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Property Value Impacts of a Change in Environmental Quality

On Selected Municipalities in Cavite

An Undergraduate Paper

Submitted To the Faculty Of

The Allied Business Department

De La Salle University Dasmarias

In Partial Fulfilment Of The

Requirements for the Degree Of

Bachelor of Science in Business Administration

Major In Economics



November 2014
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The International Solid Waste Commission (ISWA), founded in 1970 has

been true to their goal of promoting and developing sustainable and professional

waste management worldwide. With their strong vision of an Earth where no waste

nor pollution exists, ISWA provided projects that has proved that there can be a

cleaner and greener future for the whole human population. Solid waste has been a

big issue even before and a lot of organizations and government units have already

provided numerous plans and projects to temporarily remove the trash that has been

a big pollutant in the whole world. In a local perspective, the National Solid Waste

Management Commission (NSWMC) is present. Like the ISWA, their primary goal

is to help lessen the volume of solid waste (land pollution) in the country. NSWMC

is the major agency tasked to implement Republic Act 9003, the Ecological Solid

Waste Management Act of 2000, where LGUs act as an important aide to manage

their own wastes on their respective municipalities/cities/towns.

Landfills can be a short-term or long-term business that are normally

controlled by real estate businessmen. The Appraisal Research Company in the US,

it is basically a hole in the ground that is operational and considered as business

(Parker, 2014). These landfills may have existed before the operation has started or

it can be associated in the construction process. Certain externalities can be staged

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regarding these businesses wherein some may be positive and/or negative.

Positive, because, this can be the source of income for some people and negative,

because, these can affect people living nearby. It can be health difficulties,

environmental issues, political problems, and the like.

In a global perspective, landfills are also used as a proper waste

management. Seven of the largest landfills around the globe are: Great Pacific

Garbage Patch, Pacific Ocean, Bordo Poniente Landfill, Nezahualcoyotl, Mexico,

Fresh Kills Landfill, New York, Lagos Dump, Nigeria, Apex Regional Landfill, Las

Vegas, Nevada, Sudokwon Landfill, South Korea, Puente Hills Landfill, Los

Angeles, California. According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA),

the average American produces about 4.4 pounds of garbage a day. This is

therefore considered as a big issue in line with an existing populations welfare.

Indias waste is properly disposed of in low lying areas without taking any

precautions or operational controls through various SWM including landfills and

dumpsites. Therefore, municipal solid waste is one of the major environmental

problems of Indias megacities (Ayub et al 2011).

Landfills may create negative effects on a certain nation but it is still

considerable that there are certain positive externalities provided by these waste

lands in several ways possible. This idea is the primary drive of this paper; to

exhibit how a certain change in environmental quality can create an impact on

property values in several locations. The issue has been influenced by several
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journals, theses, working papers, essays, and articles on-line. One that shaped and

altered the ideas of what a landfill could do and cannot do has been presented

through several researches and articles posted on the web. Landfills in particular

have created negative effects on the environment, buildings and houses, and even

people. One main reason for the negative effects is landfill gas, which is produced

when waste breaks down in a landfill. The negative effects of land pollution has

already been in the populations mindset since the beginning of time, and one of the

main purpose of this paper is to exhibit the opposing effects of landfills, dumpsites,

and other polluted lands as well.

Background of the Study

In the Philippines, 97.5 percent of the countrys waste disposal facilities are

still open dumpsites, with 936 open and controlled dump sites and only 24 sanitary

landfills, or a passive rate of only 2.5 percent. One major reason for this is the lack

of financing (DENR) and everyone knows that land pollution is a huge issue in the

country especially that it can affect the citizens welfare, health, all in all, their

everyday lives. Landfills have led to some of the most heated issues regarding

pollution in the Philippines. While there are a whole lot of reasons for the intense

arguments that often surround landfills, dumpsites, and the like. One of the largest

is the combination of both the understood need for these treatments and the

willingness of one person to live near a SWM project, specifically near a dumpsite

or a landfill.
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One big issue before was the catastrophic Waste Mass Failure in the year

2000, where the residents near the Payatas landfill in Quezon City, Philippines,

killed at least 330 people (Stark et al 2009 p. 208). After experiencing heavy rain

from two typhoons. This is just one of the issues that might be experienced if one

landfill or any waste management program is not properly managed or handled


In Cavite, there are 34 landfills, 2 of which are centralized Material

Recovery Facilities (MRFs), 14 are based in barangays, 5 are open dumpsites, 12

are controlled dumpsites and 1 is a sanitary landfill with an Environmental

Compliance Certificate (ECC). Though ECCs are not yet thoroughly operational, it

is still expected to accommodate and manage solid wastes produced by the province

considering both domestic and industrial wastes.

