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Source: Pinoybix (RADIO WAVES RADIATION & PROPAGATION) 11.

Electromagnetic Waves are refracted when they


___________.
1. ________ is the amount of voltage induced in wave by a. pass into a medium of different dielectric constants
an electro magnetic wave. b. are polarized at right angles to the direction of
a. receive voltage propagation
b. magnetic induction c. encounter a perfectly conducting surface
c. field strength d. pass through a small slot in a conducting plane
d. power density
12. What is the highest layer of the atmosphere?
2. An electro magnetic wave consists of ___________. a. ionosphere
a. both electric and magnetic fields. b. stratosphere
b. an electric field only c. troposphere
c. a magnetic field only d. ozone layer
d. non-magnetic field only
13. What is the thickest layer of the ionosphere?
3. What is the lowest layer of the ionosphere? a. F2
a. F1 b. F1
b. F2 c. D
c. E d. E
d. D
14. Effective Earth radius to true earth radius ratio.
4. Who propounded electro magnetic radiation theory? a. index of refraction
a. Sir Edward Appleton b. K factor
b. James Clerk Maxwell c. Fresnel zone
c. Christian Huygens d. path profile
d. Sir Isaac Newton
15. Fading due to interference between direct and reflected
5. The D, E and F layers are known as ____________. rays.
a. Mark space Layers a. atmospheric-multipath
b. Davinson- Miller Layers b. Fresnel zone
c. Kennely Heaviside Layers c. reflection-multipath
d. Appleton Layers d. Rayleigh fading

6. Different grouping of the electromagnetic spectrum. 16. The layer that reflects very low frequency waves and
a. band absorbs medium frequency waves.
b. bandwidth a. D Layer
c. channel b. E Layer
d. group c. F1 Layer
d. F2 Layer
7. What is the relation in degrees of the electric and
magnetic fields in an electromagnetic wave? 17. What layer is used for high-frequency day time
a. 180 degrees propagation?
b. 90 degrees a. D Layer
c. 270 degrees b. E Layer
d. 45 degrees c. F1 Layer
d. F2 Layer
8. A changing electric field gives rise to ________.
a. a magnetic field 18. What is the highest frequency that can be sent straight
b. sound field upward and be returned to earth?
c. electromagnetic waves a. MUF
d. near and far fields b. skip frequency
c. critical frequency
9. Frequencies in the UHF range propagate by means of d. gyro frequency
a. ground waves
b. sky waves 19. High frequency range is from?
c. surface waves a. 0.3 to 3MHz
d. space waves b. 3 to 30MHz
c. 30 to 300MHz
10. In electromagnetic waves, polarization __________. d. 3to 30MHz
a. is caused by reflection
b. is due to the transverse nature of the waves 20. Medium frequency range is from
c. results from the longitudinal nature of the waves a. 0.01 to 0.03 MHz
d. is always vertical in an isotropic medium b. 0.03 to 0.3MHz
c. 0.3 to 3MHz
d. 3 to 30 MHz
21. In tropospheric scatter propagation, the attenuation is 30. Light goes from medium A to medium B at angle of
dependent on incidence of 40 degrees. The angle of refraction is 30
a. scatter angle degrees. The speed of light in B
b. take-off angle a. is the same as that in A
c. antenna size b. is greater than that in A
d. the troposphere c. maybe any of these, depending on the specific medium
d. is less than that in A
22. If the transmitter power remains constant, an increase
in the frequency of the sky wave will 31. In a vacuum, the speed of an electromagnetic wave
a. lengthen the skip distance a. depends on its constant
b. increase the range of the ground wave b. depends on its wavelength
c. reduce the length of the skip distance c. depends on its electric and magnetic fields
d. have no effect on the ground wave range d. is a universal constant

23. What is the unit of electric field strength? 32. The depth of an object submerged in a transparent
a. volts per square meter liquid
b. volt per square cm a. always seems more that its actual depth
c. volts per meter b may seem less or more than its actual depth, depending
d. millivolt per watt on the object
c. always seems less than its actual depth
24. Velocity of a radio wave in free space. d. may seem less or more than its actual depth, depending
a. 186,000 miles per sec on the transparent liquid
b. 300x106 meters per sec
c. 162,000 nautical mile per sec 33. What is a wave front?
d. all of the above a. a voltage pulse in a conductor
b. a current in a conductor
25. Refers to the direction of the electric field vector in c. a fixed point in an electromagnetic wave
space. d. a voltage pulse across a resistor
a. polarization
b. directivity 34. VHF ship station transmitters must have the capability
c. radiation of reducing carrier power to
d. ERP a. 1 W
b. 10 W
26. An TEM wave whose polarization rotates. c. 25 W
a. vertically polarized d. 50 W
b. omnidirectional
c. horizontally polarized 35. Most of the effects an electro magnetic wave produces
d. circularly polarized when it interacts with matter are due to its
a. magnetic field
27. velocity of light in free space b. speed
a. 300x106 m/s c. frequency
b. 300x106 km/s d. electric field
c. 186,000 km/s
d. 186,000 m/s
36. A mobile receiver experiences dead areas of reception
28. What is the effective radiated power of a repeater with as a result of
200W transmitter power output, 4dB feed line loss, 4dB a. atmospheric absorption
duplexer and circulator loss, and 10dB feed line antenna b. tropospheric scatter
gain? c. sporadic E
a. 2000 W d. shading of the RF signal by hills and trees
b. 126 W
c. 317 W 37. When the electric field is perpendicular in the surface of
d. 260 W the earth, what is the polarization of the TEM wave?
a. elliptical
29. Radio wave that is far from its sources is called b. vertical
a. Plane wave c. horizontal
b. isotropic wave d. circular
c. vertical wave
d. horizontal wave 38. When the magnetic field is perpendicular to the surface
of
the earth, what is the polarization of the TEM wave?
a. circular
b. horizontal
c. vertical
d. elliptical
39. When the magnetic field is parallel to the surface of the 48. If N = 250, what is the earth radius K-factor?
earth, what is the polarization of the TEM wave? a. 1.23
a. elliptical b. 1.29
b. horizontal c. 1.33
c. vertical d. 1.32
d. circular
49. Electric field that lies in a plane perpendicular to the
40. What are the two interrelated fields considered to make earths surface
up an electromagnetic wave a. vertical polarization
a. an electric field and a current field b. horizontal polarization
b. an electric field and voltage field c. circular polarization
c. an electric field and a magnetic field d. elliptical polarization
d. a voltage and current fields
50. Electric field that lies in a plane parallel to the earths
41. How does the bandwidth of the transmitted signal affect surface
selective fading? a. vertical polarization
a. it is more pronounced at narrow bandwidths b. horizontal polarization
b. it is equally pronounced at both narrow and wide c. circular polarization
bandwidths d. elliptical polarization
c. it is more pronounced at wide bandwidths
d. the receiver bandwidth determines the selective fading 51. Indicate which one of the following terms applies to
troposcatter propagation
42. A wide-bandwidth communications systems in which a. SIDs
the RF carrier varies according to some predetermined b. fading
sequence. c. atmospheric storms
a. amplitude compandored single sideband d. faraday rotation
b. SITOR
c. spread spectrum communication 52. VLF waves are used for some types of services because
d. time-domain frequency modulation a. of the low power required
b the transmitting antennas are of convenient size
43. A changing magnetic field gives rise to c. they are very reliable
a. sound field d. they penetrate the ionosphere easily
b. magnetic field
c. electric field 53. Indicate which of the following frequencies cannot be
d. nothing in particular used for reliable beyond-the-horizon terrestrial
communications without repeaters
44. When a space-wave signal passes over a mountain ridge, a. 20 KHz
a small part of the signal is diffracted down the far side of b. 15 MHz
the mountain. This phenomenon is called c. 900 MHz
a. discontinuity scattering d. 12 GHz
b. troposheric ducting
c. knife-edge diffraction 54. High-frequency waves are
d. space-wave refraction a. absorbed by the F2 layer
b. reflected by the D layer
45. The index of refraction of a material medium c. capable of use for long-distance communications on the
a. is greater than 1 moon
b. is less than 1 d. affected by the solar cycle
c. is equal to 1
d. maybe any of the above 55. Distances near the skip distance should be used for sky-
wave propagation
46. At what speed do electromagnetic waves travel in free a. to avoid tilting
space? b. to prevent sky-wave and upper ray interference
a. approximately 468 million meters per second c. to avoid the faraday effect
b. approximately 186300 ft/s d. so as not to exceed the critical frequency
c. approximately 300 million m/s
d. approximately 300 million miles/s 56. A ship-to-ship communications system is plague by
fading. The best solution seems to be the use of
47. What is the effective earth radius when surface a. a more directional antenna
refractivity, and N equals 300? b. a broadband antenna
a. 6370 km c. frequency diversity
b.7270 km d. space diversity
c.7950 km
d. 8500 km
57. A range of microwave frequencies more easily passed by 66. The highest frequencies are found in
the atmosphere than are the others is called a a. X-rays
a. window b. Radio waves
b. critical frequency c. Ultraviolet rays
c. gyro frequency range d. Radar waves
d. resonance in the atmosphere
67. Electromagnetic waves transport
58. frequencies in the UHF range normally propagate by a. Wavelength
means of b. Charge
a. ground waves. c. Frequency
b. sky waves d. Energy
c. surface waves
d. space waves 68. The ionosphere is a region of ionized gas in the upper
atmosphere. The ionosphere is responsible for
59. Tropospheric scatter is used with frequencies in the a. The blue color of the sky
following range b. Rainbows
a. HF c. Long distance radio communication
b. VHF d. The ability of satellites to orbit the earth
c. UHF
d. VLF 69. Light of which the following colors has the shortest
wavelength
60. The ground wave eventually disappears as one moves a. Red
away from the transmitter because of b. Yellow
a. interference from the sky wave c. Blue
b. loss of line of sight conditions d. Green
c. maximum single-hop distance limitation
d. tilting 70. The quality in sound that corresponds to color in light is
a. Amplitude
61. in electromagnetic waves, polarization means b. Resonance
a. the physical orientation of magnetic field in space c. Waveform
b. the physical orientation of electric field in space d. Pitch
c. ionization
d. the presence of positive and negative ions 71. All real images
a. Are erect
62. an electromagnetic waves travel in free space, only one b. Can appear on screen
of the following can happen to them. c. Are inverted
a. absorption d. Cannot appear on a screen
b. attenuation
c. refraction 72. When a beam of light enters one medium from another,
d. reflection a quality that never changes is its
a. Direction
63. the absorption of a radio waves by the atmosphere b. Frequency
depends on c. Speed
a. their frequency d. Wavelength
b. their distance from the transmitter
c. the polarization of the waves 73. Relative to the angle of incidence, the angle of refraction
d. the polarization of the atmosphere a. Is smaller
b. Is larger
64. diffraction of electromagnetic waves c. Is the same
a. is caused by reflections from the ground d. Either A or B above
b. arises only with spherical wavefronts
c. will occur when the waves pass through a large slot 74. A light ray enters one medium from another along the
d. may occur around the edge of a sharp object normal. The angle of refraction is
a. 0
65. In an electromagnetic wave the electric field is b. 90 degrees
a. Parallel to both magnetic field and the wave direction c. Equal to the critical angle
b. Perpendicular to both the magnetic field and the wave d. Dependent on the indexes of refraction of the two media
direction
c. Parallel to the magnetic field and perpendicular to the 75. What layer aids MF surface-wave propagation a little
wave direction and reflects some HF waves in daytime?
d. Perpendicular to the magnetic field and parallel to the a. E layer
wave direction b. D layer
c. F1 layer
d. F2 layer
76. Dispersion is the term used to describe 85. Light enters a glass plate at an angle of incidence of 40
a. The splitting of white light into its component colors in degrees and is refracted at an angle refraction of 25 degrees.
refraction The index refraction of the glass is
b. The propagation of light in straight lines a. 0.625
c. The bending of a beam of light when it goes from one b. 1.52
medium to another c. 0.66
d. The bending of a beam of light when it strikes a mirror d. 1.6

