EXPERIMENT NO

9

Identification of various diodes.
Aim
To study the symbols & V-I cha.-acteristics of various diodes.
Schottky diode. Tunnel diode current diodes Light Emitting Diodes, LASER

Apparatus
Jiodes,constant

Theory
Schottky diodes

)

)

Schottky diodes are constructed of a metal-to-N junction rather than a P-N semiconductor junction. Also known as hot-carrier diodes. Schottky diodes are characterized by fast switching times (:0\'1 reverse-recovery time). low forward vo!18ge drop (typically 0.25 to 0.4 volts for a metalsilicon junction), and low junction capacitance The schematic symbol for a Schc·ttky dioc:e
IS

sho\'m here:

Sc:hottky diode
Anode
I

)

Cathode
In terms of forvvard voltage drop (VF). reverse-recovery time (irr), and junction capaci~nce (CJ). Schottky diodes are closer'to ideal than thp average "rectifying" diode. This makes them well suited far high-frequency aoplications. Unfortunately. though, Schottky diodes typicaliy have lower forward current (IF) and reverse voltage (Vo..R!.t and Vocl ratings than rectifying diodes and are thus unsuitable for applications involVing substantlai amounts 0: power Schot'..ky dic-de technolJ9Y bds t.road ap~licatjon in high-spee~ computer circuits, where the fast switching time equates to high speea capability, and the low forward voltage drop equates to less power dissipation when conducting . Tunnel diodes Tunnel diodes exploit a strange quantum phenomenon called resonant tunneling to provide interesting forward-bias characteristics. When a small forward-bias voltage is applied across a tunr.el diode, it begins to conduct current. As the voltage is increased, the current increases and reaches a peak value called the peak current (Ip). If the voltage is increased a little more, Ule current actually begins to decrease until it reaches a low point called the valley current (Iv). If the voltage is increased further yet. the current begins to increase again, this time without decreasing into another "valley." Both the schematic symbol and a current/voltage plot for the tunnel diode are shown in the following illustration:

*

.•. if

Tunl.l . 0" rie• ~el .JIOu Anode
I

. I

Forward I current I

I , I

'f e y,d I,'v'j
r·· r

i
I~

.

!

t

i
I

,1,,'_"

I I
'rip

.
'J,

_

Forward voltage
The forward ...•. oltages necessC'lry to drive a tunnel diode to its pea'< and valley currents are known as peak voltage (\/p) and valley voltage (Vv), respectively. Trle ;egion on the graph where cu~ent is decreasing while ap;::,lied voltage is increasing (between Vp and Vv on tr,e Mrizonta! scale) is known as the regi'Jn of n9gative resistance. -'or Tunnel diodes, also known as Esaki diodes In honor of their Japan~s~ inventor Leo Esaki. are able to transition between peak and valley current levels v:=ry quick!,', "switching" betNeen high and low states of conduction muc:il fc:ster than even Schottky diodes Tunnel diode characteristics are 2!SO i'elatively unaffected by changes in tem::;.e.ature Unfortunately, tunnel diodes are not g000 rE.'Ctlfisrs, as t~ey hav·£: reiah'ely high "leakage" :EverS8-0ii3<.:.e,j Consequently. Uley find Clpphcatlon only in speciol circuits where their c~ -rent ·,·.'~len ur.,que tunnel effect has ValL:E' In orrjer to eXr;loit the tunnel effect. tl)e::;e dk'des are maintained at a bias vorlage somewhere between the peak ane.!'1aiiey voltage levels, always In a iorward··biased pC"arity (anode ~ositjve, and cathode ·negati'te). F-erhaps the most CClrTlrnOn application of ::1 tunnel diode is in simple (iigh-frequency oscillator circuits. "",here they allow 2 DC v:)ltage source to contribute power to an LC "tank" circL:it, the diode conducting when the voltage across rt reaches the peak (tunnel) level and effectively ins~lating at all other voltages.

Diodes, like all semiconductor devices, are governed by the principles described in quaritum physics. Or,e of these principles is the err:issio~ ofspel.:itic-frequency radiant energy whenever electrons fall from a higher energy level to a lower energy level. Tilis is the same principle at work in a neon lamp the chc.racter:stic pink-orange glow of ionized neon due tc. the speCific energy transitions of its electrons in t18 <nidst of an electric current The unique color of a neon lamp's glow IS due to the fact that it's neon gas insid'3 the ~Ub8, and not due to the ~··artic..Jlaramou'nt of current through the tub'? or voltagr:: between the ~".IO e:ec{,rodes. Neon gas glows J:'inkish-orange over a wide range of ionizing vojta~1€s and currents. Each chemical element has its own "signature" emission of radiant energy wilen its ele:::trons "jump" bet-.-veen different, quantized t:tlergy levels. Hydrogen ga:;, l'or exmnp!e, glows red whe:'l il'niz.f:d; mercl;ry vapor glows blue This is what makes spectrographic identifiC<ltlor: of elements possible. E!i:~ctfOns f!(;,v'.'in9 thlOugi-1 a PI\1lu:l~tionexperience similar transitions in energy level, and emit radiant energj' as if-ley do so The frequency o~ this radiant energy l'S (ieter'Tlined by the crystal structure::-! ~h8 semicondlJctur material, and the elements compnsing it. Some semiconcJuctor

