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CE 205-MATLAB for Civil Engineers

Irfan Turk
Fatih University, 2013-14
What is MATLAB?
MATLAB stands for MATrix LABoratory.
MATLAB is a high-performance language for technical
computing.
Math , computation, and numerical calculations
Algorithm development
Data acquisition
Modeling, simulation, and prototyping
Data analysis, exploration, and visualization
Scientific and engineering graphics
Application development, including graphical user interface
building
Many toolboxes for different applications
MATLAB ENVIRONMENT
Command Window
Type commands

Current Directory
View folders and m-files

Workspace
View program variables

Command History
View past commands
Editor
Writing the code
Variables & Arrays
Variables :
int b;
No need for types, and pre-defining. double a;
float c;
Variable names must begin with a letter, followed by any
combination of letters, numbers and the underscore (_)
character Example:
>>1B=1;
>>_A1=-8;
All variables are created with double precision(as matrices)
unless specified.
Example:
>>x=1;
>>x1=-8;
Above, the variables are 1x1 matrices with double precision

Note: Matlab is case sensitive.


Variables & Arrays
Arrays :
An array consisting of one element is called a scalar. i.e. A=4.
When B=[1, 2, 3], then B is an array of numbers.
Scalars are also treated as arrays by MATLAB (1 row and 1 column).
Row and column indices of an array start from 1.(not zero as in C,
or in others.
Arrays can be classified as vectors and matrices.

Row 1

Row 2

Row 3
array(2,4)
Row 4

Col 1 Col 2 Col 3 Col 4 Col 5


Variables & Arrays
Arrays :

An array consisting of one element is called a scalar.


i.e. A=4. When B=[1, 2, 3], then B is an array of
numbers.
Scalars are also treated as arrays by MATLAB (1 row
and 1 column).
Row and column indices of an array start from 1.(not
zero as in C, or in others.
Arrays can be classified as vectors and matrices.
Vector and Matrix
Vector: Array with one dimension
C=[1 2 3 4] 1x4 array 4 elements, row vector
1
B= 3 3x1 array 3 elements, column vector
5
Matrix: Array with more than one dimension
1 2
3 4 3x2 matrix 6 elements
A=
5 6
A(3,2)=6 B(3)=5 C(2)=2

Row # Column #
Practice Exercise 2.1
Type the following expressions into MATLAB at the
command prompt, and observe the results:
5+2
5*2
3+2*(4+3)
2.54*8/2.6
6.3-2.1045
3.6^2
1+2^2
sqrt(5)
cos(pi)
Practice Exercise 2.2
Which of the following names are allowed in MATLAB? Make your
predictions, then test them with the isvarname, iskeyword, and which
commands.
1. test
2. Test
3. if
4. my-book
5. my_book
6. Thisisoneeverylongnamebutisitstillallowed?
7. 1stgroup
8. group_1
9. zzaAbc
10. 34wAwy?12#
11. sin
12. log
Operators
+ addition a+b
- subtraction a-b
* multiplication a*b
/ division a/b
^ power a^b
complex conjugate transpose a (apostrophe)
Examples:
Example 1: For a given A(3by3), and B(3by3) matrices,
find A+B, A-B, A*B, B*A,A, B, A^2, and B^2
Example 2:
2*x+3*y+4*z=-2,
4*x -y+ z= 3,
-3*x +3*y+ z=-4
Write the above system by using matrices and find
unkowns (x,y,z)
Operators(Element by element)
.* multiplication a .* b
./ division a ./ b
.^power a .^ b

Example 3: In Example 1, calculate, A.*B, B.*A, A.^2,


B.^2, A./B, and B./A. What are the differences between
the calculations A.*B and A.*B, A^2 and A.^2, A/B and
A./B?
Examples
A = [1 2 3; 4 5 6; 7 8 9] Example 4: For a given A on the
A=
1 2 3 left, do the same or similar
4 5 6 operations as below.
7 8 9

x = A(1,:) y = A(3 ,:) b = x .* y c=x./y d = x .^2

x= y= b= c= d=
1 2 3 7 8 9 7 16 27 0.14 0.25 0.33 1 4 9
Examples
Example 5(in book, it is Example 2.1-2nd question):
Volume V=1000
Temperature T=300
Pressure P=100
Molecular weight MW=29
Gas Constant R=8.314
What is mass=m=? Solve it in Matlab
(PV=nRT, and n=m/MW)
Numeric Display Formats
Matlab Command Display Example

format short 4 decimal digits 3.1416

format long 14 decimal digits 3.145214569

format short e 4 decimal digits scientific notation 1.1234e+002

format long e 14 decimal digits scientific notation 3.12345678901234e+002


2 decimal digits only real values are
format bank displayed 3.14
4 decimal digits engineering
format short eng notation(rounding) 3.1235e+00
14 decimal digits engineering
format long eng notation(rounding) 3.12345678901234e+000
+,-,blank (for positive, negative and
format + zero numbers) +/-/

format rat fractional form 355/54

format short g MATLAB selects the best format 123.46

format long g MATLAB selects the best format 3.1235468


Saving Your Work
diary on / diary(filename) saves your work in the
fine name specified
save <filename> preserves your variables
load <filename> brings your data back, after clearing
whos command shows your variables again
Script M-Files
Using command window is an easy tool for
calculations. But once you close the Matlab, you loose
the calculations if you do not use the extra commands
explained above.
To overcome this issue, it is better to write the codes in
an M file. In this case, your work will be saved as an M
file into the directory you work.
Example
Example:6 (problem 2.20 from the book)
Create a matrix A equal to [-1/3,0,1/3,2/3], and use each
of the built-in format options below to display the
results:
format short (default format)
format long
format short e
format rat
format short g
Example
Example 7:
X=linspace(0,pi,100) % X is a vector
Y=sin(X) % Y is a vector
plot(X,Y)
title(Plotting)
xlabel(This is x label)
ylabel(This is y label)
Example
Example 8: Plot the graphs below.

a) 0x 2*pi, 1+cos(x)
b) -2*pix pi, sin(x)-1
c) -4x 4, x^2-4