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The Evergreen Resort Hotel (Jiaosi), Yilan, Taiwan, Nov. 18-20, 2015

Intelligent Fuzzy Logic Controller

Jean Claude Mugisha, Bernard Munyazikwiye and Hamid Reza Karimi

Abstract In this paper, we present the design of temperature very effective at describing the complex nonlinear systems

control for industrial heat treating furnace by using Intelligent [3-5]. Other applications of fuzzy logic can be seen in [6-7].

Fuzzy Logic and PID controllers. Temperature control is

important in heating processes as it can disqualify materials in

terms of their physical properties when not well performed. II. FUZZY LOGIC CONTROLLER

Obviously PID temperature controller is the most used in

industries to control non-linear processes. Consequently, it has

The process of a fuzzy system has three steps.

been found that the output response from Fuzzy Logic is very

accurate in terms of overshoot and steady state error when Fuzzification, Rule Evaluation, and Defuzzification. In

compared to that of PID. Moreover, both temperature fuzzification, the input crisp values are transformed into

controllers are modeled and simulated using MATLAB degrees of membership in the fuzzy sets. The degree of

software. membership of each crisp value in each fuzzy set is

determined by plugging the value into the membership

KeywordsTemperature, Fuzzy Logic, PID, Controller, function associated with the fuzzy set.

Furnace.

In the rule evaluation step, each fuzzy rule is assigned

I. INTRODUCTION with a strength value. The strength is determined by the

degrees of memberships of the crisp input values in the fuzzy

Monitoring and control of the temperature is an sets of antecedent part of the fuzzy rule. The defuzzification

essential process in industries especially for those of stage transposes the fuzzy outputs into crisp values [8]. In

metallurgical ones. The process of heat treatment is carried this paper, a comparison between a conventional PID

out firstly by heating the metal after that cooling it in water, controller and Fuzzy logic controller of a furnace temperature

oil or air. Heat treatment is to enhance the transformation of is determined.

austenite to martensite i.e. (soft material to hard material), to

change the grain size, to modify the structure of the material

and relive the stress set up in the material [1]. A. Fuzzy logic toolbox

The processes involved in heat treatment demand the Fuzzy Logic Toolbox allows several things to be done,

stability of temperature inside the furnace in order to meet but the most important things are place where a fuzzy

uniform microstructure throughout the slab. Conventional inference system can be created or edited. These systems can

PID control technique has been utilized a long time ago to be created by using graphical tools or command-line

control processes and systems in industries. Its simplicity and functions. The fuzzy system that has been accessed to

low cost of design made it popular in earlier technological Simulink can be easily tested in a block diagram simulation

industries, but it is difficult to get the efficient control because environment. The toolbox also allows the stand-alone C

the PID gain setting is a challenging task. It is hard to control programs to be run without the need of Simulink [9]. This is

nonlinear processes with linear classic controllers. An made possible by a standalone Fuzzy Inference Engine that

interesting approach fuzzy logic controller is used to control reads the fuzzy systems saved from a MATLAB session [8].

nonlinear processes [2]. A number of publications can be Fuzzy Logic Toolbox, also known as Graphical User

found , where fuzzy logic is used for many applications. In Interface (GUI) tools are used to build and edit Fuzzy

general, among the available techniques used to model, Interface System (FIS). The five GUI tools for building,

analyze, control and design, the well-known TakagiSugeno editing and observing FIS are: Fuzzy Inference System (FIS)

(TS) fuzzy model approach has been recognized as being editor, Membership function editor, Rule editor, Rule viewer

and Surface viewer.

jmugisha23@gmail.com).

Bernard B. Munyazikwiye is with the Department of Engineering, Faculty of

Engineering and Science of the University of Agder, Grimstad, Norway

(e-mail: munybernard@gmail.com).

Hamid Reza Karimi is with the Department of Engineering, Faculty of

Engineering and Science of the University of Agder, Grimstad, Norway

(e-mail: hamid.r.karimi@uia.no).

D. Fuzzy Rules

In a Fuzzy Logic, a rule base is constructed to control the

output variable. A fuzzy rule is a simple IF-THEN rule with a

condition and a conclusion. The fuzzy rules determine the

link between the antecedent and the consequent fuzzy

variables, and are often defined using natural language

linguistic terms. For instance, a fuzzy rule can be if the

temperature is cold and the wind is strong then wear warm

clothes, where temperature and wind are antecedent fuzzy

variables, wear is a consequent fuzzy variable and cold,

strong and warm clothes are fuzzy sets [11].

