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Module 7 (L27 L30):

Management off Water Quality:


li
Water quality and pollution, types and Sources of pollution,
water quality modeling,
modeling environmental guidelines for water
quality

29 Water Quality Modeling


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1
L29 Water Q
L29 Quality
y Modeling
g
Topics Covered
Water
W t quality,
lit protection,
t ti quality
lit goals,
l
Hydrodynamics, Transport processes,
Oxygen regime, Mathematical modeling,
Governing equations, numerical modeling,
Groundwater transport modeling.
Keywords: Water quality modeling,
modeling Hydrodynamics,
Hydrodynamics

Mathematical/ numerical modeling, Groundwater transport.

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Prof. T I Eldho, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay
Introduction - Water Quality Modeling
Water quality models simulate the fate of pollutants &
state of selected water quality variables in water
bodies
Incorporates variety of physical, chemical, &
biological processes which control the transport and
transformation of these variables
Temperature, solar radiation, wind speed, pH, and
light attenuation coefficients important parameters
Watershed pollutant loading
Each water quality model has its own set of
characteristics and requirements- ( some models can
be applied to several types of water bodies and some
models only y for particular
p water bodies))
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Prof. T I Eldho, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay
Types of Water Quality Modeling
Water quality is modeled by one or more of the
following
g formulations:
Advective transport formulations;
Dispersive transport formulation;
Heat budget formulation;
Di
Dissolved
l d oxygen saturation;
t ti R
Reaeration
ti
Carbonaceous deoxygenation, Sediment, BOD,
pH, Alkalinity, Nutrients, Algae, Microorganism
etc

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Prof. T I Eldho, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay
Water Quality Hydrological Cycle
Emissions: (Ex = out of) from the users point of view
(community, factory, etc. )
Avoidance and reduction of pollution into the
environment - sanitary engineering
Immissions: (In = into) - from the water body
bodyss point
of view: consequences of pollution, injections, etc.
Environmental fluid mechanics: flow and transport in
surface
f waters
t (rivers
( i and
d lakes);
l k ) flow
fl andd transport
t t
in soil and groundwater; flow & transport in the
atmosphere Overland Precipitation
Evaporation

Hydrologic processes Land Hydrology


Groundwater

River
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Prof. T I Eldho, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay
Flow towards Ocean
Water Quality Modeling Water Cycle
Industry
Process
engineering

Laws
Trade

Laws
Domestic

Stormwater
overflow Laws

Waste Laws
water Drinking &
treatment industrial water

Receiving water body


Groundwater
Rivers & lakes 6

Prof. T I Eldho, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay


Water Quality Protection
Protection Goals
Water quality protection - ensure the quality of water
which guarantees the preservation of environmental
goods.
Environmental Goods:
functions of the river as water resource; community of
aquatic living;
l ffishing;
h irrigation off farm
f land
l d
leisure and recreation; focus on contamination
substances from inland & suspended solids & sediments;
drinking water supply
Quality goals: given as a concentration of a substance -
show
h condition
di i off river
i with
i h regard
d to the
h environmental
i l
goods - function as an instrument for decisions, protection
& improvement of water quality; derived from effective
values & law
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Water Quality Modeling - Considerations

Water Substances -
Water Substances

Dissolved Emulsified Particles

Prof. T I Eldho, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay 8


Water Quality Modeling - Considerations

Governing laws -
Conservation Laws

Mass Momentum Substances in water Energy/ heat

CV Macro scale
Elementary CV - Micro

Prof. T I Eldho, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay 9


Water Quality Mathematical Modeling
The prediction of water pollution using mathematical
simulation techniques.
A typical water quality model consists of a collection of
formulations representing physical mechanisms that
determine position and momentum of pollutants in a
water body.
Models are available for individual components of the
hydrological system such as surface runoff
Models addressing hydrologic transport and for ocean
and estuarine applications.
applications

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Prof. T I Eldho, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay
Water Quality Modeling - Hydrodynamics

Conservation of Mass:
Mass balance in a CV

Incompressible fluids

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Prof. T I Eldho, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay
Water Quality Modeling - Hydrodynamics

Conservation of Momentum
Navier-Stokes equations

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Prof. T I Eldho, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay
Water QM-
QM- Hydrodynamics & Transport
Diffusive processes: Molecular diffusion; Turbulent
diffusion & dispersion
Molecular diffusion is a transport process that
originates from molecular activity (Brownian
movement). The driving force for molecular diffusion
is a concentration gradient.
The molecular diffusion is described by the molecular
diffusion coefficient Dm.

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Prof. T I Eldho, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay
Water QM Hydrodynamics & Transport

Turbulent flow: Nature of turbulence: irregular


(characterized by variations with respect to time);
intensive mixing; rotation; dissipative (increased losses
of energy)
ene g )

Turbulent fluctuation

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Prof. T I Eldho, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay
Water QM
QM-- Hydrodynamics & Transport

Turbulent flow: Continuity & momentum (x-dir.)