Statement of the Problem

The main method for transfer of these robust wastes are through dumpsites,

landfills, and the like however there are high dangers in regards to this kind of

waste administration and the majority of its setbacks are the human wellbeing and

nature itself.

In 1999, San Mateo, Rizals landfill was forced to stop performing due to

certain problems such as public pressure, wherein several factors such as waste

trucks, junkshops or waste pickers affected the local communities. These effects
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may focus mainly on health issues due to methane gas being excreted by the wastes

in the San Mateo landfill and may create a huge impact in the near future.

The certain municipalities mentioned in this paper, specifically Dasmarinas,

Indang, Imus, and Silang, Cavite, have landfills and dumpsites that are currently

affecting their residents through different ways possible may it be a benefit or a

cost. It has been a common knowledge that if SWM facilities are present, the more

that the land will cost less and be unproductive. Considering the idea that some of

the residents still earns income through these landfills and dumpsites, it creates a

big question on how they can ponder on this issue whether being a cost (negative)

or a benefit (positive).

In 2001, R.A. 9003 also known as The Ecological Solid Waste

Management Act of 2000 was implemented wherein a central monitoring body

should be able to directly handle, supervise and manage certain polluted lands in the

country. The possible impacts on the areas property value or real estate value in

most cases, may vary in a good or in a bad way. This paper will be organized to

exhibit the different externalities that solid waste management facilities contribute

to do harm or to give benefit for those living near these projects. Also, this study

will help identify the ways on how certain individuals use these polluted land as

their source of income for their everyday needs.

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The main objectives of this research is how a change in environmental

quality can affect the property price valuation through the measures of these

variables. Furthermore, the costs and benefits of these SWM facilities for those who

are living near will be explained.

Specific Objectives

1. To be able to describe the information obtained (demographics, economic

state of locale, location, and distance).

2. To regress the variables affecting property value and how it creates an

impact on environmental changes.

3. To be able to present the costs and benefits of SWM facilities deriving from

the data obtained from the regression results.

Research Questions

1. How will the variables be defined in this research?

2. What are the factors affecting the property value regarding the changes in

environmental quality and how will this paper be able to show its results?

3. How are they affected by these landfills and dumpsites negatively and

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According to Kariuki, 2012, that there are several factors affecting the

property value and the growth in prices of developments, such as increased credit at

low interest rates from several financial institutions, the improvements and

construction of new roads and the new laws and policies in Nairobi. Therefore, in

this paper, other factors will be discussed to see if it will also give a significant

impact on property values. Therefore,

H1: The demographics will obtain a households age, educational

attainment, number of household members, years of stay in their current area and

their gross monthly salary and to prove that some variables will be proven

significant throughout the study.

H2: Economic state of locale was represented through the government

intervention in the municipalities mentioned and how policies are implemented

regarding the SWM within the vicinity and therefore has a positive effect on the

property value.

H3: The location of the property will depict a positive relationship towards

the property value.

H4: The distance of the landfill or dumpsite from a specific house or

property will show a positive relationship as well against its property value.
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Residential property values are often used to indicate the magnitude of

negative external impacts imposed by projects, such as waste disposal facilities

(landfills, dumpsites, etc.). Based on the findings of Lee, 2003, distance is

positively related, this provides the research with the following hypotheses

regarding the variables and the objectives of the study.

H5: If the households location are nearer, it is more likely to declare that

they are highly affected by the SWMs (health, way of living) compared to those

who live farther.

H6: If the property are built near a landfill or a dumpsite, the real estate

value or the property value have lower values compared to those living farther

regarding the environmental changes pertaining to land pollution.

H7: The policies affects the property value through the compliance of the

residents in the municipalities selected positively.

Although, according to Parker, 2013, landfills (and dumpsites) are unique

properties that present both questions and opportunities for real estate properties.

Basically, it is pointed out that despite the negative conditions that a landfill or a

dumpsite might provide, opportunities or positive externalities could still be seen

and therefore,

H8: There are more costs than benefits taking into account their presence

near a landfill or dumpsite.

