You are on page 1of 122

[1]

[2]


, ,
, ,

,
.

, , , , ,

.

[3]

[4]

,
,
.
.

,
. .
.
.

. ,

[5]

[6]

1. 11
1.1 13

1.2 14

1.3 16

1.4 17

1.5 20

2. - 23
2.1 25

2.2 - 31

3. : 47
3.1 53

3.2 Zeppelinfeld/ 57

3.3 Casa del Fascio 59

3.4 / 63

3.5 67

3.6 71

3.7 75

[7]

[8]

3.8 79

3.9 83

3.10 87

3.11 Reichstag 89

3.12 95

3.13 98

4. 103
5.

[9]

[10]

[11]

[12]

1.1

,
,
1.
.
, -
.

, , - ;

,



.
;


-
, ,

.

1
, ,
, , , 2003, . 78.
[13]

1.2


,
. ,
, 2



.
,
.
,
,
, .

, ,
(.. )
,
. ,

,
,
,

.

2
Remond, Rene, Religion and Society in modern Europe, Blackwell Publishers Ltd,
, 1999.
[14]


,

, ,

.

[15]

1.3





, Light revealing architecture 3, Light, the
shape of space 4, Designing with light 5, Designing with light and
shadow 6, . ,

7, ,

.

, Architecture, power, and
national identity Lawrence J. Vale 8 ,
, .

3
Millet, arietta S., Light revealing architecture, Van Nostrand Reinhold,
, 1996.
4
Michel, Lou, Light, the shape of space: Designing with space and light, John
Wiley & Sons, Inc., , 1996.
5
Meyers, Victoria, Designing with light, Laurence King Publishing Ltd,
, 2006.
6
Mende, Karau, Designing with light and shadow, The Images Publishing Group
Pty Ltd, , 2000.
7
, ,
, , , 1981
, , , University Studio Press,
, 2000.
8
Vale, Lawrence, Architecture, power and national identity, Routledge,
, , 2008.
[16]

1.4


-
:

.
,
,

.

.


, ,
- ,
,
, ,

,
.

[17]

,


20 21. 20


.


,

,


. , ,
,

.


, ,

,
9.

,
.

9
, , .
, , , , 2003, . 75.
[18]


(,)
.

1. , -
2.
3. -


(, , )10.

,
,


.
,
,
,
,
.

10
, , .
, , , , 2003, . 14.
[19]

1.5


.


.

,



.
. ,


;
, ,

. ,



,
.

[20]

[21]

[22]

[23]

[24]

2.1
[25]

[26]


,

.

.
,
,
.
,

,
.


-
( ,
,
),
11
.

11
,
, , .
,
, (, .,
,
, 1981)
[27]

,
12, ,
,
,
13. , ,
.
, ,
. ,
,
, ,
.

14.

15. , , -
-, , -, -
, -.

12
, 1.5.
13
, 1.5.
14
-, ,
,
: . , , 24-25
2001, .299.
15
Arnheim, Rudolf, :
, . , . , , 1999, .353.
[28]

[29]

[30]

2.2 -
[31]

[32]

-
,
,

. ,

, . , ,

,
, .


. T
,
. T


.
,
.

[33]

,
.
,
,

.

.
E .
16,

.
,
,
,
.
.

,
.17

.

16
, 8:12.
17
Eliade, Mircea, Patterns in comparative religion, ed. Sheed & Ward, New York,
1958, . 38.
[34]

[35]

[36]

H

.

-18
.

19
,
,
.



.
, ,
, . 20.

18

.
, 1 ..
.
43,3
.
19
- .
532
.
, ,
. -
,
. 1453,
1953 .
20
, , ,
& , , 2001, . 117.
[37]


.

.

,
.


.


.

.


.

.
, ,

.
, ,

.21

21
, , ,
, , 2008, .18.
[38]

[39]


,
.

, ,

22.
.
.

.


.23

,
.
.

,
.
.

.

. , ,

.24

22
. (2000), , University Studio Press,
, .263.
23
., .255-256.
24
., .288.
[40]


,

. ,
. ,

, .25
, ,
, ,
,
. ,
.
,

.
,
. , ,
.
,
.

