²²ACPS CN HSA
¯hìs ìs sìmìlar Io a burglar obscrvìng how long
ìI Iakcs Ior somconc Io Iurn Ihc dìal oI a saIc.
II ìs applìcablc Io oIhcr crvpIosvsIcms as wcll.
/ crvpIanalvsI can compuIc a prìvaIc kcv bv
kccpìng Irack oI how long ìI Iakcs Ihc com-
puIcr Io dccìphcr mcssagcs. ¯hc cxponcnI ìs
compuIcd bìI-bv-bìI sIarIìng wìIh Ihc low-cnd
bìI.
Ior a gìvcn cìphcrIcxI ìI ìs possìblc Io Iìmc
how long ìI Iakcs Io pcrIorm modular cxpo-
ncnIìaIìon. Vc can IhcrcIorc dcIcrmìnc un-
known bìIs bv cxploìIìng Iìmìng dìIcrcnccs ìn
rcsponscs. (¯hìs aIIack was ìmplcmcnIcd bv
lochcr ìn 1996.)
¯hc problcm ìs clìmìnaIcd bv usìng anv oI Ihc
Iollowìng rcmcdìcs: (a) consIanI cxponcnIìa-
Iìon Iìmc. (b) random dclav. or (c) blìndìng bv
mulIìplvìng Ihc cìphcrIcxI wìIh random num-
bcr prìor Io cxponcnIìaIìon.
13
EOCLILEAN ALGCHI²HN
Iìndìng Ihc gcd(o. b) wìIhouI Ihc IacIorìzaIìon
oI o and b uscs Ihc Euclìdcan /lgorìIhm. VìIh-
ouI loss oI gcncralìIv assumc o b.
Lemma: IcI o = bo ÷· whcrc o. b. o and · < b
arc ìnIcgcrs. ¯hcn gcd(o. b) = gcd(b. ·).
ProoI: Gìvcn o = bo÷· whcrc o. b. . o and · < b
arc ìnIcgcrs. IcI J bc anv numbcr such IhaI
J[o and J[b. ¯hcn ìI Iollows IhaI J[(o ÷ bo).
Sìncc (o÷bo) = · Ihcn J[·. ¯hus anv dìvìsor oI
o and b also dìvìdcs ·. ¯hìs ìmplìcs gcd(o. b) =
gcd(b. ·). Sìncc · = o÷bo wc havc · = o mod b.
Ve iterate (·
0
= o. ·
1
= b. ·
2
= ·. o
1
= o):
·
0
= o
1
·
1
÷·
2
0 < ·
2
< ·
1
·
1
= o
2
·
2
÷·
3
0 < ·
3
< ·
2
· · ·
·
í
= o
í÷1
·
í÷1
÷·
í÷2
0 < ·
í÷2
< ·
í÷1
Vc dcInc gcd(a. 0) = a. NoIc IhaI Ihc sc-
oucncc ·
0
·
1
· · · ·
n
ìs dccrcasìng. Hcncc
Ihcrc cxìsIs a Icrm ·
n
such IhaI ·
n÷1
= 0 and
gcd(·
n
. 0) = ·
n
. ¯hcrcIorc gcd(o. b) = ·
n
.
14
IcI ;
n
bc Ihc n-Ih Iìbonaccì numbcr. Hccall:
;
0
= ;
1
= 1. ;
n
= ;
n÷1
÷ ;
n÷2
. Solvìng Ihìs
dìIcrcncc couaIìon (bv gucssìng IhaI ;
n
= 1
n
.
Ior somc 1) wc obIaìn ;
n
= ((1 ÷

5)/2)
n
.
Heauty and the GoIden Nean:
¯hc rccIanglc ìs ¨acsIhcIìcallv mosI plcasìng'
whcn cuIIìng a souarc Ihc rcmaìnìng porIìon
ìs congrucnI Io Ihc orìgìnal rccIanglc! (Con-
sIrucIìon oI Ihc IarIhcnon uscs Ihìs prìncìplc!)
o
b
o ÷b
¯hc bìg rccIanglc has dìmcnsìons o b.
¯hc small rccIanglc has dìmcnsìons b (o÷b).
Congrucncc mcans Ihcv arc sìmìlar. ì.c..
1 :=
o
b
=
b
o ÷b
. 1 =
1
1 ÷1
.
Solvìng Ior 1 wc obIaìn 1
2
= 1÷1 and hcncc
1 = (1 ÷