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Significance of the Study

This quantitative and qualitative research provides multiple perspectives on

how SWM facilities can either positively or negatively affect a certain municipality.

Throughout the study, information will be gathered through the respondents who

are currently living in these selected municipalities and how it has been affecting

their daily lives. The results and conclusions could help the local government in the

selected municipalities specifically regarding the policies present in their locale, the

public (residents) who are either benefiting or losing from these SWM projects, the

students, and for the future researchers particularly when it comes to land pollution

and property values, in order for them to have a clear mindset of what the problem

can contribute in their very own communities.

The local government can think of projects and new policies besides the

present activities and projects, that could help improve the municipalities way of

coping up to what they are experiencing now and with the long-term plans in the


The residents of the selected municipalities are expected to become more

aware of their surroundings to clearly see the effects of SWM facilities that is

operating near their territories.

Also, for the students who are destined to become future leaders, public

servants, and a part of the population, and their awareness about this issue and help

eradicate the problems in the near future.

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And for the future researchers about this topic, this paper will serve as

reference for potential papers that has the same matter as this. Property values,

environmental change, and the possible impacts in a longer period of time could be

measured through this research material.

The three significant factors including: social, economic and ecological

factors will contribute a big part of the paper since the primary goal is to achieve

positive effects concerning these factors affecting the environmental changes in a

property value of a certain location and these will help the paper identify the areas

in where the locale should mainly focus on.

Scope and Limitations of the Study

According to the National Statistics Office, the area of Cavite has a total of

703,841 households with 23 municipalities all in all, but only 6 municipalities will

be chosen to have the interview conducted on. And these are the following:

Dasmarinas, Indang, Imus, and Silang, Cavite. These municipalities were chosen

since there were certain issues already present that is concerning on the issues of

land pollution and also the availability of SWM projects in these certain areas. The

respondents will be households who are already living near an SWM project even

before it started to operate, in order to know their value for the location and if it

really gives them a positive impact from then until now. The study will be

conducted from December 2014 to March 2015. Data gathering will begin on

December this year up to January of the following year.

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Limitations may include the varying response of data since primary

collection of data will be observed. Some respondents might not answer some of the

survey questions truthfully due to privacy, security for their identity and such

factors that can affect them personally. Location is also a weakness in respect with

the researcher. Some SWMs may not be accessible due to areas security or the

location itself.

Definition of Terms

Landfills a place to dispose of refuse and other waste material by burying

it and covering it over with soil, especially as a method of filling in or

extending usable land.

Dumpsites the location where garbage and other forms of trash are

dumped and left to stay.

Waste Management the most proper way of collecting, transporting, and

disposing of trash and garbage, or other waste products. It includes the

management of all the processes for proper handling of these solid wastes.

Property Value the value of a certain property considering the factors

affecting it.

Environmental Quality the characteristics of the local environment, as they

affect the population. It also the condition of the environment relative to the

conditions of the whole population to any needs or purpose.

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The first chapter discussed the macro and micro details about property value

(real estate value) and how environmental change can create impacts in the

households living near the solid waste management projects. It contained important

information including the statement of the problem, objectives of the study,

background of the study, objectives, and hypothesis, definition of terms and the

scope and limitations of the study. But with regards to the study and for it to create

a foundation all throughout the paper, the researcher must be totally familiar with

the papers theories and previous researches. To convince directness and for this

research to continue, review of related literature should be constructed thoroughly.

This will allow the researcher to analyse and give comments regarding the pieces of

literatures that they have fully comprehended regarding the concerned area of study.

The transparency of the research gap is conceivable with the proper understanding

of the scope and delimitations of the research. Using this chapter of review of

related literature, information and important points will be specified using the

previous studies. It will allow them to increase their knowledge about the research

and to attain at the right standpoint of this study creating a large impression
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regarding how land pollution have affected the different countries or areas

positively or negatively considering their view regarding the said issue.

This chapter, review of related literature, analysed by the researcher, is

primarily divided according to the papers objectives given the following subtopics.

The cost and benefits of the solid waste management projects near the households

and how it creates an impact on the property value all throughout the years and even

the years prior to the SWM project. Also, about the culture of the residents living in

the scope of the study and how it was carefully measured through statistical

processes and defined afterwards, knowing the value of the property in the locale in

regards to certain environmental changes provided by the land pollution near the


Costs and Benefits

Environmental quality has potentially strong impacts on health and

mortality risks (Willinger, 2001). There are certain factors affecting the house price.

