This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search This article is about mathematical processing of digital images. For artistic processing of images, see Image editing. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Image processing. (Discuss) This article needs additional citations for verification.
Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (January 2009)
Digital image processing is the use of computer algorithms to perform image processing on digital images. As a subcategory or field of digital signal processing, digital image processing has many advantages over analog image processing. It allows a much wider range of algorithms to be applied to the input data and can avoid problems such as the build-up of noise and signal distortion during processing. Since images are defined over two dimensions (perhaps more) digital image processing may be modeled in the form of Multidimensional Systems.
• • •
1 History 2 Tasks 3 Applications
3.1 Digital camera images 3.2 Film
• • • •
4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External links
Many of the techniques of digital image processing, or digital picture processing as it often was called, were developed in the 1960s at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Bell Laboratories, University of Maryland, and a few other research facilities, with application to satellite imagery, wire-photo standards conversion, medical imaging, videophone, character recognition, and photograph enhancement. The cost of processing was fairly high, however, with the computing equipment of that era. That changed in the 1970s, when digital image processing proliferated as cheaper computers and dedicated hardware became available.
Images then could be processed in real time, for some dedicated problems such as television standards conversion. As general-purpose computers became faster, they started to take over the role of dedicated hardware for all but the most specialized and compute-intensive operations. With the fast computers and signal processors available in the 2000s, digital image processing has become the most common form of image processing and generally, is used because it is not only the most versatile method, but also the cheapest. Digital image processing technology for medical applications was inducted into the Space Foundation Space Technology Hall of Fame in 1994.
Digital image processing allows the use of much more complex algorithms for image processing, and hence, can offer both more sophisticated performance at simple tasks, and the implementation of methods which would be impossible by analog means. In particular, digital image processing is the only practical technology for:
• • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Classification Feature extraction Pattern recognition Projection Multi-scale signal analysis Pixelization Linear filtering Principal components analysis Independent component analysis Hidden Markov models Partial differential equations Self-organizing maps Neural networks Wavelets
Some techniques which are used in digital image processing include:
Further information: Digital imaging
 Digital camera images
Digital cameras generally include dedicated digital image processing chips to convert the raw data from the image sensor into a color-corrected image in a standard image file format. Images from digital cameras often receive further processing to improve their quality, a distinct advantage that digital cameras have over film cameras. The digital image processing typically is executed by special software programs that can manipulate the images in many ways. Many digital cameras also enable viewing of histograms of images, as an aid for the photographer to understand the rendered brightness range of each shot more readily.
Early History of Computer Graphics in Film. Digital Image Processing. ^ A Brief.com/. ISBN 0-333-99451-5. ISBN 0-534-95393-X. John Wiley. ISBN 1846283795 and ISBN 3540309403. Burge (2007). Fisher. E. R. K Dawson-Howe. Space Foundation. Dictionary of Computer Vision and Image Processing. 3. retrieved 24 March 2010  Further reading • Wilhelm Burger and Mark J. Bernd Jähne (2002). Milan Sonka. • • • •  External links . Digital Image Processing: An Algorithmic Approach Using Java. Picture Processing by Computer. ISBN 3-540-67754-2.spacetechhalloffame. PWS Publishing. Palgrave Macmillan. A. http://www. 1969 2. Robertson. 16 Aug 2002 (last update). C. Vaclav Hlavac and Roger Boyle (1999). Analysis. Computer Vision and Image Processing. Fitzgibbon. Springer. http://www. Tim Morris (2004). Image Processing.  See also • • • • • • • • • • • • Computer graphics Computer vision Digitizing Endrov GPGPU ImageJ FIJI (software) Homomorphic filtering OpenCV Standard test image Super-resolution Multidimensional systems  References 1.html. Film Westworld (1973) was the first feature film to use digital image processing to pixellate photography to simulate an android's point of view. Trucco (2005). New York: Academic Press. ^ "Space Technology Hall of Fame:Inducted Technologies/1994". Springer. and Machine Vision. ISBN 0-470-01526-8. Retrieved 7 January 2010. 1994.org/inductees_1994_Digital_Image_Processing.imagingbook. Larry Yaeger. ^ Azriel Rosenfeld.