. sma!1 voltage 'Nhen exposed to light. :f a devi~ is hghtacUvated (meaning that incoming light stimulates it). Sizing the resistor for an LED current of 20 mA is as simple as taking its voltage drop (4.4 volts) and dividing by circuit current (20 mAl. 9(2 Cathode This r.abie colors other than red are green. Typical operating current for a standard-sized LED is around 20 mA When operating an LED from a DC voitage sOU'ce greater tha..••.s!ance a ye:!ow LED may be made by merging a red LED with a green LED. arsenic. .:igned to glow like: a lamp IScalled a fight-emiNing diode. and are some of the most common LEOs manufactured By a:tenng me cr<err. to note. a series-connected "drop.~osphlde) g:ow bnght red. Other colors may be obtained by combining t•••• or o more primary-coior (red.be different Typicaily. green. though. blue. LEOs have much larger fOfvv'ardvoltage drops than ill rectifylrg diodes.. a variety of light-sensing circuits Because LED. 220 Q -r- ~\ ~~ .4 volts dr()pped across the resistor.f8 watt resistor Higher battery voitages .~entiy avail. and phosphorus (called gallium-arsenide-~.~s of at~L':. emit radiant energy within the spectrum of visible light as the eiectrons t. much like a solar eel! on a small scale Thls property can be gainfully appliec ir.:>ing' resistor must be induded to preven~ fur' so~r-::e vof:og€ from damaging the LED Consider this example circuit ) Rdropp. or LED Diodes made from a com:. composed of special cnemlcal comoinations. and infra-red (invisible light a~a freque~:y lower t~ar: red).o'" Q'the elements gallium.e drop and multiply by its currerlt (P=IE). Some c~ t7I€ c. Simply put.-ansinon In energy levels. different colors may be obtained.~!-£~:"T1jrti~g &errHc()~duc~or-jevices. CQnverse~y. With the LED dropping 1.I V F = 1.ows pOinting away from the device is commo~ to the schern2~~: s:r·~~~:Y. there will be 4.3 \'0It2. an~ blue) LEOs together in the same package.n the LEO's forward voltage. and end up witil 88 mW. 32.)fna!.•. with two small arrows pointing away (indIcating emrtted light): ) Light-emitting diode (LED) Anode 4'. that LEOs are capable of acting as light-sensing devICeS: they wili generate c.a> de<..e of different chemical substances than normal rectifying diodes. This gives us a figure of 2200 Calculating power dissipation for this resistor we take f.-. these junctions glow when forward biased A dIOde Ir. are mad.or. their for"'arc voltage drops .:>e inside of a circle. .t-::<3' constituency of the PN junction. well within the dUrS of a . depending on the color. anywhere from about 1_6volts to over 3 volts.6 V typical If = 20 m A typIcal .6 volts.junctIons.~e~t.o~ation of ha'oIing tw:: small ar.ng NV'~-~I 6V Red LED. in accordance with Ohm's Law (R=E1I). then the symbol will have two small arrows pointing toward it It is interf=stin£. The schematic symbol for an LED is a regular diode sha. sharing the same optical lens For ir.

. j . havin£ a much greater service life than an incandescent lamp. LEOs are used to trarlsmit digital (on/off) information as pulses of light. the dropping resistor must be increased to a size of 1..0VmA ty.\"c = -r \-~/':.'" vIfR = 4-. This advantage is primarily due to the fact that LEOs are "cold" devices: they operate at much cooler. i Also bE-cause of their unlCUE che-mca! ma. RdroP~'I!"~ Nt Ll2 kQ I Red LEO. a resIstor rated for dissipation or even 1/4 watt dissipation will overheat if used here. and possibly higher-power Consider this example for a supply voltage of 24 volts rating resistors as well. when using alternating current to poio'er an LED."'eu~ LEOs have m~ch. Second is the fact that LEDs are far more reliable.'l. rectifyIng diodes A typical LEO might only be rated at 5 volts in reverse-bias mode. efficiency ~ranslating to longer battery life. nearly one-half a watt of power1 ObvIously. susceptible to breakage from mechanicai and thennal ~hock.4 voits at 20 mA so that the LED still receives only 1 6 veas This also makes for a higher resistor power dissipation: 448 mW. = 5 rnaxlmum ~. First and forem." resistor instead of a . temperatures than an incandescent lamp with a white-hot metal filament.20 mA tYPical f . 1 5 kO instead of 1. LEDs are superior to incandescent bulbs in many ways.iation if I applied power. ~. This advantage is also due to the "cold" operation of LEOs: they don't have to overcome thernal inertia in transitioning from off to on or visa-versa. so you neej not stnve for perfect~on in sizin~ the dro!)ping resistor.12 kO 'n order to drop 22.0st is efficiency: LEOs output far more light power per watt than an incandescent lamp This is a significant advantage if the circuit in question is battery-powered. LEOs are quite tolerant of va. Third is the high speed at which LEOs may be turned on and off. at ver)' high rates of speed (millions of pulses per second).12 kO resistor In the circuit shown above The result would be a slight:y greater circuit current and LEO voltage drop. . conducted in empty space or through fiber .optic cable. less LED volt3g\? 2!1d a dimmer light.6 V typical 'T. Suppose we were to use a 1 kO . IN ~ I Red LED. Therefore.. 1.I .12 kQ~.plca I ' I rectifying diode As lamps. 1/8 watt power Dropping resistor values need not be ~reclse for LEO cIrcuits. resulting III a bnghter lig~from the LEO and slightly reauced service life A dropping resistor with too much resistance (say. FOi this reason.will require larger-value dropping resistors.- r Here. r1'luch lower pea!<-inverse voltage (PIV) ratings than ordinar. V f = 1.12 kO) will result in less circuit current.6V typical I . Yo'J snowO connect a protective rectifying diode in series with the LED to prevent reverse breakdown every other halfcycle Rdropping 1.