5)/2.
15
Vc show bv ìnducIìon ·
n֒
` ;
í
. InìIìal sIcp
í = 0 ìs casv. /nd
·
n÷(í÷1)
= o
n֒
·
n֒
÷·
n÷1÷í
` ·
n֒
÷·
n÷1÷í
` ;
í
÷;
í÷1
= ;
í÷1
II Iollows IhaI o = ·
0
` ;
n
and n = O(logo).
3URFHGXUH gcd(o. b; posìIìvc ìnIcgcrs)
a := o;
j := b;
ZKLOH j ,= 0 GR
· := a mod j
a := j
j := ·
HQG ZKLOH
UHWXUQ a
²heorem: II o and b arc posìIìvc ìnIcgcrs.
Ihcn Ihcrc cxìsIs ìnIcgcrs : and | such IhaI
gcd(o. b) = :o ÷b|. lorcovcr. :. | can bc com-
puIcd ìn Iìmc logarìIhmìc ìn Ihc ìnpuI.
16
ExampIe: 1 = gcd(50. 21)
50 mod 21 = B · B = 50 ÷(2)21
21 mod B = 5 · 5 = 21 ÷(2)B
B mod 5 = 3 · 3 = B ÷(1)5
5 mod 3 = 2 · 2 = 5 ÷(1)3
3 mod 2 = 1 · 1 = 3 ÷(1)2
Hcvcrsìng Ihc sIcps wc havc
B = 50 ÷(2)21
5 = 21 ÷(2)B
5 = 21 ÷(2) (50 ÷(2)21)
5 = (5)21 ÷(2)50
3 = B ÷(1)5
3 = (50 ÷(2)21) ÷(1) ((5)21 ÷(2)50)
3 = ÷(7)21 ÷(3)50
2 = 5 ÷(1)3
2 = ((5)21 ÷(2)50) ÷(1) (÷(7)21 ÷(3)50)
2 = (12)21 ÷(5)50
1 = 3 ÷(1)2
1 = (÷(7)21 ÷(3)50) ÷(1) ((12)21 ÷(5)50)
1 = ÷(19)21 ÷(B)50
¯hìs can bc uscd Io compuIc modular ìnvcrscs.
c.g. 50
÷1
mod 21 = B.
17
FAC²CHING A²²ACPS
¯hc cncrvpIcd mcssagc can bc dccrvpIcd ìI Ihc
dccrvpIìon kcv ìs known.
Cnc approach Io aIIackìng HS/ ìs Io Irv Io
IacIor n.
II IhaI wcrc possìblc Ihcn onc could compuIc
j. o such IhaI n = jo.
Sìncc c ìs publìc wc can solvc Ihc lìncar con-
grucncc
ca = 1 mod (j ÷1)(o ÷1)
Io compuIc Ihc ìnvcrsc oI c modulo n. whìch
ìs coual Io Ihc dccrvpIìon cxponcnI J.
Howcvcr. IacIorìng ìs noI an casv problcm Io
solvc!
1B
CHINESE HENAINLEH ²HECHEN
Iìnd a numbcr a IhaI lcavcs a rcmaìndcr oI 1
whcn dìvìdcd bv 3. 2 whcn dìvìdcd bv 5 and 3
whcn dìvìdcd bv 7. lcans: Ind a such IhaI a =
1 mod 3. a = 2 mod 5 and a = 3 mod 7. ¯hc
soluIìon Io Ihìs problcm ìs: a = 52 mod 105.
How ìs Ihìs soluIìon Iound?
²heorem: IcI n
1
. n
2
. . . . . n
n
bc paìrwìsc rcl-
aIìvclv prìmc posìIìvc ìnIcgcrs. ¯hc svsIcm:
a = o
1
mod n
1
a = o
2
mod n
2
.
.
.
a = o
n
mod n
n
has a unìouc soluIìon modulo n = n
1
n
2
. . . n
n
.
ProoI: IcI n = n
1
n
2
· · · n
n
and A
I
=
n
n
I
.
Ior cach valuc A
I
Ind ìIs ìnvcrsc j
I
modulo n
I
(ì.c.. A
I
j
I
= 1 mod n
I
). ¯hcn a = o
1
A
1
j
1
÷
o
2
A
2
j
2
÷ · · · ÷ o
n
A
n
j
n
. ¯hìs complcIcs Ihc
prooI.
19
Ior n = jo. Ihc mappìng Z
+
n
÷ Z
+
j
Z
+
o
: a mod
n ÷ (a mod j. a mod o) ìs onc-Io-onc. Sìncc.
[Z
+
n
[ = c(n) = c(j) · c(o) = [Z
+
j
[ · [Z
+
o
[ ìI ìs also
onIo.
¯hc Chìncsc rcmaìndcr Ihcorcm provìdcs Ior
solvìng congrucnccs wìIh composìIc modulus
bv ìnvcrIìng Ihc abovc mappìng. Hcrc ìs how
ìI works.
Supposc wc havc a paìr (o
1
. o
2
) ÷ Z
+
