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2017 3rd International Conference on Biosignals, images and instrumentation (ICBSII), 16-18 March 2017, Chennai.

Feature Extraction and Analysis of Renal

Abnormalities using Fuzzy Clustering
Segmentation and SIFT Method
Aadhirai. S
IEEE student member(ID-9402439) Najumnissa Jamal.D
PG student: EIE department Professor: EIE department
B.S.A. Crescent University B.S.A. Crescent University
Chennai, India Chennai, India

AbstractUltrasound Imaging is one of the most widely growing algorithm using ultrasound kidney images [4].
used technique to provide information about renal diseases K.Viswanath used level set segmentation and ANN
in kidney such as cyst, tumor and calculi. This paper aims to classification to detect kidney stone from ultrasound
extract features from the different renal abnormalities to images [5]. Komal Sharma [6] proposed a computer
discriminate between the normal and abnormal conditions. assisted classification for classification of renal ultrasound
Two filters, median and wiener filter are used to remove the images into a) normal b) medical renal disease
speckle noise in US (ultrasound) images. A picture quality (MRD),cyst, and the region of interest is cropped from the
performance technique is implemented to identify the cortex region of the kidney and from regions inside renal
quality of the images. Peak to signal noise ratio (PSNR) and
cyst. [7] Detected the abnormalities in the kidney of renal
Mean squared error (MSR) is used to verify the enhanced
calculi using a preprocessing method CANR
images. The preprocessed images are then segmented using
FCM (fuzzy c-means clustering technique) which yields (combinational approach of noise removing) for removal
better results to find Region of interest (ROI). The statistical of noise in the US images and GLCM for the extraction of
features along with scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) features. T. Mangayarkarasi, developed a patient
features and Texture features are extracted and analyzed. It assistive Tool for detection of Abnormalities in kidney [9].
is found that features like Energy, Variance and kurtosis are In this paper Ultrasound images for renal abnormalities is
seen to be higher in the normal kidney images than the renal taken and filters like Median and Wiener filters are applied
abnormalities. The features can be used to discriminate as a preprocessing tool to enhance the quality of the image.
between normal and abnormal renal conditions. The Then Fuzzy C means clustering is applied to the
developed system is expected to provide support for the segmented region of Interest and statistical features,
medical practitioners for decision making to provide an texture features using GLCM and SIFT features are
enhanced health care. extracted. These features are further analyzed for variation
in the abnormalities and reported whether the image is
Keywords Kidney abnormalities, preprocessing normal or has renal abnormalities. The flow diagram of the
technique, Peak to signal noise ratio (PSNR) and Mean work is shown in figure 1.
squared error (MSE), Fuzzy c-means clustering (FCM) and
scale invariant feature transform (SIFT).
I. INTRODUCTION A. Ultrasound images
Since ancient times, formation of kidney stone in 7 normal and 21 abnormal ultrasound kidney images
humans became an unsolved problem and a wide research for each type were obtained with the help of medical
in this area has to be conducted [1]. A renal abnormality is doctor. The real time ultrasound kidney images for normal
one of the major risks in life and sometimes will lead to and with tumor, calculi and cyst were obtained from Sri
death if the disease is not diagnosed properly. There are Chakra scans, Chennai. All images with 512 x 512 pixels
many diagnostic techniques to identify the renal tumor, in size were acquired using Voluson ultrasound machine
renal cyst and renal calculi. They are ultrasound, computer with 3.5MHz curved array transducer.
tomography (CT), and Magnetic resonance imaging
(MRI). Ultrasound is the cheapest scanning technique B. Preprocessing
when compared to above said techniques. Bharathi and
Amirthaveni (2008) conducted a comparative study on 24 In this work we have implemented two filters for
hour urinary composition between urinary stone formers removing the speckle noise for smoothing the images so
and healthy volunteers from five cities of Tamil Nadu that the clarity of the image is good. The performance
namely Coimbatore, Vellore, Madurai, Nagercoil and metrics used to know about the quality of the images are
Tirunelveli. It was reported that there was a considerable peak to signal to noise ratio(PSNR) and mean squared
increase in incidence of kidney stone cases year by year error (MSE). PSNR is the quality measurement between
(from 1869 to 3084) in Coimbatore while other admission the original image and denoised image. Peak to signal
centres of other cities showed marginal increase in noise ratio (PSNR) is the ratio between
admission rates [3]. Tamiselvi detected renal calculi
from images and developed a semiautomatic region

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2017 3rd International Conference on Biosignals, images and instrumentation (ICBSII), 16-18 March 2017, Chennai.