" the result being a synchronized output of light from the material.. despite the fact it's often written in lower-case letters. No one war.~ .t':'~~_ ' . so that all light waves emitted from a "lasing" material are not just the same frequency (color). This is why laser light stays S0 remarkably focused over long distances: each and every light wave coming from the laser is in step with each other: . but also the same phase as each other."~. "Laser" stands for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation.s to read a book under the light of a red.~.. so that they reinforce one another and ere able to travel in a very tightly-confined.:~~rj..-ht I~ j . and refers to another strange. or blue LED. or LED. . if used in mrnbination..)..•.:.Ising LEOs as sources of illumination is their monochromatic (singlecolor) emission. This synchronization extends to the actual phase of the emitted light..:.t~F~~{~""·. The term "laser" itself is actually an acronym. green. ~ ..~~~~~. Hov:ever.. I I ~ (.~1 •. quantum process whereby characteristic light emitted by electrons transitioning from high-level to low-level energy states in a material stimulate o~her electrons in a substance to make similar "jumps. nondispersing beam. LED colors may be mixed fOi a more broad-spectrum glow Laser diodes The laser diode is a further development upon the regular light-emitting diode.• One major disadvantage of . .

cal service lives in the tens of thousands of tlOurs. it:.d plot diode current ever diode curren~. or mixed-color) light. Some laser diodes require special high-power "pulsing" circuits tt:: deliver large quantities of voltage and current in short bursts. Regular LEOs produce monochromatic light: same frequency (culer). are fairly long-lived devices. does exactly what Its name Implies: it regulates current through it to some maximum level. Laser light finds wide application in the moderl1 world: everything from sLweying. we'c get a gr.: remembered that lowpower laser diodes. also known as a current-Jimiting diode. necessitating some form of current-regulator circuit. ~opp:ng y~ r/T L_ I IN ~ constant -c.. it simply "fights back" by dropping more voltage. to the reading and writing of optical disks. resulting in similar beam dispersioll. laser action occurs only within a certain range of diode current. or current-regulating diode. their power requirements may change (more current required for less output power). but different phases. If we were to build the following circuit ar. but it should bt.Incandescent lamps produce "white" (mixed-frequency..ph that rises normally at first and then levels off at the current regulation point . As laser diodes 3Sje. like LEOs. Other laser diodes may be operated continuously at :ower power. where only the narrowness of a focused laser beam is abl~ to resolve the microscopic "pits" in the disk's surface comprising the binary 1'soand O's of digital information.urrent diode V diNe 35 . Laser LED'S ploduce coherent light light that is both monochromatic (single-color) a'1d monophasic (single-phase). with typ. If you try :0 force more current rnrough a constant-current dIode than its current-regulation point. where a strlight and nondispersing light beam is very useful for precise sighting of measurement markers. In the latter case.sulting in pred~e beam confin~me:1t. Constant-current diodes '/' A constant-current diode.

large seccndary-cell battery banks might also benefit from constant-currer.'). is in the chargIng of small secondary-cell batteries.S. diode Of course. as regular LEDs tend to be more tolerant of forward current variations. like this: constant -current diode T LED or laser '). the constant-current diode's regulation point should be chosen to match the LED or laser diode's optimum forward current This is especially important for the laser diode. limited to ref)ulating currents in the milltamp range ~ ') ~ » ) J it .Gotra (HOD) .One interesting application for a constant<urrent diode is to automat:cally limit current through an LED or laser diode over a wide range of power supply voltages. where a constant charging current leads to very predictable chargmg times Of COurse. not so much for the LED. Another applicatior. D. Shaveta Thakral Prepared y:-- ~1~ \\I a~ )/ J I Apprdved by: Prof. but constant-current diodes tend to be very small devices.: charging.

The diode is thus in forward bias. As sho\\TI in the fig.e. rc!.1L:ul3!\. diode (11\4007). This causes tL'. resistances (1 K. If1 rC\'c!"se bia:..I-}0V). multimeter.i· potential at junction rcdllces.xtl'mally applieo \'o!tage can vary the amount of forward bias. At a gi\'en operating point \"ie can determine the static resistance (RJ) and dynamic resistance (rd I of diode from its characteristic.~ iJlDd~. V IO-30Vi _-r 1 RI <" <: I Rs(1uYI I \1KI < ~~ i I iI Theory: A diode conducts in fonvard bias condition (i.. It does not conJuct in rcwrse bias condition. The external battery is connected so that positi\'{' terminal goes to :he hllode and its n~gati\'(' tenninal goes to the cathode. A series resistor R·~ of 1 K is connected in circuit so that excess current does not flow through the diode. when its anode is at higher potentia] than ih cathode).'t~\.: Curi :nt to flow through the diode. The majority carriers ditfuse a~r0SS the junction.' <. When dioJe is forward biased the barrit. 1 the external voltage appliu! across the diode Celllbe varied by the potentiometer RI of the po\\'er supf-I)'.£XPERI~1E~T:\0 Study of V-I Chal acteristics Aim '0 of P-.u1JteJ F"\\er ~'Jppi: \ 1. the junction barrier potential increases an J almost no current can flow through the diode. The steltic resi:jtancc is ddincd as ratio of the de \"oltage tl' de currtnt.~tiL (Rd ) & dynamic Apparatus Breadboard. Changing the . connecting win~s. . of diode'and To plot the V -I characteristics resistance( rd ) w L.:. 10K).

