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Statistics 244.

3 Review Problems for the Final Exam


Solutions
I The following data were collected on n = 3023 persons who suffered a head injury in a
motor vehicle accident in Saskatchewan. The variables that were measured for each case
were:

1. Sex (S) - Male or Female.


2. Age (A) - < 10, 10-19, 20-29,30-49 and 50+.

male female Total


<10 247 138 385
10-19 793 458 1251
20-29 544 222 766
30-49 249 156 405
50+ 235 161 396
Total 2068 1135 3203

a. Using a 95% confidence interval, estimate the proportion of males who


suffered a head injury in a motor vehicle accident in Saskatchewan
amongst individuals age 10-29.
2068
Solution: proportion of males = p = = 0.6456
3203
p (1 p ) 0.6456 (1 0.6456 )
95% confidence interval p z / 2 or 0.6456 1.960
n 3203
or 0.618 to 0.673

b. Repeat the calculation for individuals age 30+.


405 + 396
Solution: proportion of males = p = = 0.2501
3203
p (1 p ) 0.2501(1 0.2501)
95% confidence interval p z / 2 or 0.2501 1.960
n 3203
or 0.239 to 0.261

c. Test to determine if there is a difference in the proportion of males who


suffered a head injury in a motor vehicle accident in Saskatchewan
between the age groups 10-29 and 30+.

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Statistics 244.3 Review Problems for the Final Exam - Solutions

p1 p 2
Solution: The test statistic is z = where
1 1
p (1 p ) +
n1 n2
793 + 544 1337 249 + 235 484
p1 = = = 0.663 , p 2 = = = 0.604 and
1251 + 766 2017 405 + 396 801
1337 + 484 1821
p = = = 0.646
2017 + 801 2818
p1 p 2 0.663 0.604
Hence z = = = 2.936
1 1 1 1
p (1 p ) + 0.646 (1 0.646 ) +
1
n n2 2017 801
z0.025 = 1.960 and z0.005 = 2.576, H0 is rejected for both = 0.05 and = 0.01.

d. Use the 2 test to determine if there is a relationship between Sex and age
for individual who suffered a head injury in a motor vehicle accident in
Saskatchewan.
Solution: The observed frequencies xij are
male female Total (Ri)
<10 247 138 385
10-19 793 458 1251
20-29 544 222 766
30-49 249 156 405
50+ 235 161 396
Total (Cj)
2068 1135 3203
RC
The expected frequencies Eij = i j
N
male female Total (Ri)
<10 248.57 136.43 385
10-19 807.70 443.30 1251
20-29 494.56 271.44 766
30-49 261.49 143.51 405
50+ 255.68 140.32 396
Total (Cj) 2068 1135 3203
c r ( xij Eij ) 2
and 2 = = 21.13
j =1 i =1 Eij
Comparing this with 0.05
2
= 9.49 and 0.01
2
= 13.28 for (r- 1)(c 1) = 4 d.f.

The decision is to reject H0. and conclude that there is dependence between Sex
and age of head injury victims.

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Statistics 244.3 Review Problems for the Final Exam - Solutions

II In a psychiatric study of families of schizophrenic children two Rorshach scores of the


mothers (M1 and M2) and fathers ( F1, F2 ) were of particular import. The observed values
of these scores for parents of n1=10 psychotic adolescents and n2=6 normal control children
of similar age and economic status are given below:
Schizophrenic Families (n1=10) Control Families (n2=6)
M1 M2 F1 F2 M1 M2 F1 F2
30 35 25 33 20 15 26 25
21 41 15 21 11 3 18 19
27 32 25 34 7 2 11 8
35 34 31 36 21 15 24 22
20 37 14 21 15 11 17 13
23 38 19 25 13 12 20 15
28 27 26 30
32 42 29 37
26 36 27 33
29 35 24 32

a. Plot box plots of each of the four variables (M1, M2, F1, F2) for both the
Schizophrenic Families and the Control Families.
Solution
Summary statistics
Schizophrenic Families Control Families
M1 M2 F1 F2 M1 M2 F1 F2
min 20 27 14 21 7 2 11 8
Q1 23 34 19 25 11 3 17 13
Q2 27.5 35.5 25 32.5 14 11.5 19 17
Q3 30 38 27 34 20 15 24 22
max 35 42 31 37 21 15 26 25