(3 )

Where uij represents the membership of pixel xj in

Fig 1. Flow diagram of the feature extraction method. the ith cluster, vi is the ith cluster center, is a norm
metric, and m is a constant. Clustering based
the maximum possible power and corrupting noise that segmentation is implemented in our work which
affect representation of image. It is expressed as decibel segments the image into clusters having pixels with
scale. similar characteristics [15].

The PSNR is used as measure of quality IV. FEATURE EXTRACTION

reconstruction of image. In Mean squared error if the
value is low then the image quality is high and is also A. Statistical Features
used to measure the degree of image distortion because
they can represent the overall gray-value error contained a) Mean: Mean is most basic of all statistical
in the image. With MSE or PSNR, only gray value measure. Means are often used in geometry and analysis;
differences between corresponding pixels of the original a wide range of means have been developed for these
and distorted version are considered. MSE works well purposes. In contest of image processing filtering using
when the distortion is mainly caused by the contamination mean is classified as spatial filtering and used for noise
of additive noise. The higher the PSNR the quality of the reduction
image is good. Similarly the MSE value should be low so b) Skewness: The Skewness characterizes the
that it represents the quality of the image is enhanced[ degree of asymmetry of a distribution around its mean.
19,20]. While the mean, standard deviation, and average deviation
are dimensional quantities, that is, have the same units as
III. SEGMENTATION the measured quantities xj , the skewness is
After the preprocessing technique segmentation is conventionally defined in such a way as to make it no
carried out to find the region of interest in the images the dimensional. It is a pure number that characterizes only
features are extracted from the segmented images. the shape of the distribution.
Segmentation is the process of partitioning an image into c) Kurtosis: The kurtosis is also a no dimensional
multiple segments, i.e. set of pixels, pixels in a region are quantity. It measures the relative peakedness or flatness of
similar according to homogeneity criteria such as color,
a distribution.
intensity or texture, so as to locate and identify objects in
an image. FCM is an iterative, unsupervised clustering d) Variance: Variance finds the feature values are
algorithm and has been applied for medical images for relatively high.
segmentation. It involves number of clustering and
subtractive clustering algorithm is used it is used to iterate B. GLCM features
by initialising optimizationbased FCM algorithm. FCM The gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) is also
is based on minimizing an objective function as shown in known as the gray-level spatial dependence matrix. It uses
equation (1), with respect to fuzzy membership U, and set a statistical method for examining the texture, considering
of cluster cancroids. the spatial relationship of pixels. The GLCM functions are
used for finding texture properties of an image by
Where uij represents the membership of pixel xj in the calculating the frequency of occurrence of pixel pairs with
ith cluster, vi is the ith cluster center, is a norm specific values and in a specified spatial relationship. The
metric, and m is a constant. Clustering based GLCM can be calculated on square matrix of relative
segmentation is implemented in our work which segments frequencies in which two neighbouring pixels separated
the image into clusters having pixels with similar by distance d at orientation q occur in the image, at two
characteristics [15, 16]. different gray levels. This results into a square matrix
having the size of the largest pixel value in the image. It
enables the representation of the relative frequency
(1 ) distributions of gray levels and describes the frequency of
how often one gray level will appear in a specified spatial.
The GLCM features contrast, correlation, energy and
(2 ) homogeneity are calculated [7]. The contrast measures the
intensity contrast between a pixel and its neighbour on the
entire image. The correlation is used to find a measure of
Identify applicable sponsor/s here. If no sponsors, delete this text how a pixel is correlated to its neighbour over the whole
box (sponsors). image [12]. The energy is using the homogeneous region
from non-homogeneous regions. It is expected to be high
if the frequency of repeated pixel pairs is high. The
normalized co-occurrence matrix is denoted by total

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2017 3rd International Conference on Biosignals, images and instrumentation (ICBSII), 16-18 March 2017, Chennai.

number of the occurrence of two neighbouring pixels

between gray-intensity at vertical direction and angle. The
homogeneity measures the closeness of the distribution of
elements in the GLCM to the GLCM diagonal.