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Ref: Lecture notes on Environmental Fluid Mechanics, Prof. H. Kobus,
Dept. Civil Engg., Uni. Stuttgart, Germany
Water Quality Modeling
Diff i
Diffusion

Dispersion in a River

Turbulence

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Ref: Lecture notes on Environmental Fluid Mechanics, Prof. H. Kobus,
Dept. Civil Engg., Uni. Stuttgart, Germany
WQM-- Transport in Rivers & Canals
WQM
One dimensional transport:

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Ref: Lecture notes on Environmental Fluid Mechanics, Prof. H. Kobus,
Dept. Civil Engg., Uni. Stuttgart, Germany
WQM-- Transport in Rivers & Canals
WQM
One dimensional transport equation

Two dimensional transport equation

Three dimensional transport equation

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Ref: Lecture notes on Environmental Fluid Mechanics, Prof. H. Kobus,
Dept. Civil Engg., Uni. Stuttgart, Germany
WQM-- Oxygen regime of Rivers
WQM
Streeter- Phelps Equation for oxygen regime
O2 content in mg/l

Time in days

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Ref: Lecture notes on Environmental Fluid Mechanics, Prof. H. Kobus,
Dept. Civil Engg., Uni. Stuttgart, Germany
Groundwater Transport Modeling
h h h
Tx T y S Qw ( x xi )( y y i ) q s
2D non-homogeneous x x y y t

confined aquifer-Flow
aquifer Flow
Equation
h h h
2D non homogeneous x x y y t Q ( x x )( y y ) q
non-homogeneous K K Sx y y w i i s

unconfined aquifer-
Flow Equation
q h h
vx K x v K
x y
y y
2D Transport equation
c c c c'W
R D D
xx yy ( x ) ( y )
V c V c Rc
t x x y y x y nb

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Prof. T I Eldho, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay
Water Quality Numerical Modeling
Numerical procedures- approx. sol. to most of field problems.
Transform a complex practical problem into a simple discrete
form of mathematical description
Recreate & solve the problem on a computer, & finally reveal
phenomena virtually according to requirements of analysts.
analysts
Numerical or approximate solution for a complex problem
efficiently, as long as proper numerical method is used.
Numerical methods are used to analyze these phenomena like
Finite Difference Method (FDM)
Finite Element Method (FEM)
Finite Volume Method (FVM)
Method of Characteristics (MoC)
Boundary
B d El
Element Method
M h d (BEM)
Meshfree Method (MFree) 21
Surface Water Quality Models
WASP Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program, US
EPA: Interpret & predict water quality responses to natural
phenomena and manmade pollution for various pollution
management decisions
QUAL2K - river and stream water quality model
Aquatox- simulation model for aquatic systems;
predicts the fate of various pollutants, such as
nutrients & organic chemicals, & effects on ecosystem
EPD-RIV1- Riverine Hydrodynamic and Water
Quality Model, a system of programs to perform 1D
dynamic hydraulic & water quality simulations
SWMM Storm Water Management Model

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Prof. T I Eldho, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay
Groundwater Quality Models

MODFLOW (1988) - USGS flow model for 3-D


aquifers
MODPATH - flow line model for depicting streamlines
MOC (1988) - USGS 2-D advection/dispersion code
MT3D (1990, 1998) - 3-D transport code works with
MODFLOW
RT3D (1998) - 3-D
3 D transport chlorinated
MODFLOW
BIOPLUME II, III (1987, 1998) - authored at Rice
Univ 2-D based on the MOC procedures.
FEMWATER
GMS package
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Prof. T I Eldho, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay
Groundwater Transport Modeling Case Study
Dhar ett al.,
Dh l (1999),
(1999) NGRI R
Report;
t M.
M Meenal
M l&TT. I.
I Eldho,
Eldh (2012)
Submitted to Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, ASCE
HINDACO-Belgaum, India)
8000
N

7000

6000

Zone I
5000 L Factor
Kekti 1 2y

Y (m)
4000 Zone II Yamunanag
Markandey ar
a River Gundv Nehrunag
3000
Zone ad ar
2000 III
1,2 Red
L
MudLagoon
1000

0 24
0 600 1200 1800 2400 3000 3600 4200 4800 5400 6000 6600 7200 7800 8400 9000
X (m)
Case study..
Watershed area-
area 72 sq
sq. km
km, basaltic
terrain on northern side of Belgaum. Parameter Value
Watershed is drained by Markandeya
river in the north y
Hydraulic
Red mud- hydrous silt muddy, highly Conductivity
alkaline solid waste produced by (m/day)
physical
p y and chemical treatments of Zone I 0.5
bauxite in alumina production. Zone II 1
Red mud is harmful to the ecological Zone III 2
environment, safety of its storage has
b
become an environmental
i l problem
bl off Longitudinal
i di l 50
0
concern. dispersivity (m)
Natural recharge of 65 mm/yr is given
as input to the flow model.
model Transverse 5
The seepage from red mud ponds is dispersivity (m)
simulated as additional recharge (130 Specific Yield 0.2
mm/yr) from the ponds.
ponds
Case study.. Mategaonkar, Meenal, (2012). Ph.D. Thesis,
Dept. Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay

