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Narrative text is one type of English text that aims to tell a story that has a series of
chronological events are connected.

The Purpose

of Narrative Text is to amuse or to entertain the reader with a story. Narrative text aims to
entertain the reader about a story or story.

There are many types of narrative text. Narrative text can be imaginary, factual, or a
combination of both. Here are the types of narrative text: fairy stories, mysteries, science
fiction, romances, horror stories, adventure stories, fables, myths and legends, historical
narratives, ballads, slice of life, personal experience.
Generic Structure

The generic narrative text structure

focuses on a series of proposed stages to build a story. In the narrative text the stage covers:

1. Orientation
(Introduction) where character, setting, and story time are set. Usually answer which
question? When? Where ? For example: Once upon a time, there was a wolf lived in the

2. Complication or problem
Telling the beginning of the problem that caused the crisis (climax). Complication usually
involves the main character.

3. Resolution

The end of the story is the solution of the problem. It needs a resolution of the problem.
Problems can be solved can be better or worse, happy or sad. Sometimes there are some
complications to be solved. This adds and maintains interest and tension for its readers.

4. Reorientation / Coda

is a closing statement of the story and is optional. Can contain about moral lessons,
suggestions or teachings from the author.


Timun Emas

Long time ago in the island of Java, Indonesia, lived a couple of farmer. They had married for
some years but they had no children. So they prayed to a monster called Buta Ijo to give them
children. Buta Ijo was a ferocious and powerful monster. He granted their wish on one
condition. When their children had grown up, they had to sacrifice them to Buta Ijo. He liked
eating fresh meat of human being. The farmers agreed to his condition. Several months later
the wife was pregnant.

She gave birth to a beautiful baby girl. They named her Timun Emas. The farmers were
happy. Timun Emas was very healthy and a very smart girl. She was also very diligent. When
she was a teenager Buta Ijo came to their house. Timun Emas was frightened so she ran away
to hide. The farmers then told Buta Ijo that Timun Emas was still a child. They asked him to
postpone. Buta Ijo agreed. He promised to come again. The following year Buta Ijo came
again. But again and again their parents said that Timun Emas was still a child.

When the third time Buta Ijo came their parents had prepared something for him. They gave
Timun Emas several bamboo needles, seeds of cucumber, dressing and salt.
Timun, take these things
What are these things?
These are your weapons. Buta Ijo will chase you. He will eat you alive. So run as fast as you
can. And if he will catch you spread this to the ground. Now go!

Timun Emas was scared so she ran as quickly as she could. When Buta Ijo arrived she was
far from home. He was very angry when he realized that his prey had left. So he ran to chase
her. He had a sharp nose so he knew what direction his prey ran.

Timun Emas was just a girl while Buta Ijo was a monster so he could easily catch her up.
When he was just several steps behind Timun Emas quickly spread the seeds of cucumber. In
seconds they turned into many vines of cucumber. The exhausted Buta Ijo was very thirsty so
he grabbed and ate them. When Buta Ijo was busy eating cucumber Timun Emas could run

But soon Buta Ijo realized and started running again. When he was just several steps behind
Timun Emas threw her bamboo needles. Soon they turned into dense bamboo trees. Buta Ijo
found it hard to pass. It took him some time to break the dense bamboo forest. Meanwhile
Timun Emas could run farther.

Buta Ijo chased her again. When he almost catch her again and again Timun Emas threw her
dressing. This time it turned into a lake. Buta Ijo was busy to save himself so Timun Emas
ran way. But Buta Ijo could overcome it and continued chasing her.

Finally when Timun Emas was almost caught she threw her salt. Soon the land where Buta
Ijo stood turned into ocean. Buta Ijo was drowned and died instantly. Timun Emas was
thankful to god and came back to her home.
A. Discussion Text

Before talking about the structure, the characteristics of discussion text and examples, let us
first learn the definition of discussion text in English and Indonesian. Among English
scholars, it defines discussion text as: "is a text which present a problematic discourse. This
problem will be discussed from different viewpoints. Discussion is commonly found in
philosophical, historic, and social text. "So what is meant by discussion text is an article that
exposes discourse or debate a problem discussed from different point of view. The writing or
text of this discussion is usually found in philosophical, historical and social writing.

B. Purpose of Discussion Text

The purpose of communicative discussion text is to present an issue or information by

exposing some opinions of experts in their field and usually the opinions described are
contradictory (pros and cons).

C. Generic Structure Discussion Text

The first part of the generic structure of discussion text is the presentation of the issues to
be discussed or discussed in the text.
Argument For or Against
After that, the authors explain some of the views on the issues being discussed or discussed
by taking the opinions of experts or also without mentioning who is arguing but that opinion
is already commonly known. The author will usually present a new argument for argument
against the next paragraph.
Before taking a stand by determining which opinions are preferred by the author, or even
have his own opinion, the author must first provide elaboration of some opinions that have
been presented.
Conclusion or Recomendation
Generic structure of the last discussion text is the conclusion or the author's
recommendation of the issue being discussed in the hope that the reader can follow and agree
with the author's opinion.

