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South America

Fourth largest of the worlds continents. It is the southern portion of the landmass generally
referred to as the New World, the Western Hemisphere, or simply the Americas. The continent is
compact and roughly triangular in shape, being broad in the north and tapering to a pointCape
Horn, Chilein the south.

North America

North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the
Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the
Americas.It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the
west and south by the Pacific Ocean, and to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean


A Rose for Emily

By William Faulkner

A Rose for Emily Characters:

Emily Grierson - The object of fascination in the story. A
eccentric recluse, Emily is a mysterious figure who changes
from a vibrant and hopeful young girl to a cloistered and
secretive old woman. Devastated and alone after her fathers
death, she is an object of pity for the townspeople. After a life
of having potential suitors rejected by her father, she spends
time after his death with a newcomer, Homer Barron, although
the chances of his marrying her decrease as the years pass.
Bloated and pallid in her later years, her hair turns steel gray.
She ultimately poisons Homer and seals his corpse into an
upstairs room.

Homer Barron - A foreman from the North. Homer is a large man with a dark complexion, a
booming voice, and light-colored eyes. A gruff and demanding boss, he wins many admirers in
Jefferson because of his gregarious nature and good sense of humor. He develops an interest in
Emily and takes her for Sunday drives in a yellow-wheeled buggy. Despite his attributes, the
townspeople view him as a poor, if not scandalous, choice for a mate. He disappears in Emilys
house and decomposes in an attic bedroom after she kills him.

Judge Stevens - A mayor of Jefferson. Eighty years old, Judge Stevens attempts to delicately
handle the complaints about the smell emanating from the Grierson property. To be respectful of
Emilys pride and former position in the community, he and the aldermen decide to sprinkle lime
on the property in the middle of the night.

Mr. Grierson - Emilys father. Mr. Grierson is a controlling, looming presence even in death,
and the community clearly sees his lasting influence over Emily. He deliberately thwarts Emilys
attempts to find a husband in order to keep her under his control. We get glimpses of him in the

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story: in the crayon portrait kept on the gilt-edged easel in the parlor, and silhouetted in the
doorway, horsewhip in hand, having chased off another of Emilys suitors.

Tobe - Emilys servant. Tobe, his voice supposedly rusty from lack of use, is the only lifeline
that Emily has to the outside world. For years, he dutifully cares for her and tends to her needs.
Eventually the townspeople stop grilling him for information about Emily. After Emilys death,
he walks out the back door and never returns.

Colonel Sartoris - A former mayor of Jefferson. Colonel Sartoris absolves Emily of any tax
burden after the death of her father. His elaborate and benevolent gesture is not heeded by the
succeeding generation of town leaders.

A Rose for Emily Summary

Miss Emily Grierson was born into an aristocratic family. Isolated at an early age by her father,
Emily is placed on a pedestal by the townspeople, who like to think of her as "a tradition, a
duty," even though they find her haughty and scornful.

Emily appears to have a mental breakdown following the death of her father. She initially
refuses to acknowledge his death, then retreats into her house with a mysterious illness.

One day, Homer Barron and his crew of laborers come to town to build sidewalks. Emily takes
an interest in Homer in spite of the disapproval of the townspeople, who argue that he is too low
class for Emily.

Emily buys some arsenic, but refuses to explain why. Years later, when Emily dies, the
townspeople find a man's skeleton in her bed. It's strongly implied that this skeleton is Homer

Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God

By: Jonathan Edwards
Jonathan Edwards quotes Deuteronomy 32:35: "Their foot
shall slide in due time." In delivering the spoken version of
the sermon, he almost certainly quoted the entire passage.
This quote provides the foundation for the sermon, allowing
Edwards to build an argument around the image of a sinner
standing on the slippery slope of sin.

Edwards uses repetition to great effect in "Sinners in the

Hands of an Angry God." He uses the word "wrath" no less
than 51 times, and he repeatedly returns to the image of Hell as a fiery pit of eternal damnation.
With each repetition, he reinforces the image of God as the ultimate judge poised to either
condemn or absolve sinners as he sees fit.

Edwards relies heavily on imagery and metaphor in his sermon. He draws on the traditional
image of Hell as a pit of fire, embellishing his description with various words associated with
heat ("furnace," "fire," "glow," and "rage," to name a few). In creating this frightful image, he
hopes to scare sinners away from temptation and steer them toward the path of righteousness.

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When you want something to be memorable, you repeat it. In literature, repetition refers
specifically to the recurrence of words, sounds, or phrases. The reason for using repetition, other
than hammering home a particular idea or instruction, is to increase the sense of unity in a work.

The Puritan preacher Jonathan Edwards (1703-1758) relies heavily on the use of repetition in
order to impress upon his audience the urgency of redemption from sin. Two of the most
prominent uses of repetition within the sermon are the words wrath and restrain(s)/restraint.

Edwards uses the word wrath an astonishing fifty-one times. God, he warns, will not be patient
with his errant flock forever. Every day his anger at humanitys sin and indifference towards
their own fate increases. Here are just a few examples of the use of wrath in the text:

On Eternal Damnation: The wrath of God burns against them, their damnation does not
slumber; the pit is prepared, the fire is made ready, the furnace is now hot, ready to
receive them; the flames do now rage and glow.

On the Foolishness of Waiting for Last-Minute Deathbed Conversions: Death outwitted

me: God's wrath was too quick for me. Oh, my cursed foolishness!

On Gods Waning Patience: The wrath of God is like great waters that are dammed for
the present; they increase more and more, and rise higher and higher, till an outlet is
given; and the longer the stream is stopped, the more rapid and mighty is its course, when
once it is let loose.