mnecl the diouc in re\erse bias 0: connecting the cathode to positive suppl) and an0de 1(\ !1e.~ '-\.:3 :. (a) Connect the milliammeter and \oltmeter of suitable ranges say 0-~5 mA for ammeter and 0-1. Repeat [his measurement at reverse voltage of 10V.::!~j\:c' SU~f'l:.The uynamic resistance is the ratio of a small change in yoltage tc a sma:! change in current i. Tabulate the d15t'nations . S.111 ammeter & \'oltmeter for each setting of the potentiometer. _.5 V for voltmeter Initially set the potentiometer of the power supply to zero (fully anti c:ock\\ise). ~'. Switch on the power supply.•. Plot the graph between voltage 8: current in both forward bias and reverse bias conditions.:\o. Connect the diode (] N4007) according to the circuit diagram as shown in fig. Observations . . . . 6. I I C..I i ~ 2 -+ l. Set the' re\cr<:e \ollage across the diode at say 5V by "a~. \:ote the rcn'rse currcnt Howing in thc diode using microampere range of meter.:'~ .• -'. Procedure: .e...\\'hen it is forward bi:lsed diffusion capacitance is present and when the diode is reversed biased it acts as parallel plate capacitor and depletion capacitance is present. i Forward voltaf!e ~ VF (\') Forward current IF(mA) h i f I I '-----------------------------------------I . Tabulate the observations.. At suitable operating point calculate the static and dynamic resistance of diode. >':ote the readings 1. Diode can be used as capacitance. With the help of potentiometer RI' increase the voltage slowly. 20Y and 30V.ing the p0\\cr suppiy.

"'I .--------.:~. I i -.. . .t-----.---u-7'. -... . --------------1 . --. -. __ .If .-.---.SF_ . + .~ .. I 1•• _ • • __ I .__--------------. I . '\0It5) \ C~dclJiations 1.._ ••.• .v. . __ --. --~--.------. :__ u -f\)-.':!lt I_R(~~') .'wvt:.----.1. '1' .~-~:!:----.•• YOJtC1~.-------~-----. ::'.---.r"::'-?T- .••.stan~:(: (f ..J! L- .---. ~_ I _ 0=:""'-..I i ....------.. . Static Resist.. ri \' 1:._1__ i . Re\el_~:_~~. ~_. L .~:-:--~-~-..~:.-~-:-----~~-'A--' .. VR (voltS) 61r ..--. . ---.X \ •• z{ (Y) ..:\0.... \..---. .S" . I i ! r--.----.•• .!' J Dynamic r~s. . I .. .ance Rd . I Ir I1- L__ I I ~ / II (n1A) ~-} / ' I.•• . .. .{------------------.

2. 2.Comments/discussion 1. Check for proper connections. then anaiYLc the problem 8 and repeat the whole procedure aga:n. Precautions 1. ) Pr~pared b)r: 1iJaV\t'1 Shaveta Thakral Approved by: Prof. D.Gotra (HOD) ~'.::. If the piotted grap:1 does not match \'. then repeat the whole procedure again.~/~~i IXJ - / '-fO .iL~ the gi\::n f:~:. f:g 3.S. Take the readings carefully ll . If the calculated dynamic and static resi$tanct? d()c~ nL1! match with the datasheet.

Apparatus: 2 pin junction diode number IN4007.'. Circuit diagram for Half wave rectifier Vcutl/\ (b) Ut Fig 2. Waveform of Halfwave rectifier (a).-_ . which converts a.nt voltage source is required. -y Hal:-wave Rectifier: supply.. Multimeter rcsiswr ( .c.c. :\. Input waveform (b).~ \. The two half cycles of alternating c. The se-.. eRG..S21_0\_·r Fig!.-:':'. power is called a rectifier.. Lt:ntc:r-tappcj Thcor'Y: In most of the electronic devices c:onsw.!. l:lput provide opposite kind of bias to the junction diode. supply is fed across the primary (P) of step down transformer. Th~ a.:olidary (S) ufthe transformer is connected to the junction diode and a load resistance RL as shown in Fig 1.'\. . voltage applied to the input of the rectifier is sho\'.'Rve and full-\\'ave rectifiers.Il Study of diode as a rectifier (half 'Nave and full wave) Aim: To trace the wave shape of the electrical signal at the inpUt an... Output waveform ~. breadboard.·::.c.:: k. pow~r to d. is called a half wave rectifier. IN4007i '~ I _ / / .c. there is a need of An electronic device. . re. after observing on eRG. voltage is obtained across the IO<ldresistance Rl.•.11h~!jv. which rectifies only one halfofa. So. rectifier that converts a.I EXPERiMENT NO ·.c. .c.m.:! cut. to d. as shown in Fig2 (b).- '~ .c.:tifier.c. uK I.•. connecting wires. transfOImer (220V /9-0-9V). Tbe a.11 in Fig 2(a) and the output d.

