2 views

Uploaded by strider0710

- Foundations for Transmission Line
- unit 5
- Choosing between resistor and reactor
- M28B Service Manuel
- k3ll 7-13
- AST FEI Requierements
- 179_Integrated Method in Electromagnetic Interference Studies (1)
- 235132333-ACS-2000-ServiceMan-3BHS344169-E01-Rev.pdf
- Strengthening of High Voltage
- Introduction.doc
- Det4tc2 Det4tcr2 Ds Es v07
- High Voltage Engineering
- Underground_Cables_in_Transmission_Networks.pdf
- 65232en-beta-series-descr.pdf
- 015-WH-1006-1CP Design req..pdf
- Canon Vc-c3 Inst
- 1964, High-Frequency Propagation on Nontransposed Power Line.pdf
- Manual Mtto Bomba MAJOR
- earthing
- Establishing GPR and ZOI

You are on page 1of 10

65

1. INTRODUCTION

Earthing is an important and necessary element of any energy system. Properly designed and constructed

earthing guarantees safety for both people and devices located in places where a ow of dangerous short circuit

or surge current caused by a lightning discharge can occur. Therefore, the earthing resistance should be made

as low as possible, and its value should meet the guidelines contained in the specied standards and regula-

tions.

During its construction and later operation, the earthing should undergo periodic inspection, mainly

through measurements of its resistance. Control tests of the resistance carried out using the traditional method

are often very time consuming, especially for earthing of power line towers. For example, a 100 km section of

110 kV line may consist of more than 300 towers; the earthing of each should be tested at least every four [2]

or ve [5] years. It is therefore important that the tests can be carried out without disconnecting the lines. The

measurement time for one tower should be as short as possible, and the instruments should be light and easy

to transport.

The purpose of this paper is to describe the procedures for measuring and assessing the earthing for pow-

er transmission line poles equipped with lightning conductors. The subject of analysis is primarily the inuence

of the span length and front time of the used measurement impulses on the results of earthing impedance. The

presented results of theoretical calculations and computer simulations have been supplemented with measure-

ments on real objects.

Static resistance of earthing of line towers is usually determined using meters operating at low frequency

and implementing various types of technical methods. In the case of high voltage transmission line towers, their

earthings are connected in parallel by lightning conductors, as shown in g. 1 Therefore, there are two main

methods of measurement: disconnection of articial earth electrode from the tower and using a meter equipped

with a current clamp.

When using a low frequency excitation, the control terminals should be disconnected for the time of

measurement, and thus the connection between the articial earth electrode and the tower structure should be

removed. Such a procedure is quite cumbersome and requires removing four connections one at each leg of

Abstract

The elements of articial earth electrode of the line with frequencies similar to those in the network are

tower and its foundation participate in the discharge of cumbersome and laborious. The inuence of earthings of

short circuit or lightning current to the ground. Both ear- adjacent poles can be reduced by using wave impedance

thing elements should be taken into consideration during of lightning conductors at high frequency or impulse wa-

the control measurements of resistance or impedance veforms. As a result of comparing the two methods based

of such earthings. In addition, the measuring procedu- on fast-changing waveforms, it turns out that impulse

re must take into account the fact that the earthings of meters are much more resistant to interferences caused

transmission poles are connected in parallel by lightning by electromagnetic elds of the lines. The study analysed

conductors. The article discusses the issue of measuring the effect of impulse front time and the line span length

and assessing the features of power line pole earthing on errors made during these meassurements using impul-

using slow- and fast-changing waveform. The measure- se meters.

ments of earthing resistance of the poles using meters

Stanisaw Wojtas / Gdask University of Technology

66

the tower (g. 1b). In addition, the resistance value obtained in this way is caused solely by the articial earth

electrode, whereas the natural foundation earth electrode does not affect the measurement result. It should

also be noted that such measurements should be made when the line has been turned-off.

a) b)

control terminals

earthing ring

foundations

Fig. 1. The connection of measured earth electrode, including the bypass effect of adjacent towers a) and foundations of the tower with

ring earth b)

