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Proceedings of the Annual Symposium of the Institute of Solid Mechanics

and Session of the Commission of Acoustics, SISOM 2015 Bucharest 21-22 May



Iuliana IANICU (STAMATE)1, Ovidiu VASILE2, Radu IATAN2

Gheorghe Asachi Technical College, Bucharest, Romania
POLITEHNICA of Bucharest, Romania,

For sustainable development of the textile industry we must found solutions for decrease waste and
reducing noise in the workplace. For this we obtained some experimental results about soundproofing
of two types of plates: a plate is made of textile recoverable with short fiber and the second plate is
made of cork. Both materials have a thickness of 10 mm. For determining is used the impedance tube
reading Brel & Kjaer, type 4206. By analysing the absorption coefficient results that both initial
material have absorbing characteristics, as well as the resulting layered composite material. There
have been graphs of the absorption coefficient of sound and reflection coefficient of sound waves.
Both types of graphs argue that these materials have absorbing properties manifested better in layered
composite material.
Keywords: textile waste, absorption coefficient, reflection coefficient.


For a sustainable development of the automotive industry, in this case - textile industry, it is necessary
to pursue a solution in support of a better life by reducing noise at work [1-3] and the removal of textile
waste, which returned to a specific manufacturing process it is transformed in textile plate [4-6]. They have
analyzed the sound absorbing properties of the plates of recycled textile material [4, 6], in combination with
a cork material; in order to make composite laminates [7, 8, 9] of the absorption material properties.
Analysis of absorption properties of different types of recyclable materials can be found in the
literature [10-14] is a major concern nationally and internationally. It also notes the important role of textile
fiber inserts change the parameters of absorption, which is why it was intended impact, both for textile
fibers - bamboo, jute [15-18] as well as wood fiber or tea [14, 19]. Composite materials can be used in the
encapsulation of noise sources, these situations can be found in references [20-22]. In the future authors can
use these structural composite materials, which will identify variation in sound absorption coefficients and
the variation of acoustic reflection frequency for the design of enclosures aimed at isolating noise sources.



Have been analyzed sound absorbing properties of two kinds of materials separately (Fig. 1a and 1b)
and in combination (Fig. 1 c):
- Cork plate with thickness of 3 mm, Fig. 1;
- Textile plate made from recovered fiber comprising 85% short PNA (polyacrylonitrile) fiber plus
15% of PA (polyamide) or PE (polyester) fiber recovered or first use, with thickness of 10 mm, Fig. 1b;
- Structure and fabric combined with cork glued together with an adhesive polychloroprene with cold
bonding, based organic solvent, Fig. 1c.

ACTA ELECTROTECHNICA, Volume 57, Number 1-2, 2016, Special Issue, ISSN 2344-5637
Sound Absorption Analysis for Layered Composite Made from Textile Waste and Cork 313

a) b) c)

Figure 1. Cork and fabric materials undergo tests

The measurement method is in accordance with standard SR EN ISO 10534-2 which states the
conditions for using acoustic interferometer (Kundt tube).
The sample is rigid, smooth and tight mounted at one end of a linear tube (see Fig. 2).pi is the incident
acoustic sine wave produced by a speaker located at the other end of the tube. By overlaying the incident
wave p i with reflected wave p r to produce a standing wave system in tube.

p=pi+pr (1)

The assessment is based on measured values (on a linear or logarithmic scale) the minimum sound
pressure levels p ( x min ) (one or more) and maximum sound pressure level p ( x max ) . These values are
sufficient to determine the sound absorption coefficient.
In addition, to obtain the reflectivity r, the impedance Z and admittance G = 1 / Z, the distance should
be determined x min1, one of the first minimum sound pressure to the reference plane x = 0 (which is usually
the plane where is the surface of the sample) and the acoustic wave length 0.
The acoustic wave incident p i is assumed flat harmonic frequency f and = 2f pulsation, no
attenuation (in terms of attenuation correction see EN ISO 10534-1: 2005, Annex A) and propagates along
tube axis, in the negative sense of the distance x [23].

pi ( x) p0 e jk0 x (2)
k0 (3)
c0 c0
where p0 is an arbitrary amplitude.