C. SIFT features
When all images are similar in nature (same scale,
orientation, etc) simple corner detectors can work. But
when images are of different scales and rotations, the
Scale Invariant Feature Transform is used [13]. For any (a) (b)
object there are many features, interesting points on the
object that can be extracted to provide a "feature"
description of the object. This description can then be
used when attempting to locate the object in an image
containing many other objects. SIFT image features
provide a set of features of an object that are not affected
by many of the complications experienced in other
methods, such as object scaling and rotation. [17] While
allowing for an object to be recognized in a larger image
SIFT image features also allow for objects in multiple
images of the same location, taken from different
positions within the environment, to be recognized. SIFT
features are also very resilient to the effects of "noise" in (c) (d)
the image. The SIFT approach, for image feature
generation, takes an image and transforms it into a "large Fig. 3. Filter applied images a) Normal kidney
b) Cyst c) Calculi d) Tumor
collection of local feature vectors. Each of these feature
vectors is invariant to any scaling, rotation or translation
of the image.
Image Median Filter Wiener Filter

The images acquired from the clinics were resized to Normal 147.92 0.02 159.78 0.01
Tumor 104.60 1.86 134.74 0.09
256 X 256 pixels and one acquired sample image for cyst, Calculi 64.72 1.00 68.89 0.98
calculi, tumor and normal kidney is shown in figure 2. Cyst 75.39 0.34 79.23 0.24

Then the denoised images are subjected to FCM

clustering for segmentation for extracting the features.
Figure.4 shows the clustered images to select the region
of Interest to extract the necessary features [15]. The
statistical features were extracted for the segmented
images along with the GLCM features and SIFT
Fig. 2. Sample images of cyst, calculi, tumor and normal kidney
features which are shown in Table 2 - 9.

Then the image is subjected to preprocessing

technique. Figure.3 shows median filter and wiener filter
applied to the ultrasound renal images. From the figure 3,
we can see that Wiener filter images are better than the
Median filter as wiener filter carries out an optimal
tradeoff between inverse filtering and noise smoothing. It (a) (b) (c)
removes additive noise and de-blurring concurrently [10].
Fig: 4 FCM segmented images for a) Calculi b) Cyst c) Tumor
The PSNR and MSE values from table.1, shows that the
wiener filter has good noise smoothing than the median
filter. Hence wiener filter is used in this study for
denoising the images.

(a) (b)

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2017 3rd International Conference on Biosignals, images and instrumentation (ICBSII), 16-18 March 2017, Chennai.


Cyst F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6
Img1 0.068 161.48 19.71 -1.90 254.85 4.56E+03
Img2 0.067 161.19 20.99 -1.09 254.85 4.68E+03
Img3 0.065 163.96 19.44 -1.86 254.85 4.18E+03
Img4 0.072 166.33 19.69 -1.95 254.85 4.21E+03
Img5 0.062 163.08 21.02 -1.95 254.85 4.40E+03
(c) (d) Img6 0.067 171.70 20.04 -1.96 254.85 4.60E+03
Fig. 5. SIFT key point extraction images of a) Normal Kidney b) Img7 0.074 164.43 20.07 -1.93 254.85 4.26E+03
c) Cyst d) Tumor F1) SIFT F2) Mean F3) Kurtosis F4) Skewness F5) Maximum probability F6) Variance