j
Z
+
o
. Con-
sìdcr b
1
= o
÷1
mod j and b
2
= j
÷1
mod o. IuI
o = o
1
b
1
o ÷o
2
b
2
j and obscrvc IhaI
o = o
1
b
1
o ÷o
2
b
2
j = o
1
mod j
o = o
1
b
1
o ÷o
2
b
2
j = o
2
mod o
ExampIe: Solvc a = 5 mod 7. a = 6 mod 11.
Vc compuIc 7
÷1
mod 11 = B and 11
÷1
mod
7 = 2. So o = 5 · 2 · 11 ÷ 6 · B · 7 = 446 =
61 mod 77 ìs Ihc soluIìon oI Ihc Iwo congru-
cnccs sìmulIancouslv.
20
Z
n
: Ihc scI oI ìnIcgcrs 0 < o < n ìs an addìIìvc
group modulo n.
Z
+
n
: Ihc scI oI ìnIcgcrs 0 < o < n whìch arc
prìmc Io n ìs a mulIìplìcaIìvc group modulo n.
ExampIe: Group Iablcs oI (Z
6
. ÷) and (Z
+
6
. ·):
(Z
6
. ÷) 0 1 2 3 4 5
0 0 1 2 3 4 5
1 1 2 3 4 5 0
2 2 3 4 5 0 1
3 3 4 5 0 1 2
4 4 5 0 1 2 3
5 5 0 1 2 3 4
(Z
+
6
. ·) 1 5
1 1 5
5 5 1
Fermat's LittIe ²heorem: II j ìs prìmc and
j ,[o Ihcn o
j÷1
= 1 mod j.
o o
6
mod 7
2 2
6
= 64 = 1 mod 7
3 3
6
= 729 = 1 mod 7
4 4
6
= 4. 096 = 1 mod 7
5 5
6
= 15. 6251 = 1 mod 7
21
ProoI: IcI o bc such IhaI j ,[o. IìsI all Ihc
clcmcnIs oI Z
+
j
.
a
1
a
2
· · · a
j÷1
o : o · a
1
o · a
2
· · · o · a
j÷1
a
1
a
2
· · · a
j÷1
= (oa
1
)(oa
2
) · · · (oa
j÷1
)
= o
j÷1
(a
1
a
2
· · · a
j÷1
)
¯hc group Z
+
j
ìs cvclìc. ìn Ihc scnsc IhaI Ihcrc
ìs a gcncraIor j such IhaI Z
+
j
= ¦j
0
. j
1
. . . . . j
j÷1
¦.
¯hìs IacI was IrsI provcd bv Gauss who also
provcd somcIhìng morc gcncral:
Ior all n. Z
+
n
ìs cvclìc ìI and onlv ìI n ìs oI Ihc
Iorm 1. 2. 4. j
I
. 2j
I
. whcrc j ìs an odd prìmc
and I ìs a posìIìvc ìnIcgcr.
¯hc ordcr oI an clcmcnI o ÷ Z
+
j
ìs Ihc smallcsI
í ,= 1 such IhaI o
í
= 1.
22
Lagrange's ²heorem: II 1 ìs a subgroup oI
Ihc group G Ihcn [1[ dìvìdcs [G[.
ProoI: LcInc Ihc couìvalcncc rclaIìon on cl-
cmcnIs oI Ihc group G:
o ~ b · ob
÷1
÷ 1
¯hc couìvalcncc classcs arc casìlv shown Io bc
Ihc coscIs 1o = ¦Io : I ÷ 1¦. ¯hcv all havc
Ihc samc sìzc. namclv [1[. II Iollows IhaI [1[
dìvìdcs [G[.
Ior a gcncraIor j oI Z
+
j
. Ihc clcmcnI j
I
has
ordcr
j÷1
gcd(j÷1.I)
. lorcovcr
j
I
gcncraIcs Z
+
j
· gcd(j ÷1. I) = 1.
¯hc group Z
+
j
has c(j ÷1) gcncraIors.
EuIer's ²heorem: II o ìs an ìnIcgcr whìch ìs
prìmc Io n. Ihcn o
c(n)
= 1 mod n.
23
²otient Function Attack on HSA
Is Ihcrc an ¨cIcìcnI' algorìIhm whìch gìvcn n
(a producI oI Iwo prìmcs) as ìnpuI wìll com-
puIc c(n)?
/ssumc such an algorìIhm n ÷ c(n) cxìsIs!
Vc can provc n ÷ 1 ÷ c(n) = j ÷ o. ¯hìs ìs
bccausc
c(n) = (j ÷1)(o ÷1)
= jo ÷j ÷o ÷1
= n ÷j ÷o ÷1
II Iollows IhaI c(n) = (j ÷ 1)(n/j ÷ 1) = n ÷
n/j ÷j ÷1 and conscoucnIlv
j
2
÷(n ÷1 ÷c(n))j ÷n = 0
Ev solvìng Ihìs ouadraIìc wc obIaìn
j =
n ÷1 ÷c(n) ¬

