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Conference Paper November 2009


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Lolita Marheni
Pertamina University


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The 38th IAGI Annual Convention and Exhibition
Semarang, 13 14 October 2009



Lolita Marheni1), Reski Aditiyo1), Alanta Elyan Putra1), Esti Anggraeni1)

Undergraduate Student, Department of Geological Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung 40132,

ABSTRACT sequence as the transgression progressively

submerged rift margin basin at the end of Eocene
Barito Basin is one of producing basins in and Early Oligocene. Structural inversion were
Indonesia. It is located in Southeast Kalimantan greatly affected the basin from Late Miocene to
along the southeastern edge of stable Sundaland Pliocene time, and created anticlinal trap. Plio-
continent. This basin has produced about more than Pleistocene inversion might formed new anticlinal
800 MM bbls of oil (in place) so far. It caused by structural traps as well as destroying previous
certain petroleum system, which consist on hydrocarbon accumulation. This possibility could
elements (source rocks, reservoirs, cap rocks, trap) remigrated hydrocarbon to the newly formed
and process (maturity and migration). Some anticlinal structure.
tectonic activities occur in this basin. The most
dominant one is tertiary tectonic, which give some
significant influence of hydrocarbon potencies,
especially in petroleum system as seals and traps. Register Number : PITIAGI2009-183

The tectonic activity of this basin was

started by rifting of the basement in Paleo-Eocene.
The condition prevailed up to Oligo-Miocene
during which localized and regional subsidence, Barito Basin is located on eastern part of
lithospheric stretching, interrupted by uplifting, Borneo, bounded by Meratus Range in the east,
impressed the basin. This rifting produced a set of Sundaland in the west, Paternoster Cross High in
horst and grabens that were decisive for the the north, and Java Sea in the South. In Borneo,
compression and uplifting, has reactivated the old there are a lot of basins beside Barito, such as
fault block rather than developed new structures Kutai, Tarakan, Sadakan, Asem-Asem, and
(Satyana, 1993). Melayu-Ketungau Basins. Barito Basin has 70,000
km2 wide, and become a part of South Kalimantan
Those tertiary tectonic activities sequences Province.(Figure 1).
were implied on petroleum systems. Synrift
sequence sediments were deposited in the Barito Basin is an asymmetric basin
Paleogene grabens as the transgression progressed oriented on NE-SW, forms basin (foredeep) direct
northwest along the rift axes, hence alluvial to east. The first discovery in this basin was made
channels and fan prograding into lacustrine in 1938 by BPM/Shell at Tanjung Field. Since then
environments, resulted in richness of source rock. only a few minor deposit have been located in
Postrift sequence sands, are potential for reservoir either Eocene Tanjung Formation sands or the
rocks better than those deposited in synrift Miocene Warukin Formation sands. The estimated
sequence. The Upper Tanjung marine shales were total of 200 million barrels of proved recoverable
deposited across most of the basin also in postrift oil ranks the Barito last among the circum-Sunda
The 38th IAGI Annual Convention and Exhibition
Semarang, 13 14 October 2009

Basins despite compelling evidence that good was terminated by increasing clastic input from the
source rocks should have generated and expelled west. During Miocene the sea regressed, due to the
large volumes of hydrocarbon (Mason et al.,1993). uplift of Schwaner core and the Meratus
Mountains. Clastic input resulted in the deposition
This basin had a long and disappointing of eastwards-prograding deltaic sediments of the
exploration history. The lack of successful Warukin Formation. In Late Miocene the Meratus
exploration is quite difficult to understand and Mountain re-emerged. Followed by isostatic
accept. Why has a basin with good source rocks, subsidence of the basin which was situated in a
good reservoirs, multiple trap forming tectonics foreland position in relation to the rising
events and a setting and history similar to more mountains. Sediments shed from this uplift were
prolific surrounding basins so far produced so little deposited in the subsiding basin, resulting in the
oil? This question called as Barito Dilemma. deposition of thousands of meters of the Warukin
Barito basin is the best example of the Formation. The uplift of Meratus Mountains
effects of tectonic interaction on hydrocarbon continued into the Pleistocene and resulted in
deposition of the molassic-deltaic sediments of
habitat. In this basin, tectonics controlled each
component of the hydrocarbon of the hydrocarbon Pliocene Dahor Formation. (Figure 2). These
habitat (petroleum system). structural and depositional regimes still exist today
(Satyana, 1999).

