a control system slides lectures chapter 7

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a control system slides lectures chapter 7

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You are on page 1of 36

May 8, 2017

Introduction

Outline

1 Introduction

3 Implementations

Analog Implementation

Digital Implementation

4 PID Tuning

Manual Tuning

Heuristic Methods

Numerical Optimization Methods

Introduction

Definition

A Proportional-Integral-Deriviative (PID) controller is a control-loop feedback

mechanism (controller) widely used in process industry.

Z t

de(t)

u(t) = Kp e(t) + Ki e( )d + Kd

0 dt

| {z } | {z } | {z }

Proportional Action Integral Action Derivative Action

Introduction

error.

+ Reduces rise time

+ Reduces but does not eliminate the steady-state error: Only when

K , error 0 (unless the plant has pole(s) at s = 0)

Rt

Integral action ui (t) = Ki 0

e( )d : it is proportional to the accumulated error.

+ Eliminates the steady-state error for a constant or step input (e.g.,

in plants of type 0)

Makes transient response slower

Derivative action ud (t) = Kd de(t)

dt

: it is proportional to the rate of change of the

error.

+ Increases the stability of the system, reduces overshoot, improves the

transient response

Amplifies the noise present in the error signal

Analog and Digital formulations

Outline

1 Introduction

3 Implementations

Analog Implementation

Digital Implementation

4 PID Tuning

Manual Tuning

Heuristic Methods

Numerical Optimization Methods

Analog and Digital formulations

Proportional Control

Up (s)

up (t) = Kp e(t) = Kp

E(s)

Up (z)

up [k] = Kp e[k] = Kp

E(z)

Analog and Digital formulations

Derivative Control

de(t) Ud (s)

ud (t) = Kd = Kd s

dt E(s)

ud [k] = Kd = Kd

Ts E(z) Ts z

Analog and Digital formulations

Integral Control

Z t

Ui (s) Ki

ui (t) = Ki e( )d ui (t) = Ki e(t) =

0 E(s) s

Ui (z) zTs

ui [k] = ui [k 1] + Ki Ts e[k] = Ki

E(z) z1

Analog and Digital formulations

Digital PID controller (conventional version)

Kd

u[k] = Kp e[k] + (e[k] e[k 1]) + ui [k]

Ts

with ui [k] = ui [k 1] + Ki Ts e[k]

In the Z-domain:

U (z) z Kd z 1

= Kp + Ki Ts +

E(z) z1 Ts z

Kd

where Ki Ts and Ts are the new derivative and gains.

U (z) z U (z) Kd z 1

= Kp + Ki Ts = Kp +

E(z) z1 E(z) Ts z

Analog and Digital formulations

bilinear transformation,

U (z) Ki

= Kp + + Kd s

E(z) s s= 2 ( z1 ) Ts z+1

U (z) Ki Ts (z + 1) 2Kd (z 1)

= Kp + +

E(z) 2(z 1) Ts (z + 1)

2

2 z + 1 z + 0

=

(z 1)(z + 1)

Analog and Digital formulations

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JEpWlTl95Tw

Prof. Bart De Moor (KUL) Chapter 13: PID Controllers 11 / 36

Analog and Digital formulations

r(t)

results in a theoretically infinite, practically very

large response of the derivative term.

t

Ud (s) Kd s

=

E(s) 1 + s

frequencies.

Analog and Digital formulations

Ud (s) Kd s

=

E(s) 1 + s

Further e(t) is replaced by c r(t) y(t) with c the setpoint weighting,

which is often set to zero to further reduce immediate influence of a

sudden set-point jump.

In the time-domain:

dud d

ud (t) = + Kd (c r(t) y(t))

dt dt

Implementations

Outline

1 Introduction

3 Implementations

Analog Implementation

Digital Implementation

4 PID Tuning

Manual Tuning

Heuristic Methods

Numerical Optimization Methods

Implementations Analog Implementation

Analog Implementation

The key building block is the operational amplifier (op-amp).

SP - Setpoint r(t)

Output - Control action u(t)

Implementations Analog Implementation

Analog Implementation

Implementations Analog Implementation

https://youtu.be/6W3PLiVIcmE

Prof. Bart De Moor (KUL) Chapter 13: PID Controllers 17 / 36

Implementations Digital Implementation

Digital Implementation

The difference equations are typically implemented in a microcontroller or in an

FPGA (field-programmable gate array) device:

Kd

u[k] = Kp e[k] + (e[k] e[k 1]) + ui [k]

Ts

with ui [k] = ui [k 1] + Ki Ts e[k]

Pseudocode

previous error = 0

integral = 0

Start :

e r r o r = setpoint measured value

p r o p o r t i o n a l = KP e r r o r

i n t e g r a l = i n t e g r a l + Ki s a m p l i n g t i m e e r r o r

d e r i v a t i v e = Kd ( e r r o r p r e v i o u s e r r o r ) / s a m p l i n g t i m e

output = p r o p o r t i o n a l + i n t e g r a l + d e r i v a t i v e

previous error = error

wait ( s a m p l i n g t i m e )

goto S t a r t

Implementations Digital Implementation

Digital Implementation

PLC with a digital PID module: Digital PID:

Implementations Digital Implementation

PLC

automation in process industry.

Implementations Digital Implementation

https://youtu.be/iWgHqqunsyE

PID Tuning

Outline

1 Introduction

3 Implementations

Analog Implementation

Digital Implementation

4 PID Tuning

Manual Tuning

Heuristic Methods

Numerical Optimization Methods

PID Tuning Manual Tuning

Manual Tuning

closed-loop system are summarized in the table below.