(n ÷1 ÷c(n))
2
÷4n
2
¯hus. assumìng an ¨cIcìcnI' algorìIhm n ÷
c(n) cxìsIs. Ihcrc ìs an ¨cIcìcnI' algorìIhm
Ior IacIorìng n.
24
CHCSEN CIPHEH²Eײ A²²ACP
HS/ ìs vulncrablc Io choscn cìphcrIcxI aIIacks
as Ihc Iollowìng argumcnI ìndìcaIcs.
¯hc Iollowìng aIIack ìndìcaIcs IhaI HS/ ìs noI
good Ior sìgnìng!
/ssumc a crvpIanalvsI lìsIcnìng Io communìca-
Iìon rcads a cìphcrIcxI C and wanIs Io rccovcr
A such IhaI A = C
J
mod n.
CrvpIanalvsI chooscs a random · < n and uscs
Ihc publìc kcv Io compuIc
a = ·
c
mod n. j = aC mod n. | = ·
÷1
mod n
and gcIs j sìgncd wìIh Ihc prìvaIc kcv J. ì.c.
& = j
J
mod n. CrvpIanalvsI can now compuIc
|& = ·
÷1
(aC)
J
= ·
÷1
a
J
C
J
= ·
÷1
·A = A mod n
/ rcmcdv wc wìll dìscuss laIcr ìs Io usc hashìng.
25
HSA-HI² A²²ACPS
/ssumc n = jo and n ìs odd.
HS/ bìI aIIacks ¨IargcI' spccìIc bìIs oI HS/
ouIpuI. c.g. Ihc lcasI sìgnìIcanI bìI.
lnowlcdgc oI Ihc lcasI sìgnìIcanI bìI oI an
HS/ cncrvpIcd mcssagc ìs couìvalcnI Io ¨lo-
caIìng' Ihc mcssagc ìn a ccrIaìn subìnIcrval oI
|0. n|. lorc prccìsclv.
Vc dcInc: 1o·í|j(A
c
mod n) = low ordcr bìI
oI A. ì.c. 0 ìI A ìs cvcn. and 1. oIhcrwìsc.
1ol;(A
c
mod n) = 0 ìI 0 < A < n/2. and 1.
ìI n/2 < A < n. ì.c.. 1ol;(A
c
mod n) = 0 ·
2A < n. Hcncc.
1ol;(A
c
mod n) = 1o·í|j((2A)
c
mod n)
1o·í|j(A
c
mod n) = 1ol;((A/2)
c
mod n)
26
¯hcn wc havc:
1ol;(A
c
mod n) = 0 · A ÷ |0.
n
2
)
1ol;((2A)
c
mod n) = 0 · A ÷ |0.
n
4
) ' |
n
2
.
3n
4
)
1ol;((4A)
c
mod n) = 0 · A ÷ |0.
n
B
) ' |
n
4
.
3n
B
)
' |
n
2
.
5n
B
) ' |
3n
4
.
7n
B
)
Ev usìng bìnarv scarch wc can locaIc prccìsclv
Ihc valuc oI A.
¯hìs mcans ìI Ihcrc ìs an cIcìcnI algorìIhm
Ior compuIìng Ihc low ordcr HS/-bìI (ì.c.. Ihc
1o·í|j IuncIìon) Ihcn Ihcrc ìs an cIcìcnI al-
gorìIhm Ior compuIìng Ihc orìgìnal mcssagc.
¯hus Ihc low ordcr HS/ bìI ìs as sccurc as
HS/.
27
COALHA²IC HESILOES
o
j÷1
÷1 = (o
j÷1
2
÷1)(o
j÷1
2
÷1) = 0 mod j. Vc
dcInc Ihc Legendre symboI bv