77. The depth of an objects submerged in a transparent 86. An underwater swimmer shines a flash light beam
liquid upward at an angle of incidence of 40 degrees. The angle of
a. Always seems less than its actual depth refraction is 60 degrees. The index of refraction of water is
b. Always seems more than its actual depth a. 0.67
c. May seems more than its actual depth, depending on the b. 1.3
index of refraction of the liquid c. 0.74
d. May seem less or more than its actual depth depending d. 1.5
on the angle of view
87. The critical angle of incidence for light going from
78. Total internal reflection can occur when light passes crown glass (n=1.5) to ice (n=1.3) is
from one medium to another a. 12 degrees
a. That has a lower index of refraction b. 50 degrees
b. That has a larger index of refraction c. 42 degrees
c. That has the same index of refraction d. 60 degrees
d. At less than the critical angle
88. The solid angle subtended by a hemisphere about its
79. When the light ray approaches a glass-air interface from center is
the glass side at the critical angle, the angle of refraction is a. /2 sr
a. 0 b. 2 sr
b. 90 degrees c. sr
c. 45 degrees d. depends on the radius of the hemisphere
d. Equal to the angle of incidence
89. the luminous flux emitted by a 60-cd isotropic light
80. The brightness of light source is called its luminous source is concentrated on an area of 0.5m2. the
intensity , whose unit is illumination of the area is
a. Candela a. 9.6 lx
b. Lux b. 377 lx
c. Lumen c. 120 lx
d. Footcandle d. 1508 lx

81. Luminous efficiency is least for a 90. Microwave signals propagate by way of the
a. Low-wattage light bulb a. Direct wave
b. Mercury vapor lamp b. Sky wave
c. High-wattage light bulb c. Surface wave
d. Fluorescent tube d. Standing wave

82. The minimum illumination recommended for reading is 91. The ionosphere causes radio signals to be
a. 8000 cd a. Diffused
b. 8000 lx b. Absorbed
c. 8000 lm c. Refracted
d. 800 W d. Reflected

83. Light enters a glass plate whose index of refraction is 1.6 92. Ground wave communications is most effective in what
at an angle of incidence of 30 degrees . the angle of frequency range?
refraction is a. 300 KHz to 3 MHz
a. 18 degrees b. 3 to 30 MHz
b. 48 degrees c. 30 to 300 MHz
c. 19 degrees d. Above 300 MHz
d. 53 degrees
93. The ionosphere has its greatest effect on signals in what
84. Light leaves a slab of transparent material whose index frequency range?
of refraction is 2 at an angle of refraction of 0 degrees. The a. 300 KHz to 3 MHz
angle of incidence is b. 3 to 30 MHz
a. 0 degrees c. 30 to 300 MHz
b. 45 degrees d. Above 300 MHz
c. 30 degrees
d. 90 degrees
94. The type of radio wave responsible for long distance
communications by multiple skips is the 104. Which of the following uses surface wave propagation?
a. Ground wave a. ELF
b. Direct wave b. VLF
c. Surface wave c. MF
d. Sky wave d. All of these

95. Line of sight communications is not a factor in which 105. The ability of the ionosphere to reflect a radio wave
frequency range? back to the earth is determined by
a. VHF a. Operating frequency
b. UHF b. Ion density
c. HF c. Angle of incidence
d. Microwave d. All of these

96. A microwave-transmitting antenna is 550ft high. The 106. Highest frequency that can be used for sky wave
receiving antenna is 200ft high. The minimum propagation between two given points on earth.
transmission distance is a. Critical frequency
a. 20 mi b. MUF
b. 33.2 mi c. Cut off frequency
c. 38.7 mi d. UHF
d. 53.2 mi
107. The shortest distance measured along the earths
97. To increase the transmission distance of UHF signal, surface that a sky wave is returned to earth.
which of the following should be done? a. MUF
a. Increase antenna gain b. Quarter-wavelength
b. Increase antenna height c. Skip distance
c. Increase transmitter power d. Skip zone
d. Increase receiver sensitivity
108. Fluctuation in the signal strength at the receiver.
98. States that power density is inversely proportional to a. Interference
the distance from its source. b. Fading
a. Principle of reciprocity c. Tracking
b. Inverse square law d. Variable frequency
c. Huygens Princple 109. Two or more antennas are used separated by several
d. Faradays law wavelengths
a. Space diversity
99. gets in contact with the ionosphere and reflected by it. b. Frequency diversity
a. Space wave c. Hybrid diversity
b. Sky wave d. Polarization diversity
c. Surface wave
d. Satellite wave 110. Two or more receivers are used using a single antenna.
a. Space diversity
100. Highest layer in the ionosphere b. Frequency diversity
a. F1 c. Hybrid diversity
b. D d. Polarization diversity
c. F2
d. E 111. One of the following is not a cause of fading.
a. Interference between upper and lower rays of a sky wave.
101. Next lowest layer in the ionosphere. b. Sky waves arriving at different number of hops
a. D c. Interference due to ground reflected wave and sky wave
b. E d. Diversity
c. F1
d. F2 112. What do you call the gigantic emissions of hydrogen
from the sun?
102. What is the primary cause of ionization in the a. Solar flares
atmosphere? b. SIDs
a. Sun spot c. Kennely-Heaviside
b. Cosmic rays d. Sun spots
c. Galactic disturbance
d. Ultraviolet radiation 113. Sudden ionospheric disturbance
a. Solar flares
103. Which layer does not disappear at night? b. SIDs
a. D c. Sun spots
b. E d. Intertropical convergence
c. F1
d. F2
114. A means beyond the line of sight propagation of UHF 124. Which of the following is most affected by knife-edge
signals. refraction?
a. Microwave propagation a. Very high and ultra high frequencies
b. Space wave propagation b. High frequencies
c. Troposcatter propagation c. Medium frequency
d. Surface wave propagation d. Low frequency

