1 views

Original Title: Fluid

Uploaded by Md.tanvir Ibny Gias

- acoustics
- [John E. Gribbin] Introduction to Hydraulics Hyd(BookFi)
- CFD in Ship Design
- Slug Flow
- AN AXISYMMETRIC, TURBULENT FLOW ANALYSIS OF CONTAMINANT INFILTRATION INTO A PRESSURIZED STRUCTURE WITH A FABRIC ENDCAP
- M.E TE
- Question Paper
- SPE 135587 ECD - Drillstring Rotation
- Potential Flow of Viscous Fluids
- Rotating cylinder
- (11)-Introduction to Convection
- Numerical Simulation of Turbulent Two Phase Flows
- 328173
- LAB (Osbourne Reynolds Apparatus)
- FlowLabEOC2e_CH07
- Problem+Set+5+Solution
- Final Report
- Breno Oliveira-lab 1-Mae 3031
- Perron 1992
- V.F.HW#1

You are on page 1of 5

By definition, a fluid is a material continuum that is unable to withstand a static shear stress.

Unlike an elastic solid which responds to a shear stress with a recoverable deformation, a fluid

responds with an irrecoverable flow.

pressure p scalar N/m2

velocity v vector m/s

density scalar kg/m3

viscosity scalar kg/m-s

body force b vector N/kg

time t scalar s

Examples of fluids include gases and liquids. Typically, liquids are considered to be

incompressible, whereas gases are considered to be compressible. However, there are exceptions

in everyday engineering applications.

Fluid flow can be either laminar or turbulent. The factor that determines which type of flow is

present is the ratio of inertia forces to viscous forces within the fluid, expressed by the

nondimensional Reynolds Number,

where V and D are a fluid characteristic velocity and distance. For example, for fluid flowing in a

pipe, V could be the average fluid velocity, and D would be the pipe diameter.

Typically, viscous stresses within a fluid tend to stabilize and organize the flow, whereas

excessive fluid inertia tends to disrupt organized flow leading to chaotic turbulent behavior.

Fluid flows are laminar for Reynolds Numbers up to 2000. Beyond a Reynolds Number of 4000,

the flow is completely turbulent. Between 2000 and 4000, the flow is in transition between

laminar and turbulent, and it is possible to find subregions of both flow types within a given flow

field.

Governing Equations

Laminar fluid flow is described by the Navier-Stokes equations. For cases of inviscid flow, the

Bernoulli equation can be used to describe the flow. When the flow is zero (i.e. statics), the fluid

is governed by the laws of fluid statics

Navier-Stokes Equations

The above equation can also be used to model turbulent flow, where the fluid parameters are

interpreted as time-averaged values.

The time-derivative of the fluid velocity in the Navier-Stokes equation is the material derivative,

defined as:

The material derivative is distinct from a normal derivative because it includes a convection

term, a very important term in fluid mechanics. This unique derivative will be denoted by a "dot"

placed above the variable it operates on.

Navier-Stokes Background

On the most basic level, laminar (or time-averaged turbulent) fluid behavior is described by a set

of fundamental equations. These equations are:

The Navier-Stokes equation is obtained by combining the fluid kinematics and constitutive

relation into the fluid equation of motion, and eliminating the parameters D and T. These terms

are defined below:

Quantity Symbol Object Units

fluid stress T 2nd order tensor N/m2

strain rate D 2nd order tensor 1/s

unity tensor I 2nd order tensor 1

Bernoulli Equation

governed by the Bernoulli Equation:

where g is the gravity acceleration constant (9.81 m/s2; 32.2 ft/s2), V is the velocity of the fluid,

and z is the height above an arbitrary datum. C remains constant along any streamline in the

flow, but varies from streamline to streamline. If the flow is irrotational, then C has the same

value for all streamlines.

The function is the "pressure per density" in the fluid, and follows from the barotropic

equation of state, p = p().