o
j
¸
=

÷1 ìI o
j÷1
2
= ÷1 mod j & o ,= 0 mod j
÷1 ìI o
j÷1
2
= ÷1 mod j & o ,= 0 mod j
0 ìI o = 0 mod j
¯hìs ìmplìcs IhaI
o
j÷1
2
=

o
j
¸
mod j
lorc gcncrallv. gìvcn Ihc prìmc IacIorìzaIìon
n = j
·
1
1
j
·
2
2
· · · j
·
I
I
wc dcInc Ihc Jacobi SymboI

o
n

=

o
j
1
¸
·
1

o
j
2
¸
·
2
· · ·

o
j
I
¸
·
I
ExampIe 1: II vou know Ihc IacIorìzaIìon oI
9975 = 3 · 5
2
· 7 · 19 Ihcn wc compuIc:

627B
9975

=

627B
3

·

627B
5

2
·

627B
7

·

627B
19

=

2
3

·

3
5

2
·

6
7

·

B
19

= (÷1) · (÷1)
2
· (÷1) · (÷1) = ÷1
2B
CompuIìng Ihc Jacobì svmbol docs noI rcouìrc
Ihc IacIorìzaIìon oI n. / ¨Euclìdcan sIvlc' al-
gorìIhm wìll bc dìscusscd ìn Ihc scoucl. /s-
sumc n. n arc odd. ¯hcn wc havc Ihc Iollowìng
propcrIìcs.
1. o = b mod n =

o
n

=

b
n

2o.

2
n

= 1 ìI n = ¬1 mod B
2b.

2
n

= ÷1 ìI n = ¬3 mod B
2c.

2
I
|
n

=

2
n

I
·

|
n

Ior | odd
3.

ob
n

=

o
n

·

b
n

4o.

n
n

= ÷

n
n

ìI o = b = 3 mod 4
4b.

n
n

=

n
n

oIhcrwìsc
ExampIe 2: II vou do noI know Ihc IacIorìza-
Iìon oI 3B3 Ihcn wc usc Ihc Iollowìng algorìIhm
Io compuIc:

219
3B3

= ÷

3B3
219

= ÷

164
219

= ÷

2
219

2
·

41
219

= ÷

41
219

= ÷

219
41

= ÷

14
41

= ÷

2
41

·

7
41

= ÷

7
41

= ÷

41
7

= ÷

÷1
7

= 1
29
LeDnition: o ìs a ouadraIìc rcsìduc modulo j
(dcnoIcd o ÷ Q1
j
) ìI and onlv ìI ¬b ÷ Z
+
j
(o =
b
2
mod j).
Important: Ior o ÷ Z
+
j
. o ÷ Q1
j
·