115. Two directional antennas are pointed so that their 125. Which ionosphere layer has an average height of 225
beams intersect in the troposphere. km at night?
a. Skywave a. D layer
b. Surface wave b. E layer
c. Microwave c. F1 layer
d. Troposcatter d. F2 layer

116. Super refraction. 126. A range of frequency little attenuated by the


a. Ducting atmosphere is called
b. Trposcatter a. slide
c. Skywave b. door
d. Space wave c. window
d. frame
117. A layer of warm air trapped above cooler air 127. It is defined as either of two acute angles formed by the
a. Troposphere intersection of the two portions of the tropospheric scatter
b. SID beam tangent to the earths surface.
c. Duct a. critical angle
d. Huygens principle b. scatter angle
c. backscatter angle
118. Corresponds to voltage d. sidescatter angle
a. Electric field
b. Magnetic field 128. It is a device that permits two different transmitters to
c. Gyro operate with a single antenna.
d. Direction of propagation a. duplexer
b. diplexer
119. Absence of reception c. isolator
a. Skip distance d. circulator
b. Maximum usable
c. Shadow zone 129. It is a gradual shift in polarization of the signal in the
d. Twilight zone medium.
a. fading
120. Each point in a spherical waveform maybe a source of a b. faraday effect
secondary spherical wavefront. c. ghosting
a. Senlls law d. multipath fading
b. Huygens principle
c. Rayleighs principle 130. A diversity scheme wherein the receiver receives two
d. De Morgans theorem fading signals from two different directions.
a. frequency diversity
121. Ducting occurs in which region of the atmosphere? b. time diversity
a. Stratosphere c. angle diversity
b. Troposphere d. space diversity
c. Ionosphere
d. Ozone layer 131. The radio wavelength known as _________ falls
within the medium frequency range.
122. When is the E region most ionized? a. centimetric wave
a. At midday b. decametric wave
b. At midnight c. hectometric wave
c. At duck d. myriametric wave
d. At dawn
132. The most dense of all ionized layer of the ionosphere
123. Transequatorial propagation is best during a. E
a. Night time b. F1
b. Afternoon or early evening c. F2
c. Noontime d. D
d. Morning
133. The frequency band used as sub-carriers, or signals 142. What is a double-hop signal?
which carry the baseband modulating information but in a. ground, ionosphere, ground and back to ionosphere
turn modulate another higher-frequency carrier is b. ground, ground, ionosphere, and ionosphere
_________. c. ionosphere, ionosphere, ground and ground
a. LF d. ionosphere, ground, ionosphere and back to ground
b. MF
c. VLF 143. What is the major cause of fading?
d. VH a. phase difference
b. topographic variation
134. The range of frequency band termed as super high c. climate
frequency (SHF) is within _________. d. ionosphere variation
a. 30 300 GHz
b. 30 300 MHz 144. Where is the skip zone?
c. 3 30 GHz a. between the sky and the first reflected wave
d. 300 3000 MHz b. between end of ground and first reflected wave
c. between end of ground and farthest reflected wave
135. Electric field that lies in a plane perpendicular to the d. between the end of sky to the farthest reflected wave
earths surface.
a. circular polarization 145. What wave is the same day or night?
b. vertical polarization a. sky
c. horizontal polarization b. space
d. elliptical polarization c. direct
d. ground
136. The magnetic field of an antenna is perpendicular to
the earth. The antennas polarization 146. Why do HF communications system shift frequencies
a. is vertical at different times of day?
b. is horizontal a. to take advantage of best reflected signals
c. is circular b. to conserve the energy used
d. cannot be determined from the information given c. to create diversity
d. to improve noise performance
137. The surface wave is effective only at frequencies below
about _________ MHz. 147. Scatter transmission is used at what frequencies?
a. 30 a. EHF and VLF
b. 3 b. HF and VHF
c. 300 c. VHF and UHF
d. 0.3 d. ELF and VLF

138. What wave propagation are attenuated within a few 148. Over what areas ducts often form?
miles? a. desert
a. space b. water
b. sky c. forest
c. ground d. mountain
d. direct 149. Polarization named for _________ component of the
wave?
139. What happens to wave velocity as it passes from air to a. static
ionosphere? b. magnetic
a. increases c. direction
b. decreases d. propagation
c. remain the same
d. not a factor 150. What polarization is employed in an AM broadcasting?
a. horizontal
140. What wavelength radiations tend to be transmitted b. parallel
entirely between ionosphere and earth? c. transverse
a. long d. vertical
b. short
c. medium 151. What propagation condition is usually indicated when a
d. millimeter VHF signal is received from a station 500 miles away?
a. D-layer absorption
141. What effect do sunspots have on the ionosphere? b. Faraday rotation
a. makes more rare and regular c. Tropospheric ducting
b. makes more dense and irregular d. Moonbounce
c. makes less dense and regular
d. makes less dense and irregular
152. How does the bandwidth of the transmitted signal 160. What happens to a radio wave as it travels in space and
affect selective fading? collides with other particles
a. It is more pronounced at wide bandwidths a. Kinetic energy is given up by the radio wave
b. It is more pronounced at narrow bandwidths b. Kinetic energy is gained by the radio wave
c. It is equally pronounced in both narrow and wide c. Aurora is created
bandwidth d. Nothing happens since radio waves have no physical
d. The receiver bandwidth determines the selective fading substance
effect
161. Find the characteristic impedance of polyethylene,
153. How much farther does the radio-path horizon which has a dielectric constant of 2.4.
distance exceed the geometric horizon? a. 163.9 ohms
a. By approximately 15% of the distance b. 377 ohms
b. By approximately twice the distance c. 243 ohms
c. By approximately one-half the distance d. 250 ohms
d. By approximately four times the distance
162. What is the maximum range for signals using
154. Determine the dB gain of a receiving antenna which transequatorial propagation
delivers a microvolt signal to a transmission line over that a. About 1000 miles
of an antenna that delivers a 2 microvolt signal under b. About 2500 miles
identical circumstances. c. About 5000 miles
a. -6 d. About 7500 miles
b. -3
c. 6 163. Calculate the electric field intensity in millivolts per
d. 3 meter at 30 kW from a 5 km source.
a. 190 mV/m
155. What is transequatorial propagation b. 95.49 uV/m
a. Propagation between two points at approximately the c. 0.189 W/m
same distance north and south of the magnetic equator d. 13.416 V/m
b. Propagation between two points on the magnetic equator
c. Propagation between two continent by way of ducts along 164. What is the index of refraction of a certain substance if
the magnetic equator light travels through the substance at 100 meters at a time it
d. Propagation between any two station at the same latitude is 140 meter to air?
a. 1.183
156. Knife edge diffraction: b. 1.4
a. Is the bending of UHF frequency radio waves around a c. 0.714
building, mountain or obstruction d. 0.845
b. Causes the velocity of wave propagation to be different
than the original wave 165. What s selective fading?
c. Both a and b above a. A fading effect caused by small changes in beam heading
d. Attenuate UHF signal at the receiving station
b. A fading caused by phase difference between radio wave
157. The average range for VHF communications is components of the same transmission as experienced at the
a. 5 miles receiving station
b. 15 miles c. A fading caused by large changes in the height of the
c. 30 miles ionosphere as experienced at the receiving station
d. 100 miles d. A fading effect caused by the time difference between the
receiving and transmitting stations
158. A 500 kHz radiates 500 W of power. The same antenna
produces a field strength equal 10 1.5 mV/, If the power 166. To what distance is VHF propagation ordinarily
delivered by the antenna is increased to 1 kW, what would limited?
be the expected field intensity? a. Approximately 100 miles
a. 3 mV/m b. Approximately 500 miles
b. 1.732 mV/m c. Approximately 1500 miles
c. 2.12 mV/m d. Approximately 2000 miles
d. 1.456 mV/m
167. Why does the radio path horizon distance exceed the
159. The earths layer is struck by a meteor; a cylindrical geometric horizon?
region of free electron is formed at what layer of the a. E-layer skip
ionosphere? b. D-layer skip
a. F1 layer c. Auroral skip
b. E layer d. Radio waves may be bent
c. F2 layer
d. D layer
168. Determine the effective radiated power of 20kW TV 176. The bending of radio waves passing over the top of a
broadcast transmitter whose antenna has a field gain of 2. mountain range disperse a weak portion of the signal
a. 40 kW behind the mountain is
b. 80 kW a. Eddy-current phase effect
c. 20 kW b. Knife-edge diffraction
d. 10 kW c. Shadowing
d. Mirror refraction effect
169. What is the major cause of selective fading?
a. Small changes in beam heading at the receiving station 177. A radio wave moves from air (er=1) to glass (er=7.8).
b. Large changes in the height of the ionosphere as Its angle of incidence is 20 degrees. What is the angle of
experienced in the receiving station refraction?
c. Time difference between the receiving and transmitting a. 7 degrees
station b. 29 degrees
d. Phase differences between the radio waves components c. 10.3 degrees
of the same transmission as experienced in the receiving d. 72.79 degrees
station
178. A dipole antenna requires to be feed with 20 kW of
170. Determine the critical frequency value of an HF signal power to produce a given signal strength available with an
if its maximum usable frequency is 7050.50 kHz at 35 input power of 11 kW. What is the dB gain obtained by the
degrees incidence. use of the reflector? (gain referred to this particular dipole)
a. 4936.8 kHz a. -2.6 dB
b. 5775 kHz b. 2.6 dB
c. 4044 kHz c. 5.19 dB
d. 4908.75 kHz d. -5.19 dB