terminals of the two diodes and the center tapping of the secondary (S) as sho\\TI in Fig. 2. junction diode Dj gets forward biased \\-"bilethe Jjode D2 is re\'erse biased. ' During the second half cycle junction diode will get reverse biased and hence no output will be obtained across RL. Measure the voltage at the secondary between Sl and S2 (center tap).During the first half input cycle the junction diode gets forward biased. step-down transf~mner. Com mentslDiscussion: Full. The a. Trace the input and OUtput \\'3\'e1orm5 on eRO u<. 3. input at that time.c. using multimeter and confirm it is 9V. input. 5. which depends on the v~lue ::>fa.3. .c. The discontinuous and pulsating d.ingtr3ce paper. The right e:1d or RL \\ill be ~:!y~ pctcntial until i. 4.:::idr. Remon~ the multimeter and connect the CRG probes betwe~n points S I and S2 and obser.Wan Rectifier: A rectifier. The conventional current will flow in the junction with respect to lower end.c.. to obserye the output wa\'efonn on eRG and compare \\i:h lh~ one as sho\\'n in Fig~ (b). supply is fed across primary (P) of a center-tapped. Connect the CRG probes across the load resistor RI. voltage applied 'to the input of the rectifier as sho\\TI in Fig 4(a) and the d. Connect the circuit diagram for half ". For this type of rectificatioll two junction diodes are used. c0nne. The magnitude of the output \'oltage is proportional to m~gnitude of forward C11rrent. Procedure: 1. Giye the a. is called a full waye rectifier. upper end of the secondary (S) is at positive potential and lower end is at negative potential.e.. output will be obtained across the load resistance RL as shown in Fig 4(b).c.:>. During next half cycle the junction diode will get forward biased and output \\ill be obtained. Since current in both the half cycles flows from left to right the output during both the cycles will b~ of same nature. 6. \\-itl: respect to left end. output across RL is shown in Fig2 (b) and can be studied using a CRG. check L~e diode.c. which rectifies both ha!ws of the a. of the step-do\\TI tran:::fonner.c. A load resistance RL is connected across the two n. The conventional current through diode DI will flow along the path.ave rectifier as sho\\TI in the Fig 1. The a.c. supply of 220V/50Hz to primary (P) of center tapped step-do\\TI transformer. The two ends of a secondary (S) of the transformer are connected to the p-terminals of the junction diode 01 and O2. eRO senings and then \ eri~ the output w/f.e the i:1put Wayefom1 and compare with the one as sho\\TI in Fig2 (a). Suppose during the first half of the input cyCle. If the wa\'efomls are not identical.

d r:'onl1ect the eRO probes between poi'1ts Sl and S2 and observe the input waveform and compzre v:ith th~ one as shown in Fig4 (a).' muitirneter ar. The ()Ulput can b~ sl'.'/C Rectifier (b) Fil?' 4. Remo\'~:!hl.4 (b)..step-down transformer. Give the a.i1. cormeclic'r1:s. Waveforms of Full wave rcdifier .I'. Cor:nect the CRO prolx:s acIC':S:. i p _1L.Hiiec' by using 3.c. on eRO 5.' /~ i \ (.:. +_.ure the \cdrage a: the secondary bet\veen S 1 and 52 d'th._-t-. . Trac~ t~.~j shuwn in Fig. . the load resiswr RL.na then l/-erify the output wlf. using it mtdtimder. 4. Comments! r' rD"isc:usswn: .¥_.:md ~'~.nfirn~ is 18 '\/.input ~li1G output \\'G:\'tforrns on CRO using lrace paper.lleet the circait diagram for full vvave rectifier as sho'wn in the Fig 3. Ifthe wavetofll1S are not identical. wanform (b) (fC. CRt) \\'ith amplitude I VIl'l i /-\ \. 1\ka:.-ansfomler. elm. (a) v . CRO seT. 6._. c. supply of220Vl50Hz to FrimaT)' (P) of center-tap~)i." (a) Input. :~.Oll'r! t iIIJ"\ \ I . check the diDde.· Full \'dl.~.-rhe magnitude of the output across Rl. at any time viiI! vary in accordance ~l:Di.-\-/-\-/It I \ \J ~/ I .j-. step-down t. to observe the output wavcfoml 2nrj compare with l:he one c.'/\/~\ I1\\ . . ~' _ Fig :" Cirfuit di<li~nlfn fo.:d. <.ting:.!tpllt waveform Procedure: 1.

Gotra (HOD) . " t. The eRO should be handled ca. 2. ~'10l)t~ Prepared "by:-Shaveta Thakral ) ApproVl(() by: Prof. D. It .Precautions: I.S. .:efully. Check for proper connections.