Barito Basin lies between two Mesozoic

REGIONAL GEOLOGY features, Sunda shield on the west and Meratus
range, a belt of mlange and ophiolite, on the east.
Barito Basin start developed in Late The basin cross section is markedly asymmetric, a
Cretaceous, following a micro continental collision result of the uplift and westwards movement of
between the Paternoster and SW Borneo micro Meratus range. Neogene sediments are thickest
continent (Metcalfe, 1996; Satyana, 1996 op.cit. along the eastern part of this basin, thinning
satyana, 1999). Rifting that occurred in early westwards into the basement rocks of the Sunda
Tertiary creates accommodation space for alluvial shield.
fan and lacustrine sediments of Lower Tanjung
Formation, derived from horst areas. In Early Sedimentation in basin was completed in a
Middle Eocene, the rift sediments becoming more single major transgressive-regressive cycle,
fluviodeltaic and eventually marine, as interrupted by minor local subcycles and
transgression proceeded during the deposition of variations. The transgressive Tanjung Formation
Middle Tanjung Formation as the result of a marine (Eocene) which blankets the fairly low relief
transgression. The marine transgression basement, was deposited in shallow marine to
subsequently submerged the rift in late Eocene- deltaic environment and comprises a sequence of
earliest Oligocene time, resulting in the deposition coarse classics, interbedded with shales and
of wide spread marine shales of Upper Tanjung occasional coals. Marine influence strengthened
Formation (Satyana, 1999). through Oligocene and into early Miocene time,
resulting in the extensive limestone and marl
After a short-lived marine regression in the deposits of Berai Formation. The Proto Meratus
Middle Oligocene the development of a sag basin range then began to emerge in the late middle
caused renew marine transgression. The Late Miocene, effectively isolating the eastern basin
Oligocene is characterized by the deposition of margin from the open sea to the east.
platform carbonate of Berai Formation. Carbonate
deposition continued into Early Miocene, when it
The 38th IAGI Annual Convention and Exhibition
Semarang, 13 14 October 2009

The center of the basin submerged rapidly, basin depocentre. The sealing rocks provided by
and uplift of both the continental core to the west the intraformational shales.
and the Proto Meratus range in the east, supplied
abundant sediment, which became the paralic and The Tertiary tectonic events, imply
deltaic sequences of Warukin and Dahor hydrocarbon behaviour in Barito basin, which were
Formations. An orogeny in plio-Pleistocene time generated, migrated, and entrapped since the Early
resulted in a strong westward movement of the Miocene. Extensional tectonics in the Early
meratus block, which folded and thrust tha basin Tertiary formed rifted basin, provided tanjung
fill into a series of tight anticlines that were, in part, shales and coals source rock deposition in lacustrin
controlled by basement features (Siregar and environment. Subsidence and submergence
Sunaryo, 1980 op cit R.E. Wiiliams et al, 1986) controlled the wide distribution of Middle Tanjung
reservoir rocks. Extensional fault became channel
The largest oil field in this basin is the which controlled hydrocarbon migration in deeper
Tanjung Field discovered in 1938, it had a graben areas.
cumulative production up to 100 million barrels
through January 1985. The oil is highly paraffinic The Hydrocarbon Accumulation in the
with 33 to 41API gravity and is produced from basin is mainly roled by tectonics during Neogene
predominantly fluvial sandstones and and Pleistocene. Basin inversion, associated with
conglomerates of the Eocene age Tanjung the Meratus Uplift to form asymmetric basin. The
Formation. Oil production is also obtained from Barito basin dipping gently in the NW towards the
fractured basements rocks. Barito Platform, and steeply in the SE against the
Meratus Uplift. Due to isostasy, the central part of
The Warukin and Tapian Timur Fields Barito Basin subsided rapidly, causing the Tanjung
produce oil from the regressive Warukin source rocks to be deeply buried, maintained the
formation. (Miocene). The oil is more asphaltic, depth at which hydrocarbon were generated
with a gravity of 25 to 27API, and cumulative (Satyana and Silitonga, 1994).
production of the two fields to January 1985 was
about 13.50 million barrels. Compressional tectonism has created
the basin inversion. Asymmetric anticlines were
created along the reverse faults, hence
hydrocarbons disposed to fill that traps. Meratus
STRUCTURAL SETTINGS uplift was continuous during the Late Miocene,
Recently, five fields are known through the Pliocene, and peaked in the Plio-
producing hydrocarbons. Those are the Tanjung, Pleistocene. Tanjung Source rocks were already
South Warukin, Tambikin, East Tapian, and mature by the Late Miocene. Protoinverted
Central Warukin Fields. All of them occur in structural traps formed in the early Miocene.
faulted anticlines dipping to the east. (Figure 3) Hydrocarbons filled the trap through the faults.
Considering that in the early Pliocene the Tanjung
Middle Tanjung Sands (Middle Eocene) and source rocks had small capability to generate
in the Lower and Middle Warukin sands (Middle hydrocarbon (Satyana, 1998). Gas was generated
Miocene) provide good reservoir for hydrocarbons instead at those times.
formed, while Lower and Middle Tanjung coals
and carbonaceous shale, and Lower Warukin Plio Pleistocene tectonism imply on
carbonaceous shales generated hydrocarbons as Barito Basin inversion. Former traps were
well. The main kitchen is located in the present destructed and replaced by new traps. Hence
hydrocarbons may remigrated there. At this time,
The 38th IAGI Annual Convention and Exhibition
Semarang, 13 14 October 2009