Figure 1: Fuzzy Logic Toolbox [10] fuzzy variables of interest to "crisp" numbers used by the

control system. Fuzzification is the process of making a crisp

B. Fuzzy sets quantity fuzzy.

Fuzzification translates a numeric value for the input into a

The very basic notion of fuzzy systems is a fuzzy set. A linguistic value such as positive large, negative large, positive

fuzzy set is a set without a crisp. It can contain elements with small, negative small, zero,..with a membership grade.

only a partial degree of membership. In a fuzzy set, elements Defuzzification is to map fuzzy subsets of real numbers into

have their membership grade associated with them. For real numbers. In fuzzy inference system (FIS),

example set of HOT temperature is decide between 60< defuzzification is applied after aggregation [13].

TEMP< 80. If temperature is 60 degrees, then we say it does

not belong to HOT set but in fuzzy logic it belongs to the set III.PID CONTROLLER

but having membership grade 0. Similarly if temperature is

62 or 78 degrees, then it belongs to a fuzzy set with PID refers to the first letters of the names of the individual

membership grade 0.10 and 0.90 respectively [11]. This can terms that makeup the standard three-term controller. These

be done by allowing not only the (crisp) decision Yes/No, but are P for the proportional term, I for the integral term and D

also more flexible rules like fairly hot or cold. A fuzzy set for the derivative term. Three-term or PID controllers are

allows us to define such a notion. The aim in using fuzzy sets probably the most widely used industrial controller [14].The

is to make computers more intelligent. values of these three parameters interpreted in terms of time,

where,P depends on the present error, I on the

C. Membership Functions accumulation of past errors and D is a prediction of future

errors, based on current rate of change. By tuning the three

Implementation of membership function is vital in the parameters in the algorithm of PID controller, the controller

fuzzification and defuzzification steps of a Fuzzy Logic can provide control action designed for specific process

System in order to evaluate the non-fuzzy input values to requirements [15].The proportional, integral and derivative

fuzzy linguistic terms and vice-versa. A membership function terms are summed to calculate the output of the PID

is implemented to measure the linguistic term [11]. For any controller.

set X, a membership function on X is any function from X to det

the real unit interval [0, 1]. The membership function which u t K P et Ki et dt K d [16] (1)

dt

represents a fuzzy set is usually denoted by A. For an

Where

element x of X, the value A(x) is called the membership

degree of x in the fuzzy set. The membership degree A(x) x K P proportional gain.

quantifies the grade of membership of the element x to the

fuzzy set. The value 0 means that x is not a member of the x K i integral gain.

fuzzy set; the value 1 means that x is fully a member of the x K d derivative gain.

fuzzy set. The values between 0 and 1 characterize fuzzy

members, which belong to the fuzzy set only partially [12]. x e Error present in the controller.

Tuning of a PID controller refers to the tuning of its

various parameters (P, I, D) to achieve an optimized value of

the desired response .The necessity of tuning of the parameter

of PID controller is very important. ZIEGLER-NICHOLS is

51

one of the mostly used tuning method of PID controller. Qi t is the heat input to the furnace (J/s)

Ziegler-Nichols proposed rules for determining the values of Qo t is the heat output from the furnace (J/s)

the proportional gain Kp, integral gain Ki and derivative gain

C is the thermal capacitance of the furnace (J/K)

Kd based on the transient response characteristics of a given

The heat output (removed) from the furnace is given by the

plant [17]. following expression:

TABLE 1: ZIEGLER - NICHOL'S TUNING RULES

To t Ts t (3)

Qo t

R

Where

To t is the internal furnace temperature ( C)

o

o

Therefore, the equation describing the dynamic behavior of

the furnace is obtained from replacing the equation (3) into

IV. METHODOLOGY equation (2):

dT

RQi t Ts t To t RC o (4)

The aim of this paper is to design a temperature control using dt

the intelligent fuzzy logic and conventional PID controllers. Assuming that RT Qi t Ts t is equal to the variable T t will

Fuzzy logic toolbox (package of MATLAB) was used in the give us the open loop transfer function:

design of both controllers and the respective results were

shown. The collection of data was based on temperature To s 1 (5)

behavior in heating chamber of the furnace with respect to

T s 1 RCS

time and determining proper dimension of that chamber as

The transfer function of the fuel-air mixture control valve and

well as characteristics of furnace accessories like burner and

burner is given by:

valves which has been utilized in design processes. Three

dW i

variables namely error and error variation (inputs) of the Q t Q t Pt K K

i i v b

(6)

dt

temperature and energy supplied (output) to the heating

system (burner) have been used while designing Fuzzy Logic

(From RQi t Ts t T t , Ts t is negligible,

Temperature Controller whereas PID controller had therefore Q t T t )

i

temperature error as input and energy supplied to the heating R

T t dW i

system as output. 1 Pt K v K b

R dt

T s RK v K b (7)