( ).


.26

25
, ., , ,1979,
. 5-6.
26
. , . 51.
[41]

-
.

.
.

, .


1609 161627.

.

.

.
,
.
,
28.
- ,
.

27


(Sedefhar Mehmet Aa) .
28
Falahat,M.S, Zare, M, The emergence of eternal truth by light in Islamic
architecture, Canadian Journal on Environmental, Construction and Civil
Engineering Vol. 2, No. 4, April 2011, .38.
[42]

,
, .


29.
,
.

.

.
,




.

29
, , Lighting and Spatial Structure in Religious Architecture:
A Comparative Study of a Byzantine Church and an early Ottoman Mosque in the
city of Thessaloniki, Proceedings, 6th International Space Syntax Symposium,
Instabul, 2007, . 6-7.

[43]

[44]


. ,

.
,
,

, .

,

.
,
,
.

[45]

[46]

[47]

[48]

, ,



.



,

,
30.

18 , ,

, .
-

31.

,
.
, ,

32.

30
Remond, Rene, Religion and Society in modern Europe, Blackwell Publishers Ltd,
, 1999, . 145.
31
, ,
,
.
32
Vinsand, Daniel, Architecture and politics in central Europe,
Naval Postgraduate School, , 2004, . 22.
[49]

,
,

33.
, 19 ,
34,


,
.
,
,


20 .


,



,
,
,
.

33
, ,
.

. (Remond, Rene, Religion and
Society in modern Europe, Blackwell Publishers Ltd, , 1999, . 145)
34
George Mosse, The Nationalization of the Masses, Political Symbolism and Mass
Movements in Germany, from the Napoleonic Wars Through the Thrird Reich, ed.
Howard Fertig Pub, , 2001, .5-7.

[50]

20
21
,
,
,
.

[51]

[52]

3.1 , (1939) - ALBERT SPEER





,
,
1939
1939

Albert Speer
Albert

Speer


.
.

1920

1933
.





, .
Hitler
35
,

.

35
Hitler

[53]


36

: ,
37.

. Speer
Adolf Hitler
. ,
,
.

. , ,

,
,
, .

36
Scobie, Alexander. Hitler's State Architecture: The Impact of Classical
Antiquity. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1990, . 92.
37
Ladd, Brian, The Ghosts of Berlin: Confronting German History In the Urban
Landscape, ed. University Of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1998, .129.
[54]


. ,
.


.
,
.

.

. ,

,
.

. ,
,
,

.


.

.

[55]

,
.
146 ,
.
,
.

,
,
.


.

[56]

3.2 ZEPPELINFELD, (1934)- ALBERT SPEER


,

Speer
.
,
,

,
38..
Zeppelinfeld
Speer
.
340.000
.



, 39. Speer 130

40.

38
Kathleen, James, German Architecture for a Mass Audience, ed. Routledge,
, 2000, . 90.
39
Sereny, Gitta, Albert Speer: His Battle With Truth, Knopf, , 1995,
. 131.
40
Speer, Albert, Inside the Third Reich, . Richard and Carla Winston, ed.
Macmillan, , 1970, . 58-59.
[57]

(. 22),

.
,
:
,
.

.
,
.

.

.

[58]

3.3 CASA DEL FASCIO, C (1936)- GIUSEPPE TERRAGNI


.
1922,
,
1943 Benito
Mussolini.


Casa del Fascio
1936
Giuseppe Terragni.
, Speer,


41.
,

.
,
,
42.

41
Schumacher, Thomas, Surface and Symbol: Giuseppe Terragni and the
Architecture of Italian Rationalism,: Princeton Architectural Press, ,
1991, . 5.
42
Schumacher, Thomas, Surface and Symbol: Giuseppe Terragni and the
Architecture of Italian Rationalism,: Princeton Architectural Press, ,
1991, . 157.
[59]

[60]

,
, . Mussolini



43.

,
,

. ,

Mussolini

. ,
.
, ,

ussolini .