Tanjung source rocks had to generate gas, instead Tanjung source rock in this area had exhausted
of generate oil. But, the Lower Warukin Shales their liquid hydrocarbon generating capabilities
reached the oil window in the peak episode of (Figure 5). Gas was generated and expelled, filling
tectonism during the time. Oil generated, started to the existing traps (Satyana, 1994).
migrate and accumulated in structural traps within
Warukin sands, made possibility for Warukin and Warukin formation was also have a
East Tapian Fields recharged. potencies to become source rock. This layer reach
maturity especially in Paringin Towards the center
Thus, how tectonics mainly controlled of the basin during Plio-Pleistocene. Maturity was
the oil distribution. Farther tectonics period also related with Plio-Pleistocene tectonism.
destroyed pre-existing traps, provided new (Figure 6). Lower Tanjung source rocks had
hydrocarbons pathwat to accumulate in newly ceased to generate oil and gas in the depocenter
formed traps. since the section was by now firmly within the dry
gas window.


Source Rocks
The formations that could become
Satyana in 1994 says that recent reservoir rocks in Barito petroleum system are
geochemical studies have concluded that Barito sandstones of Tanjung Formation, limestone of
source rocks have generated and expelled large Berai Formation, sandstones of Warukin
volumes of hydrocarbon. The formations that Formation, and some lens of sandstone of Dahor
become source rock in this basin are Tanjung and Formation. The proven reservoir rocks are Lower
Warukin Formation. and Middle Tanjung Sands (Middle Eocene),
In Paleogene, petroleum system of the Lower and Middle Warukin Sands (Middle
Miocene), fractured Pre-Tertiary basement rocks
Barito Basin is sourced by carbonaceous shales and
coals of the Lower Tanjung Member which started and fractured Berai Carbonate (Late Oligocene-
to generate and expel hydrocarbon some 20 Ma and Early Miocene). Hydrocarbon may trapped on
significantly some 15 Ma ago (Satyana, 1995). these formation if they are well positioned.
Graben structures which are formed by extensional In Tanjung Formation, sand deposited as
tectonics in Paleogene creates such some basin. graben fill in alluvial fan (distributary channel),
Sediments were deposited as alluvial channels and lacustrine delta front, and beach/barrier bar
fan prograding into lacustrine environment (Figure environments (Satyana, 1995). Depositional
4). In Mid-Early Miocene until Late Miocene, process of that graben fill consist of 3 stages,
subsidence occurs because of normal fault shifting. restricted synrift sands of stages 1, postrift sag-fill
As a consequence, Tanjung Formation starts sands of stages 2 and 3 (Figure 4).
become oil kitchen. This normal fault, continues to
subside and make the oil kitchen changes to be gas Synrift sands of stages 1 (A and B sands
kitchen in Pliocene. or Z.1015 and Z.950 sands) were deposited in
alluvial fan (distributary channel) and lacustrine
In Late Miocene, all source rock in Lower delta front environments. These sands were
Tanjung that subsided, had already mature . it is distributed restrictively in grabens. The net
caused by uplifting of Meratus during late thickness of these sands is 30 to 50 meters in the
Miocene. Consequently, in Early Pliocene Lower central part of the graben. Generally, the reservoir
The 38th IAGI Annual Convention and Exhibition
Semarang, 13 14 October 2009