171. What is the propagation effect called when phase 179. What is a wavefront?
difference between radio wave components of the same a. A voltage pulse in a conductor
transmission are experiences at the recovery station? b. A current pulse in a conductor
a. Faradays rotation c. A voltage pulse across a resistor
b. Diversity reception d. A fixed point in an electromagnetic wave
c. Selective fading
d. Phase shift 180. What is meant by referring to electromagnetic waves as
having circular polarization?
172. What is the best time for transequatorial propagation? a. The electric field is bent into a circular shape
a. Morning b. The electric field rotates
b. Noon c. The electromagnetic wave continues to circle the earth
c. Afternoon or early evening d. The electromagnetic wave has been generated by a quad
d. Transequatorial propagation only works at night antenna

173. The dielectric strength of a certain medium is about 181. An automobile travels at 90 km/h, find the time
2.85 MV/m. what is the maximum power density of an between fades if the car uses a cellphone at 800 MHz
electromagnetic wave in this medium? a. 11.2 ms
a. 23.9 GW/ sq. m b. 15 ms
b. 67.7 GW/ sq. m c. 7.5 ms
c. 21.5 GW/ sq. m d. 4.7 ms
d. 6.86 GW/ sq. m
174. What is the knife edge diffraction? 182. When the electric field is parallel to the surface of the
a. Allows normally line-of-sight signals to bend around earth, what is the polarization of the electromagnetic wave?
sharp edges, mountain ridges, building and other a. Vertical
obstruction b. Horizontal
b. Arching in sharp bends of conductors c. Circular
c. Phase angle image rejection d. Elliptical
d. Line-of-sight causing distortion to other signals
183. At what speed do electromagnetic waves travel in
175. The total power delivered to the radiator of an isotropic space?
antenna is 200, 000 W. determine the power density at a a. Approximately 300 million meters per second
distance of 100 meters b. Approximately 468 million meters per second
a. 1.59 W/sq m c. Approximately 186, 300 feet per second
b. 24.49 W/sq m d. Approximately 300 million miles per second
c. 3.18 W/sq m
d. 244.95 W/sq m
184. The maximum number of free electrons in a certain
ionospheric layer is 3.256x 10 ^ 13 per cu m. the critical 192. When the magnetic field is parallel tot eh surface of the
frequency is earth, what is the polarization of the electromagnetic field?
a. 51.355 MHz a. Circular
b. 17.118 MHz b. Horizontal
c. 34.237 MHz c. Elliptical
d. 5.706 MHz d. Vertical