..J ~~.\. .\.er (0-50 I. _ ".. nn\nlei.. power gain CAp) of p:.• Tl.••.•••.v).••. V eel I~ Ie I 10 = const..-t.\'--1'-.. = const The power gain can be ohtained by multipfying voltage gain and cun-ent gain as follO'. its electrical pcrfonnance is view-cd. a'J''-' r.clo l::':pr~'rim'.~.•.' . current gain (Ai). r-l\"\". .. Regulated Pov.: \'bel !~ IV ec = const ~ I" " (1) A'.i\pp~H·atus: m. C' .. ~ 11' C!~ c('.•.' ~ V be' i lb = const (2) V oL. At Ie..).~: cun-ent Ih is noted with each incremental st~p. . Ie· I 11 Ib I Vcr.-.n".•.:-i~ior.::ollector. Whenever a tnmsistor is to b.-erg311l. ..'er supply. th. ~\ac = tJ._' u~:(d in electrical c\rcui:s.•.'\j. :-:-. •• . ..'.The voltage applied input ~'\:l\"el-:lj [."'. (.'\:board. . msistcr in r::c configuration. The Input The Output characteristics: To dnm output charactcristil. At least four to tive curves are plottt'd from the observations and output impedance 1'0: cum nt gain ~ac is evaluated from the curves as: . ro = f:. ri.'..')('-. .s!set of thr~e curves are ploned from the observations and input impedance Ii.• \. . The three electrodes are the '.'ntaneous voltage Vbe and at output Vc<:_ app~l('j b.. one ·11illiail1I11Cl.-'.l. Simil::irly two instantaneous currents ]\:1 at input and Ie 31 outPI:' t')i)"'.-i !('P t>L""fr-i/<'1 u plTIP"11:1'i'" t'\·o <..' =..nf':~c:.. ~~. . The eiectricaJ perforrmmces afl~ round from the \'oh-ampere (V -1) charaCTeristics of the transistor:.2 & 3 re~:pecti\"~ly.. • 1 \. &. \'.-y transistor.(3) Output dynamic impedance.1•• ·f".:mitkr oecomt:5 instC'. Iri\Yt!! dynamic impedance. \I'~'" ' •• " ~I •• . Ai m: To plot the Input & Output (:haracte~istics.lSf·emitler junction is :-l1ade forward biased and collector-emitter is made reverse biased..:tt its b.. The emitter injects tl1e charge carrier into the base.._.': The 1nmsj~~ol-is (l three-layc-f semiconductor device.oltage gain (A.e mak~ erniner rerrnilpl common to UP and OlP.$ the output supply V co: is varied and corresponding current Ie: i'. 031 ...~nl.EXPERIMENT NO..•••• . p o\'. (-.. noted \\'ith each increment step. which in turn controi:: the i1umber of these carriers that are gathered by the collector.:>t'. '.u\).er (0-50 nl. tn( eminer am: the base.ugl. (4) AC current gain. calculate ~he input impedance (J'i). while the input current Ib is kept constant throughout the step.\('('. Vr)hagGgain Av is c\'31uated from the curves as.J •..1j(\. V e~. while the output supply is kept constant thrc.''is of j:'r":'~I'c. ".. ~he skp. • ."'. out}"_· impedance (ro). •• p • " ••••• chan. .. The transistor is biased such -.v.:7 \ _ •••••..::g~gain. \ 2Study of static characteristics of tr-:.1 ccikr-:wr--crnitter. __ 1 CJjcd ii~p::t:i:id C'l!tpU\ charackrislics curves as shown in Fig. /~p =Av * A'1 \) . !WO Electronic: mu:time~ers.df'.cte-ristics: T(l ann\ inptit ch3r::tcrcrisl1cs the input supply V be is varied aild cOITespondirl.

At least four to five curves are plort~d from the observations and output impedance ro: cum ot gain Bac is evaluated from the curves as: (3) Output dynamic impedanct.'is a lhree-Iaytf semiconductor device. \ 2Study of ~ta1i~ characteristics of tnmsistcr in C[ configuration.:: l. Whenever a transistor is to bt. ~ Vbel Ih I Vec=const VoL~g~ ~ain. noted with each incn:ment step. P '.: gain A v is e\'31uated from the curves as. curves as sho\\'11 in Fig. V eel !~Ie I Ib :. Vee/ 6.:::iLion \\C mak.c.-\j.:r'\\"C. its electrical pcrfon!lance is view·cd...f':~t.ls('·.'\.k. 3 re~:pectiv':ly.emitler junction is :11acle forward biased and collector-emitter is made reverse biased.er (0-50 ~lA).j two instantaneous currents lb at input and at OUlp\~·. (1) I[.tr!cul CJ. m.:t:ind UUlput charactdislics The Input lermililul common to UP and O/P.l cc ik .'ntaneous voltage Vbc and at output \Ie. (ro)..'1 the output supply V e~is varied and corresponding current L: ir. one '11illiarnmeta (U-5\) m." (~i:':t:T:-\::1. The three electrodes are the collector. t chan~cterisiics: To draw input cha"'~cTeristlcs the input supply Vbe is varied aild correspondin:c~ cunent Ib is noted with each incremental st~p. current gain \ (Ai). Aim: To piat the Input & Output characteristics.' usd in e\cctrical circui:s.j~~o.:er gain ~ri).wr·crilitte r. ri "'.t set or thr~e curves are ploned from the observations VI)1tag-.: . the step.eXPERIMENT NO. Vbe'lIb = const (2) /. ' (4} AC current gain. while the input current Ib is kept constant thraughou.Tb~ voltage applied 3(.r<.. which in turn controis the number of these carriers that are gathered by th.Io anU.he input impedance impedance .('-. \Ollage gain (Av).:~ r.$ The power gain can be ohtained Pan ''''f b n'" ' 1 ••_ 1:1 by multiplying '111 •• '"" 11\ •.:.ver supply.. Simi larly : o:)[..p:. ~. '1".2 &. ci1Iculate '..he skp.11(' e)e.= const.(.pu! dynamic impedance.: The li'ar~~. out~": CAp) of P\:. tn( erninc-r am:: the base. 'r.) voltage gain and cun-ent gain as foll{}\. ~. po\'.. board.ined. bc". and input impedance Ii. . A". At lea<.iei. prc)pcrties twa sets of !.v.N~~ ::.miner inpUl t-'I:ll'.:mitkT oecome5 b.'. P = Av*A'! ( )'J ~ •••• ~ •••••••• '\~..pp~tratlJs: l:\p('rim~~n!~\. Regulated I\)\... ..phs are flatted.: app~i(.e collector. while the output supply is kept constant thrc. =:. i~. t\\'o electronic: mu:time\ers.ac = ti rc·1 ~ Ib I Vee = const The Output characteristics: To dntw output characttristil. . ro = t. tr3nslstor. . instc.1 ir.l. { )r C~~ c('r. The eiectrical perforrmmces arl~ round from the \'oJh11!lpere (V -1) chari::lc:terjsli~~s of the tmnsistoJ~ The transistor is biased such that its b.Ct':I.ug\. The emitter injects tne charge carrier into the base.