43
Hendrix, John, History and culture in Italy, ed. University Press of Amerika,
Maryland, 2003, . 229.
[61]

[62]

3.4 ,(1945-1953)-V.G. GELFREIH&A.B. MINKUS

1922
.
,

.
,
, (1924)
,
.
. ,

.
,

.

. , ,
.

,
1947 800 .

1945-1953, 172
27 .
,
.


[63]


, , 44.
, ,
,
.

, , ..
45.


-. ,
.
,
,
.
.

.
,

,

.

44
Kiernan, Maria, Moscow: A Guide to Soviet and Post-Soviet Architecture, ed.
Ellipsis, , 1998, . 126-127.
45
Adler, Gerald , Brittain-Catlin, Timothy, Fontana-Giusti, Gordana, Scale:
Imagination, Perception and Practice in Architecture (Critiques: Critical
Studies in Architectural Humanities), ed. Routledge, , 2011, . 209-
210.

[64]

,

. ,
.

. ,

. ,
.
,


.

[65]

[66]


3.5

, (1930) - ALEXEI SHCHUSEV

.

.


46.


.
1930 Alexei Shchusev
: ,

.

46
Brooke, Caroline, Moscow: A Cultural History, ed. Oxford University Press,
, 2006, . 42.
[67]

[68]


.
,
.
,

, .

.
, ,
.

,

. ,

. ,

,


,
47.

47
Brooke, Caroline, Moscow: A Cultural History, ed. Oxford University Press,
, 2006, . 43.

[69]

[70]

3.6 , (1953)-ERMIN ONAT & ORHAN ARDA

,
. ,
,

Emin Onat Orhan Arda

1941 A.
,
,

48.
, ,


, ,
.

.
,
.
.

.


.

48
Wilson, Christopher Samuel, Remembering and Forgetting in the Funeraly
Architecture of Mustafa Kemal Atatrk: The Construction and Maintenance of
National Memory, Middle East Technical University,
, 2007, . 21-22.
[71]

[72]


.
.


,
. ,

49.


.


, ,
.

.


.

49
: .
,
(Wilson, Christopher Samuel,
Remembering and Forgetting in the Funeraly Architecture of Mustafa Kemal
Atatrk: The Construction and Maintenance of National Memory,
Middle East Technical University, , 2007, .
146.)
[73]

[74]

3.7 , (1825)



.
,
. 1825

.



.
.



.
.
,
.


. ,
50.

50
, , : ,
(http://odysseus.culture.gr/h/2/gh251.jsp?obj_id=1704),
: 23/08/2014.
[75]


.
,
,
.
.
, ,



.



.



.

[76]

[77]

[78]

3.8
, (1982)-JORN UTZON & JAN UTZON


.
1982
Jorn Utzon, Jan.


,
51.

51
1962
, 4 . ,

1991

. (Vale, Lawrence, Architecture, power and national
identity, ed. Routledge, , 2008, . 257)

[79]




52. ,


53.




54.


, ,
, ,
.
,

.

52
Vale, Lawrence, Architecture, power and national identity, ed. Routledge, ,
2008, . 258.
53
Vale, Lawrence, Architecture, power and national identity, ed. Routledge, ,
2008, 261.
54
Komonen, Marku , Elements in the Way of Life, Jrn Utzon,
Arkkitehti 80, 2, 1983, .81.
[80]

[81]


,
.
. ,
.

( )

.,

.

.
,


,
.

Titus Burckhardt,
, ,


55.

55 Burckhardt, Titus, Art of Islam: Language and Meaning, ed. World Wisdom Inc,
Indiana, 2009, 5.

[82]

3.9 , (1955)-HEYDAR GHIAI


.
, 1979

.





.


.




,

1955
Heydar Ghiai,

56.

56
Aghaie, Kamran Scot, Marashi, Afshin, Rethinking Iranian Nationalism and
Modernity, ed. University of Texas Press, Texas, 2014, . 235.

[83]

, .

.

.


.
.
,
.

.

.


.

,
.

[84]

[85]

[86]

3.10 -JEREMY BENTHAM ( 18 )


Jeremy Bentham 18
.

(-
opticon) (pan).
,
,

.
,

.

,

57.
,

,
.
,
.

.