According to a study, house prices are primarily determined by a multitude of

factors associated with accessibility, neighbourhood, physical characteristic, social

and environment (Kauko, 2003). This goes to show that environmental changes

creates a big dent and is a big factor for affecting the property value of a certain

residence. The best location to reside with a higher value is basically the towns

centre (Nelson, 1958). This gives the residents living near the centre the benefits of
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being near the centre of markets, and social activities. This provides a big

opportunity for competition as well. There was also some evidence that pollution

has a negative effect on house value and prices (Hamid et al, 2009). This is

obviously possible since, pollution, in general, creates negative effects on the

population residing near it. The only benefit that can be seen will be the workers

that are attributed with the wastes a certain population produces, where these solid

waste treatment facilities are utilized to be their source of income.

Landfills present opportunities for real estate professionals with varying

practice types (Parker & Gentry, 2014). Where in the present state of the country

today, a lot of lands have been converted into subdivisions, neighbourhoods, and

commercial areas. This creates a benefit for those who are working in the real estate

field of work but at the same time, damages these lands and creates lesser territory

for SWM businesses. The amount of waste produced by human society is

increasing. Commercial and domestic solid waste is a great practical problem for

many local governments (Chen, 2011).

SWMs such as landfills have been a huge part of a society for disposal of

wastes that are created by the same society mentioned. Despite improvements in the

material wealth of the nation, future generations will not have the same access to

environmental services (Garnaut, 2011). This serves as a cost for what the

community will be having in the future. Since all the land has been converted or

used for real estate, or used for SWM facilities, there might be none left in the long-
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run. This creates a dreadful impact for those who will be needing it in the future. It

would not be certain that the welfare of the future users will be much greater than

what is present today. Negative capitalization of property value as reflected in the

drop in house prices is a signal of depriving effects of environmental dis-amenities

on the property market (Hamid, 2009). Therefore, this creates a diminishing value

for the property market. Sustainability should be improved through the means of

proper urban management strategies.

Quality of the environment is a factor that affects the values of land. Land

value does not only depend on the physical characteristics of a building but also the

environment that surrounds the building (Oloke et al 2013). Hence, those who are

living near SWM project or treatments really receives negative effects regarding

factors such as health, welfare and their ways of living. According to Oloke, there

are seven factors affecting property values and one of it was regarding the

environmental attributes (e.g. view from property, noise levels, pollution levels,

storm water). Thus, this gives the study a clearer perspective on how these

environmental changes will affect the residents residing near landfills, dumpsites,

and incinerators.

At the end of this research, possible externalities can be pointed out

considering how the population responds on how these certain environmental

changes have affected them, especially in the long-run. It is of importance that solid

waste collected are properly disposed at designated sites in the city in order to avoid
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environmental degradation (Babalola & Busu, 2011). The ways of life in a certain

city or in this case, municipality, is greatly affected by how these solid wastes are

treated. Environmental factors should elude from environmental risks, one major

risk for improper actions in regards to solid waste is the way that it can negatively

degrade a certain populations welfare. According to an article, with the help of an

effective Solid Waste Management System, we can develop a healthy and

sustainable economy which will generate more employment along with capability

to meet energy requirement of the people and reduce its carbon footprints as well

(Gakhar, 2013).

Damaging as it looks, the SWMs can still create a certain output, where in

this case biogas is created through an effective system that can help the

communitys way of living. Biogas is equal to the energy produced by half a litre of

diesel oil, it can be seen that not all trash are troubling. With more technologies like

this, it can help the welfare of the population living near a SWM system or plant.

With population growth, economic development, and increased urbanization,

methane emissions from landfills in developing countries now account for nearly 40

percent of annual global landfill methane emissions and are expected to increase in

the future. (Ayub et al, 2011). Methane can cause different types of illnesses,

mainly because methane is highly combustible and too much amount of methane

can cause suffocations, dizziness, headaches, and unconsciousness. With regards to

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land pollution, as the number of dumps replaced by landfills increases, the volume

of methane can also increase substantially.