45 Schizophrenic Families

40
35
Control Families
30
25
20
15
10
M1 M2 F1 F2
5
0
0 M1 M2 F1 F2

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Statistics 244.3 Review Problems for the Final Exam

b. Compute 95% and 99% confidence intervals for the mean Rorshach scores
(M1, M2, F1, F2) for both the Schizophrenic Families and the Control
Families.
Solution
s
For each case we use x t / 2
n
Schizophrenic Families Control Families
M1 M2 F1 F2 M1 M2 F1 F2
x 27.1 35.7 23.5 30.2 14.5 9.7 19.3 17.0
s 4.771 4.322 5.701 5.865 5.357 5.785 5.354 6.229
n 10 10 10 10 6 6 6 6
t0.025 for n 1 df 2.685 2.685 2.685 2.685 3.163 3.163 3.163 3.163
Lower Limit 23.05 32.03 18.66 25.22 7.58 2.20 12.42 8.96
Upper Limit 31.15 39.37 28.34 35.18 21.42 17.14 26.25 25.04

c. For each of the four Rorshach scores (M1, M2, F1, F2) using the two
sample t-test, test to see if there is a significant difference ( = 0.05 and
= 0.01) between the Schizophrenic Families and the Control Families. Do
the results agree with the graphical display in part a.
Solution For each case we use

t=
x1 x2
where s pooled =
( n1 1) s12 + ( n2 1) s22
1 1 n1 + n2 2
s pooled +
n1 n1
Schizophrenic Families
M1 M2 F1 F2
x1 27.1 35.7 23.5 30.2
s1 4.771 4.322 5.701 5.865
n1 10 10 10 10
Control Families
M1 M2 F1 F2
x2 14.5 9.7 19.3 17.0
s2 5.357 5.785 5.354 6.229
n2 6 6 6 6
x1 x2 12.6 26.0 4.2 13.2
spooled 4.989 4.895 5.580 5.998
t 4.891 10.299 1.446 4.262
Now t0.025 = 2.145, t0.001 = 2.977 for df =14.

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Statistics 244.3 Review Problems for the Final Exam

Comparing the test statistic t with ta/2 we see that there is a significant difference
between Schizophrenic Families and the Control Families in the three
measurements M1, M2and F2 but not in F1 .

d. Determine the correlation between M1 and M2 for both the Schizophrenic


Families and the Control Families.
S xy
Solution: Use r = = 0.955 (Schizophrenic Families), 0.929 (Control Families)
S xx S yy
e. Determine the correlation between F1 and F2 for both the Schizophrenic
Families and the Control Families.
Solution: r = 0.994 (Schizophrenic Families), 0.989 (Control Families)

f. Determine the correlation between (M1 + M2)/2 and (F1 + F2)/2 for both
the Schizophrenic Families and the Control Families.
Solution: r = 0.964 (Schizophrenic Families), 0.971 (Control Families)

III In the following study the researcher was interested in how the consumption alcohol
affected the reaction time to a certain stimulus. For the study four groups of n = 10 subjects
were randomly selected. The first group received no alcohol prior to exposure to the
stimulus, the second group received 1 oz. of alcohol prior to exposure to the stimulus, the
third goup received 2 oz. of alcohol and the fourth group received 4 oz. the data on the
reaction time to the stimulus is tabulated below:
Table: Reaction Time
no
alcohol 1 oz. 2 oz. 4 oz.
8.6 8.9 11.2 11.6
15.6 15.3 14.7 12.6
11.1 6.6 8.4 16.4
12.3 7.3 8.4 14.9
10.3 11.6 6.8 14.1
10.4 5.6 13.5 18.2
15.1 11.8 12.9 12.7
8.9 10.4 8.9 18.8
10.7 11.4 11.5 14.6
14.2 10.9 5.6 18.2

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Statistics 244.3 Review Problems for the Final Exam

a. Plot box plots of reaction time for each of the four groups.
20 4 oz

18 no alcohol
1 oz
16 2 oz

14

12

10

0
0

b. Compute the mean and the standard deviation of reaction time for each of
the four groups.
x 11.72 9.98 10.19 15.21
s 2.49 2.91 3.02 2.58

c. Compute 95% and 99% confidence intervals for the mean reaction time
for each of the four groups.
95% confidence intervals
no
alcohol 1 oz. 2 oz. 4 oz.
Lower 9.94 7.90 8.03 13.36
Upper 13.50 12.06 12.35 17.06
99% confidence intervals
no
alcohol 1 oz. 2 oz. 4 oz.
Lower 9.16 6.99 7.09 12.56
Upper 14.28 12.97 13.29 17.86

