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Lecture No.1 Transformers I

Lecture No.1 Transformers I

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AC Machines Lectures

By

Mohammed Dyhia Ali

2015-2016

Chapter one

Single phase Transformers

1-1 Introduction:

This chapter is to discuss certain aspects of the theory of magnetically-coupled

circuits, with emphasis on transformer action.

component in many energy conversion systems.

Electric generation at the most economical generator voltage

Power transfer at the most economical transmission voltage

Power utilization at the most voltage for the particular utilization device

2. It is widely used in low-power, low-current electronic and control circuits:

Matching the impedances of a source and its load for maximum power

transfer

Isolating one circuit from another

Isolating direct current while maintaining ac continuity between two

circuits

The transformer is one of the simpler devices comprising two or more electric circuits

coupled by a common magnedetic circuit.

Essentially, a transformer consists of two or more windings coupled by mutual

magnetic flux.

One of these windings, the primary, is connected to an alternating-voltage.

An alternating flux will be produced, whose magnitude will depend on the

primary voltage, the frequency of the applied voltage, and the number of

turns.

The mutual flux will link the other winding, the secondary, and will induce

a voltage in it, whose value will depend on the number of secondary turns

as well as the magnitude of the mutual flux and the frequency.

By properly proportioning the number of primary and secondary turns,

almost any desired voltage ratio, or ratio of transformation, can be obtained.

The essence of transformer action requires only the existence of time-varying

mutual flux linking two windings.

This magnetic flux will flow through magnetic circuit called the core:

Iron-core transformer: coupling between the windings can be made much

more effectively using a core of iron or other ferromagnetic material.

The magnetic circuit usually consists of a stack of thin laminations.

Silicon steel has the desirable properties of low cost, low core loss, and

high permeability at high flux densities (1.0 to 1.5 T). Silicon-steel

laminations (0.35 mm) in thick are generally used for transformers

operating at frequency (50 Hz)

Two common types of transformer's construction: core type and shell type

(Fig. 1.2).

Most of the flux is confined to the core and therefore links both windings.

# what about leakage flux?

Leakage flux is a small fraction of the total flux.

Leakage flux is reduced by subdividing the windings into sections and by

placing them as close together as possible.

1-3 Elementary Theory of an Ideal Transformers:

An ideal transformer is one which has no losses, its windings have no ohmic

resistance, there is no magnetic leakage and hence which has no I2R and core losses.

In other words an ideal transformer consists of two purely inductive coils wound on a

loss-free core.

connected to sinusoidal alternating voltage, where:

E1 = counter e.m.f or self-induced e.m.f [in primary windings, and opposition to V1].

As shown in figure below, flux increase from its zero value to maximum value

m in one quarter of the cycle. [1/4 f seconds]

As seen in figure below.

1-5 No-Load Conditions:

In the above discussion, we assumed an ideal transformer. One in which there

were no core losses and copper losses.

When an actual transformer is put on load, there is iron loss in the core and

copper loss in the windings (both primary and secondary) and these losses are not

entirely negligible.

Even when transformer on no load, the primary current are not wholly reactive.

The primary current under no load condition has to supplied i) iron losses in core,

hysteresis loss and eddy current loss, and ii) a very small amount of copper losses in

primary only.

Hence, the no load primary input current I0 is not at 90o behind V1 but legs it by

an angle [o < 90o]

Figure 1.4 shows in schematic form a transformer with its secondary circuit

open and an alternating voltage V1 applied to its primary terminals. The no load input

power is:

Fig 1-4 no load condition

condition of an actual transformer is shown vectorially in Fig. 1-4. As seen from fig

1-4, primary current I0 has two components:

1-6 Load Condition:

When secondary is loaded:

I2 (secondary current) is set up, the magnitude and phase of I2 with respect to

V2 is depends upon load characteristics (resistive, inductive, or capacitive)

I2 set up its own m.m.f (N2I2) which is known as demagnetizing amp-turns.

I2 set up own flux 2, which is in opposition to the main primary flux ,

which is due to I0. ( 2 weakness momentarily)

Know E1tends to be reduced, and V1 gains the upper hand over E1 and hence

causing more current to flow in primary.

The additional primary current be I2' it is known as load component of primary

current. This current is antiphase with I2, and equal to I2 if k=1.

