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The Evolution 1919 Discovery of messenger
First complete
Genetic fingerprinting
The roundworm C. 2003
Human Trials of Malaria Vaccine
Human trials of a malaria vaccine are
Draft Genome for Wheat
An international team

WEEK of the Revolution 1942 RNA tape copy underway and showing positive results. announces a draft of
synthesis of a gene. is discovered, which is elegans becomes the
The word Messenger RNA plays a key role This cold be the first vaccine against a the wheat genome.
First gene-spliced used today to establish first multi-cellular The Human Genome Project is
biotechnology By carefully feeding cantaloupe mold
in protein synthesis. Messenger
RNA, also known as mRNA, are
DNA from different family relationships 1990 organism to have its completed.
parasitic infection. A hybrid of three
grasses, bread wheat
is used in print in large tanks, American microbiologist organisms. and to identify criminal genome completely Researchers at Canadas Michael
RNA molecules that carry genetic Access to treatment for HIV/ AIDS has 3 genomes and over

2,000 BC 1590 1675 1833

for the first time. Andrew Moyer develops a technique of
producing penicillin in large quantities,
information from the DNA in the 1970 suspects. Chymosin, an enzyme used in
cheese-making, becomes one of
sequenced. Smith Genome Sciences Centre
in British Columbia are the first to
Winnipegs National Microbiology
Laboratory completes the first
The United Nations adopts a political 96 000 genes within

cell nucleus to the protein-making the first food products in Canada to declaration adopted committed to one plant, making it
launching its career as a wonder drug. sequence the SARS genome.
machinery in the cell cytoplasm. Swiss scientish genetic sequencing of the H1N1 expanding access to treatment for AIDS particularly complex
Egyptians and Dutch spectacle- Dutch student of First enzyme be manufactured with recombinant
flu virus, just as the disease is
For some time after the discovery Werner Arber, techniques. Normally extracted for 15 million people by 2015. In Europe, to decipher.
Sumerians learn maker Zacharias natural history discovered and Stanley Cohen and Herbert
1855 1885 of DNAs genetic role and the discover that reaching international pandemic measures are already in place to achieve
brewing and Janssen invents the and microscope- isolated. from rennet, an enzyme complex
Boyer develop recombinant
1941 deciphering of its double-stranded bacterica defent proportions. this goal. European biotechnology
cheese making. microscope. maker Antonij van
1838 The Escherichia Vaccine for Rabis disease
In Toronto, Dr.
Frederick Banting
structure (by Crick and Watson), 1968 themselves DNA technology. Con-
sidered to be the birth of
found in the lining of a cow
stomach, chymosin is now scientists launched a clinical trial of an 2013
discovers bacteria. coli bacterium is discovered. and his assistant Danish microbiologist 1953
researchers remained perplexed
about how exactly the genetic Marshall W. Nirenberg and Har
against viruses
by cutting the modern biotechnology, they 1982 1986 produced directly in agents such
1999 2005
anti-HIV biotech medicine produced using
genetically modified tobacco- a first of its
4,000 BC 1859 as e.coli bacteria. The first bionic eye has
Swedish discovered. Pasteur vaccinated a young boy Charles Best A. Justin coins the information was conveyed from the Gobind Khorana win the Nobel birus DNA using complete the first successful
The billionth biotech kind study in the EU. If the Phase I study seen the light of day in the
chemist Jns It later becomes who had been bitten by a rabid discover insulin term genetic James Watson and genes to the cytoplasm to produce Prize for deciphering the genetic special restriction genetic engineering exper- The first The first genetically German and Swiss is successful, larger trials will follow and United States, giving hope to
The Human Genome Project acre is planted by one of
Egyptians Jakob a major research, Charles dog. This vaccine was made as a treatment for engineering, Francis Crick are the proteins required for cellular codes of the 20 amino acids, enzymes. These iment by inserting a gene recombinant DNA engineered plants are scientists develop
500 BC is launched. This international, 8.5 million farmers in one researchers foresee a new antibody which the blind around the world.
master the art of Berzelius development and Darwins from the extract of the spinal diabetes. the first to describe leading researchers to later from an African clawed toad vaccine for livestock grown outside in fields for golden rice, fortified
a technique involving functions. enzymes are now 13-year effort to determine the Quebecbased firm Medicago will be combined with other medication Developed by Second Sight
discovers production tool column of a rabies infected is developed. the first time in the USA. with betacarotene, of 21 countries.
winemaking. landmark book, the transfer of a select the double helix The French biologists Francois conclude that the genetic code is widely used in into bacterial DNA. grows H5N1 (bird flu) vaccine to offer better protection against HIV/
sequences of the three billion Medical Products, the Argus II
In China, moldy proteins. for biotechnology. The Origin of rabbit. A modified version of structure of DNA. universal among all living things. They are genetically altered which stimulates
piece of genetic Jacob and Jacques Monod received modern DNA chemical base pairs that make up in tobacco leaves. The product AIDS at a far cheaper price, thus allowing Retinal Prosthesis System has
soybean curds Species is this vaccination is still used tobacco plants. production of
material from one the Nobel Prize in Physiology technologies. the DNA of a person, eventually becomes the first plantbased influ- wider access to treatment in poorer helped more than 60 people
become the first published. today, and has saved thousands organism to another. or Medicine for their part in this Vitamin A, thus enza vaccine to undergo human
identifies 20,00025,000 genes. countries. recover partial sight, with
antibiotic to treat of lives. research in 1965. preventing forms trials in Canada. some experiencing better
infections and ailments. of blindness.
results than others.

