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Mileni Arriaga

M/W @11:30
Journal #1
This first week of class we learned... about numbers in base 5 and how to use them in
simple arithmetic. To get a greater grasp of numbers in base 5 we began with using blocks to
help us visualize the idea. Using the blocks we were able to understand how base 5 differed
from the conventional base 10. To figure out what numbers are in base 5 it is vital to
understand how base 5 is organized. Through the small blocks we understood that base five
has single units 1five, 2five, 3five, and 4five and instead of reaching block 5five we reach
10five which represents 1 set of 5 and 0 single units. Continuing on with the same pattern we
reach 44five which is 4 sets of 5 and 4 single units the number that follows is not 45five but
rather 100five because it is 1 group of 5 fives and 0 sets of 5 and 0 single units. The numbers
continue consistently keeping in mind the digit must never exceed 4 and once it does a new
column is started i.e..4five -10five, 44five -100five, and 444five-1000five similarly to the way
after 9 we get 10, 99-100, and 999-1000.

When adding in base 5 it is important to eliminate the thought of counting in base 10


which is the most common and widely used method in mathematics. In base 5, the numbers
begin with 0,1,2,3,4 and after the 4 they become 10 base 5, 11 base 5, and so on. When we see
3+4 we automatically think the answer is 7 but in base 5 the answer is 12 base 5. The best way
to add in base 5 is to line them up as any other addition problem.
For example:
42 base 5 + 17 base 5 42 base 5
+ 14 base 5

6 in base 5 is 11five so that 11five. So we keep the 1 and carry the 1. Then we add 4 +1. Since
in base 5 there is no 5 it becomes 10five so 10five +1= 11 five. So the answer is 111five.

When subtracting is base 5 it is important to eliminate the thought of counting in base


10. In base 5 one has to remember that they cannot use the number 5 in any form. When we
see the problem 10basefive - 3basefive or (one bar minus three units) one who has been taught
to think 10 minus 3 is 7 but when counting in basefive 10basefive - 3basefive (or one bar
minus three units) the answer is 2basefive because 10basefive is equivalent to 1 bar and 0
units minus three units which gives us 2basefive.

For example:
32basefive (3 bars and 2 units)
- 14basefive (1 bar and 4 units)
________________ ________________
13basefive 1 bar and 3 units

For this example the answer is 13basefive because just like in regular subtracting you must
borrow if the number on top is smaller than the number below, in this case you take 1 bar away
from the 3 bars and add it to the 2 units giving you 7 units minus 4 units giving you a
remainder of 3 units and 2 bars minus 1 bar leaves you with 1 bar giving us the answer of
13basefive.

Moving on to multiplying in base 5.. It is much better to explain this method by utilizing
examples rather than writing it. Therefore, I will start by showing a graph that made
multiplying in base 5 easier.

1 2 3 4

1 1 2 3 4

2 2 4 11 13

3 3 11 14 22

4 4 13 22 31

This is a graph that shows the multiplication done with the number 1, 2, 3, and 4 but instead of
using base 10 we used base 5.

For example.
2 X 4=8 in base 10
2 base5 X 4 base5= 13 in base 5 because we count it as 1, 2, 3, 4, 10, 11, 12, 13.

Now, for bigger multiplication problems such as: 12 base5 X 32 base5 we will utilize a similar
graph.

1) 1 2 3) Now we add diagonally: I will show the adding


0 1

3 1

0 0

2 4
by color coding the numbers that we will add
3 together.

0=0
2 0+3+1=4
2+0+1=3
2) 4=4
1 base5 X 3 base5=03
1 base5 X 2 base5=02 4) Then we put the answer together which would
2 base5 X 3 base5=11 be 0434 base5.
2 base5 X 2 base5=04

Mileni Arriaga
M/W @11:30
Journal 2
Last week we learned about numbers in base 12 and how to use it in simple arithmetic. To

fully understand numbers in base 12 we have to first know how to count in base 12. Base 12 works

similarly to base 10 and base 5 which we learned in the previous week. To count we count with ease 1

twelve, 2 twelve, 3 twelve, 4 twelve, 5 twelve, 6 twelve, 7 twelve, 8 twelve, 9 twelve, here is where it

gets tricky because we CANNOT use 10 twelve to represent 10 units in base 12 because 10 twelve

means one group of 12 and 0 digits so we use T to represent 10, like T twelve we CANNOT have 11

twelve represent 11 units because 11 twelve is one group of 12 and 1 digit so we use E. The numbers

carry on in a consistent pattern keeping in mind the digit must never exceed E and once E is reached a

new column is started representing a new group. Each column is a multiple of 12. I.E. 12T twelve is 1

group of 12 groups of twelve, 2 groups of 12, and T units. Now that we know how to count with

numbers in base 12 and what they represent we can now begin to add and subtract.