In real earthing systems, the foundation earth electrode can signicantly affect the resultant value of

earthing resistance and determine the nal assessment of the measurement result. The measurement results

for the tower in the ground with a resistivity of about 200 m shown in g. 2. show that such a situation may

take place. When measuring the resistance of an articial earth electrode separated from the tower, a result Rs

equal to 18 was obtained, which is too high a value in relation to the standard requirements [1]. The resist-

ance value of the analysed tower foundation is 12 , and the parallel connection of both earthing elements gives

the value of 7,7, which means that the requirements of the aforementioned standards are met.

tower with the lightning conductor disconnected from its structure:

R resistance of the parallel connection of the foundation and

articial earth electrode, Rs articial earth electrode resistance,

Rf tower foundation resistance

A special type of technical method is implemented using a current clamp meter. When using such a me-

ter, the test terminals are not disconnected, and the current generated in the meter ows to the ground in the

system of connected earthings and is divided into two parts. One of them passes through the tested conductor

and earth electrode, while the other (IS) through the rest of the earthing system. The above case is illustrated

in g. 3. The measurement result is determined on the basis of the part of the current that ows through the

tested earthing. The voltage drop is determined in relation to the auxiliary probe placed in the zone of reference

potential.

Earthing Measurements for Power Line Towers

67

Measurements of tower earthings using this method are possible only when the meter is equipped with

current clamps with a very large diameter to cover a single leg of transmission line tower. In order to determine

the tower earthing resistance, four separate partial measurements should be made, one for each leg of the

tower. The nal result is determined by calculation as a parallel connection of the measured partial resistances.

Electricity generated in the meter enters the tower structure at the point of galvanic connection (P). From

there, the current spreads in all directions through conductive structure of the tower. Part of the current ows

upward as IS and ows to the other towers in the system through lightning protection wire. The rest of the cur-

rent ows into the tested earthing and then to the ground through the four legs of the tower. Hence, the current

owing into the ground is the sum of currents from I1 to I4 in individual legs of the tower. Voltage U designated

in relation to the zone of reference potential should have the same value for the measurements of each leg of

the tower. Therefore, the differences in the results of those measurements can be caused only by the differ-

ences in currents discharged to the ground by each leg of the tower. So, it can be stated that the total earthing

resistance of the tower is a result of the parallel connection of partial resistances obtained for each leg:

1

1 1 1 1

R (1)

R1 R2 R3 R4

However, it should be noted that the above dependence is correct only if all the partial measurements

have the same point P connecting the meter to the tower [10].

Is

P

CP MR

I4

I1

Pv Pi Fig. 3. Determination of static resistance of a

high voltage transmission tower using current

clamps, where: MR resistance meter, CP

I3 I2 current clamps, P galvanic connection

point, PV, P auxilliary voltage and current

probes

3. IMPULSE METHOD

This method allows measuring the earthing of transmission line towers using a suitable measuring instru-

ment without disconnecting the earthing from the tower construction. In most cases, the span length in lines

exceeds 150 m, and the wave impedance Zfp in the conductor ground system is equal to about 500 [9]. Dur-

ing the measurements the tested earthing with impedance Zx is bypassed with wave impedances Zfp of lightning

conductors running to the two adjacent towers and wave impedances Zfs of the towers, as shown in g. 4. The

impedance value for earthing of each tower is marked as Zu and Zx.

Stanisaw Wojtas / Gdask University of Technology

68

Zfp Zfp

Zfp Zfp

Zfs Zfs 1

Zfs Zu Zu

Zx

control terminals 2

Zu

Zx

Zu

ring earth

foundations

Fig. 4. Pole earthing with adjacent poles and selected values of wave impedances for each element of the system

In such a system the impedance value at the terminal of measured earthing Z can be calculated according

to the following formula:

[ Z fs 0,5 x( Z fp Z fs Z u ]xZ x

Zm (2)

Z x 0,5 x( Z fp Z fs Z u )

Fig. 5. shows the effect of bypassing the adjacent towers during the earthing measurement Zx as a func-

tion of this earthing. The relative error of the measured value Zm as a result of bypassing is determined based

on the formula (2) as (Zx Zm)/Zx. Calculations were made using the following assumed values of impedances:

Zfp = 500 , Zfs = 100 [9] and Zu = 10 . The presented chart shows that for the most frequently used value

Zx, that does not exceed 20 , the relevant error made during the impulse measurement when the earthings of

adjacent towers are connected is maintained at 5%.