character is strongly controlled by local The kitchen of Barito Basin formed on

provenance. Middle Miocene based on maturity analysis on the
depocenter area from Paringin to Bangkau. The
Sands of stage 2 (C-and D-sands or Z.860 start of hydrocarbon migration from source rock to
and Z.825 sands) represent alluvial fan (deltaic) Tanjung Formation reservoir rock probably at this
sands. The C/Z.860 sands are stacked, deposited in time. Lateral migration during this time woulde
alluvial plain channel, and found extensively have resulted in updip movement north-northwest
throughout the Lower Tanjung Formation, from the basin center (Rotinsulu, 1993).
reflecting a higher degree of sorting and
mineralogical maturity. The net thickness of these In the Late Miocene all of Tanjung
sands is 25 to 30 meters, with average porosities Formation was already mature and migrate
and permeability of 20% and 156mD respectively. vertically and laterally, as the basin developed. The
Unlike the C/Z.860 sands, the D/Z.825 sands are Tanjung area was uplifted due to the Proto Meratus
thin and discontinuous (lenses). The sands are 3 to uplift, forming structural traps. Hydrocarbon
5 meters thick, fine to coarse grained, and slightly migration pathway to these traps were up the fault
argillaceous. planes and along permeable layers. In Plio-
Pleistocene, there is tectonics that caused the
Stage 3 reservoirs consist of E-sands damage of exist structural traps and formed new
(Z.710 sands) and Z.670 sands. E sands were traps. Because of that, hydrocarbon that already
deposited as beach/barrier bar in a regressive accumulated re-migrated to the newly formed
shoreline environment. The maximum net traps. In this time, migration system become more
thickness of E-sands is 30 meters. Z.670 sands complex. The migration continued northward, both
were deposited overlying the Z.710 sands far off from Tanjung Formation and lower Warukin
shore in a prodelta area. The sands are 2 to 3 meters Formation source rocks, into traps in Tanjung,
thick, very fine to fine grained. (Satyana, 1994) Berai, and Warukin formation (Rotinsulu, 1993).
Sealing Rock Trap
In early tertiary, there is an extensional Tectonic activity in Tertiary creates most
tectonic forms basin. subsidence occur and of structural trap in Barito Basin. Inversion of this
continued so that rift structure was submerged, basin makes an asymmetric form of basin. In
wide spread shales were deposited which became northwest direction, the basin dip gently toward the
an important seal for underlying reservoir rocks. Barito Platform and in Southeast direction basin
The postrifting phase of regional dip steeply into Meratus Uplift. This activity
transgression/subsidence after the deposition of caused the central part of basin subside rapidly, and
sag-fill sediments has resulted in shallow marine the sediment that consisted in reach condition to
mudstone of the stage 4 Upper Tanjung Formation generating hydrocarbon. Onset of oil generation
(figure 4, satyana, 1994). These marine mudstone and expulsion began some 20 Ma (Middle early
provide a very effective regional seal to the Lower Miocene). The significant expulsion occurred
Tanjung reservoirs. They consist of up to 800 some 15 Ma (Figures 5) (Satyana, 1994)
meters of dominantly neritic shales and silty shales.
The proto inverted structural traps formed
in early Miocene were continuously inverted as
basin compression developed, resulting in strongly
positive features. Hydrocarbon filled these traps
through the faults and along permeable sands
The 38th IAGI Annual Convention and Exhibition
Semarang, 13 14 October 2009

(Satyana, 1994). In Late Miocene, Tanjung area 1. Tertiary tectonics occurs in Barito Basin very
was uplifted due to the Proto meratus uplift, complex. Start with rifting, inversion,
forming structural traps. Hydrocarbon migration compressional, and others activity.
pathways to these trap were up the fault planes
along permeable layers. 2. Barito Basin has a good potencial of source rock,
in maturity, and richness as the result of tectonics
New inversion traps could have been activity.
formed caused by Plio-Pleistocene tectonism. The
tectonism also caused the whole of the Barito Basin 3. Tectonic activities that occur in this basin
tobe uplifted, folded, and faulted (rotinsulu, 1993). influence petroleum system (trap and migration).
These structures also destroyed some existing trap. For example, inversion destroyed the old trap and
The hydrocarbon probably remigrated from old creates news traps, and the hydrocarbon remigrate
trap that are tilted or breached to newly formed into a new trap.