implementations and demonstrations [hide] v•d•e Digital signal processing Discrete frequency · Nyquist–Shannon sampling theorem · estimation theory · detection theory audio signal processing · control engineering · digital image processing · speech processing · statistical signal processing Theory Sub-fields Technique Discrete Fourier transform (DFT) · Discrete-time Fourier transform (DTFT) · s Impulse invariance · bilinear transform · Z-transform. advanced Z-transform oversampling · undersampling · downsampling · upsampling · aliasing · antialiasing filter · sampling rate · Nyquist rate/frequency Retrieved from "http://en.• • Tutorial for image processing (contains a Java applet) Image processing algorithms.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_image_processing" Categories: Computer vision | Image processing Hidden categories: Articles to be merged from March 2010 | All articles to be merged | Articles needing additional references from January 2009 | All articles needing additional references Sampling Personal tools • • • • Views New features Log in / create account Article Discussion Namespaces Variants • • • Actions Search Read Edit View history Top of Form Special:Search Search Bottom of Form Navigation .
• • • • • • • • • • • Toolbox Main page Contents Featured content Current events Random article About Wikipedia Community portal Recent changes Contact Wikipedia Donate to Wikipedia Help What links here Related changes Upload file Special pages Permanent link Cite this page Create a book Download as PDF Printable version Català Česky Español فارسی 한국어 Italiano Bahasa Melayu Nederlands 日本語 Polski Português ไทย Interaction • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Print/export Languages .
or pixels. The pixels can be changed as a group. These pixels contain the image's color and brightness information.13 Sharpening and softening images 4. Image editors can change the pixels to enhance the image in many ways.7 Removal of unwanted elements 4. are used to create and modify vector images.4 Cropping an image 4.3 Image size alteration 4.1 Selection 4.5 Histogram 4. which are stored as descriptions of lines. how to go about vectorizing a raster image is the focus of much research in the field of computer vision.16 Special effects 4. and text instead of pixels. Vector .17 Change color depth 4.19 Color adjustments 4.2 Layers 4. It is easier to rasterize a vector image than to vectorize a raster image. such as Adobe Illustrator or Inkscape.18 Contrast change and brightening 4.12 Enhancing images 4.20 Printing • • • 5 See also 6 References 7 External links  Basics of image editing Raster images are stored in a computer in the form of a grid of picture elements. Bézier splines. or individually.• • 3 Digital data compression 4 Image editor features ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ 4.15 Slicing of images 4.11 Lens correction 4.9 Image orientation 4.8 Selective color change 4.10 Perspective control and distortion 4. vector graphics software. which are often used to alter photographs and other raster graphics.14 Selecting and merging of images 4. However. by the sophisticated algorithms within the image editors. The domain of this article primarily refers to bitmap graphics editors.6 Noise reduction 4.
Popular raster-based digital image editors include Adobe Photoshop. vector-based pen tools as well as more advanced facilities such as edge detection. which are analogous to sheets of transparent acetate (each containing separate elements that make up a combined picture). altered and blended with the layers below. GIMP. or can be done in the computer with the image editor. The more powerful programs contain functionality to perform a large variety of advanced image manipulations. such as a marquee tool. thus applying a change selectively without affecting the entire picture. Some compression algorithms. masking. such as those listed above.  Image editor features Listed below are some of the most used capabilities of the better graphic manipulation programs. Most graphics programs have several means of accomplishing this. convert. and color and channel-based extraction. By contrast. which means no information is lost when the file is saved. because they contain descriptions of the shapes for easy rearrangement. that perform such operations as rotating and cropping are often provided within the digital camera itself. the more information is lost.  Editing programs Further information: List of raster graphics editors Due to the popularity of digital cameras. This is a fundamental workflow which has become the norm for the majority of programs on the market . or otherwise edit images. while others are returned to the user on a compact disc (CD) when images are processed at a discount store.  Digital data compression Many image file formats use data compression to reduce file size and save storage space. image editing programs are readily available. such as those used in PNG file format. Both cameras and computer programs allow the user to set the level of compression. there exist many batch image processing tools that let one resize. Corel Photo-Paint. Paint Shop Pro and Paint. lasso. stacked on top of each other. JPEG uses knowledge of the way the human brain and eyes perceive color to make this loss of detail less noticeable. the JPEG file format uses a lossy compression algorithm by which the greater the compression. alpha compositing. Digital compression of images may take place in the camera. compression has already taken place. The list is by no means all inclusive. ultimately reducing image quality or detail that can not be restored.images can be modified more easily. being rasterizable at any resolution. Besides programs that mainly concentrate on editing one image at a time. When images are stored in JPEG format. watermark.NET.  Layers Main article: Layers (digital image editing) Another feature common to many graphics applications is that of Layers. without affecting any of the elements on the other layers.  Selection One of the prerequisites for many of the applications mentioned below is a method of selecting part(s) of an image. are lossless. each capable of being individually positioned. They are also scalable. There are a myriad of choices associated with the application of most of these features. Minimal programs.