The presented procedure for measuring earthing of power lines with lightning conductors without dis-

connecting the earthing wires from the tower structure allows this type of inspection and measurement work

without turning off the line. In addition, impulse measurements without disconnection of control terminals

are affected by the tower foundation, which also participates in the discharge of actual lightning currents, and

whose resistance is often comparable to the resistance of an additional articial earth electrode; therefore, it

should not be overlooked in assessing the earthing effectiveness.

Error[%]

Zx []

Fig. 5. Measurement relative error as a function of the measured value Zx based on the expression (2)

Earthing Measurements for Power Line Towers

69

Basic recommendations for the measurement of earthing in towers are contained in Annex N to the stand-

ard PN-E 05115: 2001, designated as information annex [3]. According to the above standard Various methods

can be used for measuring earthing resistance and impedance. Selection of the right method depends on the

size of earthing system and level of disturbance. It is recommended to measure earthing resistance with an

earthing tester with a frequency of measuring voltage not exceeding 150 Hz using a current and voltage probe.

In the case of connection to the system of lightning conductors of the power line, all earthings of the line towers

have an inuence on the obtained result. For such large systems the discussed standard allows any measuring

method that is useful under the circumstances. The given examples use a high-frequency earthing tester to

avoid turning off the line and disconnecting earthings from tower structures. Test frequency should be high, so

that impedance of lightning conductors to adjacent towers is high enough to avoid this route of the measured

current ow. In this case, a meter that generates impulses with a proper front time can be used instead of a

high-frequency meter. Fig. 6 shows the results of comparative measurements of the impedance of horizontal

earthing with a length of 70 m, made using the impulse and high frequency methods. Impulses with a front time

of 4 s were used in the measurements. The results obtained using both methods are comparable and show an

increase in earthing impedance in relation to the resistance obtained using the static method [6].

In Poland the resistance of line tower earthing is commonly measured using the impulse method, with-

out disconnecting the control terminals [8, 11]. Amplitude of the measuring current impulse is about 1 A. In

the case of high frequency testers, the measuring current is at the level of miliampers, which can make such

measurements unresistant to interference from stray currents and currents induced by electromagnetic elds

of the lines.

80

70

60

50

Z [ ]

40

30

20

4

s

10 Fig. 6. The measurement results for horizontal earth

electrode impedance with a length of 70 m as a function

0 41k of frequency, made using a high frequency tester; the

100 1 k 10 k 100 k 1000 k measuring point obtained using the impulse method for

f [Hz] a front time of 4 s [8] is marked on the curve

The results of measuring a 400 kV line tower obtained using both methods conrm the above problem.

The tower was placed in the ground of low resistivity and the value of 2.5 obtained using the impulse method

is justied. The curve Z = f (f) obtained using a high frequency tester presented in g. 7 shows a clear inuence

of external interferences (eld, earthing currents), which overstate the impedance results. Values similar to the

impulse results were obtained for very low frequencies about 150 Hz. Such a frequency range is to be carried

out using the static method and then the earthing resistance refers to the parallel connection of all towers, so

it should reach the value of 1. No inuence of adjacent earthing should be present for a frequency of several

kilohertz the meter shows the earthing impedance value of 20 for such a frequency range, which is denitely

too high a result. The observed differences were caused by external interferences their source in the working

high voltage line. Due to a signicantly higher test current amplitude, the impulse meters are much more resist-

ant to such interferences.

Stanisaw Wojtas / Gdask University of Technology

70

Fig. 7. The results of impedance measu-

rements for earthing of a 400 kV line

tower as a function of frequency; the

dotted line indicates the value of 2.5

obtained using the impulse method with

an impulse ftront time of 4 s

4. TEST RESULTS

The subject of the tests was the inuence of the impulse front time and span length on the obtained values

of the impedance of earthing for power transmission line towers equipped with lightning conductors. The tests

were carried out using both computer simulations and measurements on real towers earthings.

