In the name of The most beneficent & The most merciful

RADIO AND TV ANTENNA

11

RACHNA UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY GUJRANWALA

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

RADIO AND TV ANTENNA

22

OVER-CURRENT PROTECTION

RADIO AND TV ANTENNA

33

SARA MUQEET FATIMA TASEER ASAD NAEEM HAMID GULZAR

06-RCET-EE-12 06-RCET-EE-21 06-RCET-EE-22 06-RCET-EE-32

PRESENTED BY:

RADIO AND TV ANTENNA

44

ideally as a perfect conductor Load: consumes power.Simple Power System Every power system has three major components Generator T. ideally with a constant resistive value 55 . ideally with a specified voltage and Distribution frequency 3) 5) Transmission system: transmits power.L 1) Load Transmission Line Generation: source of power.

PROTECTION SYSTEM The protection system is designed and managed to deliver the energy to the utilization points with: Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Reliability Economy Expensive equipment safety like: Generator Transformer Transmission lines Bus bars 66 .

FAULT IN POWER SYSTEM Fault is defined as any abnormal condition that effects the basic requirements of normal power system. then: – – – – Current increases Voltage decreases Frequency varies Phase difference created 77 . When any fault occurs in any power system.

IMPORTANT CONSIDERATIONS WHEN DESIGN PROTECTION SYSTEM Types of fault and abnormal Conditions to be protected against Quantities available for measurement Types of protection available Speed Fault position discrimination Dependability / reliability Security / stability 88 Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø .

Relays to accurately sense all types of faults and issue trip commands to circuit breaker to disconnect the faulty system. 99 Ø .Basic Components of Power System Protection Ø Voltage transformers and current transformers. To monitor and give accurate feedback about healthiness of a system.

Type of protection Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Over current. 1010 . Other. Directional over current. Differential. Distance. Reverse power. Over voltage.

HAMID GULZAR 2006-RCET-EE-32 1111 .

PROTECTION RELAY Relay is a device which detects the defective lines or apparatus in a power system and initiates an appropriate control action. OR An electrical relay is defined as a device which operates when the prescribed quantity is out of limits 1212 .

FUNCTION OF RELAY: -to detect the presence of fault -identify the faulted components -initiate appropriate circuit breaker -remove the effective component from circuit PURPOSE: -control -protection -regulation 1313 .

Fault Clearing Time It is the time between the instant of fault and instant of final are interruption. Fault clearing time = Relay time + breaker time . It is the sum of relay-time and circuit breaker-time.

It is also called total break time. Circuit breaker time: The breaker time is the total of time taken by operating mechanism to open to circuit breaker contacts and the arching time. 1515 .Relay time: The relay time is the time between the instant of occurrence of fault and the instant of closure of relay contacts.

The most common ratio relay is impedances relay. phase angle of a sinusoidal current with respect to sinusoidal voltage. DIFFERENTIAL RELAY: It responds to the algebraic sum of two or more inputs. MAGNITUDE RELAYS: Its operation based on the magnitude of input quantities. RATIO RELAY: It responds to the ratio of two AC quantities.TYPES OF RELAYS There are five basic types of relays. PILOT RELAYS: These relays use communicated 1616 . DIRECTIONAL RELAYS: It responds to the phase angle difference between two AC quantities. Over current relay is an example of this type of relay. for example.

-over current includes short-circuit protection. 1717 . Hence fast fault clearance is always desirable on short -circuits.OVER-CURRENT PROTECTION -The protection in which the relay picks up when the magnitude of current exceeds the pickup level. -Short circuits can be -Phase faults -Earth faults -Winding faults Short-circuit currents are generally several times (5 to 20) full load current.

current surges. To achieve this. -The protection should be co-ordinated with neighboring over current protection. permissible over current. the time delay is provided (in case of inverse relays). 1818 . -over current relay is a basic element of over current protection.PRIMARY REQUIREMENT OF OVERCURRENT PROTECTION Primary requirements of over-current protection are: -The protection should not operate for starting currents.

b. Time-Delay Setting a. The setting is calculated using max load current and minimum fault current. It should be above normal currents & below minimum fault currents. c. b. it may provide a backup-role. A time dial provides relative positions between the moving and fixed contacts.Setting Rules Ø Pickup Setting a. If possible. Dial setting from ½ (fastest) to 10 (slowest) Ø .

-Inverse time and instantaneous over current phase and ground over current relays used for motors above 1000kW. . LINE PROTECTION: -on some sub transmission lines where the cost of distance relaying cannot be justified. -primary ground-fault protection on most transmission lines where distance relays are used for phase faults -for ground back-up protection on most lines having pilot relaying for primary protection. TRANSFORMER PROTECTION: -used only when the cost of over current relays are not justified -extensively also at power-transformer locations for external-fault back-up protection.APPLICATIONS OF OVERCURRENT RELAYS MOTOR PROTECTION: -used against overloads and short-circuits in stator windings of motor.