The unwanted part of the image is discarded.  Image size alteration Image editors can resize images in a process often called image scaling. Images for Internet use are kept small. and enables maximum flexibility for the user while maintaining non-destructive editing principles and ease of use. High image resolution cameras can produce large images which are often reduced in size for Internet use. say 640 x 480 pixels which would equal 0.3 megapixels.  Cropping an image Main article: Cropping (image) Digital editors are used to crop images. .today. Uncropped image from camera Lilly cropped from larger image  Histogram Main article: Curve (tonality) Image editors have provisions to create an image histogram of the image being edited. A primary reason for cropping is to improve the image composition in the new image. Image cropping does not reduce the resolution of the area cropped. Improvements in picture brightness and contrast can thus be obtained. Algorithms in the digital editor allow the user to visually adjust the brightness value of each pixel and to dynamically display the results as adjustments are made. Image editor programs use a mathematical process called resampling to calculate new pixel values whose spacing is larger or smaller than the original pixel values. Best results are obtained when the original image has a high resolution. Cropping creates a new image by selecting a desired rectangular portion from the image being cropped. or smaller. making them larger. The histogram plots the number of pixels in the image (vertical axis) with a particular brightness value (horizontal axis).
using a "clone" tool. etc. Excessive noise reduction leads to a loss of detail. dust and scratches can be removed and an image can be despeckled. A new picture can be given an 'antiquated' effect by adding uniform monochrome noise.Histogram of Sunflower image Sunflower image  Noise reduction Main article: Noise reduction Image editors may feature a number of algorithms which can add or remove noise in an image.  Removal of unwanted elements Most image editors can be used to remove unwanted branches. Noise reduction merely estimates the state of the scene without the noise and is not a substitute for obtaining a "cleaner" image. improving overall composition. and its application is hence subject to a trade-off between the undesirability of the noise itself and that of the reduction artifacts. Removing these distracting elements draws focus to the subject. JPEG artifacts can be removed. Noise tends to invade images when pictures are taken in low light settings. Notice the branch in the original The eye is drawn to the center of the globe .
the original is on the left. and flipped. given that the selected items are within a specific color range. An example of selective color change. The original car is on the right. Selective color change Some image editors have color swapping abilities to selectively change the color of specific items in an image. . -30° CCW rotation.  Image orientation Image orientation (from left to right): original.