Calculations based on computer simulations were made using Matlab software with the Simulink pack-

age. The tower earth electrode consists of parallel articial earthing ring and foundation earth electrode. The

earthing ring is modelled using the elements R, L and C, which were determined according to the methodology

developed by R. Verm [12]. The foundation is modelled by the resistance Rf calculated based on the dimensions

of the foundation footing. The whole replacement model of earth electrode is presented in g. 8.

The parameters of a square earthing ring with a side of 12 m and foundation of 0.9 m3 were designated for

the assumed ground resistivity 200 m. The impedance of such a modelled earth electrode was determined at

the impulse current with an amplitude of 1 A and front times equal to 0.5; 1.0; 4.0 and 8.0 s and at alternating

current with network frequency. The simulation results are shown in g. 9. With the increase of front time, the

impedance value of earthing decreases, but at the time of 4 s its value reaches the state close to the xed state

obtained for network frequency, which is primarily due to the presence of resistive elements.

Earthing Measurements for Power Line Towers

71

In the next stage of calculations in Matlab, the analysed tower earthing was bypassed by two correspond-

ing earthings, connected by a lightning conductor with the conguration shown in g. 4. Wave impedance in

the lightning conductor earth system was modelled as a long line using xed parameters. The assumed span

length was equal to 200, 300 and 400 m. Wave impedance of towers was omitted, since the used impulse front

lengths cause multiple wave reections at the ends of towers, which reduces their inuence on the resultant

waveforms in the analysed connection system. The simulation measurement results for impulse impedance be-

tween terminals 1 and 2 in g. 4 as a function of the impulse front time for the assumed span lengths are shown

in g. 10. The curve marked with a description without lightning conductors corresponds to the results shown

in g. 10 and shows how the impedance of the modelled earthing decreases with the increasing front time of the

measuring impulse. Subsequent curves show the inuence of parallel connection of earthings of adjacent towers

on the obtained results, and their deviation from the initial curve (without lightning conductors) is a measure

of error made when measuring without isolating the lightning conductors on top of the tower. Errors caused by

bypassing earthings increase with the decrease in span length and increase in front of the measuring impulse,

as can be seen in g. 10.

.

.

. . .

impedance of tower earthing at the impulse current

with an amplitude of 1 A, given front times and the

static frequency of 50 Hz

The current Polish practice for measuring power line pole earthings uses impulse front times of 1 and 4

s as the values provided in the standard PN 04060:1992 [4]. In the case of impulses with the front time of 1

s the decrease of the measuring impedance value for earthing caused by the bypassed inuence of adjacent

earthings is at the lowest level and does not exceed 2-3%. However, it should be noted that the same value of

impulse impedance at such a short time of front signicantly exceeds the earthing resistance measured in static

conditions, which usually is a reference point in assessing earthings. The impulse coefcient for the tower earth-

ing is dened as the ratio of the impulse impedance to the static resistance; in the case of impulse with a front

time of 1 s it can achieve high values, usually in the range of 1.2-2.5. Higher values refer to earthings in towers

located in grounds of high resistivity where it is necessary to use extended articial earth electrodes [7, 10]. In

such cases, the impedance of tower earthing measured with the impulse with a front time of 1 s can too often

exceed the normative values reported for static conditions.

Stanisaw Wojtas / Gdask University of Technology

72 impulse resistance []

400 metres

300 metres Fig. 10. Inuence of the cur-

200 metres rent front time of measuring

impulse on the impedance of

the tower bypassed with ear-

things of two adjacent towers

and lightning conductors of

impulse front time [s] various span lengths.

Measurements of tower earthings using impulses of front time equal to 4 s may include errors at short

spans due to bypassing with adjacent earthings. This error does not exceed 10%, even in extreme cases. Impulse

coefcient of tower earthings measured at impulse of 4 s is not very high and usually does not exceed the value

of 1.5. Compared to the static resistance, the higher value of measured impedance is partially offset by an error

introduced by the bypassing with adjacent earthings, so the results obtained in impulse measurements without

isolating earthings from the lightning conductors may be related to the requirements for earthing static resist-

ance with a good approximation.