300 BC 1663 1796 1839-1855 1861 1928 1958 1962 1976 1977 1989 2007 2010 2013
DNA is Nobel Prize for the discovery of the The sequence of Herbert Boyer, founder of Discovery of defective gene for cystic First Vaccine against human First synthetic cell The world celebrates the
Greeks develop English physicist, First small pox vaccine is German scientists French chemist Scottish produced in Double Helix structure of DNA nucleic acid base the pioneer biotechnology fibrosis by Dr. Lap-Chee Tsui at Torontos papillomavirus In May 2010, J. Craig Venter 60th anniversary of Watson
8,000 BC grafting techniques mathematician discovered. Matthias Schleiden and Louis Pasteur
1865 bacteriologist a test tube The Nobel Prize in Physiology Norman Borlaug becomes the first plant pairs that combine firm Genentech, uses E. coli Hospital for Sick Children. Similar The first vaccine against Institute created the first fully and Cricks discovery of the
for plant breeding. and inventor
Robert Hooke
Edward Jenner discovered
the process of vaccination
Theodor Schwann
propose that all
pasteurization, 1870-1910
Sir Alexander
Fleming discovers
for the first or Medicine 1962 was awarded breeder to win a Nobel Prize, for his work on to make DNA is bacteria to produce human discoveries later link specific genes to 1997 human papillomavirus- a A Canadian team of scientists and
engineers from the University
synthetic, self-replicating bacterial double helix
Biotechnology After seven years of time. jointly to Francis Harry Compton new wheat varieties that increase yields by determined for the insulin. The technique other disorders, such as autism, cause of cancer- is approved cell, which was named Synthia.
begins, as humans discovers the by inoculating a small organisms are a process that penicillin as an The world meets Dolly the sheep, of Toronto develop a microchip
cultivating and testing Crick, James Dewey Watson and 70 per cent. This marks the beginning of the first time for a represents a significant Huntingtons Disease, and a rare heart for use by women and girls While the U.S. government has
existence of the boy with cowpox and composed of cells. protects food Father of modern plant antibiotic. with nanoscale components to
begin choosing or Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins for Green Revolution in world agriculture. specific gene. improvement in the efficiency problem known as Right Ventricular the first cloned mammal. UNESCO in more than 80 countries. plugged $430 million into synthetic
cell. then trying to re-infect by heating it to thousands of pea plants, breeding Luther Burbank
altering plants their discoveries concerning the and long term viability of Cardiomyopathy. Each has added to adopts the Universal Declaration detect chemical markers for can- biology since 2005, most of it
him with smallpox. The kill dangerous Gregor Mendel publishes develops over 800 new strains
and livestock so molecular structure of nucleic acids producing this vital medical a growing knowledge of the complex on the Human Genome and cer, a technique that could make has gone toward developing
Prussian physician Rudolf a description of rules of fruits, vegetables and flowers. American microbiologist Daniel Nathans
boy recovered from the microbes. diagnosis much faster.
they can be
domesticated. weaker cowpox infection Virchow declares:
governing how hereditary
traits pass between
His blight-resistant Burbank
potato is heavily planted across
1943 and its significance for information
transfer in living material.
discovers the first restriction enzyme that
can cut DNA into pieces for various
therapy, formerly extracted
from limited supplies of
relationship between gene function and
Human Rights, recognizing the
human genome as a common
alternative fuels. Some firms are
now starting to leverage the
Potatoes become and thus became immune heritage that must be safeguarded
studies and applications. The restriction animal tissues that could lead The international Potato Genome technology for medical purposes.
the first cultivated to smallpox. The cowpox cell generations, the foundation Ireland, ending the potato Canadian scientist
enzyme technique becomes a fundamental to allergic reactions. The vast from inappropriate manipulation. Sequencing Consortium, releases
of modern genetics.
food. virus was called Vaccinia, originates from famine. Oswald Theodore
tool in modern genetic research, helping majority of insulin used in a draft of the full sequence of
Avery isolates pure
from the Latin word for cow, another Botanist William James Beal DNA.
to create the biotechnology industry and the today is now produced genome of the potato, the worlds
Vacca. This is how the word
Vaccine came into use.
cell. produces the first experimental providing the basis for the Human Genome through this recombinant third most important crop.
Project. method.
corn hybrid in the laboratory.

2,000 BC 1838

4,000 BC 1859 1942 2011 2012

1961 1971 1984 1998 2009
1590 1675 1833 1885 1919 2003
1855 1968
1922 1941 1953 1973

The Evolution of the Revolution


500 BC 1958 1962 1970 1982 1986

1663 1796 1839-1855 1861 1928 1999 2005

300 BC 1865 1976 1977 1989 2007 2010 2013

8,000 BC