Edge enhancement is an extremely common technique used to make images appear sharper. or both. to make an image lighter or darker. The corrections are in most cases subtle. the process of improving the quality of a digitally stored image by manipulating the image with software. Some image editors allow the user to distort (or "transform") the shape of an image. correct verticality (of a building. such as unsharp masking or deconvolution. A small rotation of several degrees is often enough to level the horizon. Portraits often appear more pleasing when selectively softened (particularly the skin and the background) to better make the subject stand out.  Enhancing images In computer graphics. but can improve the appearance of some photographs. Programs specialized for image enhancement are sometimes called image editors. which achieves a similar correction in-camera without loss of definition. as the image is reprocessed using interpolation of adjacent pixels. although purists frown on the result as appearing unnatural.Image editors are capable of altering an image to be rotated in any direction and to any degree. . or in the image editor by making a selection and then blurring it. which may reduce overall image definition. for example).  Lens correction Photo manipulation packages have functions to correct images for various lens distortions including pincushion. It is quite easy. This can be achieved with a camera by using a large aperture.  Sharpening and softening images Graphics programs can be used to both sharpen and blur images in a number of ways.  Perspective control and distortion Main article: Perspective control Perspective control: original (left). in order to remove the resulting gaps at the image edges. fisheye and barrel distortions. for example. perspective distortion removed (right). Rotated images usually require cropping afterwards. Care is needed while performing this task. it is the preferred method of correcting the typical perspective distortion which results from photographs being taken at an oblique angle to a rectilinear subject. or to increase or decrease contrast. While this might also be useful for special effects. Mirror images can be created and images can be horizontally flipped or vertically flopped. Advanced photo enhancement software also supports many filters for altering images in various ways. The effect mimics the use of a perspective control lens.
See also: Slicing (interface design)  Special effects . and the image with parts to be added are placed in a layer above that. also known as silhouetting. A popular way to create a composite image is to use transparent layers. Alpha compositing. The background image is used as the bottom layer. The selection may also be saved in what is known as an alpha channel. Software used: Adobe Photoshop Many graphics applications are capable of merging one or more individual images into a single file. or into a separate file.  Slicing of images A more recent tool in digital image editing software is the image slicer. selecting the edges by raster tracing. all but the parts to be merged are hidden from the layer. Using an image layer mask. Selecting and merging of images Photomontage of 16 photos which have been digitally manipulated to give the impression that it is a real landscape. labeled and saved separately from whole images so the parts can be handled individually by the display medium. Once the image is selected. allows for soft translucent edges when selecting images. This is useful to allow dynamic swapping via interactivity or animating parts of an image in the final presentation. or converting a clipping path to a raster selection. There are a number of ways to silhouette an image with soft edges including selecting the image or its background by sampling similar colors. it may be copied and pasted into another section of the same file. it requires separating the edges from the background. Performing a merge in this manner preserves all of the pixel data on both layers to more easily enable future changes in the new merged image. The orientation and placement of each image can be controlled. Clipping paths may be used to add silhouetted images to vector graphics or page layout files that retain vector data. When selecting a raster image that is not rectangular. Parts of images for graphical user interfaces or web pages are easily sliced. This is the digital version of cutting out the image. giving the impression that these parts have been added to the background layer.
geometric transforms and texture effects. grayscale images of 8 bits or less can be created.5 thousand and 16. usually via conversion and down-sampling .An example of some special effects that can be added to a picture. to change the color depth of images. Scores of special effects can be applied to an image which include various forms of distortion. or combinations thereof. Image editors usually have a list of special effects that can create unusual results. The JPEG and PNG image formats are capable of storing 16. 4. 16. 65. 256. It is possible. In addition. Images may be skewed and distorted in various ways.7 million colors. Common color depths are 2.7 million colors (equal to 256 luminance values per color channel). artistic effects. using software.  Change color depth An example of converting an image from color to grayscale.
0) value = value * ( 1. The exact transformation that is applied to each color channel can vary from editor to editor.from a full color image.  Contrast change and brightening An example of contrast correction.5.value) * brightness).  Color adjustments An example of color adjustment using raster graphics editor .0. Image editors have provisions to simultaneously change the contrast of images and brighten or darken the image. where value is the input color value in the 0. Left side of the image is untouched. Recent advances have allowed more intelligent exposure correction whereby only pixels below a particular luminosity threshold are brightened. value = (value .1 range.1 range and brightness and contrast are in the -1..0 + brightness). Underexposed images can often be improved by using this feature. else value = value + ((1. GIMP applies the following formula: if (brightness < 0..5) * (tan ((contrast + 1) * PI/4) ) + 0.0 . thereby brightening underexposed shadows without affecting the rest of the image.