D. Characteristics of Redaction Discussion Text

Focus on human and non-human generic participants.

Using comparative words: contrary contrary words for example, but, however, in other
side and its consequences (cause of effect) eg: so, then.
Using language of discussion: According, opinion.
Using words like: feel, hope, believe.
Using Simple Present.

E. Contoh Discussion Text

1. Nuclear power is generated by using uranium which is a metal mined in various part
of the world. The first large scale of nuclear power station was opened at Calder Hall
in Cumbria, England in 1956.
2. Some military ships and submarines have nuclear power plant for engine. Nuclear
power produces around 11% of the worlds energy needed, and produces huge
amounts of energy. It cause no pollution as we would get when burning fossil fuels.
The advantages of nuclear plant are as follow:
o It costs about the same coal, so it is not expansive to make.
o It does not produce smoke or carbon dioxide, so it does not contribute to the
greenhouse effect.
o It produces huge amounts of energy from small amount of uranium.
o It produces small amount of waste.
o It is reliable.
3. On the other hand, nuclear power is very dangerous. It must be sealed up and buried
for many years to allow the radioactivity to die away. Furthermore, although it is
reliable, a lot of money has to be spent on safety because if it does go wrong, a
nuclear accident ca be a major accident.
4. People are increasingly concerned about this matter. In the 1990s nuclear power was
the fastest growing source of power in many parts of the world.
A. Recount Text
Recount Text is one of a kind of English text that retells the events or experiences of the past.
The purpose of Recount Text is to provide information or to entertain the reader. Inside the
Recount Text there is no complication (Complication) as it does in Narrative Text.

B. The purpose of Communicative Text Recount

The communicative purpose of Recount Text as described above is to report events, events or
activities with the aim of preaching or entertaining of course without any conflict within the

C. Generic structure Text Recount

1. Orientation
Orientation or introduction is to provide information about who, where, and when events or
activities that occurred in the past.

2. Events
Events are recordings of events that occur, usually delivered in chronological order, such as
"In the first day, I ... And in the next day ... And In the last day ...". In the Events section
there is also usually a personal comment about the event or event being told.

3. Reorientation
In the Reorientation section, there is a repetition of the existing recognition in Orientation, a
repetition that summarizes the sequence of events, events or activities that are told.

D. Linguistic Features Recount Text

There are several language traits that friends may find when reading a Recount Text. The
linguistic features of the Recount Text are:

Using Past Tense. Suppose we went to zoo, I was happy, etc.

Using Conjunction and Time Connectives to sort events or events. For example and, but,
the, aftar that, etc.
Use Adverbs and Adverbial Phrase to reveal places, times and ways. Suppose yesterday, at
my house, slowly, etc.
Using Action Verbs. Suppose went, slept, run, brought, etc.

E. Example Recount Text

ur trip to the Blue Mountain

On Friday we went to the Blue Mountains. We stayed at David and Dellas house. It has a big
garden with lots of colourful flowers and a tennis court.

On Saturday we saw the Three Sisters and went on the scenic railway. It was scary. Then,
Mummy and I went shopping with Della. We went to some antique shops and I tried on some
old hats. On Sunday we went on the Scenic Skyway and it rocked. We saw cockatoos having
a shower.

In the afternoon we went home. That was very pleasent moment with my family that I ever
A. Spoof Text and Examples

The English experts define Spoof Text as: "Spoof is a text which tells a factual story,
happened in the past time with unpredictable and funny ending". Spoof text is a text that tells
a story that happened in the past with the end of a funny story that can not be predicted or
predicted. So it usually contains anecdotes, funny word games or it could be a combination of
both. Then what's the difference with the Anecdote text? The difference is this spoof text
usually tells a personal experience whereas anecdote does not.

B. Differences Spoof and Narrative Text

Both of these genres, Spoof Text and Narrative Text have similarities in terms of events that
occurred in the past and aimed to entertain the reader. But there is a fundamental difference
between the two. Narrative text aims to entertain the reader in the hope that readers can take
wisdom behind the story. While Spoof is intended to entertain the reader (entertaining
readers) but more emphasis on the cuteness of the story than the taking of wisdom. And the
humor of the story will be found at the end of the story. So the keyword for Spoof text is
FUN, if not funny then it is not spoof text.

C. Purpose of Spoof Text

Judging from the notion, we can draw our own conclusion that the purpose of communicative
spoof text is to tell a fictional story with a humorous style.

D. Generic Structure Spoof Text

General arrangement Spoof text has its own characteristics, and this is also what distinguishes
it from the Narrative text. Here's the generic structure of the spoof text:

Orientation: contains character recognition, background, setting etc.

