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SS 84-3.


The contract for EPC Works for the Halobutyl Project for Al-Jubail Petrochemical
Company KEMYA has been awarded to Technip. Technip has awarded the Civil &
Electrical works for the following buildings to Al Husam

a. Rubber Finishing Building

b. Substation SS-84-2
c. Finishing Office & Substation SS-84-3
d. Remote Instruments Building
e. Operators Shelters -4 Nos.

Earthing mesh in the Project/Plant area will be provided to protect the human being
from the step and touch potentials and provide free path for earth fault current for
equipment protection.

Each mesh design, sizing of the conductor required for forming the earth mesh are done
in accordance with IEEE Std.80. The results of this study will be used for forming the
earthing mesh, depth of burial, driving depth of the electrode and total number of
electrodes required.

This particular document covers the Calculations for Earthing System for
the Substation SS 84-2.

a. IEEE Std.80-2000 : Guide for safety in AC Substation Grounding
b. SABIC Engineering Standards
c. Project Specific Drawings
d. Geotechnical Reports inclkuding Soil resitivity reports


a. The earthing system shall be composed of a earthing distribution grid system

(meshed network) constructed by sub-grade earthing conductors and earthing
b. All connections are carried out by means of exothermic welding process.
c. Adjacent to the transformer neutral grounding, earthing electrodes are to be driven
into the soil and connected to earthing mesh
d. In order to achieve an overall earth resistance of 1 ohm, earth electrodes are to be
driven at certain points into the soil and connected to earthing mesh
e. Earthing electrodes are 3 meter length with a diameter of 17.5 mm.
f. Earthing resistance is required less than 1 ohm


Resistance (R ) of the soil was measured using Wenners method. Summary DATA are
shown on Annex-B. Soil resistivity was computed by using the formula: = 2 aR (a is
electrode separation.) From the value measured in the Plant area, the average value of
top layer resistivity is less than 656 -m


A. Earthing Grid conductor sizing calculation

To determine the minimum cross sectional area of the main earthing conductor,
followings are
- Maximum fault current.
- Material for the earth conductor is annealed copper stranded wire.
- Following formula is used for to calculate the earthing conductor size, as per IEEE
Std.80.Section 11 (Eq-37), Table 1.

This equation is can be arranged to give required conductor size as a function of

conductor current.


rams current in KA 400 from Design Requirement

time of current flow in 1 sec from design requirement
conductor cross section A
in mm2
max. Allowable 1083 from IEEE 80-2000 Section
Tm C 11, Table-1
temperature in C
ambient temperature in 36 from IEEE 80-2000 Section
Ta C 11, Table-1
= thermal coefficient of 0.003 from IEEE 80-2000 Section
o 93(1/ 11, Table-1
resistivity at 0 C
C )
thermal coefficient of
resistivity at reference
temperature T
= the resistivity of the 1.72 from IEEE 80-2000 Section
r - 11, Table-1
ground conductor at
reference temperature T, m
in /cm3
234 from IEEE 80-2000 Section
Ko = 1/0,or (1/r)-Tr C 11, Table-1
Thermal capacity factor 3.42 from IEEE 80-2000 Section
in j/cm3/ C j/cm 11, Table-1
/ C

By substituting these values in the above formula, we get

A= 4.77 mm2

Minimum conductor cross section selected as 95 mm2, bare copper annealed soft
drawn conductor for the main ground grid.

Therefore the Earthing Ring/Main Grid Component for SS 84-2 will be formed using
95 mm2 bare copper annealed soft drawn conductors, laid at a depth of 0.76 Mtr.