The simulation calculations for the bypassing inuence of the adjacent towers on the measurement results

described in the previous section were veried with tests conducted on the actual power line. The tests were

conducted on seven towers belonging to two lines with a voltage of 110 k V, and the test program included the

measurement of impulse impedance with the impulse front times of 1 and 4 s and static resistance. Measure-

ments were made with closed control terminals connecting the articial earth electrode to the tower structure

in two connection congurations: with no lightning conductors and with conductors mounted at the top of the

tested tower. Average values of the obtained impedances and resistances are shown in g.11. Errors resulting

from bypassing the measured earthings with the earthings of adjacent towers are shown in the bottom part of

the gure. The biggest error, exceeding 40%, was observed in static measurements; this conrms that the static

method can not be used to measure the tower earthing without disconnecting the control terminals or isolating

the lightning conductors from the tower structure. Much smaller errors occurred during measurements using

the impulse method: at impulse front time of 1 s the average error was 3.5%, and 4.3% at the front time of 4 s.

Lowering of the obtained earthing values due to bypassing with earthings of adjacent towers does not exceed

the error values obtained from computer simulations and shown in g. 5 and 10.

. .

without lightning conductor

. .

.

.

impedance of actual earthings measured at given

static impulse front times and on their static resistance

.

Earthing Measurements for Power Line Towers

73

5. CONCLUSIONS

The discharge of the line tower current to the ground is done by an articial earth electrode and the foun-

dations of that tower. Therefore, assessment of earthing resistance for the power line tower should be made

when both earthing elements are parallel. Measurement using low frequency meters with disconnection of

control terminals from the tower structure does not meet the aforementioned condition. Moreover, it requires

that the line is turned-off during measurement. Although there are methods of measurement at low frequency

using current clamp meters, which allow testing the complete tower earthing without disconnecting the control

terminals, they are quite cumbersome as they require analysis of the current owing into the ground through

each of the four legs of the tower and due to the relatively low accuracy of such measurements.

The use of fast-changing waveforms (impulse or high frequency meters) allows the measurement of

earthing without disconnecting the control terminals from the tower structure, because the earthings of adja-

cent towers are connected in parallel to the tested earthing through lightning conductors, whose impedance

increases to the value of wave impedance in the conductor ground system in the case of fast-changing wave-

forms. In practice, impulse meters are used for the earthing measurements in the case of high-voltage line

towers, due to a very high susceptibility to interference of the meters operating at high frequency. Measuring

current of high-frequency meters is at the level of milliamperes and their work is interfered by voltages induced

in the measuring circuits by electromagnetic eld under the line, as well as by stray currents. Impulse meters

operate at currents at the ampere level, which makes them much more resistant to this type of interference.

Parallel connection of earthings in individual line towers slightly lowers the impedance value measured

using the impulse method. The difference between the actual and measured value of the earthing impedance

increases with increasing impulse front time, and decreases with increasing length of the line spans. The pro-

posed 4 s impulse front time is a compromise between the required accuracy of measurement and the ob-

tained impedance values referred to the earthing resistance specied in standardization rules. Even under the

most adverse conditions, the theoretical error made in applying the proposed impulse method of measurement

does not exceed 10%, which is acceptable in earthing tests.

The calculations and computer simulations were conrmed by the results of measurements carried out

on the actual earthings of 110 kV towers. These tests show that the error caused by the bypassing inuence of

earthings of other towers under real conditions is smaller than the one resulting from theoretical calculations

and does not exceed 5%.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. PN-EN 62305-1:2008 Protection against lightning, Part 1, General principles.

2. BS EN 62305-3:2009 Protection against lightning, Part 3, Physical damage to structures and life hazard.

3. PN-E 05115:2002 Power installations exceeding 1 kV a.c.

4. PN-E 04060:1992 High voltage test technique. General principles and test requirements.

5. Construction Law, 1994, consolidated text: Journal of Laws of 2006, No. 156, item 1118.

6. Wojtas S., Ocena uziemie odgromowych metodami: udarow i wysokoczstotliwociow, Pomiary, Automatyka,

Kontrola, vol. 53, nr 4, 2007.