Within the Image Size dialog (as it is called in Photoshop). but in use are very different.  Printing Control printed image by changing ppi. These parameters work together to produce a printed image of the desired size and quality. which is important if the picture was shot indoors with daylight film. can also be eliminated at this stage. Pixels per inch of the image. which occurs when flash photos are taken when the pupil is too widely open (so that light from the flash that passes into the eye through the pupil reflects off the fundus at the back of the eyeball). more complicated procedures such as the mixing of color channels are possible using more advanced graphics editors. a 1600 x 1200 image with a ppi of 200 will . Colors can be faded in and out. The Image Size dialog can be used as an image calculator of sorts.Color retouched photo (cycles every 3 seconds) The color of images can be altered in a variety of ways. The color balance can be improved. and dots per inch on the printed document are related. and tones can be changed using curves or other tools. like sepia and grayscale can be added to a image. pixel per inch of the computer monitor. For example. In addition. or shot on a camera with the white balance incorrectly set. Special effects. the image editor allows the user to manipulate both pixel dimensions and the size of the image on the printed document. The red-eye effect. Controlling the print size and quality of digital images requires an understanding of the pixelsper-inch (ppi) variable that is stored in the image file and sometimes used to control the size of the printed image.
produce a printed image of 8 x 6 inches. and the same image now prints out at 2 x 1. The same image with a ppi of 400 will produce a printed image of 4 x 3 inches. Please improve this article by introducing more precise citations where appropriate.NET Photo manipulation Photoshop contest Raster graphics  References This article includes a list of references. Change the ppi to 800. related reading or external links. All three printed images contain the same data (1600 x 1200 pixels) but the pixels are closer together on the smaller prints. so the smaller images will potentially look sharp when the larger ones do not.  See also • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Adobe Photoshop Color space Comparison of raster graphics editors Computer graphics Curve (tonality) Digital darkroom Digital image processing Digital painting Dynamic imaging GIMP Graphics file format summary Graphic art software Homomorphic filtering Image development (visual arts) Image distortion Image processing Image retrieval Image warping Inpainting Layers (digital image editing) Paint. and Topaz . (April 2009) 1. The quality of the image will also depend on the capability of the printer. ^ Implementations include Imagic Photo.5 inches. but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations.
"It's hard to tell where pixels end and reality begins. "Skin Improvement Technology". artist Anthony Goicolea creates an intriguing world. Mass. http://www.html. and Photoshop 3. Retrieved from "http://en.com/About_Us/Articles/JPFix_Skin_Improvement_Technol/jpfix_skin_improve ment_technol. • • • "Fantasy. ^ Implementations include FocusMagic.org/wiki/Image_editing" Categories: Digital photography | Graphic design | Image processing | Wikipedia how-to | Photographic techniques Hidden categories: Articles needing additional references from May 2008 | All articles needing additional references | Articles lacking in-text citations from April 2009 | All articles lacking intext citations Personal tools • • • • Views New features Log in / create account Article Discussion Namespaces Variants • • • Actions Search Read Edit View history Top of Form Special:Search Search Bottom of Form Navigation • Main page . 4. 2006. Cambridge. "Virtual Art: From Illusion to Immersion. ^  GIMP source code for brightness and contrast image filtering.jpfix. ^ JPFix. June 19.2. Retrieved 2008-08-23. fairy tale and myth collide in images: By digitally altering photos of landscapes." The San Francisco Chronicle.wikipedia." MIT Press 2002. September 26. 2006." The Vancouver Sun (British Columbia).  External links Easy online image editor: Image ReCreator.
• • • • • • • • • • Toolbox Contents Featured content Current events Random article About Wikipedia Community portal Recent changes Contact Wikipedia Donate to Wikipedia Help What links here Related changes Upload file Special pages Permanent link Cite this page Create a book Download as PDF Printable version Bosanski Dansk Deutsch Español Français Bahasa Indonesia Nederlands 日本語 Norsk (bokmål) Português Русский Suomi Svenska Interaction • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Print/export Languages .
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.