185. What are electromagnetic waves? 193. What is the index of refraction of a certain medium if
a. Alternating currents in the core of an electromagnet the velocity of propagation of a radio wave in this medium
b. A wave consisting of two electric fields at right angles to is 1.527x10^8 m/s?
each other a. 0.509
c. A wave consisting of an electric field and a magnetic field b. 0.631
at right angles to each other c. 0.713
d. A wave consisting of two magnetic fields at right angles to d. 1.965
each other
194. When the magnetic field is perpendicular to the surface
186. When the electric field is perpendicular to the surface of the earth, what is the polarization of the electromagnetic
of the earth, what is the polarization of the electromagnetic field?
wave? a. Circular
a. Circular b. Horizontal
b. Vertical c. Elliptical
c. Horizontal d. Vertical
d. Elliptical
195. Frequencies most affected by knife-edge refraction are
187. Determine the refractive index of an ionospheric layer a. Low and medium frequencies
with 1.567x10^6 free electrons per cu m. The frequency of b. High frequencies
the radio wave is 32 kHz. c. Very high and ultra high frequencies
a. 0.999 d. 100 kHz to 3 MHz
b. 0.936
c. 0.956 196. The ionosphere causes radio signals to be
d. 0.987 a. Diffused
b. Absorbed
188. What is meant by electromagnetic waves as c. Refracted
horizontally polarized? d. Reflected
a. The electric field is parallel to the earth
b. The magnetic field is parallel to the earth 197. To increase the transmission distance of a UHF signal,
c. Both the electric and magnetic field are horizontal which of the following should be done?
d. Both the electric and magnetic field are vertical a. Increase antenna gain
b. Increase antenna height
189. Why do electromagnetic waves not penetrate a good c. Increase transmitter power
conductor to any great extent? d. Increase receiver sensitivity
a. The electromagnetic field induces currents in the
insulator 198. A receiver-transmitter station used to increase the
b. The oxide on the conductor surface acts as a shield communications range of VHF, UHF and microwave signals
c. Because of eddy currents is called a(an)
d. The resistivity of the conductor dissipates the field a. Transceiver
b. Remitter
190. A transmitter has a power output of 250 W at a carrier c. Repeater
frequency of 325 MHz. it is connected to an antenna with a d. Amplifier
gain of 12 dBi. The receiving antenna is 10 km away and has
a gain of 5 dBi. Calculate the power delivered to the 199. A taxi company uses a central dispatcher with an
receiver, assuming free-space propagation. Assume that antenna at the top of a 25 m tower, to communicate with
there are no losses or mismatches in the system. the taxicabs. The taxi antennas are on the roofs of the cars,
a. 404 nW approximately 1.5 m above the ground. Calculate the
b. 2.04 nW maximum communication distance between the dispatcher
c. 960 nW and a taxi.
d. 680 nW a. 25.7 km
b. 8.8 km
191. What is the frequency to use for skywave propagation if c. 21 km
the critical frequency is 15 MHZ and the angle of radiation d. 10.1
is 60 degrees?
a. 17.32 MHz
b. 30 MHz
c. 25.5 MHz
d. 14.722 MHz
200. Microwave propagate by means of 209. If the electric field is propagating parallel to the
a. Direct wave surface of the Earth, the polarization is _________.
b. Sky wave a. Circular
c. Surface wave b. Vertical
d. Standing wave c. Horizontal
d. Elliptical
201. The cumulative sum of the direct, ground-reflected,
and surface waves is reflected to as _________. 210. A taxi company uses a central dispatcher, with an
a. Space wave antenna at the top of a 15m tower, to communicate with taxi
b. Ground wave cabs. The taxi antennas are on the roofs of the cars,
c. Sky wave approximately 1.5m above the ground. What is the
d. Direct waves maximum communication distance between the dispatcher
and a taxi?
202. The D layer of the ionosphere reflects _________ a. 21 km
waves. b. 30 km
a. MF and HF c. 25 km
b. VLF and MF d. 33 km
c. MF and VHF
d. VLF and LF 211. The E layer of the ionosphere aid _________
propagation and reflects _________ waves
203. A diversity scheme wherein the same radio signal is a. MF, HF
repeated or transmitted more than once. b. HF, MF
a. polarization diversity c. LF, MF
b. field component diversity d. MF, LF
c. time diversity
d. frequency diversity 212. When microwave signals follows the curvature of the
earth, it is known as
204. The disadvantage of ground wave propagation is a. the Faraday effect
a. Ground waves require a relatively high transmission b. ducting
power c. tropospheric scatter
b. Ground waves are limited to very low, low and medium d. ionospheric scatter
frequencies requiring large antennas
c. Ground losses very considerably with surface material 213. If the polarization vector rotates 360 degrees as the
d. Any of these wave moves one wavelength through space and field
strength is equal at all angles of polarization, the
205. A range of microwave frequencies more easily passed polarization is _________.
by the atmosphere than the others is called a a. Vertically polarized
a. window b. Horizontally polarized
b. critical frequency c. Circularly polarized
c. gyro frequency range d. Elliptically polarized
d. resonance in the atmosphere
214. _________ travels essentially in a straight line
206. It is simply the orientation of the electric field vector in between the transmit and the receive antennas
respect to the surface of the Earth a. Direct waves
a. Polarization b. Sky waves
b. Wavefront c. Space waves
c. Rays d. Surface waves
d. Power density
215. Variations brought about the revolution of the earth
207. For an isotropic antenna radiating 100W of power, around the sun
what is power density 1000m from the source? a. weather variation
a. 1.99 W/m^2 b. cyclical variation
b. 7.96 W/m^2 c. diurnal variation
c. 3.22 W/m^2 d. seasonal variation
d. 9.17 W/m^2
216. The dielectric strength of air is about 3MV/m. Arching
208. The ground wave eventually disappears, as moves is likely to take place at field strengths greater than that.
away from the transmitter, because of What is the maximum power density of an electromagnetic
a. interference from the sky wave wave in air?
b. loss of line-of-sight conditions a. 40 GW/m^2
c. maximum single hop distance limitations b. 15.5 GW/m^2
d. tilting c. 23.9 GW/m^2
d. 18.9 GW/m^2
217. It is a single location from which rays propagate 226. The transmitting distance with direct waves is limited
equally in all directions to short distances and strictly a function of the _________
a. point source of the transmitting and receiving antenna.
b. omnidirectional source a. frequency
c. ideal polarization b. phase
d. isotropic polarized c. power
d. height
218. Diffraction of electromagnetic waves
a. is caused by reflections from the ground 227. One nautical mile is equal to _________ statute
b. arises only with spherical waveforms miles.
c. will occur when the waves pass through a large slot a. 2.12
d. may occur around the edge of a sharp obstacle b. 1.15
c. 2.54
219. The critical frequency at a particular time is 11.6MHz. d. 1.90
What is the MUF for a transmitting station if the required
angle of incidence for propagation to a desired destination 228. It is the deflection or bending of electromagnetic
is 70 degrees? waves such as radio waves, light or even sound when the
a. 34 MHz waves cross the boundary line between two mediums with
b. 45 MHz different characteristics.
c. 40 MHz a. reflection
d. 15.5 MHz b. diffraction
c. refraction
220. The rate at which energy passes through a given d. dispersion
surface area in free space is called _________.
a. capture power 229. The reduction of power density with distance is
b. capture area equivalent to a power loss.
c. captured power density a. absorption
d. power density b. attenuation
c. distance loss
221. A radio wave moves from air (relative permittivity is 1) d. power dissipation
to glass (relative permittivity is 7.8). Its angle of incidence
is 30 degrees. What is the angle of refraction? 230. The signal refracted back from the ionosphere strikes
a. 10.3 degrees the earth and is reflected back up to the ionosphere again to
b. 11.2 degrees be bent and sent back to earth.
c. 20.4 degrees a. skip transmission
d. 0.179 degrees b. multi-hop transmission
c. multi transmission
222. It is the intensity of the electric and the magnetic fields d. hop transmission
of the electromagnetic wave propagating in free space
a. field intensity 231. Electromagnetic waves are refracted when they
b. field density a. pass into a medium of different dielectric constant
c. power intensity b. are polarized at right angles to the direction of
d. power intensity propagation
c. encounter a perfectly conducting surface
223. Radio propagation was predicted mathematically by d. pass through a small slot in a conducting plane
a. Heinrich R. Hertz
b. Guglielmo Marconi 232. The reduction in power density due to non free-space
c. James Clerk Maxwell propagation
d. Alexander Graham Bell a. absorption
b. attenuation
224. Tropospheric scatter is used with frequencies in the c. power dissipation
following range d. distance loss
a. HF
b. VHF 233. _________ is the signal that is radiated by the
c. UHF antenna into the atmosphere where it is bent or reflected
d. VLF back to earth.
a. ground wave signal
225. A point source that radiates power at a constant rate b. sky wave signal
uniformly in all directions. c. space wave signal
a. isotropic source d. direct waves signal
b. isotropic radiator
c. point source
d. any of these
234. It is a type of fading having different effect different 243. Electromagnetic waves travelling within Earths
frequencies atmosphere is called
a. Selective fading a. Space wave
b. Polarization fading b. Surface wave
c. Interference fading c. Terrestrial wave
d. Absorption fading d. Sky-wave

235. It is defined as the modulation or redistribution of 244. Calculate the power density in watts per square meter
energy within a wave front as it passes near the edge of an (on earth) from a 10-W satellite source that is 22,000 miles
opaque object. from earth.
a. refraction a. 3.17 x 10^ -16 W/m^2
b. scattering b. 6.35 x 10^ -16 W/m^2
c. reflection c. 2.31 x 10^ -16 W/m^2
d. diffraction d. 1.21 x 10^ -16 W/m^2

236. What type of modulation is primarily used in ground 245. It is termed used to describe variations in signal
wave propagation? strength that occur at the receiver during this time a signal
a. Frequency modulation is being received.
b. Amplitude modulation a. skipping
c. Phase modulation b. attenuation
d. Pulse modulation c. absorption
d. fading
237. It states that every point on a given spherical wavefront
can be considered as a secondary point source of 246. The constant temperature stratosphere is called
electromagnetic waves from which other secondary waves _________.
or wavelets are radiated outward. a. E-layer
a. Hertzian principle b. S-layer
b. Maxwells principle c. isothermal region
c. Huygens principle d. ionosthermal region
d. Marconis principle
247. It is the tendency of the sun to have grayish-black
238. Calculate the electric field intensity, in volts per meter, blemishes, seemingly at random times and at random place,
20 km from a 1-kW source. on its fiery surface.
a. 3.44 mW/m a. solar intensity
b. 7.65 mW/m b. sunspot
c. 8.66 mW/m c. solar flare
d. 1.45 mW/m d. solar flux

239. The absorption of radio waves by the atmosphere 248. In electromagnetic waves, polarization
depends on a. is caused by reflection
a. their frequency b. is due to the transverse nature of the waves
b. their distance from the transmitter c. results from the longitudinal nature of waves
c. the polarization of waves d. is always vertical in an isotropic medium
d. is always vertical in an isotropic medium
249. It is an earth-guided electromagnetic wave that travels
240. Calculate the radio horizon for a 500-ft transmitting over the surface of the Earth
antenna and receiving antenna of 20 ft. a. Surface waves
a. 23.1 mi b. Sky waves
b. 31.2 mi c. Direct waves
c. 14.8 mi d. Space waves
d. 37.9 mi
250. Frequencies in the UHF range normally propagate by
241. Calculate the power received from a 20-W transmitter, means of
22,000 miles from earth, if the receiving antenna has an a. Ground waves
effective area of 1600m^2 b. Sky waves
a. 4.06 x 10^-12 W c. Surface waves
b. 2.03 x 10^-12 W d. Space waves
c. 1.02 x 10^-12 W
d. 0.91 x 10^-12 W 251. The curvature of the Earth presents a horizon to space
wave propagation commonly called _________.
242. As electromagnetic waves travel in free space, only one a. Optical horizon
of the following can happen to them b. Radio horizon
a. absorption c. Horizontal horizon
b. attenuation d. Vertical horizon
c. refraction
d. reflection
252. Electromagnetic waves that are directed above the 261. It is defined as the plane joining all points of equal
horizon level is called _________. phase
a. direct waves a. rays
b. sky waves b. electromagnetic wave
c. space waves c. wavefront
d. surface waves d. isotropic source

253. The refracting and reflecting action of the ionosphere 262. It is the height above Earths surface from which a
and the ground is called reflected wave appears to have been reflected.
a. sliding a. virtual height
b. skipping b. maximum height
c. hopping c. vertical height
d. boosting d. horizontal height