7. Wojtas S., Wooszyk M., Galewski M., Rezystancja udarowa uziemie obiektw budowlanych, Elektrosystemy, no. 4,

2004.

8. Wooszyk M., Pomiary impedancji (rezystancji) udarowej uziemie odgromowych, [in:] Gryewski Z., Prace pomia-

rowo-kontrolne przy urzdzeniach elektroenergetycznych o napiciu do 1 k V, COSiW SEP, Warszawa 2002.

9. Szpor S., Samua J., Ochrona Odgromowa, WN-T, Warszawa 1983.

10. Wooszyk M., Wojtas S., Galewski M., Badania udarowe uziemie supw linii elektroenergetycznych, Elektrosyste-

my, no. 11, 2006.

11. Wojtas S., Impulse measurement accuracy of transmission line earthings, [w:] 29th International Conference on

Lightning Protection ICLP2008, 23rd26th June 2008, Uppsala 2008.

12. Verma R., Mukhedar D., Fundamental considerations and impulse impedance of grounding grids, IEEE Transaction

on Power Apparatus and Systems, vol. PAS-100, no. 3, 1981.

- Foundations for Transmission LineUploaded byDato Azariani
- unit 5Uploaded byprashantpnd07
- Choosing between resistor and reactorUploaded byRaod2
- M28B Service ManuelUploaded byMagla Cornel Gabriel
- k3ll 7-13Uploaded byardhabariq
- AST FEI RequierementsUploaded byosers
- 179_Integrated Method in Electromagnetic Interference Studies (1)Uploaded bybal3x
- 235132333-ACS-2000-ServiceMan-3BHS344169-E01-Rev.pdfUploaded byFormat_C
- Strengthening of High VoltageUploaded bysoftbaby
- Introduction.docUploaded byNir Patel
- Det4tc2 Det4tcr2 Ds Es v07Uploaded byPedro A Ocanto B
- High Voltage EngineeringUploaded byrio aziz
- Underground_Cables_in_Transmission_Networks.pdfUploaded byRomany Allam
- 65232en-beta-series-descr.pdfUploaded bygmlud
- 015-WH-1006-1CP Design req..pdfUploaded byAby Babu
- Canon Vc-c3 InstUploaded bydrfaizal
- 1964, High-Frequency Propagation on Nontransposed Power Line.pdfUploaded byArtan Ramani
- Manual Mtto Bomba MAJORUploaded byMauro Pérez
- earthingUploaded byAhmed Magdy
- Establishing GPR and ZOIUploaded byLong Leo
- rp120Uploaded byjuanfu61
- 2103335MNAAUploaded byedward4700
- Reliability of Lightning ResistantUploaded byjorge_moralesm
- 02 Yt 16 Grounding SystemsUploaded byYasser Anwar
- 2009 PTCC Manual.docUploaded byRagavan
- Doc1Uploaded byBelayneh Tadesse
- 2n_helios_-_user_manual_esp_v3.1.1.pdfUploaded bypedro_coleta
- ju2009.pdfUploaded byali
- earth leakge rerly .pdfUploaded byMohamedAhmedFawzy
- Electricity at Works _ Reg of MauritiusUploaded byShalinee Sewbundhun