4 1
8000
0
7500
1 6 7 9 10 12
7000 6 8 1 6 1
1 6 9
6500 0
2 4 5 7
6000 0 5 6
5 1 2 3 3 6 6 8
5500 3 5 1 7 3 8
3 5 102
5000 02 3
1 1 4 5 7 12
4500 9 3 3 9
1 7 2
Y(m)

3 6 100
4000
Y

4 0
2 3 5 5
3500 1 33 0 9
2 4 4 7 113
3000 2 0 0
6 9
Support
2500
Nodes 4 5 9 D
Domain
i
3
2000 7 6 6 Mategaonkar Meenal, Eldho T.I. (2011).
Pumping 8 6 Simulation of groundwater flow &
1500 wells
Observation 7
wells 7 122 contaminant transport in unconfined
1000 9 aquifer using Meshfree Point Collocation
500 Method. IPWE -2011, Jan. 3-7, 2011-
9 107 NUS, Singapore.
0 2 84009000
0 600120018002400300036004200480054006000660072007800
X (m)
8000
8000
7500
7000
7000 0.0025
6500 m/d
6000
6000
5500
755
5000 750 5000
4500 745

Y(m)
( )

740
4000 4000
735
3500
730
3000 3000
2500
2000 2000
1500
1000 1000
500
0 0
0 600 12001800 2400300036004200 480054006000 66007200780084009000 0 900 1800 2700 3600 4500 5400 6300 7200 8100 9000
X (m) X (m)

Steady state head distribution Velocity distribution


8000 8000

7500

7000 7000

6500

6000 6000

5500

Y (m)
5000 5000

4500
Y (m)

4000 4000

3500

3000 3000

2500
2000 2000

1500
1000 1000

500
0 0
0 600 12001800240030003600420048005400600066007200780084009000 0 600 12001800240030003600420048005400600066007200780084009000
X (m) X (m)

Head distribution after 20 yrs. Concentration distribution after 20 yrs.


References
Guidelines for Water Quality Management, Central pollution
control board (CPCB)
Website : http://www.cpcb.nic.in
p // p
Hydrological Modeling of Small Watershed C.T Han, H.P.
Johnson, D.L. Brakensiek (Eds.), ASAE Monograph, Michigan
Freeze, R.A.
Freeze R A and Cherry J.A.
J A (1979).
(1979) Groundwater.
Groundwater Prentice
Hall-INC., Englewood Cliffs, NJ
www.epa.gov
http://wrmin.nic.in
Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater;
APHA, AWWA, and WEF, 21st Edition, 2005.
http://cgwb.gov.in/

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Prof. T I Eldho, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay


Tutorials - Question!.?.
Critically study various groundwater
water and surface water quality
models available in literature (details
can be obtained from Internet: (eg.
(
www.epa.gov; www.bentley.com )

Study the capabilities of each model


and the p
problems where it can be
applied
Prof. T I Eldho, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay
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Self Evaluation - Questions!.
Q
Illustrate the different types of water quality modeling.
Describe
D ib WQ modeling
d li within
ithi the
th perspective
ti off water
t
cycle.
Explain various conservation laws used in WQ
modeling?.
Describe with governing equations, the groundwater
transport modeling.
Illustrate the role of numerical modeling
g in WQ
Q
modeling.
Describe various models used in groundwater quality
modeling
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Prof. T I Eldho, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay
Assignment-
g Questions?.
Q
Illustrate watershed based WQ issues within the
perspective of Hydrologic cycle.
What are the typical WQ problem goals?.
Describe with governing equations,
equations the surface
water transport modeling.
Illustrate the oxygen regime modeling in Rivers.
Rivers
Describe various models used in surface water
quality modeling

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Prof. T I Eldho, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay
Unsolved Problem!.

With reference to a typical point source pollution


from an industry to groundwater in your
watershed
t h d area, critically
iti ll study
t d th
the possible
ibl
water quality modeling for TDS concentration.
Identify the possible water quality model from
the open sources (from Internet sources: like
MODFLOW/ MT3D).
Collect the necessary data for the water quality
modeling.
Try to develop the model for your study area
and predict the future spreading, say for next
10 yyears.
Prof. T I Eldho, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay 33
Dr. T. I. Eldho
Professor,
Department
p of Civil Engineering,
g g
Indian Institute of Technology Bombay,
Mumbai, India, 400 076.
Email: eldho@iitb.ac.in
Phone: (022) 25767339; Fax: 25767302 34
http://www.civil.iitb.ac.in
http://www. civil.iitb.ac.in