254. An electrical energy that is escaped in free space 263. It is the highest frequency that can be used for sky
a. Electrical signal wave propagation between two specific points on Earths
b. Electromagnetic waves surface
c. Magnetic waves a. optimum working frequency
d. Electromagnetism b. maximum usable frequency
c. critical frequency
255. The layer of the ionosphere which farthest from the d. maximum frequency
sun
a. D layer 264. The polarization of electromagnetic waves can be
b. E layer determined by the direction of the
c. F1 layer a. E field
d. F2 layer b. H field
c. propagation
256. A condition which manifest itself in the form of d. both E and H field
double-image distortion
a. running 265. 85 percent of the maximum usable frequency (MUF) is
b. fading called _________.
c. ghosting a. maximum usable frequency
d. snowing b. optimum working frequency
c. critical frequency
257. The D layer of the ionosphere absorbs _________ d. maximum frequency
waves. 266. It is defined as the minimum distance from the
a. LF and MF transmit antenna that a sky wave at a given frequency will
b. MF and HF be returned to earth.
c. HF and VHF a. skip distance
d. VHF and UHF b. skip zone
c. skip frequency distance
258. The E layer of the ionosphere is sometimes called d. skip zone frequency
_________
a. Kennely-Heavisides 267. At distance greater than the skip distance, two rays can
b. Sporadic-E layer take different paths and still be returned to the same point
c. E-densed layer on Earth. The two rays are called lower rays and
d. Kennely layer _________.
a. Pedersen ray
259. It is defined as the higher frequency that can be b. Light ray
propagated directly upward and still be returned to earth by c. Huygens ray
the ionosphere d. Millers ray
a. critical angle
b. maximum usable frequency 268. Undesired radiated energy from a radio transmitter or
c. critical frequency in another source.
d. virtual height a. ESD
b. EMI
260. The maximum vertical angle at which electromagnetic c. RFI
waves can be propagated and still be reflected back by the d. ESI
ionosphere
a. numerical aperture 269. The area between where the surface waves are
b. incident angle completely dissipated and the point where the first sky wave
c. critical angle returns to earth is called _________.
d. refracted angle a. skip distance
b. skip distance zone
c. optical horizon
d. quiet zone
279. Indicate which of the following frequencies cannot be
270. The undesired radiated energy that may cause used for reliable beyond-the-horizon terrestrial
interference with other electronic equipment in the vicinity. communications without repeaters:
a. ESD a. 20 kHz
b. EMI b. 15 MHz
c. RFI c. 900 MHz
d. ESI d. 12 GHz

271. It is defined as the loss incurred by an electromagnetic 280. The type of radio wave responsible for long-distance
wave as it propagates in a straight line through a vacuum communications by multiple skips is the
with no absorption or reflection of energy from nearby a. ground wave
objects. b. direct wave
a. free-space path loss c. surface waves
b. free space loss d. sky wave
c. path loss
d. any of these 281. High-frequency waves are
a. absorbed by the F2 layer
272. To increase the transmission distance of a UHF signal, b. reflected by the D layer
which of the following should be done? c. capable of use for long-distance communications on the
a. increase the antenna gain moon
b. increase antenna height d. affected by the solar cycle
c. increase transmitter power
d. increase receiver sensitivity 282. The ionosphere has its greatest effect on signals in
what frequency range?
273. For a carrier frequency of 6 GHz and a distance of 50 a. 300 kHz to 3 MHz
km, determine the free-space path loss b. 3 to 30 MHz
a. 132 dB c. 30 to 300 MHz
b. 123 dB d. above 300 MHz
c. 142 dB
d. 152 dB 283. Distances near the skip distance should be used for
sky-wave propagation
274. A microwave-transmitting antenna is 550 ft. high. The a. to avoid tilting
receiving antenna is 200 ft. high. The maximum b. to prevent sky-wave and upper ray interference
transmission distance is c. to avoid Faraday effect
a. 20 mi d. so as not to exceed the critical frequency
b. 33.2 mi
c. 38.7 mi 284. Ground-wave communications is most effective in
d. 53.2 mi what frequency range?
a. 300 kHz to 3 MHz
275. Indicate which one of the following term applies to b. 3 to 30 MHz
troposcatter propagation c. 30 to 300 MHz
a. SIDs d. above 300 MHz
b. Fading
c. Atmospheric storms 285. The ionosphere causes radio signals to be
d. Faradays rotation a. diffused
b. absorbed
276. Line-of-sight communications is not a factor in which c. refracted
frequency range? d. reflected
a. VHF
b. UHF 286. Helical antenna are often used for satellite tracking at
c. HF VHF because of
d. Microwave a. troposcatter
b. superrefraction
277. VLF waves are used for some types of services because c. ionospheric refraction
a. of the low powers required d. the Faraday effect
b. the transmitting antenna are of convenient size
c. they are very reliable 287. A ship-to-ship communication system is plagued by
d. affected by the solar cycle fading. The best solution seem to use of
a. a more directional antenna
278. Microwave signals propagate by way of the b. a broadband antenna
a. direct wave c. frequency diversity
b. sky wave d. space diversity
c. surface wave
d. standing wave
288. It is defined as the ratio of the electric field intensity of 297. It is a type of fading caused by so-called Faraday effect
the reflected wave to that of the incident wave or Faraday rotation
a. refractive index a. interference fading
b. numerical aperture b. absorption fading
c. reflection coefficient c. selective fading
d. absorption coefficient d. polarization fading

289. It is the measure of energy received per unit time, per 298. Radio horizon is _________ greater than the optical
unit area, per unit frequency interval. horizon.
a. solar intensity a. one-third
b. sunspot b. four-third
c. solar flare c. two-third
d. solar flux d. twice

290. A long period with lack of any solar activity 299. An increase in temperature with height which gives
a. El Nio rise to superrefraction or ducting is known as _________.
b. La Nia a. height inversion
c. Maunder period b. depth inversion
d. Sunspots c. temperature inversion
d. ionospheric inversion
291. As a ground-wave signal moves away from the
transmitter, the ground wave eventually disappears due to 300. A region in which superrefraction occurs which is
the formed in the troposphere when the layer of cool air
a. absorption becomes trapped underneath a layer of warmer air.
b. tilting a. duct
c. refraction b. dielectric area
d. diffraction c. gateway
d. window
292. It is the lowest layer of the atmosphere where all
weather disturbances takes place 301. Whether or not polarization of an antenna is linear
a. D layer depends on changes in direction in which:
b. Stratosphere a. The direction in which the electric plane is radiated.
c. Ionosphere b. The horizontal or vertical plane of the electric wave.
d. Troposphere c. The direction in which magnetic wave is radiated.
d. None of these
293. It is the lower limit of the range of frequencies that
provide useful communication between two given points by 302. The D, E and F layers of the ionosphere are called
the way of the ionosphere. a. Mark-Space Layers
a. MUF b. Davidson-Miller Layers
b. LUF c. Kenelly Heaviside Layers
c. OWF d. Maxwell Layer
d. MMF
303. ________ refers to the ratio of an electric field
294. It is the area that lies between the outer limit of the component to a magnetic field component at the same point
ground-wave range and the inner edge of energy return of the wave.
from the ionosphere a. Characteristics impedance
a. skip distance b. Load impedance
b. skip zone c. Intrinsic impedance
c. virtual height d. Wave impedance
d. optical horizon
304. The field strength of a radio signal varies according to
295. Variations brought about by the rotation of the earth the output or transmitted power and the distance of the
around its axis. receiver from the transmitter. This wave behavior is
a. cyclical rotation described by
b. seasonal variation a. The field strength
c. diurnal variation b. Huygens Principle
d. weather variation c. Faradays Law
d. Inverse Square Law
296. Ionospheric irregularity caused by solar flares, which 305. The antenna theory states that reception and
are gigantic emissions of hydrogen from the sun. transmission functions are interchangeable is
a. Sudden ionospheric disturbances a. Poynting Theorem
b. Dillenger fadeouts b. Snells Law
c. Mogul-Delliger fadeouts c. Huygens Principle
d. Any of these d. Law of Reciprocity
306. The frequency band where electromagnetic waves 315. A number, which when multiplied by the speed of light
travel in straight path or in a direct line of sight between the in free space gives the speed of light in the medium in
transmitter and receiver antenna is question is
a. ELF a. Fibonacci number
b. HF b. Fermats number
c. VLF c. Velocity factor
d. VHF and above d. K-factor

307. This mode of electromagnetic wave propagation uses 316. The ability of a radio wave to be bent slightly over the
the earths surface or curvature as a guide to transmit edge of a sharp obstacle such as a steep hill or mountain top
vertically polarized waves is
a. Sky wave a. Diffraction
b. Tropospheric wave b. Reflection
c. Transionospheric wave c. Refraction
d. Ground wave d. Attenuation

308. Frequencies in the UHF range propagate by means of 317. A space wave is
a. Ground waves a. Sky wave
b. surface waves b. Radio wave
c. sky waves c. Surface wave
d. space waves d. Line of sight propagation wave