first open the input circuit. Circuit Diagram for CE amplifier Procedure: .lA. Be careful not to go beyond the maximum ratings of transistor.).'. \1akc: the. between Ib Vhe 4. 301-1. . etc.Ammeter 1K (O-50j. Calculate input impedance.se \'oltmeter and ammeter of proper ranges. -' Tabulate all obser\'3tions in table 1. For output characteristics.1th the help of potentiometer R2 in small steps. • . Tabulate all observations in table 2.. and V be.n in Fig 1. Slowly increase V ce \'. first fix the output voltage \Tee say at 6 V. A\' by using relation (1) and (2. ") For input characteristics.!y in steps. 7. 6. Note the value of current 10 and \'oitage V r': for each incrementa! step. 40i-lA. 5.circuit connections as sho\>. Vary the input voltage slo\'. Now close the input circuit and fix the base current Ib at say 10 j.. slope of the curves as shO\m in Fig.'" 9. l.2. 8. Vary the collector voltage V IX in steps and note the collector current. Find out the ri and \'oltage gain. r\ote current Ie and voltage Vee for each incrementa! step.. Repeat step 7 for different values of Ib (Say 20~A.lA) ~ ~I \"tlB A VCG_ 2V 1 (IV T I I I I + Vee I --r (O-lJV) I I rig 1. This current is the reverse saturation current Ieeo and the magnitude will be very small. Plot the bput characteristic curw from the observations..

Calculate Output dynamic impedance..l~ing point shown in the Fjt~./ I . Calculate ro and AC current gain.. Plot the output characteristics cur-yes from the observations.1.. : T Ve. I~! ~Vbc I r--+-L i I I I "b: (V) 6Vbe' 1- fig. (Q) in the middle of the curves: find out the slope of the curve as 1:. -T --~ _ ------ -f Vcc ~Ib If LVce t-6V ·10'.No. Observation: Table S.2 Input Charncteristics .ji/I I -. ~ac by using relation ' . gnd V C~_ 1] _ Fi:\ ::~~'-'?C':-.' -ov ~'i~7f Y. and (4 ). 3. 13.] O.: = (V) i Ib i (ll-A) Vce = (V) _~_ (V) I . between I. (3) PO\\ er gain Ap by using rclatio~ (5). I I j ] I I I I i -¥ Vt>c (V) l Vbe L Ib(~A~ ----.

.v ) Fig.Table 2: I 1 S. o Point - ." (. 1. I Preoareo b.o r // · I' / / Ii I I ~/.t:g:. .Gotra (HOD) 48 . I Ib (~A) i Jc(mA) ! Ib (~A) iIe(mA) I ivc. V r--CommentJDiscussions ce /'c..·U. I /. T . L Ic' L:::.. =Cf!P. 2. Take the readings carefully.-P.)~ I .-.ctive region I It.--- Approved~': Prof.. =-30~4 -1~~~~ -~T W n • '~ f/- '.. _ ~ (rl1. 3 Output Characteristics Precautions: 1. Check for proper cunnections. i n I.-.If.. -·20~4 T 10 =·10~4 It. .--l' I -4.: Sha"eta Thakral -'1o:\J{ \1 .:(V) !Vee(V) S3twation Re@9n L:::.·c.f/' lS::F----~/-.~ .i~)l'l I 'r0~ eM ' <. !')~::." .on L:::..411 "y. ----.S.No.. . D.j - 1. ---1 ..

nsf~r Theorem . power supply 0-6\1.up the r.EXPERIlVfENT NO 3 VERIFICATION A.. Multimeter.. set the pokntiorileter (The resistance Rl connected in series in the network represents Ri of the source. to 5.:.etwork on the breadboard .pparatus: Bread Soard.d record its vabe. Resistance J No betw'een 3K. 4) At the beginning S) Apply emf E [Volts] to the series circuit. rL vs RI.)V~\r: the potentiometer RL carefuliy and "eeord the readings ofYL and h. as shown in the circuit diagram. or 6. 7) F:)r each value ofVL and 8) Ora\\' the gr~lph 11.Jrce 1iltO high ohmic. . intemal resistance Ri must not be changed during the to the maximum value. 3) The resistance H. Rec. 'h across RL. 14 W.1e low -ohmic sc.zL ui:c!er step 9 \vith R!. Record the ' C. l\::lentiometer 10K. . converts t.im: To verify maximurn OF lVIAXIl\1lJl\-t PO\VER TRANSFER THEOREM PO\ver tra. .pa(l' ilw \'aiue Orr. the resistance R.5 K.ord the voltage value of ammeter reading also. 2) Set/v.] representing experiment.W: conn~('ting leads. calculate power PL in the load and record the values._ : 0) C0rl. t ec Or'cuit diagnlm: l m~asurements can be obtained. 2\1:. ~-. i DC Theory: !\ resistive load c('nncc:tcd to (j network receives maximum power when the L}<.'ire .) PnH'cdurc: . so that appreciable 1) lvieasure the \'aluL~RI using n~u1timeter ar.~desistance is equal t~) the Thevcnin equivalent resistance of the network as seen from r the circuited 10~-lderminals.