o
j

= 1.
=: /ssumc o = b
2
mod j. Ior b ÷ Z
+
j
. ¯hcn
o
j÷1
2
= (b
2
)
j÷1
2
= b
j÷1
= 1 mod j.
-: ¯akc a gcncraIor j oI Z
+
j
. II Iollows IhaI
o = j
í
. Ior somc í. /ssumc

o
j

= 1. ¯hcrc-
Iorc o
j÷1
2
= 1 mod j and hcncc o
j÷1
2
= j
í(j÷1)
2
=
1 mod j. II Iollows (j ÷ 1)[
í(j÷1)
2
. Hcncc í ìs
cvcn and o ÷ Q1
j
.
¯hìs has sìgnìIcanI applìcaIìons Ior prìmalìIv
IcsIìng.
30
²est Ior Pseudo-Primes
Input: n
Iìck random o ÷ |1. n|
CompuIc j := gcd(o. n)
II j ,= 1 Ihcn n ìs composìIc
II j = 1 Ihcn compuIc c := o
n÷1
mod n
II c ,= 1 Ihcn n Iaìls Ihc IcsI
II c = 1 Ihcn n passcs Ihc IcsI
VhaI ìs Ihc probabìlìIv IhaI a composìIc num-
bcr passcs Ihc IcsI? II sccms IhaI bv rcpcaIìng
Ihc IcsI vou ìncrcasc vour chanccs Ior a corrccI
answcr!
UnIorIunaIclv Ihcrc arc composìIc numbcrs IhaI
pass Ihc IcsI Ior all ¨bascs' Io whìch Ihcv arc
rclaIìvclv prìmc (Ihcsc arc known as Carmìchacl
numbcrs. and Ihcrc arc ìnInìIclv manv oI Ihcm!)
31
PHCHAHILIS²IC PHINALI²¥ ²ES²S
No polvnomìal Iìmc algorìIhm ìs known Ior prì-
malìIv IcsIìng. ¯hc problcm ìs known Io bc ìn
{1 ¨ co ÷{1.
In probabìlìsIìc prìmalìIv IcsIs wc consIrucI a
scoucncc ¦1
n
´ Z
+
n
: n ` 1¦ oI scIs such IhaI
(a) 1
n
= 0. ìI n ìs prìmc. (b) ìI ìs casv Io chcck
mcmbcrshìp ìn 1
n
. and (c) Ir|a ÷ Z
+
n
: a ,÷
1
n
| < c. Ior somc consIanI c < 1 ìndcpcndcnI
oI n.
Input: n
1. Choosc random 1 < o < n
2o. ìI o ,÷ 1
n
Cutput IHIlE
2b. ìI o ÷ 1
n
Cutput CClICSI¯E
²heorem: II algorìIhm ouIpuIs CClICSI¯E
Ihcn n ìs ìndccd composìIc. lorcovcr. ìI n ìs
composìIc Ihcn Ir|CuIpuI ìs IHIlE| < c.
Sìncc c < 1. wc can rcducc Ihc crror bv ìI-
craIìng Ihc IcsI a suIcìcnIlv largc numbcr oI
Iìmcs.
32
SCLC\A¥-S²HASSEN ²ES²
Input: n (odd)
1. Choosc random 1 < o < n
2o. ìI

o
n

= o
n÷1
2
mod n Cutput IHIlE
2b. ìI

o
n

,= o
n÷1
2
mod n Cutput CClICSI¯E
²heorem: (Solovav-SIrasscn) II algorìIhm ouI-
puIs CClICSI¯E Ihcn n ìs ìndccd composìIc.
IcI 1
n
= ¦o ÷ Z
+
n
:

o
n

,= o
n÷1
2
mod n¦. Vc
provc Ir|Z
+
n
\1
n
| <
1
2
Indccd. IrsI oI all obscrvc
Ihc abovc scI ìs a subgroup oI Z
+
n
. Ev Ian-
grangc's ¯hcorcm ìn group Ihcorv Ihc claìm
wìll Iollow ìI wc provc IhaI ìI ìs a propcr sub-
group. ì.c.. ¦o ÷ Z
+
n
:

o
n

= o
n÷1
2
mod n¦ , = Z
+
n
.
V.l.o.g. assumc n = jo. ¯akc & ,÷ Q1
j
. Ev
Chìncsc rcmaìndcr Ihcorcm Ihcrc ìs an o ÷ Z
+
n
such IhaI o = & mod j. o = 1 mod o. Hcncc.