309. the ground wave eventually disappear as it moves 318. It is a diagram indicating the intensity in volts/meter,
farther away from the transmitter, because of in all directions, of the radiated filed of an antenna as it
a. tilting would occur under actual operating conditions.
b. reflection a. Constellation diagram
c. refraction b. Argand diagram
d. diffraction c. Funicular diagram
d. Radiation pattern
310. as electromagnetic waves travel in free space, only one
of the following can happen 319. Equivalent to capacitance in electrical circuits
a. absorption a. Inductance
b. attenuation b. Permittivity
c. refraction c. Permeability
d. reflection d. Power density

311. In polarization diversity, two signals are 320. All of these cause attenuation except
a. Both polarized at one specific location a. Tilting
b. Vertically and horizontally polarized separately b. Ground absorption
c. Polarized in the same manner c. Atmospheric absorption
d. Vertically and horizontally polarized using a common d. Surface wave propagation
antenna
321. The transmission of radio waves far beyond line of
312. If the direction of the electric field of a radio wave is sight distances by using high power and large transmitting
horizontal. That wave is known to be _____ polarized. antennas to beam the signal upward into the atmosphere
a. Negatively and a similar large receiving antenna to pick up a small
b. Vertically portion of the signal scattered by the atmosphere is called
c. Positively a. Forward scatter propagation
d. Horizontally b. Beyond the horizon propagation
c. Either a or b
313. The property of a material that determines how much d. Meteoric Scatter Propagation
change electrostatic energy can be stored per unit volume
when voltage is applied 322. The apparent height of an ionized layer of the
a. Miller effect atmosphere; as determined from the time interval between
b. Permeability the transmitted signal and the ionospheric echo at vertical
c. Capacitance incidence. This height is the maximum height reached if the
d. Permitivity actual paths are projected forming straight lines from the
ascent to the descent of waves.
314. According to this law or principle, a wavefront may be a. Optimum height
considered to consist of an infinite number of isotropic b. Virtual height
radiators, each one sending out wavelets, always away from c. Complex height
the source. d. Critical height
a. Snells Law
b. Maxwells Law
c. Huygens Principle
d. Archimedes Principle
323. The highest frequency whereby a wave will be returned 330. An ionospheric layer, which exists between 90 to 120
back to earth by an ionospheric layer having been beamed km above the earths surface and is about 25 km thick. It
up at it and ranges from 5 to 12 MHz. For F2 layers. This aids MF surface propagation while reflecting some HF
frequency is directly proportional to the secant function of during daytime
the smallest angle, which allows reflection of sky waves. a. D-layer
a. Apex frequency b. E-layer
b. Critical frequency c. F layer
c. Carrier frequency d. Vantress layer
d. Baseband frequency
331. Atmospheric condition is controlled by
324. The distant at which sky-wave signals are reflected a. Pressure
back to earth depend on b. Temperature
a. Height of the reflecting layer c. Humidity
b. The takeoff angle of the waves d. All of these
c. Both a and b
d. Conductivity of the soil 332. This ionospheric layer forms at night at about 300 km
from the earths surface and is responsible for long distance
325. Perfect reflection of waves occur when HF wave propagation due to reflection and refraction. It
a. The magnitude of the incident is equal to the reflected splits during daytime due to the ionizing energy from
waves ultraviolet rays of the sun.
b. The magnitude of the incident is less than the reflected a. D layer
waves b. E layer
c. The magnitude of incident is greater than reflected waves c. F layer
d. Both and b d. Vantress layer

326. The process by which a radio wave is bent and 333. When the transmitting and receiving antennas are
returned to earth from one medium to another after striking line-of-sight of each other, the mode of propagation is
them is _____ wave.
a. Reflection a. Space or direct
b. Refraction b. Sky
c. Diffraction c. surface
d. Absorption d. ground

327. An incident, traveling obliquely from one medium to 334. Power density is inversely proportional to the square of
another, will undergo a change in direction if the velocity of the distance from the source or transmitter to the
the wave in one medium is different from that in the other destination or receiver. This law is called:
and the ratio of the sine of the angle of incidence to the sine a. Coulombs law
of the angle of refraction is the same ratio of respectively b. Law of Universal Gravitation
wave velocities in these media. This law is called c. Inverse Square Law
a. Snells Law d. Lenzs Law
b. Fishers Law
c. Hookes Law 335. A one-hop, full duplex, microwave system is in a space
d. Newtons Law diversity arrangement. Determine how many receivers in all
are used?
328. The lowest layer of the ionosphere which exists a. 6
between 50 to 90 km from the earths surface and reflects b. 2
VLF and LF waves while absorbing MF and HF waves c. 8
during daytime is the d. 4
a. D layer
b. E layer 336. ________ is the extra ionization of the E-layer
c. F layer resulting to irregular and intermittent reflection of
d. Vantress layer frequencies of up to 80 MHz in temperate and lower
latitudes of frequencies of up to 80 MHz in temperate and
329. This phenomenon occurs when the thicker air is on top lower latitudes. It is variable in time of occurrence, height.
instead of being at the bottom when the temperature of Geographical distribution, penetration frequency and
water vapor gradient is lesser or greater than the standard ionization density.
rate. a. Sporadic E
a. Thermal inversion b. Dillinger Effect
b. Horizontal ducting c. Faraday rotation
c. Elevated ducting d. Scintillations
d. Sporadic E
337. The decrease in signal strength as a result of 346. In electromagnetic waves, polarization
absorption or scattering of energy along a transmission a. Is caused by reflection
path is called: b. Is due to the transverse nature of the waves
a. Attenuation c. Results from the longitudinal nature of the waves
b. Microbending d. Is always vertical in an isotropic medium
c. Dispersion
d. Multipath fading 347. Radio fading resulting from obstruction losses.
a. Log normal fading
338. The transfer of electromagnetic waves or acoustical b. Rayleigh Fading
energy from one place to another through a suitable c. Multi-path fading
transmission medium is d. None of these
a. Wave propagation
b. RF induction 348. The absorption of radio waves by the atmosphere
c. Radio Frequency Interference depends on
d. Forward Scatter a. Their frequency
b. Their distance from the transmitter
339. The upper limit of frequencies that can be used at a c. The polarization of the waves
specified time for radio transmission between two points d. The polarization of the atmosphere
and involving propagation by reflection from regular
ionized layers of the ionosphere is 349. Electromagnetic waves are refracted when they
a. Maximum usable frequency a. Pass into a medium of different dielectric constant
b. Optimum traffic frequency b. Are polarized at right angles to the direction of
c. Minimum usable frequency propagation
d. Carrier frequency c. Encounter a perfectly conducting surface
d. Pass through a small slot in a conducting plane
340. Waves whose oscillations are perpendicular to the
direction of propagation are called 350. Diffraction of electromagnetic waves
a. Huygens waves a. Is caused by reflection from the ground
b. Transverse waves b. Arises only with spherical wavefronts
c. Longitudinal waves c. Will occur when the waves pass through a large slot
d. Fraunhoffer waves d. May occur around the edge of a sharp obstacle

341. Indicate which one of the following terms applies to 351. What do you call of the travel of electromagnetic waves
troposcatter propagation: through a medium at the speed of light?
a. SIDs a. RF propagation
b. Fading b. Radio propagation
c. Atmospheric storms c. Wave propagation
d. Faraday rotation d. All of these