\'.Precaution: The value of resistance RI must not be changed during the experiment Observation S.o.No and Calculations: VL(volts) PL=VdL IL(amp) E (volts) RL(KO) RI (KO) I I.I J RESULT: Maximum power is obtained when RL = Rl as in step No Discussion/comment: - . \:q- I• . Leena G. AnUrag~· A~+ D.

j. This voltage is cailed Thcvenin '~qLlivalent voltage.~twork consi~:ljng of irdependent voitage or current sources and resisrors can b\: l·cp:2...: ' .ingle Voltage source V·.: NJ dnd f. y .1'il is the total resistan.--~.'~. i I.. i:\ . ~I" .. · ._·· · ~\Af V\· ~ . Thevenin resistar!ce 1. the hdp of I11U].: I . .d resis!:.\1\". I • rh--------._.ing DC Power supply 0-6\.!t!\. is ~he voltage across A-B when they are open circuited.ced at a pair of terminals . rl.le resistance k1'l1• The source voltage.· .: .s a-e) !'rnc. -I .~: ~--.I 1 ~'-L w. v ....! \vith \.:e at the open circuited terminals A. 3. ' C'lrcuj~s fcor vt-rification ofTI}(~~vellin's Thcorern( Fig.. '~Il 1 ..__ ~v •.-.il~ld·?r and record .... ·. Appar~lt!ls: c(wnec1. . Thcor. - I 1 -'-r----:.•• <. de network it may be stated as Jollows. set to zero and current sources are repiaced by open (i)ircuit.y ~ \ I.EXPERIMENT NO <1 'VER[~'ICATIO~: OF THE'VENIN'S THEOREM :\.. Theorem: For 3. I r:.lnc(~ Hi.~-_.'o':PI\»":i\(..1\. \~:Ii:C cd HI: R:./ . ~__ • _ J their i :.-. J~ f''"? I f· :J:i.-· •.\... : Thcl'cuin \. resistances iead::::... Vril .v.'.. HI . the IOc.... v ----\--· .ith a sing.il in series v·..rnultimetel'. or 0-12 V.4'" I Ii' ••• !' ." '.-13 by a single equivalent network cODsisting of a ..\ r--. A linear L-krminaJ acti VL de n. Bread Board.:.• ... • __ u. __ ..m: To verlfy Thcvenin Theorem. ..-·---.. _.c :.. (:.': I • I . !"' " .:du :'t: !i \k~l:)~I!\..'.::.B when all Volt8ge SOlllces are replaced by their internals resistance :md the :~oLlrc~ i:-. .'(Ii\.

14) The value of current )n:caution: f ) Ali the eiements used in the circuit must have linear characteristics i) The voltage applied must not be changed. E = V4 (volts) = ( Q) (volts) oltage across ~ = ~sistance R1 = RL= R4 Irrent through om fig.Ca): And Calculations: pplied voltage. i) The circuit of step no. 111fIg Rt'II = (Q) _ (e ) : I I:::: . A-B. The circuit will be as shown in Figure( d). . which was removed. the voltage across open terminal the voltage source E and replace at the tenninals A-B. ----=: J~/J ( CRt/J + Rj) an1p ) . This voltage is called Voc=Vth.· its temlinals by a short circuit.2) Adjust the variable 3) Wire up tbe network 4) Measure DC supply to specified values of output voltage. ~ measured 5) With the help of the voltage (14 = across rX4 ) in the resistance ~. the value of cun'cnt in the circuit as shown in Figure(e). as shown in Figure (a). 2 must not be changed fthe equivalent source\11h because it represents the resistance Rlh lbservation rom fig. DC supply to the output voltage equal to Vth. then the terminals A -B will be open circuited. This voltage is across ~=RL . under step 13 must be equal to the CUITent determined bystep 5. I I) COlmect Rth in series \\'ith Vth. This value of Current is the reference value and needs to b~ verified 6) Remove 7) Measure 8) Remove by this theorem. ~=RL. 12) Re-connect 13) Determine the resistance ~. A and B (~) detennine the current the voltage across the two terminals . See figure (b). across the terminal A-B. See Figure(c) This is the value of 9) Measure the resistance Thevenin's resistance Rth 10) Adjust the variable A-B using multi meter.(b): Jell = 14 = (amp) circuit voltaQe V "--' IJC = VI = /1 (volts) III fi -Q (c): .

-._"')]\ • IS - l' 4 -.edt .e d 'jr" _. - ji • p 'r'jLVC!1dA ::.RESULT: t ..' .IJCO.! .~~ VebD. 'rt."nu:.. " " .-'.-'" o is (: us:. . 0 n/ C 0 III In C11is: I I . 5. T'/-H" Ie-C)..

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