- Tyco EPKJ JointsUploaded bystrider0710
- Douglas C. Giancoli-Test Bank for Physics_ Principles with Applications.pdfUploaded bystrider0710
- @Ebooks_Encyclopedia27 Announcing the End Saurav Ganguli.pdfUploaded bystrider0710
- M. Lynne Murphy, Anu Koskela-Key Terms in Semantics-Continuum (2010)Uploaded bystrider0710
- 10 Steps Reading Skill, PowerpointUploaded bybcetek8889
- ATEX Electric Equipment Classification LabellingUploaded bysureshthuppallam
- Fine Art of the Big TalkUploaded bydiometh
- Khushwant Singh Best Indian Sho - Khushwant SinghUploaded byFarhan Khalid
- 9 Sa1 English Sample Paper4Uploaded bygspkishore7953
- Legal Impacts RegisterUploaded bystrider0710
- Hymns Of The Gurus - KHUSHWANT SINGH.epubUploaded bystrider0710
- Not a Nice Man to Know - Khushwant Singh.epubUploaded bystrider0710
- MS for Installation of Earthing Grounding System Lighting Protection System (SA-002-MS-E-02) Rev 6Uploaded bystrider0710
- Malicious Gossip - Khushwant Singh.epubUploaded bystrider0710
- Khushwantnama - Khushwant Singh.epubUploaded bystrider0710
- Me, The Jokerman_ Enthusiasms, Rants &Amp;Amp; Obsessions - Khushwant SinghUploaded bystrider0710
- Electricty Wiring Code 2016Uploaded bywaelroustom
- WATER INSTALLATIONS CODE 2016.pdfUploaded byjecer nurudin
- VOES CORPORATE BROCHURE 8 PGS - NEW2.pdfUploaded bystrider0710
- EARTHING SYSTEM CALCUALTIONS SS 84-3.pdfUploaded bystrider0710
- A2 METRICUploaded bynithin_m88
- 2ed79b6e_str.-65-74-S.Wojtas-EARTHING-M.pdfUploaded bystrider0710
- T%26D+Issue+3+2017+Earth+Res+of+Transm+TowersUploaded bystrider0710
- ATEX HandoutUploaded byanon_666816666
- Cables_and_Fittings_2007_Catalog.pdfUploaded bystrider0710
- tflk-extract.pdfUploaded bystrider0710
- Scotchcast LVI1PT Resin Joints DS.pdfUploaded bystrider0710
- Scotchcast LVI1 Resin Joints DSUploaded bystrider0710

- (05!08!13)Construction MaterialsUploaded byKBR_IITM
- Bachelor of Engineering (2008 and 2012 Course)_6!7!17Uploaded byomkar madav
- MasterCAM SurfacingUploaded byCarlos Presi
- A005 ATOSUploaded byramabhpl
- An IntroductionUploaded byAyman Keir
- apatitUploaded bytrinh xuan hiep
- Help - Asynchronous Machine __ Blocks (SimPowerSystems™).pdfUploaded bynmulyono
- AWS - CWI Model Question Foundamental - Part 2Uploaded bydhasdj
- Sam and NedUploaded byEloiza Evans
- Digital Panel MeterUploaded bykbl11794
- Weller CatalogueUploaded byRadio Parts
- Science IiiiiiiiiiiUploaded bySean Cezar
- KT600CAFETERADEGOTEOUploaded byJose Luis Morales Garcia
- OPTIMIZATION OF CASTING PARAMETERS FOR CASTING OF AL/RHA/RM HYBRID COMPOSITES USING TAGUCHI METHODUploaded byseventhsensegroup
- Fundamental Studies on the Incremental Sheet Metal Forming TechniqueUploaded bySero Ghazarian
- T1pg90-104 AERODYNAMICS OF TURBINES.pdfUploaded byGustavo Cuatzo
- Hall EffectUploaded bymeenakshi sonth
- Frag i Liza Cao 5638Uploaded byrenatomico2
- RCCUploaded bysharvan10
- E2380Uploaded byDannyChacon
- Linear 210292 Micro Pulse PF BrochureUploaded byBalluff Sensors
- Pi is 0889540605006086Uploaded byElla Golik
- CEIC3002 Project Description 2011Uploaded byMF_WANZ
- Bending Reality Masterclass WorkbookUploaded byallx13
- Liang Vita 2012-UpfdatedUploaded bySen Hu
- Ray OpticsUploaded bySourabh Thakral
- Iaea Emergency Nbc 2003Uploaded bydhoo_baby
- Quasi CrystalsUploaded byGabriel Barbu
- Eat Produktions Gmbh (Scandi-Tool)Uploaded bykossamos
- Peptide Synthesis 2Uploaded byphilkaroyan