342. VLF waves are used for some types of services because 352. Electromagnetic waves are
a. Of the low power required a. Consist of electric and magnetic component that are
b. The transmitting antennas are of convenient size parallel to each other
c. They are very reliable b. Oscillations that propagate through free space
d. They penetrate the ionosphere easily c. Irregular oscillations
d. Oscillations that are produced by an oscillating circuit
343. High frequency waves are
a. Absorbed by the F2 layer 353. The region around an electrically charged body in
b. Reflected by the D layer which other charged bodies are acted by an attracting or
c. Capable of use for long-distance communications on the repelling force.
moon a. Electric field
d. Affected by the solar cycle b. Radiation field
c. Magnetic field
344. Distances near the skip distance should be used for d. Electromagnetic field
sky-wave propagation
a. To avoid tilting 354. What are the two components of electromagnetic field?
b. To prevent sky-wave and upper ray interference a. Ray and wavefront
c. To avoid the faraday effect b. Magnet and electricity
d. So as not to exceed the critical frequency c. Polar electrons and magnetic field
d. Electric field (E-field) and magnetic field
345. The ground wave eventually disappears, as one moves
away from the transmitter, because of
a. Interference from the sky wave
b. Loss of line of sight conditions
c. Maximum single-hop distance limitation
d. Tilting
355. Shows a surface of constant phase of a wave and is 363. What is diffraction?
formed when points of equal phase on rays propagated a. Is the change in direction of a ray as it passes obliquely
from the source are joined together. from one medium to another with different velocities or
a. Ray propagation
b. Wavefront b. Refers to the modulation or redistribution of energy
c. Point source within a wavefront when it passes near the edge of an
d. Isotropic source opaque object
c. Is the phenomenon that allows light or radio waves to
356. It is a line drawn along the direction of propagation of travel (peek) around corners of an obstacle.
an electromagnetic wave used to show the relative direction d. A or C is right
of electromagnetic wave propagation.
a. Ray 364. A rare refracting medium has
b. Wavefront a. Smaller value of dielectric constant
c. Point source b. Higher value of dielectric constant
d. Isotropic source c. Variable value for dielectric constant
d. A dielectric constant dependent on the medium
357. Refers to the rate at which energy passes through a
given surface area in free space 365. Refractive index refers to
a. Field intensity a. The ratio of velocity of light in free space to the velocity of
b. Power density light in a given material
c. Refractive index b. The ratio of the light in free space towards the light in a
d. Absorption coefficient given medium
c. The ratio of the angle of refraction
358. It its the intensity of the electric and magnetic fields of d. The amount of bending or refraction that occurs at the
an electromagnetic wave propagating in free space interface of two material of different densities
a. Field intensity
b. Power density 366. Why is it that rays traveling near the top of the
c. Refractive index medium travel faster than those at the bottom?
d. Absorption coefficient a. The medium is more dense near the bottom
b. The medium is less dense at the top
359. In a lossless transmission medium, _______ of free c. The medium is less dense near the bottom and more
space is equal to the square root of the ratio of its magnetic dense at the top
permeability to its electric permittivity d. A and B are incorporated
a. Resistance
b. Field intensity 367. When does reflection if wave occur?
c. Characteristic impedance a. When an incident wave strikes a boundary of two media,
d. A or C is correct and some of the incident power does not enter the second
360. Electromagnetic wave measures all except material
b. When the reflective surface is irregular or rough
a. Inductance c. When two or more electromagnetic waves combine in
b. Power density such a way that the system performance is degraded.
c. Magnetic field intensity d. A and B
d. Permittivity of the medium
368. What is meant by specular reflection?
361. A reduction in power density due to the inverse square a. Is a reflection from a perfectly smooth surface
law presumes free-space propagation is called b. Is an incident wavefront striking an irregular surface,
a. Absorption randomly scattered in many directions
b. Wave attenuation c. Reflection of surfaces that fall between smooth and
c. Space attenuation of the wave irregular
d. B or C is correct d. Is a combination of diffused and semirough surfaces

362. Which of the following are optical effects of radio 369. ________ states that a semirough surface will reflect
waves? as if it were a smooth surface whenever the cosine of he
a. Refraction and reflection angle of incidence is greater than 1/8d, where d is the depth
b. Diffraction and interference of the surface irregularity and I is the wavelength of the
c. Induction and diffraction incident wave.
d. A and B a. Rayleigh criterion
b. Huygens principle
c. Linear superposition
d. Reflection coefficient
370. Energy that has neither been radiated into space nor 379. Which of these causes the wavefront to tilt
completely transmitted progressively forward?
a. Modulated waves a. Gradient density
b. Captured waves b. Electric field intensity
c. Standing waves c. Absorption coefficient
d. Incident waves d. Magnetic field intensity

371. What property of radio waves occurs whenever two or 380. Which of following of must be taken into consideration
more waves simultaneously occupy the same point in to ensure proper ground-wave propagation?
space? a. Power
a. Reflection b. Terrain
b. Refraction c. Frequency
c. Diffraction d. B and C
d. Interference
381. What are the applications of groundwave
372. Pertains to a source which radiates equally in all propagation?
directions a. Ship-to-ship and ship-to-shore communications
a. Isobaric source b. Maritime mobile communications
b. Isotropic source c. Radio navigation
c. Isentropic source d. All of these
d. Isothermal source
382. The curvature of the earth presents a horizon to space
373. Electromagnetic waves travel at _____ in free space wave propagation which is approximately 4/3 that of the
a. 300,000 km/sec optical horizon
b. 200 km/sec a. Standard atmosphere
c. 400,000 km/sec b. Optical horizon
d. 100,000 km/sec c. Radio horizon
d. All of these
374. Any space or region wherein a magnetic force is
exerted on moving electric charges 383. Refraction is caused by what factors?
a. Electric field a. Changes in tropospheres density and temperature
b. Radiation field b. Water vapor content
c. Magnetic field c. Relative conductivity
d. Electromagnetic field d. All of the above

375. Which of the following is a characteristic of 384. Any of the flowing can be caused to lengthen radio
electromagnetic wave? horizon:
a. Measures power, voltage, capacitance and impedance of a a. Elevating the transmit or receive antennas above Earths
system surface
b. Measures power density, voltage, and inductance b. Elevating both antennas
c. Measures power density, magnetic field intensity, and c. Installing the transmit and/or receive antennas on top of
electric field intensity mountains or high buildings
d. All of the above d. All of these

376. Reflection waves 385. A special condition which occurs when the density of
a. Should take place at one medium the lower atmosphere is such that electromagnetic waves
b. Does not necessarily take place at one medium are trapped between it and earths surface
c. Occurs at any other medium at the same time a. Duct propagation
d. Is not possible b. Sky wave propagation
c. Space wave propagation
377. Way(s) of propagating electromagnetic waves: d. Ground wave propagation
a. Ground-wave propagation
b. Space wave propagation 386. The vibrating electrons at the ionosphere decrease
c. Sky-wave propagation current which is equivalent to reducing the dielectric
d. All of these constant, which in turn, will also cause the velocity of
propagation to______.
378. At frequencies below 1.5 MHz, what propagation a. Increase
provides the best coverage? b. Decrease
a. Ground wave c. Remain constant
b. Space wave d. Decrease by a factor of 2
c. Sky wave
d. All of these
387. Increasing the velocity of propagation causes a/an 395. In ________, the distant of each succeeding hop
_____ of the electromagnetic waves. from earth to ionosphere and back is also the skip distance.
a. Increasing refraction a. Hop transmission
b. Decreasing reflection b. Single transmission
c. Increasing diffraction c. Unihop transmission
d. Decreasing interference d. Multihop transmission

388. What layer has its maximum density at approximately 396. Concerns to the single reflection of a radio wave form
70 mi a noon, when the sun is at its highest point? the ionosphere back to earth.
a. D layer a. Jog
b. E layer b. Hop
c. Kennelly-Heaviside layer c. Skip
d. B or C d. Fading

389. The sporadic E layer is a thin layer with a very high 397. The fluctuation of signal strength at the receiver that
ionization density. It is considered separately from the are caused by changes in the transmission medium
other layers and when it appears, gives an unexpected a. Fading
improvement in long distance radio transmissions. What b. Hopping
cause(s) its unpredictable appearance? c. Skipping
a. Sunspot activity d. Diversity
b. Sunspot cycle
c. Solar flares 398. Gradual variation in the field strength of a radio signal
d. A and C is compensated by
a. Fading techniques
390. The region in the ionosphere with a very high b. Diversity techniques
ionization density at roughly 55 to 90 miles and is used for c. Transverse techniques
frequencies up to about 20 MHz. It is gone completely at d. Transmission techniques
midnight.
a. D layer 399. A modulation of two different RF carrier frequencies
b. E layer with the same IF intelligence, then transmitting both RF
c. F layer signals to a given destination.
d. G layer a. Diversity
b. Space diversity
391. A layer in the ionosphere which is the most important c. Frequency diversity
reflecting medium fir HF radio waves. It has 2 sublayers, at d. Polarization diversity
90 to 250 mi height
a. A layer 400. To increase the availability of the system, a method in
b. D layer which the output of a transmitter is fed to two or more
c. E layer antennas that are physically separated by an appreciable
d. F layer number of wavelengths.
a. Space diversity
392. The apparent height of the ionized layer and is always b. Frequency diversity
greater than the actual height c. Polarization diversity
a. Critical height d. Space wave propagation
b. Virtual height
c. Maximum height
d. Imaginary height

393. Refers to the shortest distance in which a sky-wave


signal will be returned to the earth. It includes the
maximum ground-wave range and the width of the skip
zone.
a. Hop
b. Skip distance
c. Actual distance
d. Critical distance

394. Concerns to the highest frequency that is able to return


to earth when beamed at a certain angle of incidence
a. Relative frequency
b. Optimum frequency
c. Resonant frequency
d. Maximum usable frequency, MUF