Culture and Environmental Quality

There were studies that gave specific descriptions regarding a communitys

culture and environmental quality, while some gave indirect approaches that still

seems to give a large idea for the study. First, culture is defined as the beliefs,

behaviour, things, and other characteristics that is normally mutual in a certain

group, community or society according to sociological aspects. While the

immediate meaning of environmental quality is the material aspects of the physical

environment like air, water pollution, depletion of resources, domestic and

industrial pollution, consequences of overpopulation and noise, etc. (Khattab,


The primary goal of any real estate businesses (property value) or house

prices in general is to provide their customers with better environments. Therefore,

those living in an area where environmental quality is pleasant the more that the

population living there experiences better observation of culture than of the others.

Property values can be sensitive environmental conditions if the society expressly

so regards the phenomena and people react to them in a certain way (Hamid et al,

2009). Somehow, property values and culture are correlated in variables such as the
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environmental quality present in their areas. Thus, these environmental changes that

concerns pollution may lower the values of real estate and people living before or

after a certain SWM facilities, may vary in their ways of life and their way of

coping up with their everyday lives. Environmental quality can be more fully

understood by making explicit the values people place on nature and the

mechanisms people use to explain how nature works. (Seekamp, 2000)

The growth in property market has surprised many in the industry even as

interest rates increased at the end of 2011 and a weakening shilling and the

countrys elections (Kariuki, 2012). This just shows that in a community property

value can really change a populations viewpoint and be a big deal for their culture,

where in this case, in their local government. One problem still remains alongside

the research gap, given that most of the economists value these lands into monetary

parallels. The negative effects of air pollution, and more commonly the deprivation

of environmental quality, can be seen through different channels such as medical

expenditures for illnesses, lost wages, and averted expenditures to prevent diseases,

and disutility of illness and opportunity cost of impaired activities (Willinger,

2001). People living near these pollutants can still value their houses and properties

even with the presence of SWM projects and sites near them. The proximity can

still define their willingness to stay, maybe because of their adaptation with the

culture even with the negative effects of these SWM businesses or if they want to

move out to a clearer environment that is a bit further from these landfills,
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incinerators, and dumpsites. In one research of Willingner, morbidity was

measured, and it was separated into two major categories: reduced morbidity risk

and reduced mortality risk. As much as possible, real estate businessmen will not

entertain such issue because of the risks of losing income and can cause their

businesses to shut down, which can affect the people living nearby and on how they

live their everyday lives. Knowing that in general, SWM can mostly harm than

benefit those living near them, it has been a big part of their day to day lives, and is

considered a part of culture and environmental value. It can be seen that almost all

authors have agreed upon the idea that environmental changes create a huge setback

on a property or a communitys culture and their ways of living.

Property Value Impacts

Like in the previous paragraphs presented, some parts have mentioned the

effects of environmental changes in the real estate values or property values of

communities in different municipalities. The increasing values of prices and

quantity of developments can be explained by factors, such as increased credit at

low interest rates from the financial institutions, improvements and construction of

roads and new land laws (Kariuki, 2014). Distinctive looking and conspicuous

objects can enhance the value of the area and affect investment efficiency

(Pawlicka, 2014). Hence, besides the replacing of land areas to SWM projects, there

are more factors affecting the value of properties or real estate areas that can create

an impact property values.

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The related literatures found in this research contributes more than whats

enough to provide the readers with the right amount of information as the paper

progresses. The frameworks found in these papers could be used as a theoretical

basis for use regarding the studys purpose or topic.

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Theoretical Framework

In general, households focus on getting the properties in which the

characteristics or the value is good. The demand for these characteristics are

observed to be called as the Hedonic Demand Theory in economics. According to a

study conducted by Bajari and Khan (2007), the data estimates that the

heterogeneous home buyers value the various attributes of urban versus suburban

housing. In the Philippine setting, more people are living in the urban communities.

The valuation was estimated for square footage, the property lot size, the

characteristics and the commute or transportation time for employees as well.

Moreover, some objectives have tried to test the hypotheses through the

objectives presented in this paper. The argument that there are more costs rather

than benefits whenever a certain household lives near an SWM project or plant,

depicts the economic theory of value (Figure 1), wherein, households value some

things up to a certain degree. In the long run, the price of a certain good is presented

by the costs of production and the price of every commodity resolves itself into the
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sum of the natural rates of wages, profit and rent (Henry, 2001). Therefore, it

contributes a lot to the succession of a property residing near SWMs, causing the

changes in the economic quality of the environment. Causing the households to

value the properties based on what characteristics are present now. Therefore,

leading back to the hedonic demand (Figure 2).