For an incompressible fluid, the function simplifies to p/, and the incompressible Bernoulli

Equation becomes:

The Navier-Stokes equation for a perfect fluid reduce to the Euler Equation:

Rearranging, and assuming that the body force b is due to gravity only, we can eventually

integrate over space to remove any vector derivatives,

If the fluid motion is also steady (implying that all derivatives with respect to time are zero), then

we arrive at the Bernoulli equation after dividing out by the gravity constant (and absorbing it

into the constant C),

Note that the fluid's barotropic nature allowed the following chain rule application,

Fluids at Rest

where z is the height above an arbitrary datum, and g is the gravity acceleration constant (9.81

m/s2; 32.2 ft/s2). This equation describes the pressure profile of the atmosphere, for example.

This equation describes the pressure profile in a body of water, or in a manometer.

If the fluid is compressible but barotropic, then the density and the pressure can be integrated

into the "pressure per density" function , giving the following alternate form for the

compressible fluid statics equation,

Note that the equation at the top of the page can still be applied though, as it makes no

assumption on the fluid's equation of state.

Rearranging, and assuming that the body force b is due to gravity only, we can integrate over

space to remove any vector derivatives,

For the barotropic fluid case, the derivation can be repeated in a fashion similar to that of

Bernoulli,

- acousticsUploaded bySubash Gerrard Dhakal
- [John E. Gribbin] Introduction to Hydraulics Hyd(BookFi)Uploaded byGabriela Rivadeneira
- CFD in Ship DesignUploaded bysameer
- Slug FlowUploaded byTochi Krishna Abhishek
- AN AXISYMMETRIC, TURBULENT FLOW ANALYSIS OF CONTAMINANT INFILTRATION INTO A PRESSURIZED STRUCTURE WITH A FABRIC ENDCAPUploaded byMeh Di
- M.E TEUploaded byjcetmechanical
- Question PaperUploaded bynedian_2006
- SPE 135587 ECD - Drillstring RotationUploaded bysronnevik
- Potential Flow of Viscous FluidsUploaded bykevin ostos julca
- Rotating cylinderUploaded byনুর আলম
- (11)-Introduction to ConvectionUploaded bySalam Albaradie
- Numerical Simulation of Turbulent Two Phase FlowsUploaded bygetsweet
- 328173Uploaded bycopdeposu2071
- LAB (Osbourne Reynolds Apparatus)Uploaded byNurul Ain
- FlowLabEOC2e_CH07Uploaded bytomekzawistowski
- Problem+Set+5+SolutionUploaded byjewzyjewzy
- Final ReportUploaded byEthan Anthony
- Breno Oliveira-lab 1-Mae 3031Uploaded byBreno Oliveira
- Perron 1992Uploaded byDiego Jaques
- V.F.HW#1Uploaded byaminvelayat
- Garcia 2004Uploaded byZulFakri
- 00089426Uploaded bymsmsoft
- Numerical Simulation of the Flow Field Past Road Vehicle WheelUploaded byjamesnesbitt
- IntroUploaded byAnonymous 7BQxlt8c
- PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS.pdfUploaded byAnnisa Suraswati
- nternational Journal of Computational Engineering Research(IJCER) is an intentional online Journal in English monthly publishing journal. This Journal publish original research work that contributes significantly to further the scientific knowledge in engineering and Technology.Uploaded byInternational Journal of computational Engineering research (IJCER)
- pi3Uploaded byluis
- Introduction to Fluid Mechanics 6th Edition (Optimized)Uploaded byNameis Ghoffar
- ART2Uploaded byLuca Simone
- Demonstrating of Potential FlowUploaded bysaurabhpdsoni

