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Ministry of High Education and Scientific Research

Middle Technical University

Electrical and Electronics Technical College

Electrical Power Technical Engineering

AC Machines Lectures

Mohammed Dyhia Ali


Lecturer: Mohammed Dyhia Ali AC Machine third class

Chapter one
Single phase Transformers
1-1 Introduction:
This chapter is to discuss certain aspects of the theory of magnetically-coupled
circuits, with emphasis on transformer action.

The static transformer is not an energy conversion device, but an indispensable

component in many energy conversion systems.

1. It is a significant component in ac power systems:

Electric generation at the most economical generator voltage
Power transfer at the most economical transmission voltage
Power utilization at the most voltage for the particular utilization device
2. It is widely used in low-power, low-current electronic and control circuits:
Matching the impedances of a source and its load for maximum power
Isolating one circuit from another
Isolating direct current while maintaining ac continuity between two

The transformer is one of the simpler devices comprising two or more electric circuits
coupled by a common magnedetic circuit.

1-2 Transformers construction:

Essentially, a transformer consists of two or more windings coupled by mutual
magnetic flux.

Fig-1-1 construction of transformer

One of these windings, the primary, is connected to an alternating-voltage.

Lecturer: Mohammed Dyhia Ali AC Machine third class

An alternating flux will be produced, whose magnitude will depend on the
primary voltage, the frequency of the applied voltage, and the number of
The mutual flux will link the other winding, the secondary, and will induce
a voltage in it, whose value will depend on the number of secondary turns
as well as the magnitude of the mutual flux and the frequency.
By properly proportioning the number of primary and secondary turns,
almost any desired voltage ratio, or ratio of transformation, can be obtained.
The essence of transformer action requires only the existence of time-varying
mutual flux linking two windings.
This magnetic flux will flow through magnetic circuit called the core:
Iron-core transformer: coupling between the windings can be made much
more effectively using a core of iron or other ferromagnetic material.
The magnetic circuit usually consists of a stack of thin laminations.
Silicon steel has the desirable properties of low cost, low core loss, and
high permeability at high flux densities (1.0 to 1.5 T). Silicon-steel
laminations (0.35 mm) in thick are generally used for transformers
operating at frequency (50 Hz)
Two common types of transformer's construction: core type and shell type
(Fig. 1.2).

Fig 1-2 (a) core type, (b) shell type transformer

Most of the flux is confined to the core and therefore links both windings.
# what about leakage flux?

Leakage flux links one winding without linking the other.

Leakage flux is a small fraction of the total flux.
Leakage flux is reduced by subdividing the windings into sections and by
placing them as close together as possible.

Lecturer: Mohammed Dyhia Ali AC Machine third class

1-3 Elementary Theory of an Ideal Transformers:
An ideal transformer is one which has no losses, its windings have no ohmic
resistance, there is no magnetic leakage and hence which has no I2R and core losses.
In other words an ideal transformer consists of two purely inductive coils wound on a
loss-free core.

fig. 1-3 a- ideal transformer, b- sinusoidal waves and vectorial representation

Consider an ideal transformer, whose secondary is opened and whose primary is

connected to sinusoidal alternating voltage, where:

V1 = sinusoidal alternating voltage.

f = Frequency of a.c input in Hz

N1 = number of turns in primary windings.

N2 = number of turns in secondary windings.

I = magnetizing current [small magnitude, lag V1 by 90o].

= alternating flux [proportional to I, and in same phase].

m = BmA [maximum flux in core in webers].

E1 = counter e.m.f or self-induced e.m.f [in primary windings, and opposition to V1].

E2= mutually induced e.m.f [in secondary, and opposition to V1].

1-4 E.M.F Equation of a Transformer:

As shown in figure below, flux increase from its zero value to maximum value
m in one quarter of the cycle. [1/4 f seconds]

Lecturer: Mohammed Dyhia Ali AC Machine third class

As seen in figure below.