o
n

=

o
j

·

o
o

= (÷1) · (÷1) = ÷1. Sìncc.
o
n÷1
2
= 1
n÷1
2
= 1 mod o. ìI Iollows IhaI

o
n

,=
o
n÷1
2
mod n.
33
NILLEH-HAHIN ²ES²
Input: n (odd)
1. Choosc random 1 < o < n
VrìIc n ÷1 = 2
I
n. wìIh n odd
2o. II o
n
= 1 mod n or ¬l < I(o
2
l
n
= ÷1 mod n)
then Cutput IHIlE
2b. eIse Cutput CClICSI¯E
²heorem: (lìllcr-Habìn) II algorìIhm ouIpuIs
CClICSI¯E Ihcn n ìs ìndccd composìIc.
/ssumc n ìs prìmc. ¯hcn o
n÷1
= o
2
I
n
= 1 mod
n. ì.c.. o
2
I
n
÷ 1 = (o
2
I÷1
n
÷ 1)(o
2
I÷1
n
÷ 1) =
0 mod n. Hcncc. cìIhcr o
2
I÷1
n
= 1 mod n or
o
2
I÷1
n
= ÷1 mod n. ConIìnuìng wc obIaìn
IhaI o
n
= 1 mod n or ¬l < I(o
2
l
n
= ÷1 mod
n). ì.c.. Ihc IcsI wìll ouIpuI n ìs IHIlE.
Vc also sIaIc wìIhouI prooI.
²heorem: II n ìs composìIc Ihcn
Ir|CuIpuI ìs IHIlE| < 1/4.
34
GENEHA²ING HSA PHINES (Heuristic)
1. Choosc a I-bìI odd ìnIcgcr j aI random.
2. ¯csI dìvìdc j bv all small prìmcs. ì.c.. lcss
Ihan or coual somc small prìmc.
3. II j passcs Ihc abovc IcsI Ihcn applv Ihc
lìllcr-Habìn IcsI Ior · dìIcrcnI ¨bascs'.
4. II j passcs all Ihcsc IcsIs Ihcn ìI ìs prìmc
wìIh hìgh probabìlìIv ` 1 ÷4
÷·
.
5. II j ìs noI prìmc Ihcn changc j Io j÷2 and
go Io sIcp 1.
35
CCNGHOENCES
Congrucnccs arc lìkc couaIìons buI wìIh Ihc
coualìIv sìgn = rcplaccd bv Ihc congrucncc
sìgn =. / lìncar congrucncc has Ihc Iorm
o · a = b mod n (1)
whcrc a ìs Ihc unknown varìablc.
Congrucncc (1) has a soluIìon ìI gcd(o. n)[b.
II a
0
ìs onc soluIìon Ihcn anv oIhcr soluIìon ìs
a = a
0
÷
ín
gcd(o.n)
. whcrc 0 < í < gcd(o. n).
Hìghcr dcgrcc congrucnccs can also bc solvcd.
c.g..
a
n
= 1 mod n (2)
Sìmìlarlv wc can dcIcrmìnc cxacIlv whcn
a
n
= ÷1 mod n (3)
has a soluIìon. E.g.. Io solvc (2) and (3) Iakc
¨dìscrcIc logarìIhms' oI boIh sìdcs and rcducc
Io lìncar congrucnccs.
36
LECH¥P²ICN E×PCNEN² A²²ACP
/ssumc wc havc an cIcìcnI algorìIhm ¹. whìch
gìvcn Ihc cncrvpIìon cxponcnI c oI HS/ as ìn-
puI ìI ouIpuIs Ihc dccrvpIìon cxponcnI oI HS/.
Vc usc Ihìs Io gìvc an cIcìcnI Ias \cgas al-
gorìIhm Ior IacIorìng n.
1. Choosc a random ìnIcgcr 1 < & < n÷1 and
compuIc : := gcd(&. n). II 1 < : < n Ihcn vou
havc a prìmc IacIor. CuìI and rcporI succcss.
Ir|gcd(&. n) = 1| =
c(n)
n
= (1 ÷
1
j
)(1 ÷
1
o
).
2. CompuIc J := ¹(c). whìch saIìsIcs cJ =
1 mod c(n). VrìIc cJ ÷ 1 = 2
:
· whcrc · ìs
odd and compuIc · := &
·
mod c(n). Clcarlv.
2
:
· = 0 mod c(n). whìch ìmplìcs ·
2
:
= &
2
:
·
=
&
0
= 1 mod n. II Iollows IhaI