57
Foucault, Michel, , . -
, , , 1989, . 243.
[87]

. Bentham
58.
Bentham, ,


.
, Bentham,
-
.

58
Foucault, Michel, , . -
, , , 1989,. 266.
[88]

3.11

REICHSTAG,(1990)-SIR NORMAN FOSTER

[89]


,
Reichstag .
, ,


. Paul
Wallott 1894. 1918
,
. 1933
,
.
,
.
Reichstag .
1954
. 1990
.
Sir Norman
Foster.

,

.
59.
.

59
Barnstone, Deborah Ascher, The Transparent State: Architecture and Politics in
Postwar Germany, ed. Routledge, , 2005, .

[90]

[91]


,
,
. H



.
, , ,
.
.

.


.

60.
,
.
,


.
, ,
, , ,
.

60
Barnstone, Deborah Ascher, The Transparent State: Architecture and Politics in
Postwar Germany, ed. Routledge, , 2005.

[92]

,

,

,
.

[93]

[94]

3.12 , (2005)-RICHARD ROGERS


.

1997, .
1998

,
21 .
Richard Rogers
2005.

[95]


.



.
,

61.

.


. ,
,
.

61 Correnza, Joseph & Hyde, Gabriel, The National Assembly for Wales, in The
Arup Journal, 2006, 2 v. 41.

[96]



.
.
,
.
.


.
.
.



.

,
.

[97]

3.13


(
,

).

[98]

[99]

[100]

[101]

[102]

[103]

[104]

.
,
, ,
,
,
.

,
.

Henri Lefebvre
, .
, , (
), ( )
62




. ,
,

.

,


.

62
Lefebvre, Henri, : ,
, . , , 2007.
[105]

,

,
, , ,
,

.

. -


,
.

,

, ,
63.

.
:
, , ,
,
,
;

63
. (2000), ,:University Studio Press,
, .255-256.

[106]

,
. ,

.
,
,
. 1929

,

. , 1930
, ,

, 64.

,

,
, .

, ,
.
,

.

64
S. Berstein, , 20 ,
2001, . 150.

[107]


,
.
,
.
.
.
,
,
.

.
. ,
, .

,
,
.
,
,
.
,
.

:

.
,


.
[108]

,
.


,

.

Norman Foster
Reichstag. ,

,
.

. 21 ,
, ,
, , ,
. ,
,
.
, ,

,


, ,
,
.

[109]

. E -

, ,
,
,

.
-
,
.
,

,

,
.


Bundestag, -

.
Jeremy Bentham

18
.

,
.
,
.
[110]

Bentham

65.
,

,
,
66

,
.



,
.
,

Bentham
,

.
Reichstag.

65
Foucault, Michel, : , .
, , . - , , 1989, . 241
66
.,.285
[111]


.
,


,


, 67.
Reichstag

Sir Norman Foster

.
, , , ,

Foster,

,
, Richard
Rogers, Enric Miralles,
, .


,

.

67
http://www.fosterandpartners.com/projects/reichstagnewgermanparliament/
[112]



.
/,
, .



, ,
,
Bundestag.






,

,
.

,

,

.

[113]

,



.

.

68.

68
, , :
, . , , 1997.
[114]

[115]

[116]

, , ,
. , , 2003.

, ., , ,1979.

, , :
, . , , 1997.

, , .
, . , , 2003.

, , , .
& , , 2001.

, , , . University Studio Press,


, 2000.

, ,
, , , 1981.
Adler, Gerald , Brittain-Catlin, Timothy, Fontana-Giusti, Gordana, Scale:
Imagination, Perception and Practice in Architecture (Critiques: Critical
Studies in Architectural Humanities), ed. Routledge, , 2011, . 209-
210.
Arnheim, Rudolf, : ,
. , . , , 1999.

Barnstone, Deborah Ascher, The Transparent State: Architecture and Politics in


Postwar Germany, ed. Routledge, , 2005.

Bernstein, Serge, , 20
, . Hachette, , 2001.

Brooke, Caroline, Moscow: A Cultural History, ed. Oxford University Press,


, 2006

[117]

Burckhardt, Titus, Art of Islam: Language and Meaning, ed. World Wisdom Inc,
Indiana, 2009.

