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Solutions

I The following data were collected on n = 3023 persons who suffered a head injury in a

motor vehicle accident in Saskatchewan. The variables that were measured for each case

were:

2. Age (A) - < 10, 10-19, 20-29,30-49 and 50+.

<10 247 138 385

10-19 793 458 1251

20-29 544 222 766

30-49 249 156 405

50+ 235 161 396

Total 2068 1135 3203

suffered a head injury in a motor vehicle accident in Saskatchewan

amongst individuals age 10-29.

2068

Solution: proportion of males = p = = 0.6456

3203

p (1 p ) 0.6456 (1 0.6456 )

95% confidence interval p z / 2 or 0.6456 1.960

n 3203

or 0.618 to 0.673

405 + 396

Solution: proportion of males = p = = 0.2501

3203

p (1 p ) 0.2501(1 0.2501)

95% confidence interval p z / 2 or 0.2501 1.960

n 3203

or 0.239 to 0.261

suffered a head injury in a motor vehicle accident in Saskatchewan

between the age groups 10-29 and 30+.

Page 1

Statistics 244.3 Review Problems for the Final Exam - Solutions

p1 p 2

Solution: The test statistic is z = where

1 1

p (1 p ) +

n1 n2

793 + 544 1337 249 + 235 484

p1 = = = 0.663 , p 2 = = = 0.604 and

1251 + 766 2017 405 + 396 801

1337 + 484 1821

p = = = 0.646

2017 + 801 2818

p1 p 2 0.663 0.604

Hence z = = = 2.936

1 1 1 1

p (1 p ) + 0.646 (1 0.646 ) +

1

n n2 2017 801

z0.025 = 1.960 and z0.005 = 2.576, H0 is rejected for both = 0.05 and = 0.01.

d. Use the 2 test to determine if there is a relationship between Sex and age

for individual who suffered a head injury in a motor vehicle accident in

Saskatchewan.

Solution: The observed frequencies xij are

male female Total (Ri)

<10 247 138 385

10-19 793 458 1251

20-29 544 222 766

30-49 249 156 405

50+ 235 161 396

Total (Cj)

2068 1135 3203

RC

The expected frequencies Eij = i j

N

male female Total (Ri)

<10 248.57 136.43 385

10-19 807.70 443.30 1251

20-29 494.56 271.44 766

30-49 261.49 143.51 405

50+ 255.68 140.32 396

Total (Cj) 2068 1135 3203

c r ( xij Eij ) 2

and 2 = = 21.13

j =1 i =1 Eij

Comparing this with 0.05

2

= 9.49 and 0.01

2

= 13.28 for (r- 1)(c 1) = 4 d.f.

The decision is to reject H0. and conclude that there is dependence between Sex

and age of head injury victims.

Page 2

Statistics 244.3 Review Problems for the Final Exam - Solutions

mothers (M1 and M2) and fathers ( F1, F2 ) were of particular import. The observed values

of these scores for parents of n1=10 psychotic adolescents and n2=6 normal control children

of similar age and economic status are given below:

Schizophrenic Families (n1=10) Control Families (n2=6)

M1 M2 F1 F2 M1 M2 F1 F2

30 35 25 33 20 15 26 25

21 41 15 21 11 3 18 19

27 32 25 34 7 2 11 8

35 34 31 36 21 15 24 22

20 37 14 21 15 11 17 13

23 38 19 25 13 12 20 15

28 27 26 30

32 42 29 37

26 36 27 33

29 35 24 32

a. Plot box plots of each of the four variables (M1, M2, F1, F2) for both the

Schizophrenic Families and the Control Families.

Solution

Summary statistics

Schizophrenic Families Control Families

M1 M2 F1 F2 M1 M2 F1 F2

min 20 27 14 21 7 2 11 8

Q1 23 34 19 25 11 3 17 13

Q2 27.5 35.5 25 32.5 14 11.5 19 17

Q3 30 38 27 34 20 15 24 22

max 35 42 31 37 21 15 26 25

45 Schizophrenic Families

40

35

Control Families

30

25

20

15

10

M1 M2 F1 F2

5

0

0 M1 M2 F1 F2

Page 3

Statistics 244.3 Review Problems for the Final Exam

b. Compute 95% and 99% confidence intervals for the mean Rorshach scores

(M1, M2, F1, F2) for both the Schizophrenic Families and the Control

Families.

Solution

s

For each case we use x t / 2

n

Schizophrenic Families Control Families

M1 M2 F1 F2 M1 M2 F1 F2

x 27.1 35.7 23.5 30.2 14.5 9.7 19.3 17.0

s 4.771 4.322 5.701 5.865 5.357 5.785 5.354 6.229

n 10 10 10 10 6 6 6 6

t0.025 for n 1 df 2.685 2.685 2.685 2.685 3.163 3.163 3.163 3.163

Lower Limit 23.05 32.03 18.66 25.22 7.58 2.20 12.42 8.96

Upper Limit 31.15 39.37 28.34 35.18 21.42 17.14 26.25 25.04

c. For each of the four Rorshach scores (M1, M2, F1, F2) using the two

sample t-test, test to see if there is a significant difference ( = 0.05 and

= 0.01) between the Schizophrenic Families and the Control Families. Do

the results agree with the graphical display in part a.