Closed-loop response

PID gains

Rise Time Overshoot Settling time Steady-State error

Kp Decrease Increase Small Change Decrease

Ki Decrease Increase Increase Eliminate

Kd Small change Decrease Decrease No change

Important note

Changing one parameter can influence the effect of the other two.

Therefore, use this table only as a reference.

PID Tuning Manual Tuning

Manual Tuning

1 Set Ki and Kd equal to 0.

2 Increase Kp until you observe that the step response is fast enough

and the steady-state error is small.

3 Start adding some integral action in order to get rid of the

steady-state error. Keep in mind that too much Ki can cause

instability!

4 Add some derivative action in order to quickly react to disturbances

and/or dampen the response.

PID Tuning Heuristic Methods

Heuristic Methods

plicated to obtain, an analytical approach to design a PID controller is not

possible. Therefore in these cases we have to use an experimental approach

to tune the PID controller. Among the existing experimental approaches we

can mention:

Ziegler-Nichols tuning rule based on step response (First method)

Ziegler-Nichols tuning rule based on critical gain and critical period

(Second method)

PID Tuning Heuristic Methods

In this method, the response of the plant to a unit-step input is obtained ex-

perimentally. If the plant involves neither integrators nor dominant complex-

conjugate poles, then such a unit-step response curve may look S-shaped

as shown in the figure on the next slide. This S-shaped curve may be char-

acterized by two constants: delay time L and time constant T . The delay

time and the time constant are determined by drawing a tangent line at the

inflection point of the S-shaped curve and determining the intersections of

the tangent line with the time axis and a horizontal line crossing the y-axis

at point (0,K).

If the response to a step input does not exhibit an S-shaped curve, the

first method does not apply.

PID Tuning Heuristic Methods

Step Response

K

Amplitude

L T

0

0

Time (seconds)

PID Tuning Heuristic Methods

according to the formulas shown in the following table:

Control Type Kp Ki Kd

P T /L 0 0

PI 0.9 TL Kp 0.3

L 0

Kp

PID 1.2 TL 2L 0.5LKp

PID Tuning Heuristic Methods

U (s) Ki

= Kp + + Kd s

E(s) s

T 1

= 1.2 1 + + 0.5Ls

L 2Ls

1 2

s+ L

= 0.6T

s

with a pole at the origin and a double zero at s = L1 .

PID Tuning Heuristic Methods

when only proportional control action is used.

1 Set the integral and derivative gains to zero (Kp = Kd = 0);

2 Increase the proportional gain Kp until the output of the control loop

starts oscillating with a constant amplitude. The value of Kp at this

point is referred to as ultimate gain (Ku , Kp );

3 Measure the period of the oscillations Tu at the output of the

closed-loop system;

4 Use Ku and Tu to determine the gains of the PID controller

according to the tuning rule table shown in the next slide.

PID Tuning Heuristic Methods

Control Type Kp Ki Kd

P 0.5Ku - -

PI 0.45Ku 1.2Kp /Tu -

PD 0.8Ku - Kp Tu /8

PID 0.6Ku 2Kp /Tu Kp Tu /8

Pessen Integral Rule 0.7Ku 2.5Kp /Tu 3Kp Tu /20

Some overshoot 0.33Ku 2Kp /Tu Kp Tu /3

No overshoot 0.2Ku 2Kp /Tu Kp Tu /3

If the output does not exhibit sustained oscillations for whatever value Kp

may take, then the second method does not apply.

Keep in mind that we are working with heuristic tuning rules, and therefore some

additional fine tuning might be necessary.

PID Tuning Heuristic Methods

Example

Consider a plant with a given model:

1

P (s) =

(s + 1)3

We compute the critical gain Ku .

This is the value of Kp for which (Kp P (s)) = 180 . On the Nyquist plot this

is the value of Kp for which Kp P (s) passes through (1, 0).

Ku P (ju ) = 1

Ku = (ju + 1)3

= (3u2 1) + j(u3 3u )

u3 3u = 0 u = 3

2

Ku = 8, Tu = = 3.628

u

Kp = 4.8, Ki = 2.6448, Kd = 2.16

PID Tuning Numerical Optimization Methods

The tuning of a PID controller is posed as a constrained optimization problem.

For a given set of parameters Kp , Ki and Kd run a simulation of the closed-loop

system, and compute some performance parameters (e.g. settling time, rise time,

etc.) and a performance index.

Optimize the performance index over the three PID gains.

Optimizer

, , Performance Index

Simulation

PID Tuning Numerical Optimization Methods

pidtool/pidTuner It is a Matlab tool to interactively design a SISO

PID controller in the feed-forward path of single-

loop, unity-feedback control configuration

Pidpy It is a modular PID control library for python

that supports PID auto tuning. https://pypi.

python.org/pypi/pypid/

INCA PID Tuner It is a commercial tuning tool developed by

IPCOS. It has a vast library of PID structures

for DCS and PLC Systems including Siemens,

ABB, Honeywell, Emerson, etc. http://www.

ipcos.com/advancedprocesscontrol/

advanced-process-control/

pid-tuning-software/inca-pid-tuning/

PID Tuning Numerical Optimization Methods

pidtool/pidTuner - Demo

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2tKe0caUv1I

PID Tuning Numerical Optimization Methods

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XH2bkq1URSg

Prof. Bart De Moor (KUL) Chapter 13: PID Controllers 36 / 36

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