Another word employed time and again is restrain. Gods mercy, Edwards cautions, is almost
at its end. Over and over, the audience hears that divine restraint is the sole reason why sinners
do not yet burn:

By the mere pleasure of God, I mean his sovereign pleasure, his arbitrary will, restrained
by no obligation, hindered by no manner of difficulty, any more than if nothing else but
God's mere will had in the least degree, or in any respect whatsoever, any hand in the
preservation of wicked men one moment.

In this instance of restraint, Edwards speaks to the authority of God over demons. God alone
restrains them from devouring sinners:

God restrains their wickedness by his mighty power, as he does the raging waves of the
troubled sea, saying, "Hitherto shalt thou come, but no further;" but if God should
withdraw that restraining power, it would soon carry all before it.

The other literary device that makes Edwards's sermon unforgettable is his use of colorful
imagery to illuminate the horrors that await the sinner who dies without redemption:

On Humanitys Inability to Escape Punishment: "Your wickedness makes you as it were

heavy as lead, and to tend downwards with great weight and pressure towards hell; and if
God should let you go, you would immediately sink and swiftly descend and plunge into
the bottomless gulf, and your healthy constitution, and your own care and prudence, and
best contrivance, and all your righteousness, would have no more influence to uphold you
and keep you out of hell, than a spider's web would have to stop a falling rock.

On the Reality of Hell: "O sinner! Consider the fearful danger you are in: it is a great
furnace of wrath, a wide and bottomless pit, full of the fire of wrath, that you are held
over in the hand of that God, whose wrath is provoked and incensed as much against you,
as against many of the damned in hell."

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On Dying Unrepented: "But when once the day of mercy is past, your most lamentable
and dolorous cries and shrieks will be in vain; you will be wholly lost and thrown away
of God, as to any regard to your welfare."

There is a unity of effect Edwards creates through his use of repetition and terrifying
images: to impress upon his audience the gravity of their sin, the growing impatience of
God, and the urgency of repentance.

The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras

By: Mark Twain
The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County Summary
In "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County," old Simon
Wheeler tells the narrator the amusing story of Jim Smiley and his
trained frog. A notorious gambler, Jim was swindled one day when
a stranger fed his frog buckshot and made Jim lose a bet.

At a friend's urging, the narrator goes to visit Simon Wheeler, a

chatty old man who lives in a mining settlement called Angel's
Camp. From him, the narrator hears the story of Jim Smiley and his
celebrated jumping frog.

Before training his frog, Smiley perpetrated a number of betting schemes, including one
involving a bull-pup named Andrew Jackson, who won dog fights by latching onto one of his
opponent's hind legs.

A stranger bets Jim $40 that Jim's frog can't jump any better than any average frog. While Jim's
back is turned, the stranger fills Jim's frog with buckshot. Jim doesn't noticed this until after he
loses the bet, however, and has no way of winning back the money.


Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening

By: Robert Frosy

Whose woods these are I think I know.

His house is in the village, though;
He will not see me stopping here
To watch his woods fill up with snow.

My little horse must think it queer

To stop without a farmhouse near
Between the woods and frozen lake
The darkest evening of the year.

He gives his harness bells a shake

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To ask if there is some mistake.
The only other sounds the sweep
Of easy wind and downy flake.

The woods are lovely, dark, and deep,

But I have promises to keep,
And miles to go before I sleep,
And miles to go before I sleep.

Poem Summary
The speaker in the poem is traveling at night through the snow
and pauses with his horse near the woods by a neighbor's house
to watch the snow falling around him. His horse shakes his
harness bells, questioning the pause; perhaps this place isn't on
their usual route, or he is curious that there doesn't appear to be
a farmhouse nearby.

The speaker continues to stand near the woods, attracted by the

deep, dark silence of his surroundings. He feels compelled to
move further into the snowy woods, but he ultimately decides
to continue, concluding with perhaps the most famous lines of
the poem: 'But I have promises to keep, and miles to go before
I sleep, and miles to go before I sleep.'

'Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening' is one of Robert Frost's most famous poems, filled
with the theme of nature and vivid imagery that readers of his work have come to love. In this
lesson, we'll summarize the poem, discuss its major theme and several interpretations, and finish
with a quiz to test your knowledge.

Theme & Analysis

Like many of Frost's poems, 'Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening' deals with the
contemplation of nature. Many readers debate about whether or not the tone of the poem is calm
and serene or dark and depressing.

The poem consists of four (almost) identically constructed stanzas. Each line is iambic, with four
stressed syllables:
Within the four lines of each stanza, the first, second, and fourth lines rhyme. The third line does
not, but it sets up the rhymes for the next stanza. For example, in the third
stanza, queer, near, and year all rhyme, but lake rhymes with shake, mistake,and flake in the
following stanza.
The notable exception to this pattern comes in the final stanza, where the third line rhymes with
the previous two and is repeated as the fourth line.
Do not be fooled by the simple words and the easiness of the rhymes; this is a very difficult form
to achieve in English without debilitating a poems content with forced rhymes.

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Dark Interpretation
A darker interpretation of the poem addresses exhaustion with life and a longing for death. The
speaker tells us that it's 'the darkest evening of the year,' and the darkness, the isolated spot, and
the cold, frozen lake don't sound like a very inviting place to stop and commune with one's own
thoughts. The season of winter in literature is typically associated with death and darkness;
animals hibernate, plants die, and it will be a long time before the earth wakes up again.

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