Current are in the inverse ratio of the transformation ratio.

Lecturer: Mohammed Dyhia Ali AC Machine third class

1-5 No-Load Conditions:
In the above discussion, we assumed an ideal transformer. One in which there
were no core losses and copper losses.
When an actual transformer is put on load, there is iron loss in the core and
copper loss in the windings (both primary and secondary) and these losses are not
entirely negligible.
Even when transformer on no load, the primary current are not wholly reactive.
The primary current under no load condition has to supplied i) iron losses in core,
hysteresis loss and eddy current loss, and ii) a very small amount of copper losses in
primary only.
Hence, the no load primary input current I0 is not at 90o behind V1 but legs it by
an angle [o < 90o]
Figure 1.4 shows in schematic form a transformer with its secondary circuit
open and an alternating voltage V1 applied to its primary terminals. The no load input
power is:

Lecturer: Mohammed Dyhia Ali AC Machine third class

Fig 1-4 no load condition

Where cos0 is primary power factor under no-load conditions. No load

condition of an actual transformer is shown vectorially in Fig. 1-4. As seen from fig
1-4, primary current I0 has two components:

Lecturer: Mohammed Dyhia Ali AC Machine third class

1-6 Load Condition:
When secondary is loaded:

I2 (secondary current) is set up, the magnitude and phase of I2 with respect to
V2 is depends upon load characteristics (resistive, inductive, or capacitive)
I2 set up its own m.m.f (N2I2) which is known as demagnetizing amp-turns.
I2 set up own flux 2, which is in opposition to the main primary flux ,
which is due to I0. ( 2 weakness momentarily)
Know E1tends to be reduced, and V1 gains the upper hand over E1 and hence
causing more current to flow in primary.
The additional primary current be I2' it is known as load component of primary
current. This current is antiphase with I2, and equal to I2 if k=1.
I2' will produce additional primary m.m.f (N1I2'), and set up its own flux 2',
which is opposition to 2 (but in same direction of ), and is equal to it in
magnitude. Hence the two fluxes cancel each other.

Note: we find that the magnetic effect of I2 are canceled immediately by the additional
primary current I2'. See figure 1-5.

Figure 1-5: effect of I2, and I2' on magnetic circuit in transformer

Lecturer: Mohammed Dyhia Ali AC Machine third class


The net flux passing through the core is approximately the same as at no load.
The core loss is also practically the same under all load conditions.
The total primary current I1 is the vector sum of I0 and I2'.


Figure 1-6: vector diagrams for load transformer a- resistive b- inductive c- when
neglect I0

The angle of I1 is 1, it is slightly greater than 2. But if we neglect I0 as

compared with I2' as in figure 1-6c, then 1= 2, and if k=1, moreover, under
this assumption
The above equation shows that under full load conditions, the ratio of primary
and secondary current is constant.

Lecturer: Mohammed Dyhia Ali AC Machine third class

Lecturer: Mohammed Dyhia Ali AC Machine third class
1-7 Equivalent resistance:
An actual transformers, there is always present some resistance of the primary and
secondary windings.

Due to this resistance there is some voltage drop in the two windings

Figure 1-7 vector diagram for a- resistive b- inductive c- capacitive load with
resistance loss

In figure 1-8 below, a transformer is shown whose primary and secondary windings
have resistance of R1 and R2 respectively.

Figure 1-8 primary and secondary resistance

The resistance of the two windings can be transfer to any one of the two
The advantage of concentrating both the resistance in one winding is that it
makes calculations very simple and easy.
R2' is the equivalent secondary resistance as referred to primary [R2'=R2/k2].
R1' is the equivalent primary resistance as referred to secondary [R1'=R1k2].

Lecturer: Mohammed Dyhia Ali AC Machine third class

The total resistance in primary side is R01 which is the equivalent or effective
resistance of the transformer as referred to primary. As shown in figure 1-9a.