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Statistics 244.3 Review Problems for the Final Exam

d. Carry out the One-way Analysis of variance F-test to see if there is a


significant ( = 0.05 and = 0.01) difference in the mean reaction time
amongst the four groups.
Solution: The Anova Table
Source SS df MS F F0.05 F0.01
Between 175.365 3 58.46 7.677 2.866 4.377
Within 274.11 36 7.61
Total 449.475 39
Since F > F0.05 and F > F0.01 we conclude that there is a significant difference
between the mean reaction time amongst the 4 alcohol consumption groups

e. Use the two sample t-test to compare the mean reaction time between
each pair of groups.
Solution For each case we use

t=
x1 x2
where s pooled =
( n1 1) s12 + ( n2 1) s22
1 1 n1 + n2 2
s pooled +
n1 n1
no
t alcohol 1 oz. 2 oz. 4 oz.
no
0.000 -1.436 -1.236 3.076
alcohol
1 oz. 1.436 0.000 0.158 4.250
2 oz. 1.236 -0.158 0.000 3.996
4 oz. -3.076 -4.250 -3.996 0.000
Now t0.025 = 2.101 for 18 df. Examing the table above we see there are significant
differences in mean reaction time between the alcohol consumption group of 4oz.
with each of the other three groups (no alcohol, 1 oz., 2 oz.)

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Statistics 244.3 Review Problems for the Final Exam

f. Use the two sample F-test to compare the variance of reaction time
between each pair of groups.
Solution For each case we use
2
s 1
F = 12 and reject H 0 if F > F / 2 ( 9,9 ) or > F / 2 ( 9, 9 )
s2 F
no
F alcohol 1 oz. 2 oz. 4 oz.
no
1.000 1.365 1.469 1.075
alcohol
1 oz. 0.732 1.000 1.076 0.787
2 oz. 0.681 0.930 1.000 0.732
4 oz. 0.930 1.270 1.366 1.000

Now F0.025(9,9) = 4.206, Since F F0.025(9,9) for all pairs of groups we accept H0
(equality of variance) for all pairs of groups .

IV A random sample of n = 14 elementary school students is selected, and each


student is measured on a creativity score (x) using a well-defined testing
instrument and on a task score (y) using a new instrument. The task score is the
mean time taken to perform several hand-eye coordination tasks. The data are:

28 35 37 50 69 84 40 65 29 42 51 45 31 40
creativity score (x)
4.5 3.9 3.9 6.1 4.3 8.8 2.1 5.5 5.7 3 7.1 7.3 3.3 5.2
task score (y)

a. Plot a scattergram of the data.

10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0 20 40 60 80 100

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Statistics 244.3 Review Problems for the Final Exam

b. Fit a linear equation predicting task score(Y) from creativity score (X).
Interpret the parameters.
Solution Now Sxx = 3503.714, Syy = 44.555, Sxy = 219.1
S 219.1
Hence = xy = = 0.06253 and
S xx 3503.714
= y x = 5.05 ( 0.06253)( 46.143) = 2.1645
S xy2
S yy
S xx 30.854
s= = = 2.571 = 1.603
n2 12

c. Estimate the parameters of the regression equation with a 95% confidence


interval
Solution
Confidence interval for :
s
t / 2 or 0.004 to 0.122
S xx
Confidence interval for :
1 x2
t / 2 s + or -0.71 to 5.04
n S xx

d. Determine
i. Pearsons r
S xy 219.1
r= = = 0.5545
S xx S yy 3503.7143 44.55
ii. Spearmans
X 28 35 37 50 69 84 40 65 29 42 51 45 31 40

Y 4.5 3.9 3.9 6.1 4.3 8.8 2.1 5.5 5.7 3 7.1 7.3 3.3 5.2
Rank on X 1 4 5 10 13 14 6 12 2 8 11 9 3 7
Rank on Y 7 4 5 11 6 14 1 9 10 2 12 13 3 8
di -6 0 0 -1 7 0 5 3 -8 6 -1 -4 0 -1
n
6 d i2
n 6 ( 238 )
d 2
= 238 and = 1 i =1
= 1 = 0.4769
i =1
i
(
n n 1 2
) (
14 142 1 )
iii. The coefficient of determination
The coefficient of determination = r2 = (0.5545)2 = 0.3075
30.75% of the variance in Y is explained by X,

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Statistics 244.3 Review Problems for the Final Exam

e. Predict the task score (Y) of a company with a creativity score (X) of 50
using a 99% prediction interval.
1 (x x)
2

Use + x0 s t / 2 1 + + 0
n S xx
Solution: 0.21 to 10.37

f. Repeat the calculation assuming a creativity score (X) of 80.


Solution: 1.37 to 12.96

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