Figure 2. Diagram of the standing wave in the test tube

ACTA ELECTROTECHNICA, Volume 57, Number 1-2, 2016, Special Issue, ISSN 2344-5637
314 Iuliana IANICU (STAMATE), Ovidiu VASILE, Radu IATAN

The reflected wave from the sample, which has sound pressure reflectivity r is written thus:
pr ( x) r p0 e jk0 x (4)

Wave particle velocities (considered positive in the negative sense of the axis x, the diagram in Fig. 2)
are respectively:
vi pi ( x) (5)
v r ( x) p r ( x) (6)
NOTE - Normally the first maximum pressures for measurement should be chosen between the first
two minimums.
Impedance standing wave field (in the negative sense of x) is:
pi ( x) p r ( x) p ( x) p r ( x)
Z ( x) Z0 i (7)
vi ( x ) v r ( x ) vi ( x ) v r ( x )

Mutual relations between parameters

In reference plane x = 0, there is so:

1 r
Z Z ( 0) Z 0 (8)
1 r
(Z / Z 0 ) 1
resulting in: r (9)
(Z / Z 0 ) 1
The sound absorption coefficient for plane wave is:
1 r
where r sizes indicates a complex module.
Relations at (8) to (10) expresses the mutual relationship between the sizes according to standard SR
EN ISO 10534-1 determined [23].
If the reference plane coincides with the surface of the sample plane, other sizes are respectively
surface impedance, sound absorption coefficient (at normal incidence) reflection coefficient of sound
pressure (at normal incidence) of the sample.
If the reference plane is in front of the sample (x > 0), the absorption coefficient remains unchanged.
Reflection coefficient r and impedance Z sizes are marked "transformed the distance ..." meaning the
distance between the reference and sample surface.
This term is often used for structured samples (see SR EN ISO 10534-1, Article 9.1 and
Article 10) [23].
For the experiment were used as follows: acoustic interferometer type 4206-A; a 2716-C type power
amplifier configured to average impedance tube and measurement algorithm Brel & Kjaer with two
microphones, preamplifier type 2670 type 4187 with embedded application-specific measurements (Fig. 3);
PULSE acquisition system with 5 channels; and a computer with software control and data acquisition
PULSE v 12.5. Multi analyzer PULSE consists of a computer with network interface (LAN) LabShop
PULSE software firm, Microsoft Windows NT or Windows XP, Microsoft Office 3560 and an acquisition
unit B-030 with internal generator. The software core is sound and vibration analyzer - Type 7700. To
determine the acoustic characteristics of materials using specialized software license: PULSE. Acoustic
testing material in the tube, type 7758 [24].

ACTA ELECTROTECHNICA, Volume 57, Number 1-2, 2016, Special Issue, ISSN 2344-5637
Sound Absorption Analysis for Layered Composite Made from Textile Waste and Cork 315

Measurement of the acoustic properties are in the frequency range 100Hz 3,2kHz [25]. The test
experimental conditions: atmospheric pressure - 1035.00 hPa temperature - 28.00 C, relative
humidity - 46.00%, air density - 1195 kg / m3, air characteristic impedance: 415.8 Pa / (m / s).

Figure 3. Acoustic interferometer type 4206 A (Kundt tube)


The sound absorption coefficient occurs if the area of separation of the two media there is a
dissipation of acoustic energy and then the amount of energy that is not reflected is considered
absorbed [26, 27].
i 1 (11)
where r - reflected acoustic energy flow; i - energy flux incident.
Corresponding surface and can calculate average sound absorption coefficient, depending on the
absorption coefficient i [25-27], as follows:

S i i
S i

In other words sound absorption coefficient , is defined as the sound energy absorbed Ea by the
environment passing wave and incident wave energy E i [26, 27]
1 (14)
where: E r is the energy of the reflected wave.
The phenomenon is characterized by the coefficient of reflection of the acoustic reflectance or
reflection factor and is calculated as the ratio between the amplitude of the reflected wave and the incident
wave amplitude. Sound wave is a pressure wave, acoustic reflectivity can write the relation [26, 27]:
r (15)

ACTA ELECTROTECHNICA, Volume 57, Number 1-2, 2016, Special Issue, ISSN 2344-5637
316 Iuliana IANICU (STAMATE), Ovidiu VASILE, Radu IATAN

This gives a relationship between sound absorption coefficient and the reflection coefficient of the
sound, namely:
1 r 2 (16)