Similarly in secondary side, R02 is the equivalent resistance of the transformer

as referred to secondary. See figure 1-9b.

Figure 1-9: equivalent resistance of transformer a- as referred to primary, b- as

referred to secondary


When shifting any primary resistance to the secondary, multiply it by k2.

When shifting any secondary resistance to the primary, divide it by k2.
When shifting any voltage from one winding to another only k is used.
1-8 Magnetic Leakage:
It is impossible to realize a transformer with no leakage flux in actual, and as we
said before, that leakage flux links one winding is not links the other.

Figure 1-10: leakage flux in primary and secondary

L1 is primary leakage flux, link primary winding only, and induced an e.m.f
in it eL1, and it is in time phase with I1.
Similarly, L2 is secondary leakage flux, link secondary winding only, and
induced an e.m.f in it eL2, and it is in time phase with I2.

Lecturer: Mohammed Dyhia Ali AC Machine third class

In no-load and light loads, primary and secondary amper-turns are small, and
leakage flux are negligible.
The induced e.m.fs (eL1, and eL2) by leakage flux (L1, and L2) respectively,
it is equivalent to a small inductive coil (Choker) in series with each winding,
as in figure 1-11.

Figure 1-11: inductive coil in primary and secondary

The terms X1, and X2 are known as primary and secondary leakage reactance.

As it is clear now, that primary voltage V1 will have to supply reactive drop
I1X1 in addition to resistive drop I1R1. Similarly E2 will have to supply I2X2,
and I2R2.
1-9 Transformer with Resistance and Leakage Reactance:
In figure 1-12, the primary and secondary winding of a transformer with reactance
taken out of the windings are shown. The primary, and secondary impedances is given

Figure 1-12, primary and secondary impedance

the resistance and reactance in each winding are responsible for some voltage
drop in each winding.

Lecturer: Mohammed Dyhia Ali AC Machine third class

the vector diagram for such a transformer for different kinds of load is shown
in figure 1-13.

Figure 1-13, vector diagram for transformer with resistance and reactance a- resistive,
b-reactive, c-capacitive load

The leakage reactance can also be transferred from winding to the other in
the same way as resistance. See figure 1-14

Figure 1-14 transformer impedance, a- referred to primary, b- referred to secondary

Lecturer: Mohammed Dyhia Ali AC Machine third class

1-10 Equivalent Circuit of Transformer:
The transformer shown diagrammatically in figure 1-15a can be resolved into an
equivalent circuit as in figure 1-15b.

Figure 1-15, a- actual transformer, b- equivalent cct. of transformer

The no load current I0 simulated by pure inductance X0 taking the

magnetizing component I, and a non inductive resistance R0 taking the
working component Iw, connected in parallel across the primary circuit.

The value of E1 is obtained by subtracting vectorially I1Z1 from V1, and it is

clearly that E1 and E2 are related to each other by expression

Lecturer: Mohammed Dyhia Ali AC Machine third class

It is preferable to transfer voltage, current, and impedance either to primary or
to the secondary, to make the calculations more simple.
Primary equivalent values for secondary circuit:

the secondary circuit, and its equivalent primary values are shown in figure1-16.

Figure 1-16: a- secondary circuit, b- secondary equivalent primary values

Total equivalent circuit of the transformer is obtained by adding in the

primary impedance as shown in figure 1-17a. This is known as the exact
equivalent circuit.
A simplification can be made by transferring the exacting circuit across the
terminals as shown in figure 1-17b. further simplification may be achieved by
omitting I0 altogether as shown in figure 1-18b.

Figure 1-17: a- exact circuit, b- approximation circuit

Lecturer: Mohammed Dyhia Ali AC Machine third class

From figure 1-17a, we can find that total impedance between the input
terminals is:

Figure 1-18, approximation circuit a- with I0, b- omitting I0

Lecturer: Mohammed Dyhia Ali AC Machine third class