FATIMA TASEER 2006-RCET-EE-21 2121 .

a serious hazard for equipment and personnel will exist. Current limiting can be considered as another over current protective device rating. If the interrupting rating is not properly. perhaps the most important and most often overlooked is the interrupting rating. over current protective device ratings must be properly selected. These ratings include voltage.OVERCURRENT RELAY RATINGS In order for an over current protective device to operate properly. ampere and interrupting rating. 2222 . Of the three of the ratings. although not all over current protective devices are required to have this characteristic. selected.

under some over current conditions. the over current protective device may not clear the over current safely 2323 . If an over current protective device is used with a voltage rating lower than the circuit voltage. The over current protective device rating can be higher than the system voltage but never lower. arc suppression and the ability to extinguish the arc will be impaired and.VOLTAGE RATING The voltage rating of the over current protective device must be at least equal to or greater than the circuit voltage. The voltage rating determines the ability of the over current protective device to suppress and extinguish the internal arcing that occurs during the opening of an over current condition.

In selecting the ampere rating of the over current protective device. the ampere rating of a over current protecting device is selected at 125% of the continuous load current 2424 . consideration must be given to the type of load and code requirements. The ampere rating of a over current protecting device normally should not exceed the current carrying capacity of the conductors As a general rule.AMPERE RATING Every over current protective device has a specific ampere rating.

the device may actually rupture. causing additional damage. If a fault current exceeds the interrupting rating of the over current protective device. 2525 .INTERRUPTING CURRENT RATING Interrupting rating is defined as the highest current at rated voltage that a device is intended to interrupt under standard test conditions. An over current protective device must be able to withstand the destructive energy of short-circuit currents.

SETTINGS IN OVER CURRENT RELAY There are two types of settings 1) 2) Current Setting Time Setting .

m.CURRENT SETTING: The over current relay is set at 50% to 200% of the rated current.s current flowing in the relay is expressed as a multiple of the setting current (pick-up current) is known as the . The actual r.

In induction disc type relay.Time Setting: The operating time of the relay can be set at a desired value. the angular distance by which the moving part of the relay travels for closing the contacts can be adjusted to .

SARA MUQEET KHAN 2006-RCET-EE-12 .

TYPES OF OVERCURRENT RELAYS .

OVERCURRENT RELAY INSTANTANEOUS TIME OVERCURRENT RELAY TIME OVERCURRENT RELAY INVERSE TIME DEFINITE TIME MODERETLY INVERSE VERY INVERSE EXTREMELY INVERSE .

-it operates in 0. -there is no intentional time delay.INSTANTANEOUS TIME OVERCURRENT RELAY -operates in a definite time when current exceeds its pick-up value.1s or less . -operating time is constant.

TIME OVERCURRENT RELAY .

-it has pick-up and time dial settings.DEFINITE TIME OVERCURRENT RELAY -operates after a predetermined time. as current exceeds its pick-up value. -operating time is constant -its operation is independent of the magnitude of current above the pick-up value. .desired time delay can be set with the help of an intentional time delay mechanism.

INVERSE TIME OVERCURRENT RELAY -operates when current exceeds its pick-up value -operating time depends on the magnitude of current -there is inverse relation between current and operating time -based on the inverseness it has three different types .

-widely used for the protection of distribution lines 3636 . characteristics tend towards definite time characteristics.INVERSE DEFINITE MINIMUM TIME OVERCURRENT(IDMT) RELAY -gives inverse time current characteristics at lower values of fault current and definite time characteristics at higher values -an inverse characteristic is obtained if the value of plug setting multiplier is below 10. for values between 10 and 20.

-used where there is a reduction in fault current.VERY INVERSE TIME OVERCURRENT RELAY -gives more inverse characteristics than that of IDMT. 3737 . as the distance from source increases. -particularly effective with ground faults because of their steep characteristics.

transformers.EXTREMELY INVERSE OVERCURRENT RELAY -it has more inverse characteristics than that of IDMT and very inverse overcurrent relay.etc. .expensive cables. -suitable for the protection of machines against overheating -for the protection of alternators.

TIME.CURRENT CHARACTERISTIC CURVES FOR DIFFERENT TYPES OF TIME OVERCURRENT RELAYS .

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Russel Masin Power System Protection By Padthankay 4141 .References Protective Relay Application Guide The Art and Science of Protecticve Relays By C.

Thank you ! 4242 .

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