ADDITION:

To start off simple

5twelve + 6twelve=?

we know 5+6=11

and we know 11 in base 12 is E

so 5twelve + 6twelve= Etwelve

The next level

6twelve + 8twelve =?

we know 6+8= 14

we know we cant have 14twelve because that represents 1 group of 12 and 4 units which is 16 in base

10 so we have to subtract 12 from 14 and are left with 2 so we know have 1 group of 12 and 2 units

so 6twelve + 8twelve= 12twelve

SUBTRACTION :

To start off simple

Etwelve - 6twelve =?
we know Etwelve represents 11

so now we can say 11-6= 5

so Etwelve- 6twelve= 5twelve

The next level

12twelve- 8twelve =?

so we know 12twelve means 1 group of 12 and 2 units

but we cannot subtract 8 digits from 2

so we have to break up the 1 group of 12 to create 12 individual units

we combine the 12 individual units to the 2 units and get 14 units

we then subtract 8 from the 14 units and are left with 6

12twelve - 8twelve= 6twelve

To compute in base 60 it is like calculating time with hours, minutes, and seconds. In base 60, it is

written like15:02:17.

For example to add them it would be: 15:02:17 + 30:41

So that means 15 hours 2 minutes 17 seconds and 30 minutes 41 seconds

To add them line them up as an addition problem

15 hours 02 minutes 17 seconds

+ 30 minutes 41 seconds

____________________________________

15 hours 32 minutes 58 seconds

So the answer would be 15:32:58


When multiplying in base 12 we begin by multiplying and adding the numbers by base 10 for example:

12 base12 X 75 base12

1(12)+2(s)=14

7(12)+5(s)=89

Then we multiply 14 X 89= 1246

We then divide 144 into 1246 and get 8 with a remainder of 94

Then we divide 12 into 94 and get 7 with a remainder of 10 units

Our final answer would then be: 87T base12

Subtracting in base 60

Compute 47:06 32:52

*first subtract from the ones *second subtract from the tens

6/ *7-1base60=6

47:06 47:06 (0-50) must subtracted one base of

- 32:52 (6-2=4) - 32:52 60-50= 10 meaning 1 in tens

: 4 :14

*subtract

46:06 (6-2= 4) 46:06 (4-3=1)

- 32:52 - 32:52

4 :14 14:14
Mileni Arriaga
M/W @11:30
Journal #4
1). Compute the following subtraction problem 127 - 35 using the standard algorithm and
illustrate using base-10 block diagrams.
1 2 7
- 3 5
___________________
9 2
-

=
2/3). Using standard algorithm for subtraction compute 473-95
473
-95
First start subtracting ones 3-5 since you can not subtract 3 from 5 you must regroup the
tens values taking on 10 from 70, the adding ten ones to three giving you 13, then you can
subtracted 13-5 giving you an eight in the ones place.
463
-95
8
Next you subtracted the tens values 60-90 since you can not subtract 60 from 90 you must
regroup the hundreds values taking 100 from 400 leaving 300 in the hundreds place and adding
100 to 60 giving you 160-90=70
463
-95
8
70
Finally subtracted the hundreds values 300-0 giving you 300.
463
-95
8
70
+300
378
Then add values 8+70+300= 378

4). Explain the alternate methods for compensate using the example 563 372
We round off the number being subtracted to a convenient value, then subtract the rest.
Subtracting this way allows the student to break the number down into smaller numbers that are
able to be visualized.
563-360=203-10=193-2=191

5). Explain subtracting in each place with negatives.


563- 372
First we set up our problem.
563
-372
We can start with our ones 3-2 which leaves us with______________________________1
Next we move on to our tens 60-70 which is___________________________________ - 10
Then we work with our hundredths 500-300 is ________________________________ 200
So now we have 200, 1, and -10
we add (or subtract) all of these numbers
200+1= 201- 10= 191

6). Missing Addens is a way of arranging the problem


563
-372
this equation is changed into this
372
+???
563
so we can once again start with the ones
2+ ?= 3 we know that number is 1
next we can go with our tens
70+ ?= 60 we know we cannot get a smaller number but we can get 160 by adding 90
now we can do the hundredths this is where it gets tricky instead of using 300 we use
400 because we got 160 in the tens place so we had to regroup that number adding
100 to the 300 we had in the hundredths place so 400+?= 500 we know that is 100
now we add that all together 1+90= 91+ 100= 191
Mileni Arriaga
M/W @11:30
Journal #5
1. Explain the alternate methods for multiplication (area model, partial products, and
lattice method) using example 56x372=20,832

Area Model: (Not to scale)

300 70 2 X

15,000 3,500 100 50

1,800 420 12 6

15,000
3,500
1,800
420
+ 100
12
_____________
20,832

The way this method works is you begin with breaking the first number 372, into its
place values, 300 + 70 + 2. Then break the second number 56, into 50 + 6. Next you
begin with multiplying 300 x 50, 70 x 50, and 2 x 50, then you multiply 300 x 6, 70 x 6,
and 2 x 6. Once we figure out the products of all six multiplication steps in this example
we can then add them up giving us a sum of 20,832.