Events: contains events or events.
Twist: ending story (ending a story that is considered funny, sometimes unexpected, and
usually plintiran or play)

E. The characteristics of Spoof Text

Usually tells what happened to a person: I, we, she, he, they etc.
Tenses used are Past Tense.
To tell the details of a story, there is usually a dialogue so there must be a sign: "... text
dialog ..."

F. Spoof Text

Sum Ting Wong.

Jacky Wong got married with Lia Wong. Both of them had a white skin and straight hair.
They are really a well-matched couple.

One year later, Wong family got a new baby. A nurse brought them a son with curly hair and
a black skin.

The nurse congratulated and said, What name will you give to this son?

With a confused face, Jacky Wong grumbled, Sum Ting Wong!

Definisi Procedure Text

Procedure text is a piece of text that give us instructions for doing something.

Procedure text is a text that is designed to describe how something is achieved through a
sequence of actions or steps.

Tujuan Procedure Text

The social purpose of procedure text is to show how something is done through sequence of
steps which enable the reader to achieve the goal.
The purpose of procedure text is to tell the reader how to do or make something through a
sequence of actions or steps.
Types of Procedure Text

Procedure text in English has several types. Here are 3 types of procedure text that you
should know.
Procedure text that describes how something works or how to use instruction / manual
operation, for example, how to use computer, how to record video. how to use plaroid
Procedure text that instructs how to perform certain activities, for example, how to make a
noodle, how to dance, how to play basketball.
Procedure text related to human behavior, for example, how to succeed, how to live
happily, how to be a good person.

Generic Stucture of Procedure Text

Procedure text has a general layout scheme or generic structure. The following generic
stucture of procedure text:
Goal: provides information about the intent and purpose of the procedure and predicts a
Materials: contains a list of materials or materials needed to perform a procedure or steps.
Steps: a list of instruction / activity sequences to achieve the objectives in the correct step
Result: Result of a series of steps that have been done.

How to Make Ice Cream

2 cups milk or cream
2 tablespoons sugar
1 teaspoon Vanilla extract
Several cups of Ice
1 cup salt
You need these supplies to make ice cream
Tub or large coffee can to hold salt and ice
Glass bowl or small coffee can
Electric mixer or whisk
Ice cream scoop
Storage container for freezer
First, setting up the cooling apparatus. Stir ice and salt in the larger container.
Then, combine the ingredients. Mix together the milk, sugar, and vanilla in the glass bowl.
Then, set this bowl in the tub filled with ice and rock salt, making sure that the salt water
does not spill into the bowl.

Next, mix the ice cream. Mix the ingredients in the small container vigorously. The salty ice
mixture will cool the mixture down until it turns into ice cream. It should take about 10 to 15
minutes to stir the ice cream using either method. Stir until it is free from ice crystals and is
the right consistency.

Last, storage and serving. ice cream is ready.

Definition of Report text
Report is a text which presents information about something, as it is. It is as a result of
systematic observation and analyses.
Generic Structure of Report text
# General Clasification ; Stating classification of general aspect of thing; animal, public
place, plant, etc which will be discussed in general
# Description : tells what the phenomenon under discussion ; in terms of parts, qualities,
habits or behaviors.
Purpose of Report text
Its social purpose is presenting information about something. They generally describe an
entire class of things, whether natural or made: mammals, the planets, rocks, plants, countries
of region, culture, transportation, and so on.
Language features of Report text :
Nouns and noun phrases are used rather than personal pronouns. The use of personal
pronouns is limited.
Most reports are written in the present tense.
Use some passive voice
Some reports use technical or scientific terms.
Linking verbs are used, eg. is, are, has, have, belong to, to give coherence.
Uses some action verbs (climb, eat).
Descriptive language is used that is factual rather than imaginative eg. color, shape, size,
body parts, habits, behaviors, functions, uses.
Report Text About Lion

Lion lives in prairie, bushes, and open forests of Saharan, Africa. Lion is the second biggest
feline on the planet. Its size is marginally littler than tiger. Be that as it may, they are nearly
related and have fundamentally the same body. Lion is unique in relation to other enormous
felines. They are extremely amiable creatures. They live in gatherings. There are around 30
lions in a gathering comprising of three guys, twelve females, and whatever remains of their
kids. The quantity of gathering individuals is dictated by the accessibility of nourishment and

They thunder one another to track their spot. Male and female lions have a capable thunder
that can be heard up to 8 km. Male and female lion have an altogether different part in the
gathering. Male lions invest their energy to keep their domain and their youngsters. They
keep up their limits. While female lions or lioness is the primary seeker bunch. They are
littler and more spry than male lions. Anyway, they cooperate in getting their prey.

They generally chase around evening time. Their prey are gazelle, bison, zebra, rhinos,
hippos, wild pig, crocodile, youthful elephants, and giraffe. At the same time, in some cases
they likewise eat the littler prey, for example, rodents, flying creatures, rabbits, reptiles, and

In the wake of getting their prey, all the lions in the gathering impart their prey. However,
there is a pecking request. The male lions take the first claim, trailed by lionesses, and the
latter is their kids.