V. FUZZY LOGIC TEMPERATURE P s W i s 1

CONTROLLER Where

3

K v is the valve constant ( m / sV )

To control temperature in the furnace, we have three 3

Kb is the burner constant ( Ws / m )

variables which are Error ( e ), Error variation ( 'e ) as inputs

and increase energy supplied to the heating system as output Ps is the pressure of Air-fuel mixture.

variable. Mamdani based fuzzy inference system is used and By multiplying equation (5) and (7) we get the overall

it uses linear membership function for both inputs and output- dynamics equation of the system.

. Triangular membership functions are used for both input

To s T s RK v K b (8)

and output variables. G s *

T s P s 1 RCS 1 W i s

A. Mathematical model of the furnace 339.64

G s

106365s 2 7106 s 1

Considering a single heating chamber of the fuel fired

furnace with an oil-air mixture burner to heat the chamber,

the temperature and heat inside the chamber zone ultimately

managed by controlling fuel (oil) and air flow from the

external sources to the burner.

By applying the principal of energy balance:

C Qi t Qo t

dt

Where

52

TABLE 2: FURNACE ACCESSORIES' PARAMETERS C. Fuzzy Membership Functions for Outputs

B. Fuzzification of Input Figure 4: Triangular MF of Energy supplied (u) output

x HP: High Positive

x MP: Medium Positive

x SP: Small Positive

x ZE: Zero

x SN: Small Negative

x MN: Medium Negative

x HN: High Negative.

x VHN: Very High Negative

Figure 6: Surface Viewer

Figure 2: Triangular MF of Error (e) input

Matlab/Simulink. The fuzzy logic inference system for the

fuzzy logic temperature controller contains a set of fuzzy

logic rules that define the behavior of the system in relation

between the error signal, error derivative signal and the

control signal of the controller.

53

Figure 8: Output response of conventional PID temperature

controller

Figure 7: Controlled with step input and uncontrolled plant

B. Results and discussion

The figure 7 shows the dynamic behavior of controlled (red) The PID parameters (signals) was calculated using

alongside with the uncontrolled (green) plant. Ziegler-Nichols tuning methods, these signals are fed into

PID simulation block and yield an output signal of the

It also shows the controlled response with step input of

controller as figure 8 shows.

1200oC, the dynamic behavior of the controlled plant shows

that there is no overshoot and steady state error in the plant VII. CONCLUSION

and in addition to that the settling time and rise time are

considerably small. In this paper we have been dealing with design of

VI. PID TEMPERATURE CONTROLLER temperature controller using the conventional PID controller

and intelligent Fuzzy Logic Controller. Both FLC and PID

A. Tuning of PID controller controllers were designed and implemented in

MATLAB/Simulink.

Generally tuning a system means adjusting it so that it can The intelligent FLC was performed using fuzzy inference

be suitable in a particular situation. Tuning a PID controller is system of Mamdani type. The PID controller was tuned using

the adjustment of its control parameters to the optimum values Ziegler-Nichols tuning method. For response of PID

in order to achieve the desired control response. In this paper, controller, it has been mentioned that the rise time and settling

we have used the Ziegler-Nichols tuning method. Basing on time are short when compared to those of fuzzy logic

table 1 which shows the Ziegler-Nichols tuning rules we first response where the signal from Fuzzy logic possess 0%

have to find out the ultimate gain ( K u ) and the ultimate overshoot and zero steady state error. This implies that, for

PID the reduction of both rise and settling times makes the

period( Tu ).The transfer function (T.F) will be: response to oscillate a bit around the step input and the

occurrence of steady state error.

KG s (9)

TF

1 KG s H s

Where H s is the unit feedback TABLE 4: DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTIC OF BOTH FLC AND

PID

339.64 K u

TF

106365s 7106s 1 339.64 K u

2

Ku

339.64

frequency Z . 106365 s 2 1 K 0 106365Z 2 2 0.

u

339.64 339.64

Z . , 2S ,

The reduction of rising time as well as settling time is

0.0043362631 07 rad / sec Z 2Sf Tu

Z necessary to get an outstanding performance of the controller

Tu 1448.251604 but this effect results the overshoot and steady state error, the

remedy of this should be the integration of fuzzy logic

Kp 0.001766576375 Ki 0.0000024395 98714 , techniques because it is a type of logic controller which will

successfully eliminate the whole overshoot and steady state

Kd 0.319805883

error from the output response. This is recommended for

further future works.