In 1999 there are about 5 hydrocarbon

fields in Barito Basin. There are Tanjung ,
Kambitin, South Warukin, Central Warukin, and
East Tapian Fields. This paper will focused on 2
fields to discussed about trap and accumulation. Formation Evaluation Conference Indonesia 1986,
Those fields are Tanjung Field, Kambitin Field PT Pacific Well Log & shlumberger
(Figure 3).
Jacobs, Stephen T. & Norman D. Meyer. 2001.
In Tanjung Field, the dominant structures Direct Hydrocarbon Response technique
is an elongate anticline, with a NNE SSW striking Application and Opportunity in barito-
axis, bounded by a reverse fault. ( Siregar et al., Kutai Interbasinal High. 28th Annual
1980). This anticline was formed by the Convention and Exhibition Indonesian
propagation along reverse faults associated with Petroleum Association. Jakarta
the uplift of Proto Meratus resulted in
Mason, Anthony D.M. et al., 1993. A Fresh Look
compressional tectonism in the basin (Satyana,
At The North Barito Basin, Kalimatan.
1994). Oil migration into the anticlinal trap of the
22th Annual Convention and Exhibition
Tanjug Field is believed to have occurred, in
Indonesian Petroleum Association. Jakarta
association with Plio-Pleistocene folding, up dip
from the structurally lower source rocks in the Oil & Gas Fields Atlas Volume V Kalimantan.
basin deep to the east. The dominant trap in Pertamina & IPA
Kambitin oil is shale-out of the sand lenses.
However there is also structural trap such an Rotinsulu, Lindi F, et al., 1993. The Hydrocarbon
anticlinal nose crossed by several transverse fault. Generation and trapping Mechanism
(Siregar and Sunaryo, 1980). Within The Northern Part of Barito basin,
South Kalimantan. 22th Annual
Convention and Exhibition Indonesian
Petroleum Association. Jakarta

Satyana, A.H. & parade Silitonga. 1994. Tectonic

Reversal in East Barito Basin, South
CONCLUSION Kalimantan: Concideration of The Types
of Invertion Structures and Petroleum
The 38th IAGI Annual Convention and Exhibition
Semarang, 13 14 October 2009

System Significance. 23th Annual Search For paleogene Structures. 24th

Convention and Exhibition Indonesian Annual Convention and Exhibition
Petroleum Association. Jakarta Indonesian Petroleum Association. Jakarta

Satyana, A.H., 1995. Paleogene Unconformities In

The Barito Basin, Southeast Kalimantan:
A Concept For The Solution Of The
Barito Dilemma And A Key To the
The 38th IAGI Annual Convention and Exhibition
Semarang, 13 14 October 2009

Figure 1. Location map of Barito Basin (Rotinsulu, 1993)

Figure 2. Stratigraphic chart of the Barito Basin showing major formations, their paleofacies, and coeval
tectonic episodes (Satyana, 1994)
The 38th IAGI Annual Convention and Exhibition
Semarang, 13 14 October 2009

Figure 3. Structural section across Barito Basin (Satyana, 1999)

Figure 4. Lower Tanjung graben fill facies. Productive sand bodies in Tanjung Field are indicated.
(Satyana 1995)
The 38th IAGI Annual Convention and Exhibition
Semarang, 13 14 October 2009

Figure 5. retrodeformable sections across east barito basin showing the evolution of inversion
structures and associated petroleum indication. (Satyana, 1993)
The 38th IAGI Annual Convention and Exhibition
Semarang, 13 14 October 2009

Figure 6. Restored section of barito basin and the hydrocarbon generation (Rotinsulu et al., 1993)
The 38th IAGI Annual Convention and Exhibition
Semarang, 13 14 October 2009

Figure 7. Hydrocarbon Generation and Migration Pattern Map of Tanjung Formation (Rotinsulu
et al., 1993)
The 38th IAGI Annual Convention and Exhibition
Semarang, 13 14 October 2009

Figure 8. Hydrocarbon generation and migration pattern map of warukin formation (Rotinsulu at al., 1993)
The 38th IAGI Annual Convention and Exhibition
Semarang, 13 14 October 2009

Figure 9. Cross Section of Tanjung Field. Picture Shows Anticlinal Structure In This Field.

Figure 10. Cross Section of Tapian Field. Picture Shows Anticlinal Structure In This Field.
The 38th IAGI Annual Convention and Exhibition
Semarang, 13 14 October 2009

Figure 11. Cross Section of Warukin Field. Picture Shows Anticlinal Structure In This Field.

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