Cyst F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12 F13

Img1 35.98 0.964 0.976 0.47 0.27 1.80E+03 29.22
Table 2. SIFT and Statistical features for Renal Tumor
Img2 44.42 0.971 0.978 0.48 0.35 2.11E+03 29.81
Tumor F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 Img3 79.46 0.969 0.977 0.45 0.29 1.98E+03 27.46
Img1 0.074 175.35 19.26 -2.09 254.851 4.03E+03 Img4 -19.99 0.960 0.974 0.43 0.26 1.43E+03 33.44
Img2 0.074 165.86 17.80 -1.65 254.851 4.42E+03 Img5 -58.95 0.966 0.981 0.34 0.35 1.51E+03 36.97
Img3 0.070 177.76 19.71 -2.10 254.851 3.65E+03 Img6 -67.19 0.968 0.978 0.40 0.36 1.65E+03 37.07
Img4 0.074 152.07 17.15 -1.51 254.828 5.22E+03 Img7 -47.11 0.963 0.979 0.34 0.33 1.27E+03 37.04
Img5 0.075 152.27 17.30 -1.47 254.828 5.29E+03 F7) Cluster shade F8) Homogeneity F9) Correlation F10) Contrast F11) Energy F12)
Img6 0.066 179.79 13.64 -0.64 254.835 4.82E+03 Cluster prominence F13) Auto correlation
Img7 0.069 136.42 13.58 -0.66 254.835 4.45E+03
F1) SIFT F2) Mean F3) Kurtosis F4) Skewness F5) Maximum probability F6) Variance.
Normal F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6
TABLE 3.GLCM FEATURES FOR RENAL TUMOR Img1 0.074 161.84 20.86 -1.95 254.85 4.48E+03
Img2 0.066 155.34 20.93 -1.91 254.85 5.02E+03
Tumor F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12` F13
Img3 0.071 161.71 20.87 -1.95 254.85 4.47E+03
Img1 -65.16 0.95 0.972 0.36 0.30 1.07E+03 39.56 Img4 0.066 156.70 21.24 -1.99 254.85 5.08E+03
Img2 -45.62 0.94 0.974 0.38 0.29 1.16E+03 36.98 Img5 0.073 161.79 20.83 -1.94 254.85 4.43E+03
Img3 -57.43 0.94 0.972 0.34 0.31 9.60E+02 38.89 Img6 0.064 156.91 21.39 -2.01 254.85 5.00E+03
Img7 0.069 156.28 20.25 -1.85 254.84 4.84E+03
Img4 -34.42 0.95 0.973 0.48 0.28 1.54E+03 34.42
Img5 -42.21 0.95 0.976 0.43 0.29 1.63E+03 34.68 F1) SIFT F2) Mean F3) Kurtosis F4) Skewness F5) Maximum probability F6) Variance
Img6 -61.21 0.95 0.977 0.28 0.34 9.30E+02 40.93
Img7 -44.71 0.94 0.974 0.45 0.21 1.57E+03 27.91 TABLE 9. GLCM FEATURES FOR NORMAL IMAGES
F7) Cluster shade F8) Homogeneity F9) Correlation F10) Contrast F11) Energy F12) Normal F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12 F13
Cluster prominence F13) Auto correlation Img1 - 0.964 0.977 0.407 0.344 1.50E+03 36.89
TABLE 4. SIFT AND STATISTICAL FEATURES FOR RENAL CALCULI Img2 - 0.970 0.981 0.377 0.359 1.83E+03 36.21
Calculi F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 Img3 - 0.964 0.977 0.411 0.343 1.50E+03 36.88
Img1 0.070 162.29 20.87 -1.93 254.85 4.77E+03
Img4 - 0.971 0.981 0.383 0.368 1.84E+03 36.58
Img2 0.071 158.91 18.09 -1.92 254.85 4.56E+03 67.79
Img3 0.066 159.16 18.92 -1.96 254.85 4.88E+03 Img5 - 0.962 0.978 0.388 0.340 1.49E+03 36.88
Img4 0.073 156.72 20.13 -1.81 254.85 4.85E+03 56.71
Img5 0.064 159.23 19.12 -1.76 254.83 4.64E+03 Img6 - 0.970 0.982 0.362 0.367 1.83E+03 36.60
Img6 0.068 161.69 19.84 -1.91 254.85 4.55E+03 67.90
Img7 - 0.967 0.979 0.382 0.345 1.57E+03 36.65
Img7 0.072 162.46 20.58 -1.09 254.84 4.54E+03 59.63
F1) SIFT F2) Mean F3) Kurtosis F4) Skewness F5) Maximum probability F6) Variance F7) Cluster shade F8) Homogeneity F9) Correlation F10) Contrast F11) Energy F12)
Cluster prominence F13) Auto correlation
Calculi F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12 F13

Img1 -52.88 0.96 0.97 0.39 0.33 1.52E+03 35.47 Features Normal Renal Renal Renal
Img2 -57.86 0.96 0.97 0.42 0.35 1.66E+03 35.41 Tumor Calculi Cyst
Img3 -50.51 0.96 0.98 0.31 0.34 1.54E+03 36.36 F1 0.069 0.072 0.069 0.070
F2 158.43 162.79 160.07 167.13
Img4 -66.97 0.97 0.97 0.40 0.36 1.56E+03 34.75 F3 20.97 16.92 19.65 19.86
Img5 -63.61 0.96 0.97 0.39 0.35 1.69E+03 36.71 F4 -1.94 -1.45 -1.77 -1.70
Img6 -47.03 0.96 0.97 0.39 0.34 1.55E+03 35.98 F5 254.85 254.84 254.84 254.85
Img7 -47.85 0.96 0.97 0.40 0.34 1.58E+03 35.95 F6 4746.66 4553.7 4683.9 4175.3
F7 -60.23 -48.16 -56.91 -31.39
F7) Cluster shade F8) Homogeneity F9) Correlation F10) Contrast F11) Energy F12) F8 0.967 0.951 0.966 0.964
Cluster prominence F13) Auto correlation
F9 0.979 0.974 0.978 0.978
F10 0.381 0.391 0.398 0.380

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2017 3rd International Conference on Biosignals, images and instrumentation (ICBSII), 16-18 March 2017, Chennai.

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