54

[10] Basu, Srismrita, "Realization of Fuzzy Logic Temperature Controller,"

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced

Engineering, vol. 2, no. 6, June 2012).

[11] P.Singhala, D.N.Shah, B.Patel., "Temperature Control Using Fuzzy

Logic.," International Journal of Instrumentation and Control Systems

(IJJCS), vol. 4, no. 1, January 2014.

[12] Omar Adil M. Ali, Aous Y. Ali,Balasem Salem Sumait, "Comparison

between the Effects of Different Types of Membership Functions on

Fuzzy Logic Controller Performance," International Journal of

Emerging Engineering Research and Technology, vol. 3, no. 3,

pp.76-83, March,2015.

[13] Abraham, Eshetie Berhan and Ajith, "Hierarchical Fuzzy Logic

Figure 9: Simulink block diagram of FLTC together with PID System for Manuscript Evaluation.," Middle- East Journal of Scientific

Temperature Controller. Research, 2014.

14] Soniya Kocher, Dr. A.K. Kori, "PID Based Temperature Control of a

Plant Heat Exchanger System," International Journal of Novel

Research in Electrical and Mechanical Engineering, vol. 2, no. 2, pp.

43-47, May-August,2015.

[15] Ajanta Ganguly, Abinash Banerjee Lane, Shibpur, Howrah, "Design of

Tuning Methods of PID Controller Using Fuzzy Logic.," International

Journal of Emerging trends in Engineering and Development, vol. 5, no.

3, September, 2013.

[16] K.A Akpado, C.O Ezeagwu, A. Ejiofor, A.O Nwokeke, "Design,

Modeling and Simulation of a Microcontroller Based Temperature

Control in a Ventilation System," International Journal of Advanced

Research in Electrical, Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering,

vol. 2, no. 7, July 2013.

[17] Ajanta Ganguly, Abinash Banerjee Lane, Shibpur, Howrah, "Design of

Tuning Methods of PID Controller Using Fuzzy Logic.," International

Journal of Emerging trends in Engineering and Development, vol. 5, no.

3, September, 2013.

[18] Aborisade, D.O, Adewuyi, P.A., "Evaluation of PID tuning methods

on direct gas-fired oven.," Int. Journal of Engineering Research and

Applications, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 01-09, March 2014.

Temperature Controllers.

REFERENCES

[1] MI Aye Su Khaing,Lu Hong, "Research on the Precision Straightening

Stroke of SAE 52100 Steel in Different Heat Treatments," American

Journal of Mechanical Engineering,, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 41-46, 2014.

[2] Ashish Singh Thakur, Himmat Singh, Sulochana Wadhwani,

"Designing of Fuzzy Logic Controller for Liquid Level Controlling,"

International Journal of u- and e- Service, Science and Technology, vol.

8, no. 6, pp. 267-276, 2015.

[3] S. Bououden, M. Chadli, H. R. Karimi, An Ant colony

Optimization-based Fuzzy Predictive Control Approach for

Nonlinear Processes, Information Sciences 299 (2015) pp 143-158.

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Signal Processing, 108, 195-205, 2015,

DOI.10.1016/j.sigpro.2014.09.011.

[5] Huanqing Wang, Xiaping Liu, Kefu Liu, Hamid Reza Karimi,

Approximation-Based Adaptive Fuzzy Tracking Control for a Class of

Non-Strict-Feedback Stochastic Nonlinear Time- Delay Systems,

IEEE Trans. Fuzzy Systems, DOI: 10.1109/TFUZZ.2014.2375917

[6] BQ Sun, H Guo, HR Karimi, Y Ge, S Xiong, Prediction of stock index

futures prices based on fuzzy sets and multivariate fuzzy time series,

Neurocomputing, 151, 1528-1536, 2015.

[7] Y Kao, L Shi, J Xie, HR Karimi, Global exponential stability of delayed

Markovian jump fuzzy cellular neural networks with generally

incomplete transition probability, Neural Networks, Volume 63,

March 2015, Pages 18-30.

[8] Hassan, Mostaque Md.Morshedur, "Current Studies on Intrusion

Detection System, Genetic Algorithm and Fuzzy Logic," International

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