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You are on page 1of 8

SS 84-3.

1. INTRODUCTION

The contract for EPC Works for the Halobutyl Project for Al-Jubail Petrochemical

Company KEMYA has been awarded to Technip. Technip has awarded the Civil &

Electrical works for the following buildings to Al Husam

b. Substation SS-84-2

c. Finishing Office & Substation SS-84-3

d. Remote Instruments Building

e. Operators Shelters -4 Nos.

Earthing mesh in the Project/Plant area will be provided to protect the human being

from the step and touch potentials and provide free path for earth fault current for

equipment protection.

Each mesh design, sizing of the conductor required for forming the earth mesh are done

in accordance with IEEE Std.80. The results of this study will be used for forming the

earthing mesh, depth of burial, driving depth of the electrode and total number of

electrodes required.

This particular document covers the Calculations for Earthing System for

the Substation SS 84-2.

2. REFERENCES

a. IEEE Std.80-2000 : Guide for safety in AC Substation Grounding

b. SABIC Engineering Standards

c. Project Specific Drawings

d. Geotechnical Reports inclkuding Soil resitivity reports

(meshed network) constructed by sub-grade earthing conductors and earthing

electrodes.

b. All connections are carried out by means of exothermic welding process.

c. Adjacent to the transformer neutral grounding, earthing electrodes are to be driven

into the soil and connected to earthing mesh

d. In order to achieve an overall earth resistance of 1 ohm, earth electrodes are to be

driven at certain points into the soil and connected to earthing mesh

e. Earthing electrodes are 3 meter length with a diameter of 17.5 mm.

f. Earthing resistance is required less than 1 ohm

4. SOIL RESISTIVITY

Resistance (R ) of the soil was measured using Wenners method. Summary DATA are

shown on Annex-B. Soil resistivity was computed by using the formula: = 2 aR (a is

electrode separation.) From the value measured in the Plant area, the average value of

top layer resistivity is less than 656 -m

To determine the minimum cross sectional area of the main earthing conductor,

followings are

Considered:

- Maximum fault current.

- Material for the earth conductor is annealed copper stranded wire.

- Following formula is used for to calculate the earthing conductor size, as per IEEE

Std.80.Section 11 (Eq-37), Table 1.

conductor current.

Where,

I A

time of current flow in 1 sec from design requirement

Tc

seconds

conductor cross section A

in mm2

max. Allowable 1083 from IEEE 80-2000 Section

Tm C 11, Table-1

temperature in C

ambient temperature in 36 from IEEE 80-2000 Section

Ta C 11, Table-1

C

= thermal coefficient of 0.003 from IEEE 80-2000 Section

o 93(1/ 11, Table-1

resistivity at 0 C

C )

thermal coefficient of

resistivity at reference

r

temperature T

= the resistivity of the 1.72 from IEEE 80-2000 Section

r - 11, Table-1

ground conductor at

reference temperature T, m

in /cm3

234 from IEEE 80-2000 Section

Ko = 1/0,or (1/r)-Tr C 11, Table-1

Thermal capacity factor 3.42 from IEEE 80-2000 Section

TCAP 3

in j/cm3/ C j/cm 11, Table-1

/ C

A= 4.77 mm2

Minimum conductor cross section selected as 95 mm2, bare copper annealed soft

drawn conductor for the main ground grid.

Therefore the Earthing Ring/Main Grid Component for SS 84-2 will be formed using

95 mm2 bare copper annealed soft drawn conductors, laid at a depth of 0.76 Mtr.

The maximum tolerable voltages for step and touch scenarios can be calculated

empirically from IEEE Std Section 8.3 for body weights of 50kg and 70kg:

Touch voltage limit - the maximum potential difference between the surface

potential and the potential of an earthed conducting structure during a fault (due to

ground potential rise):

Step voltage limit - is the maximum difference in surface potential experience by a

person bridging a distance of 1m with the feet without contact to any earthed object

Where,

Step voltage limit (V)

Surface Layer Derating Factor Cs 0.8 for crushed

rocks

the resistivity of the surface layer 2500 .m

material (.m)

Maximum Fault Clearing Time (s) 15 sec

The choice of body weight (50kg or 70kg) depends on the expected weight of the

personnel at the site. We shall assume 70 kg as the average weight of a human of

the region.

The maximum allowable Step Potential is = 526.98 Volts

Where,

Rg Ground Resistance : -- (ohm)

Soil Resistivity : 656 (ohm-m)

A Area occupied by the ground grid : 3772.98 (m2)

LT Total buried length of conductors : 447.32 (m)

h Depth of the grid : 0.76 (m)

using the above values

Rg = 6.1174 (Ohm)

The X/R ratio at the fault is approximately 15, the maximum fault duration 150ms

and the system nominal frequency is 50Hz. The DC time offset is

therefore:

= 0.047745

Df = 1.148436

Then, finally the maximum grid current is

Ig = Ike * Sf

In the most conservative case, a current Sf =1, division factor of can be applied,

meaning that 100% of earth fault current flows back through remote earth.

= 400*1

= 400 A

Therefore,

IG = Ig * Df

= 400 * 1.148436

=459.3742 A

E. Ground potential Rise GPR

=459.3742 * 6.1174

=2810.1757 Volts

The maximum allowable Step Potential calculated earlier is = 5269.84 Volts

The Ground Potential Rise is greater than the than the Maximum allowable touch potential

but lower than the maximum allowable step potentials.

LP is the length of grid conductors on the perimeter (m)

A is the total area of the grid (m2)

Lx and Ly are the maximum length of the grids in the x and y directions (m)

Dm is the maximum distance between any two points on the grid (m)

na = 5.953857

nb = 0.721860306

nc = nc = 1

Therefore,

Where, Wg and Lg are the width and length of the grid respectively

Wg = 36.2 Mtr , Lg = 64.575 Mtr

nr and nc is the number of parallel rows and columns respectively

nr = 3 and nc = 2

D = 73.625

The geometric spacing factor Km is:

is the cross-sectional diameter of a grid conductor (m)

is a weighting factor for depth of burial =

is a weighting factor for earth electrodes /rods on the corner mesh

for grids with earth electrodes along the grid perimeter or corners

perimeter

is a geometric factor (see below)

= 0.118255

=1.28008

LR is the total length of earthing electrodes / rods (m)

Lr is the length of each earthing electrode / rod (m)

Lx and Ly are the maximum length of the grids in the x and y directions (m)

LM = 2569.25

IG is the maximum grid current found earlier in Step 4 (A)

Km is the geometric spacing factor (see below)

Ki is the irregularity factor (see below)

LM is the effective buried length of the grid (see below)

EM = 91.969 Volts

The maximum allowable touch potential is 1,621.49 V, which exceeds the mesh voltage

calculated above and the earthing system passes the touch potential criteria.

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