2
:÷1
÷1)(·
2
:÷2
÷1) · · · (·÷1)(·÷1) = 0 mod n
37
3. ¯hìs gìvcs rìsc Io Ihc Iollowìng IcsI:
iI · = 1 mod n quit (Iaìlurc)
whiIe · ,= 1 mod n do
·
0
:= ·
· = ·
2
mod n
iI ·
0
= ÷1 mod n then ouìI (Iaìlurc)
eIse compuIc gcd(·
0
÷1. n) (success)
4. II succcssIul. aI Ihc cnd oI Ihc whìlc loop
wc Ind a valuc ·
0
such IhaI ·
2
0
= 1 mod n. ,=
1 mod n. II ·
0
= ÷1 mod n Ihcn Ihc algorìIhm
Iaìls. CIhcrwìsc wc havc IhaI ·
0
saIìsIcs
·
2
0
= 1 mod n. ,= 1 mod n. ·
0
,= ÷1 mod n.
whìch oI coursc can bc uscd Io IacIor n.
²heorem: Ir|succcss| `
1
2
.
ProoI: ¯hc algorìIhm mav Iaìl ìn onc oI Ihc
Iollowìng Iwo wavs:
(1) &
·
= 1 mod n
(2)
|
&
2
|
·
= ÷1 mod n. 0 < | < : ÷1.
whìch gìvcs rìsc Io : ÷ 1 congrucnccs. /nv
soluIìon oI Ihc svsIcm lcads Io Iaìlurc.
3B
VrìIc j÷1 = 2
í
j
1
. o ÷1 = 2
;
o
1
. EoIh j
1
. o
1
arc
odd. ¯hcrcIorc wc havc IhaI
2
í÷;
j
1
o
1
= c(n)[cJ ÷1 = 2
:
·.
whìch ìmplìcs í ÷; < : and j
1
o
1
[·.
Vc know IhaI a
n
= ÷1 mod n has a soluIìon ·
i
2
(n) < i
2
(j ÷1). i
2
(o ÷1). Vc can counI Ihc
soluIìons bv rcducìng Io a lìncar congrucncc
n ìndcx(a) = ìndcx(÷1) mod c(n). ¯hc samc
applìcs Io congrucnccs oI Ihc Iorm a
n
= 1 mod
n whìch alwavs havc soluIìons.
= soluIìons

(1) gcd(·. j ÷1) gcd(·. o ÷1)
(2)
|
gcd(2
|
·. j ÷1) gcd(2
|
·. o ÷1).
ìI | < mìn¦í. ;¦
(2)
|
0.
oIhcrwìsc
Cbscrvc IhaI
gcd(·. j ÷1) = j
1
gcd(·. o ÷1) = o
1
gcd(2
|
·. j ÷1) = 2
mìn¦|.í¦
j
1
gcd(2
|
·. o ÷1) = 2
mìn¦|.;¦
o
1
39
VìIhouI loss oI gcncralìIv assumc í < ;. Ev
Ihc abovc wc havc
n · Ir| Iaìlurc| < j
1
o
1
÷
j
1
o
1
(1 ÷2
2
÷2
4
÷· · · ÷2
2(í÷1)
)
= j
1
o
1
(1 ÷(2

÷1)/3)
= j
1
o
1
(2/3 ÷2

/3)
<
2j
1
o
1
3
÷
j
1
o
1
2
í÷;
3
=
2j
1
o
1
3
÷
c(n)
3
=
2j
1
o
1
3
÷
n
3
II Iollows IhaI
Ir| Iaìlurc| <
j
1
o
1
n
2
3
÷
1
3
<
1
4
·
2
3
÷
1
3
=
1
2
¯hìs provcs Ihc Ihcorcm.
40

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