Figure 4. Variation of sound absorption coefficient for studied materials

Sound absorption coefficient presents a curve of increasing specific growth rate for all materials studied
(Fig. 4). In the frequency range 700 - 2800 Hz, the sound absorption coefficient for textile plate recovered,
shows significant growth, superior to other materials. For the same material, after 2800 Hz and up to a limit
of the field measured at 3200 Hz, there is a slight increase in sound absorption coefficient. For cork, sound
absorption coefficient variation curve shows a slightly increasing up to 1500 Hz, because after this value
growth become more pronounced, to the extent that, from 2800 Hz to the end of measurements, the sound
absorption coefficient values cork are larger than the fabric. If the composite material is observed smoother
sound absorption coefficient increase up to 1250 Hz. In the frequency range 1250 - 2800 Hz, the sound
absorption coefficient for the composite material, the shape of a sinusoid around the curve of the cork,
because in the frequency range 2800 - 3200 Hz to rise above all the values of the other two materials
(Fig . 4).
The maximum values of sound absorption coefficient obtained in the three cases are found at the
maximum measuring range to 3200 Hz: if cork obtain the maximum value of 0.815; plate textile fiber
recovered yield maximum value of 0.637; and the layered composite material made from these two materials
yields a maximum of 0.916 (Table 1).
Table 1. Calculation of average sound absorption coefficient med

Sound absorption coefficient i Average sound

Material absorption coefficient
1000 Hz 2000 Hz 3200 Hz m

Cork 0,086 0,250 0,815 0,384

Textile material 0,147 0,442 0,637 0,409

Composite material
0,075 0,236 0,916 0,409
(textile material+cork)
Average sound absorption coefficient m, calculated on certain frequency bands (Table 1), and
indicates the following results: m = 0.384 for cork and m = 0.409 for the case where the composite

ACTA ELECTROTECHNICA, Volume 57, Number 1-2, 2016, Special Issue, ISSN 2344-5637
Sound Absorption Analysis for Layered Composite Made from Textile Waste and Cork 317

material and fabric. These values make it possible inclusion of these plate materials, in addition layered
composite material, on absorption class D (see Table 2).
Table 2. Sound absorption class [18, 28]

Absorption coefficient Sound Absorption Class

0,90 1,00 A
0,80 0,85 B
0,60 0,75 C
0,30 0,55 D
0,15 0,25 E
0,00 0,10 Not classified

They further analyzed the data obtained reflectivity r. It is noted that it has a downward curve from the
value of 1.00 which would mean a total reflection of the acoustic waves, to values 0.40 for cork and 0.58 for
textile plate. For the layered composite material is reached up to the value of 0.08 (Fig. 5).
These developments support the same conclusion as in the case of the absorption coefficient of which is
that both plates also carried the composite material, have good sound absorbing characteristics and are
suitable to be used for sound insulation, in certain frequency ranges.

Figure 5. Variation of reflection coefficient for studied materials

ACTA ELECTROTECHNICA, Volume 57, Number 1-2, 2016, Special Issue, ISSN 2344-5637
318 Iuliana IANICU (STAMATE), Ovidiu VASILE, Radu IATAN


The board of fabric made from recovered fiber has a low cost, which will generate a low cost and a
layered composite material contains in addition satisfy a fundamental requirement of sustainable resource
use worldwide.
The thickness of the material is the same, only the influence that manifests depends on the type of
material, with its features. Cork is recognized as sound-absorbing material; plate made from short fiber
fabric comprising 85% recovered PNA has a highly porous structure due to how to achieve and observe that
it has good sound-absorbing properties. The layered composite material made of two boards previously
studied, also presents good sound-absorbing properties, recommending its use in embedding noise sources in
certain frequency ranges.
For plate fabric made from short fiber recovered absorption effect is considerably low frequency range
of up to 700 Hz; only after the value of the frequency of the plate can be classified in terms of sound
absorption. The other two types of material remaining unclassifiable up to a frequency of 1250 Hz (Fig 4).
The value of the average sound absorption coefficient m (Table 1) provide a framework for this plate
material, layered composite material addition, absorption on class D ( Table 2).
The experimental results and calculations made show that all three materials have good sound
absorbing properties, that is the inverse of the reflectivity (Fig 5) and a sound absorption characteristic
related to the frequency (Fig. 4).
All materials have a high sound absorption frequency of 2800 Hz up.
Depending on the sound spectrum previously measured and areas where frequencies are predominant
which must be reduced, it can choose the material for maximum absorption. Between 1250 - 2800 Hz are
recommended fabric made from short fiber recovered plate.
The effectiveness of these materials if embedding of noise sources will represent a further stage of

The authors acknowledge the support of the Research Institute for Construction Equipment and
Technology - ICECON S.A., Laboratory of Acoustics and Vibration, where have been achieved
experimental tests.


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ACTA ELECTROTECHNICA, Volume 57, Number 1-2, 2016, Special Issue, ISSN 2344-5637