Partial Products: The way this method works is you set up your multiplication problem
exactly how you would in a standard multiplication problem. With partial products you
begin with 6x2=12 and that is written on its own line, then you go to the next line and
the product 70x6=420 and that is written on its own line, then you multiple 300x6=1800
and that is written on its own line, then you multiply 50x2=100 and that is written on its
own line, then 50x70=3500 and that is written on its own line, then you multiply
50x300=15000 and that is written on its own line. Then you add the sums together to
give you 20,832. The main thing to be careful when using partial products is to keep the
place values in mind when you are multiplying each line.

372
x 56
12
420
1800
100
3500
15000
2 0, 8 3 2

Lattice Method: The way the Lattice Method works is set up so that you can
individually multiply each problem separately. Each product is written so that the digits
are split across the diagonal. Then digits along each diagonal are added, first the 2 ones
are recorded, then along the next diagonal 2+1=3 is recorded, then 8+4+5+1=18, so the
8 is recorded at the bottom, and the other 1 is recorded along the next diagonal, then
5+3+1+1=10, so the 0 is recorded at the bottom, and the other 1 is recorded along the
next diagonal, then finally 1+1=2 is recorded at the bottom giving us the sum 20,832.

Repeated subtraction model for division is dividing a given number by another number
given until the first number cannot be divided evenly anymore.

Example: Sam has 85 markers. She wants to give 17 markers to her friends. How many
friends will get markers from Sam?
This example of repeated subtraction is solved by giving each friend 17 markers at a
time until she runs out of markers. She will be giving 17 markers to 5 of her friends.

Partition model of division is having a total number of groups and filling them up one
by one until the groups are complete and no remainders are left.

Example: Mrs. Jen brings 150 cookies to her classroom. She wants to handout the
cookies to her 30 students. How many cookies will each student receive?

This example of Partitioning is solved by passing out one cookie at a time to each of her
30 students until she runs out of cookies. Each student will end up with 5 cookies.

Intermediate division algorithm for 10584 divided by 28. First, make an estimate of
10584 divided by 28. The first estimate shown is 200, the product 28 x 200 = 5600, so
5600 is subtracted from 10584, leaving 4984. At the next stage, make an estimate of
4984 divided by 28, the next partial quotient is 100, therefore 28 x 100= 2800 subtracted
from 4984= 2184. The next partial quotient is 70, therefore 28x 70= 1960 subtracted
from 2184= 224. The next step estimate 224 divided by 28= 8, the quotient is the sum of
the partial quotients 200+100+70+8 is 378. 378 x 28=10584.
8
70
100
200
2 8) 1 0 5 8 4
-5600
4984
- 2800
- 2184
- 1960
- 224
- 224
0

Mileni Arriaga
M/W @11:30

6x1=6
2x3=6
6/3=2 Composite

PRIME NUMBERS 1-100


2 3 5 7 11 13 15 17 19 23 29 31 37 41 43 47 53 59 61 67 71
73 79 83 89 97
COMPOSITE NUMBERS 1-100
4, 6, 8, 9, 12, 14, 18, 20, 21, 22, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 30, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 38, 39, 40, 42,
44, 45, 46, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 50, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 68, 69, 70, 72,
74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 80, 81, 82, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 98, 99, 100
The number 1 is not a prime number although it is divisible by one, it is also not a
composite number because it is not the product of more than 2 factors.
What is the difference between "the factors of a number" and the "prime factorization of
a number"?

Factors of a number can include both prime and composite numbers

Factors of 8 are 1,2,4,8

Prime factorization includes only prime numbers.


The prime factorization of 8 can only include prime numbers
so we know the only factor which is prime of 8 is 2
then we know 2x4=8
4 is made up of two prime numbers 2 and 2
So we put all those prime numbers together and get
8s prime factorization is 2x2x2
To find the greatest common factor using factor we have to list all the numbers that can
be multiplied by another number and can be multiplied evenly. The greatest common
factors both numbers have in common are the greatest common factor for both of those
numbers.

Ex: 18: 1,2,3,6,9,18


48: 1,2,3,4,6,8,12,48 GFC: 6

To find the GCF using prime factorization we get two numbers that can be multiplied by
that number. If one or both of those numbers can be factorized continue until it cant be
done anymore. Once both numbers have been factored it is best to line the factors to
find the factors they have in common. Once the factors for both numbers are detected
multiply them and they will give the greatest common factor.

Ex: 24 48
/ \ / \
6 4 12 4
/ \ / \ / \ / \
2 3 2 2 4 3 2 2
/ \
2 2

24: 2x2x2x3
48: 2x2x2x2x3 2x2x3= 12 GFC: 12