Edelman, Murray, The symbolic Uses of Politics, ed. University of Illinois Press,
Urbana, 1964.

Eliade, Mircea, Patterns in comparative religion, ed. Sheed & Ward, New York,
1958.

Frampton, Kenneth, : , .
, , . , , 2009.

Foucault, Michel, : , .
, , . -, , 1989.

Hendrix, John, History and culture in Italy, ed. University Press of Amerika,
Maryland, 2003.

Kathleen, James, German Architecture for a Mass Audience, ed. Routledge,


, 2000.

Kiernan, Maria, Moscow: A Guide to Soviet and Post-Soviet Architecture, ed.


Ellipsis, , 1998.

Ladd, Brian, The Ghosts of Berlin: Confronting German History In the Urban
Landscape, ed. University Of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1998.

Leach, Neil, Architecture and Revolution: Contemporary Perspectives on Central


and Eastern Europe, ed. Routledge, , 1999.

Lefebvre, Henri, : , .
, . , , 2007.

Lobell, John, Between Silence and Light, ed. Shambhala Publications, Boston
,2000.

Macintyre, Andrew, The Power of Institutions: Political Architecture and


Governance, ed. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, 2002.

[118]

Mende, Karau, Designing with light and shadow, ed. The Images Publishing Group
Pty Ltd, , 2000.

Meyers, Victoria, Designing with light, ed. Laurence King Publishing Ltd,
, 2006.

Michel, Lou, Light, the shape of space: Designing with space and light, ed. John
Wiley & Sons, Inc., , 1996.

Millet, arietta S., Light revealing architecture, ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold,
, 1996.

Remond, Rene, Religion and Society in Modern Europe, ed. Blackwell Publishers,
, 1999.

Schumacher, Thomas, Surface and Symbol: Giuseppe Terragni and the Architecture
of Italian Rationalism, Princeton Architectural Press, , 1991.

Scobie, Alexander, Hitler's State Architecture: The Impact of Classical


Antiquity. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1990.

Spotts, Frederic, Hitler and the Power of Aesthetics, ed. Overlook Press,
Woodstock, 2003

Tinniswood, Adrian, Visions of Power: Ambition and Architecture from Ancient


times to the Present, ed. Stewart, Tabori & Chang, 1998.

Vale, Lawrence, Architecture, power and national identity, ed. Routledge,


, 2008.

[119]

, , , ,
, , 2008.

Wilson, Christopher Samuel, Remembering and Forgetting in the Funeraly


Architecture of Mustafa Kemal Atatrk: The Construction and Maintenance of
National Memory, Middle East Technical University,
, 2007.

, , ,
, , 2008.

-, ,
, :
. , , 24-25 2001.

, , Lighting and Spatial Structure in Religious Architecture: A


Comparative Study of a Byzantine Church and an early Ottoman Mosque in the city
of Thessaloniki, Proceedings, 6th International Space Syntax Symposium, Instabul,
2007.

[120]

Correnza, Joseph & Hyde, Gabriel, The National Assembly for Wales, in The Arup
Journal, 2006, 2 v. 41.

Falahat,M.S, Zare, M, The emergence of eternal truth by light in Islamic


architecture, Canadian Journal on Environmental, Construction and Civil
Engineering Vol. 2, No. 4, April 2011.

Komonen, Marku , Elements in the Way of Life, Jrn Utzon,


Arkkitehti 80, 2, 1983.

http://arthistoriography.files.wordpress.com/2012/05/blairbloomdoc.pdf

http://isites.harvard.edu/fs/docs/icb.topic570061.files/articles/Hagia_Sophia.pdf

http://www.civil.uminho.pt/masonry/Publications/Historical%20constructions/page%2
0197-208%20_27_.pdf

http://www.fosterandpartners.com/projects/reichstag-new-german-parliament/

http://www.richardrogers.co.uk/work/buildings/national_assembly_for_wales/complet
ed

http://odysseus.culture.gr/h/2/gh251.jsp?obj_id=1704

[121]

[122]