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Figure 1. Theory of value (Production)

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Figure 2. Hedonic Demand on Market Valuation

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Conceptual Framework

It was mentioned that there could be positive and negative effects on the

municipalities through the given variables, given: demographics, interest rates,

location and the state of the given economy. These variables can affect the property

value and how people respond to these environmental changes. SWMs have

different charts and projects that are presented graphically.

World Bank has created its concept on how SWM should be visualized.

Divided in to three basic questions with who, what and how, presenting a concise

idea on how SWMs should operate in order to retain the environmental value of the

properties right now, neither positive or negative, and taking into account, having

innovative information to improve their current state.

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o Age
o Educational
o Province of Origin
o Number of
household members
o Years of Stay
Environmental Quality
(current area)
o Gross Monthly

Location: Household
Economic State of the locale

(Government, LGUs, policies


Distance of

Figure 4. Conceptual framework regarding the factors affecting the changes in

environmental quality
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Research Design

This paper will solely focus on both quantitative and qualitative types of

research. The focus of this study is basically on how certain factors can create an

impact on a certain variable and therefore, will be measured through the following

types of research design. This study uses distance from the landfill as a proxy to

measure the negative impacts of the landfill on the values of surrounding properties,

and employs a regression analysis model that separates out the relationship between

property values and the negative impacts of a landfill, when all other things are held

constant (Lim, 2003).

One type of research design used is the causal comparative research design

for the reason that this paper attempts to establish a cause effect relationship in this

study and build a strong, persuasive, logical argument. Moreover, it deals with

variables that have already occurred or is already present. The most common

statistical techniques used in causal comparative research are analysis of variance

and t-tests wherein significant differences in the means of some measure (i.e.

achievement) are compared among groups.

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Descriptive survey research design will also be used in order for the study to

be described briefly regarding the households who are going to take part of the

research and to further explain the importance of the present situation of the

properties near the SWM facilities by using sample surveys and questionnaires.

Locale of the Study

This research will focus on selected areas in Cavite where solid waste

management facilities are already present. The selected municipalities/cities are:

Dasmarinas, Indang, Imus, and Silang, Cavite. These areas were chosen because

SWM facilities such as landfills, dump sites, incinerators, and material recovery

facilities are present and are already operating. Dasmarinas dumpsite is located

near barangay Salawag wherein a lot of residents are complaining about the smell

that can reach to a degree where they cannot withstand it. There is a landfill present

in the City of Imus, the center of the province. The Imus landfill is located near

Daang Hari (the highway connecting Alabang and Imus), near the famous landmark

The District Imus it is near Barangay Alapan. In Indang it is addressed regarding

its solid waste management by the provision of a temporary dumpsite, though

protection of the towns natural resources and the development of tourism and

recreational centres are likewise encouraged. And lastly, there is a dumpsite in

Silang, Cavite found in the centre of the municipality.

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Figure 5. Map of the location of different solid waste facilities in Cavite.

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Sampling Procedures

First, the number of respondents is determined using the Slovens formula:

n = N / ( 1 + Ne^2)

Where in this case, the total population in Cavite is 3,090,691, as of May

2010. Using the confidence level of 95 percent (margin of error of 0.05). The

sample size used in this paper will be at around 399.9482 or rounded off at 400.

Random individuals of the population will be chosen through the process of

systematic sampling, where the target population are arranged and is then selected

on a regular interval through an ordered list. This method will start at random and

proceeds with the nth element onwards. Where, n = (population size/sample size).

Methods of Data Collection

The methods of data collection will help draw conclusions from the data

gathered. The data will be gathered in order for the research gap to be answered and

in order for this paper to evaluate the outcome of the study using regression. For

this research, the method of sample surveying will be observed where data will be

obtained from Dasmarinas, Indang, Imus, and Silang, Cavite, for this to estimate the

populations attributes and responses regarding the variables presented.

Questionnaires will be used and tested alongside with interview questions for the
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qualitative approach of this study. Focus Group Discussions (FGD) will also be

conducted in the areas that are included within the scope and locale of this research.
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Babalola, A. et al, (2011). Selection of Landfill Sites for Solid Waste Treatment in
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