- Sample Final Summer 2017 SolutionsUploaded byMd.tanvir Ibny Gias
- Normal Shock TablsUploaded byPeter Kerolous
- nozzle co-ordinates.txtUploaded byMd.tanvir Ibny Gias
- (Engineering Drawing) Cecil Jensen, Jay D. Helsel, Dennis R. Short-Engineering Drawing and Design-McGraw-Hill (2008).pdfUploaded byMd.tanvir Ibny Gias
- Midterm-S2017-soln.pdfUploaded byMd.tanvir Ibny Gias
- MECH461-6111_midterm_F2013.docxUploaded byMd.tanvir Ibny Gias
- GasDynamics_SampleFinal.docxUploaded byMd.tanvir Ibny Gias
- Les Verbes Du 1er GroupeUploaded byMd.tanvir Ibny Gias
- HVAC design.docxUploaded byMd.tanvir Ibny Gias
- Project report linear systems.docxUploaded byMd.tanvir Ibny Gias
- Modeling-an-Inverted-Pendulum.docxUploaded byMd.tanvir Ibny Gias
- Revised LOR RIMA.docxUploaded byMd.tanvir Ibny Gias
- Project Report Linear SystemsUploaded byMd.tanvir Ibny Gias
- Cover LetterUploaded byMd.tanvir Ibny Gias
- Question for Control SystemUploaded byMd.tanvir Ibny Gias
- New Microsoft Office Word Document (2)Uploaded byMd.tanvir Ibny Gias
- Bode plot.docxUploaded byMd.tanvir Ibny Gias
- Robatic Sheet AwsUploaded byMd.tanvir Ibny Gias
- Problem Set 2Uploaded byMd.tanvir Ibny Gias
- Application Cover LetterUploaded byMd.tanvir Ibny Gias
- Bode plotUploaded byMd.tanvir Ibny Gias
- Robatic Sheet Aws2Uploaded byMd.tanvir Ibny Gias

- Computational Analysis of a Inverted Double-Element Airfoil in Ground EffectUploaded byVyssion
- Friction FactorsUploaded by3370_234234
- Drag Reduction MethodsUploaded byGanesh GP
- Calculation WindUploaded byWan Mohd Taufiq
- CN 301 Lectures Notes -1[1].pdfUploaded byMuhd Fariz Karim
- Alumina inclusion behaviour during deoxidationUploaded byBibhudatta Misra
- 4.69 S.E. Automobile EngineeringUploaded byswapnil__g
- 2 Fundamental Physical Principles of HydraulicsUploaded byalzuhd
- The Solar Updraft Power Plant Design and Optimization of TheUploaded byOsama Alwakkaf
- Calculation of Optimum Angle of Attack to Determine Maximum Lift to Drag Ratio of NACA 632-215 AirfoilUploaded byMAGRI
- Co cubesUploaded bybjdfjgk
- TurbineUploaded byobaid_paul
- Fluent-Intro 14.5 WS06 Sliding MeshUploaded byMohit Gulati
- pdf38Uploaded byLuay Kadhum Alwaili
- Numerical Solution of Laminar Flow GeneratedUploaded byRitunjay Jha
- 2011_issue1.pdfUploaded byvikram
- Fluent Multiphase 15.0 L01 IntroductionUploaded bysoksok badi
- Fluent 13.0 Lecture06-TurbulenceUploaded byNoolOotsil
- PIV Study for the Analysis of Planar Jets in Cross-Flow at Low Reynolds NumberUploaded byVyssion
- spalart allmarasUploaded byIlie Viorel
- DiMixing and Dissolution Times for a Cowles Diskssolution PaperUploaded byYaqoob Ali
- therminol_liquid_phase.pdfUploaded byAntHony K-ian
- Basic Hydraulics PaperUploaded byAzhar Pasha
- hydraulic Chapter1Uploaded byfaraeiin57
- Meinert_DESIGN METHODS IN STAIRWELL PRESSURIZATION.pdfUploaded byGeorge Tziotis
- Determination of Turbulent Pressure Loss of Non-Newtonian Oil Flow in Rough Pipes_-_A. P. Szilas-E. Bobok-L. Navratil1981Uploaded byAndres Granados
- Modelling Ocean Climate Variability by Artem S. Sarkisyan and J¨urgen E. S¨undermannUploaded byTatiana Leon Rojas
- report_task_3.pdfUploaded bymenosoft
- Darcy's Law.pptUploaded bykhoula
- IJREI_Numerical investigation of fluid flow and aerodynamic performance on a 2D NACA-4412 airfoilUploaded byIjrei Journal