B. Calculation of Step & Touch Potentials

The maximum tolerable voltages for step and touch scenarios can be calculated
empirically from IEEE Std Section 8.3 for body weights of 50kg and 70kg:

Touch voltage limit - the maximum potential difference between the surface
potential and the potential of an earthed conducting structure during a fault (due to
ground potential rise):
Step voltage limit - is the maximum difference in surface potential experience by a
person bridging a distance of 1m with the feet without contact to any earthed object


Touch voltage limit (V)

Step voltage limit (V)
Surface Layer Derating Factor Cs 0.8 for crushed
the resistivity of the surface layer 2500 .m
material (.m)
Maximum Fault Clearing Time (s) 15 sec

The choice of body weight (50kg or 70kg) depends on the expected weight of the
personnel at the site. We shall assume 70 kg as the average weight of a human of
the region.

Assuming the values above,

The maximum allowable touch potential is = 162.15 Volts

The maximum allowable Step Potential is = 526.98 Volts

C. Calculation of earthing resistance

As per IEEE80-2000 section14 (eq52)

Rg Ground Resistance : -- (ohm)
Soil Resistivity : 656 (ohm-m)
A Area occupied by the ground grid : 3772.98 (m2)
LT Total buried length of conductors : 447.32 (m)
h Depth of the grid : 0.76 (m)
using the above values

Rg = 6.1174 (Ohm)

D. Maximum grid current IG

The X/R ratio at the fault is approximately 15, the maximum fault duration 150ms
and the system nominal frequency is 50Hz. The DC time offset is

= 0.047745

Considering Tf = 0.15 msec

Df = 1.148436
Then, finally the maximum grid current is

Ig = Ike * Sf
In the most conservative case, a current Sf =1, division factor of can be applied,
meaning that 100% of earth fault current flows back through remote earth.

= 400*1
= 400 A


IG = Ig * Df
= 400 * 1.148436

=459.3742 A
E. Ground potential Rise GPR

=459.3742 * 6.1174

=2810.1757 Volts

The maximum allowable touch potential calculated earlier is = 1621.49 Volts

The maximum allowable Step Potential calculated earlier is = 5269.84 Volts

The Ground Potential Rise is greater than the than the Maximum allowable touch potential
but lower than the maximum allowable step potentials.

6. Earthing Grid Design Verification

A. Mesh Voltage Calculation

The geometric factor n is calculated from IEEE Std 80 Equation 85

Where is Lc the total length of horizontal grid conductors (m)

LP is the length of grid conductors on the perimeter (m)
A is the total area of the grid (m2)
Lx and Ly are the maximum length of the grids in the x and y directions (m)
Dm is the maximum distance between any two points on the grid (m)

na = 5.953857
nb = 0.721860306
nc = nc = 1


n = 5.953857 * 0.721860306 * 1 * 1 = 4.297853473

The average spacing D between parallel grid conductors is:

Where, Wg and Lg are the width and length of the grid respectively
Wg = 36.2 Mtr , Lg = 64.575 Mtr
nr and nc is the number of parallel rows and columns respectively

nr = 3 and nc = 2

D = 73.625
The geometric spacing factor Km is:

Where is the spacing between parallel grid conductors (m)

is the depth of buried grid conductors (m)

is the cross-sectional diameter of a grid conductor (m)
is a weighting factor for depth of burial =
is a weighting factor for earth electrodes /rods on the corner mesh

for grids with earth electrodes along the grid perimeter or corners

for grids with no earth electrodes on the corners or on the

is a geometric factor (see below)

= 0.118255

The irregularity factor Ki is


The effective buried length LM is:

Where Lc is the total length of horizontal grid conductors (m)

LR is the total length of earthing electrodes / rods (m)
Lr is the length of each earthing electrode / rod (m)
Lx and Ly are the maximum length of the grids in the x and y directions (m)
LM = 2569.25

Where is the soil resistivity (.m)

IG is the maximum grid current found earlier in Step 4 (A)
Km is the geometric spacing factor (see below)
Ki is the irregularity factor (see below)
LM is the effective buried length of the grid (see below)

EM = 91.969 Volts

The maximum allowable touch potential is 1,621.49 V, which exceeds the mesh voltage
calculated above and the earthing system passes the touch potential criteria.