I2' will produce additional primary m.m.f (N1I2'), and set up its own flux 2',

which is opposition to 2 (but in same direction of ), and is equal to it in

magnitude. Hence the two fluxes cancel each other.

Note: we find that the magnetic effect of I2 are canceled immediately by the additional

primary current I2'. See figure 1-5.

Notes:

The net flux passing through the core is approximately the same as at no load.

The core loss is also practically the same under all load conditions.

The total primary current I1 is the vector sum of I0 and I2'.

As

Figure 1-6: vector diagrams for load transformer a- resistive b- inductive c- when

neglect I0

compared with I2' as in figure 1-6c, then 1= 2, and if k=1, moreover, under

this assumption

=k

The above equation shows that under full load conditions, the ratio of primary

and secondary current is constant.

Lecturer: Mohammed Dyhia Ali AC Machine third class

1-7 Equivalent resistance:

An actual transformers, there is always present some resistance of the primary and

secondary windings.

Due to this resistance there is some voltage drop in the two windings

Figure 1-7 vector diagram for a- resistive b- inductive c- capacitive load with

resistance loss

In figure 1-8 below, a transformer is shown whose primary and secondary windings

have resistance of R1 and R2 respectively.

The resistance of the two windings can be transfer to any one of the two

windings.

The advantage of concentrating both the resistance in one winding is that it

makes calculations very simple and easy.

R2' is the equivalent secondary resistance as referred to primary [R2'=R2/k2].

R1' is the equivalent primary resistance as referred to secondary [R1'=R1k2].

The total resistance in primary side is R01 which is the equivalent or effective

resistance of the transformer as referred to primary. As shown in figure 1-9a.

as referred to secondary. See figure 1-9b.

referred to secondary

Notes:

When shifting any secondary resistance to the primary, divide it by k2.

When shifting any voltage from one winding to another only k is used.

1-8 Magnetic Leakage:

It is impossible to realize a transformer with no leakage flux in actual, and as we

said before, that leakage flux links one winding is not links the other.

L1 is primary leakage flux, link primary winding only, and induced an e.m.f

in it eL1, and it is in time phase with I1.

Similarly, L2 is secondary leakage flux, link secondary winding only, and

induced an e.m.f in it eL2, and it is in time phase with I2.

In no-load and light loads, primary and secondary amper-turns are small, and

leakage flux are negligible.

The induced e.m.fs (eL1, and eL2) by leakage flux (L1, and L2) respectively,

it is equivalent to a small inductive coil (Choker) in series with each winding,

as in figure 1-11.

The terms X1, and X2 are known as primary and secondary leakage reactance.

As it is clear now, that primary voltage V1 will have to supply reactive drop

I1X1 in addition to resistive drop I1R1. Similarly E2 will have to supply I2X2,

and I2R2.

1-9 Transformer with Resistance and Leakage Reactance:

In figure 1-12, the primary and secondary winding of a transformer with reactance

taken out of the windings are shown. The primary, and secondary impedances is given

by:

the resistance and reactance in each winding are responsible for some voltage

drop in each winding.

the vector diagram for such a transformer for different kinds of load is shown

in figure 1-13.

Figure 1-13, vector diagram for transformer with resistance and reactance a- resistive,

b-reactive, c-capacitive load

The leakage reactance can also be transferred from winding to the other in

the same way as resistance. See figure 1-14

1-10 Equivalent Circuit of Transformer:

The transformer shown diagrammatically in figure 1-15a can be resolved into an

equivalent circuit as in figure 1-15b.

magnetizing component I, and a non inductive resistance R0 taking the

working component Iw, connected in parallel across the primary circuit.

clearly that E1 and E2 are related to each other by expression

It is preferable to transfer voltage, current, and impedance either to primary or

to the secondary, to make the calculations more simple.

Primary equivalent values for secondary circuit:

the secondary circuit, and its equivalent primary values are shown in figure1-16.

primary impedance as shown in figure 1-17a. This is known as the exact

equivalent circuit.

A simplification can be made by transferring the exacting circuit across the

terminals as shown in figure 1-17b. further simplification may be achieved by

omitting I0 altogether as shown in figure 1-18b.

From figure 1-17a, we can find that total impedance between the input

terminals is:

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