Solution For each case we use

t=

x1 x2

where s pooled =

( n1 1) s12 + ( n2 1) s22

1 1 n1 + n2 2

s pooled +

n1 n1

Schizophrenic Families

M1 M2 F1 F2

x1 27.1 35.7 23.5 30.2

s1 4.771 4.322 5.701 5.865

n1 10 10 10 10

Control Families

M1 M2 F1 F2

x2 14.5 9.7 19.3 17.0

s2 5.357 5.785 5.354 6.229

n2 6 6 6 6

x1 x2 12.6 26.0 4.2 13.2

spooled 4.989 4.895 5.580 5.998

t 4.891 10.299 1.446 4.262

Now t0.025 = 2.145, t0.001 = 2.977 for df =14.

Page 4

Statistics 244.3 Review Problems for the Final Exam

Comparing the test statistic t with ta/2 we see that there is a significant difference

between Schizophrenic Families and the Control Families in the three

measurements M1, M2and F2 but not in F1 .

Families and the Control Families.

S xy

Solution: Use r = = 0.955 (Schizophrenic Families), 0.929 (Control Families)

S xx S yy

e. Determine the correlation between F1 and F2 for both the Schizophrenic

Families and the Control Families.

Solution: r = 0.994 (Schizophrenic Families), 0.989 (Control Families)

f. Determine the correlation between (M1 + M2)/2 and (F1 + F2)/2 for both

the Schizophrenic Families and the Control Families.

Solution: r = 0.964 (Schizophrenic Families), 0.971 (Control Families)

III In the following study the researcher was interested in how the consumption alcohol

affected the reaction time to a certain stimulus. For the study four groups of n = 10 subjects

were randomly selected. The first group received no alcohol prior to exposure to the

stimulus, the second group received 1 oz. of alcohol prior to exposure to the stimulus, the

third goup received 2 oz. of alcohol and the fourth group received 4 oz. the data on the

reaction time to the stimulus is tabulated below:

Table: Reaction Time

no

alcohol 1 oz. 2 oz. 4 oz.

8.6 8.9 11.2 11.6

15.6 15.3 14.7 12.6

11.1 6.6 8.4 16.4

12.3 7.3 8.4 14.9

10.3 11.6 6.8 14.1

10.4 5.6 13.5 18.2

15.1 11.8 12.9 12.7

8.9 10.4 8.9 18.8

10.7 11.4 11.5 14.6

14.2 10.9 5.6 18.2

Page 5

Statistics 244.3 Review Problems for the Final Exam

a. Plot box plots of reaction time for each of the four groups.

20 4 oz

18 no alcohol

1 oz

16 2 oz

14

12

10

0

0

b. Compute the mean and the standard deviation of reaction time for each of

the four groups.

x 11.72 9.98 10.19 15.21

s 2.49 2.91 3.02 2.58

c. Compute 95% and 99% confidence intervals for the mean reaction time

for each of the four groups.

95% confidence intervals

no

alcohol 1 oz. 2 oz. 4 oz.

Lower 9.94 7.90 8.03 13.36

Upper 13.50 12.06 12.35 17.06

99% confidence intervals

no

alcohol 1 oz. 2 oz. 4 oz.

Lower 9.16 6.99 7.09 12.56

Upper 14.28 12.97 13.29 17.86

Page 6

Statistics 244.3 Review Problems for the Final Exam

significant ( = 0.05 and = 0.01) difference in the mean reaction time

amongst the four groups.

Solution: The Anova Table

Source SS df MS F F0.05 F0.01

Between 175.365 3 58.46 7.677 2.866 4.377

Within 274.11 36 7.61

Total 449.475 39

Since F > F0.05 and F > F0.01 we conclude that there is a significant difference

between the mean reaction time amongst the 4 alcohol consumption groups

e. Use the two sample t-test to compare the mean reaction time between

each pair of groups.

Solution For each case we use

t=

x1 x2

where s pooled =

( n1 1) s12 + ( n2 1) s22

1 1 n1 + n2 2

s pooled +

n1 n1

no

t alcohol 1 oz. 2 oz. 4 oz.

no

0.000 -1.436 -1.236 3.076

alcohol

1 oz. 1.436 0.000 0.158 4.250

2 oz. 1.236 -0.158 0.000 3.996

4 oz. -3.076 -4.250 -3.996 0.000

Now t0.025 = 2.101 for 18 df. Examing the table above we see there are significant

differences in mean reaction time between the alcohol consumption group of 4oz.

with each of the other three groups (no alcohol, 1 oz., 2 oz.)

Page 7

Statistics 244.3 Review Problems for the Final Exam

f. Use the two sample F-test to compare the variance of reaction time

between each pair of groups.

Solution For each case we use

2

s 1

F = 12 and reject H 0 if F > F / 2 ( 9,9 ) or > F / 2 ( 9, 9 )

s2 F

no

F alcohol 1 oz. 2 oz. 4 oz.

no

1.000 1.365 1.469 1.075

alcohol

1 oz. 0.732 1.000 1.076 0.787

2 oz. 0.681 0.930 1.000 0.732

4 oz. 0.930 1.270 1.366 1.000

Now F0.025(9,9) = 4.206, Since F F0.025(9,9) for all pairs of groups we accept H0

(equality of variance) for all pairs of groups .

student is measured on a creativity score (x) using a well-defined testing

instrument and on a task score (y) using a new instrument. The task score is the

mean time taken to perform several hand-eye coordination tasks. The data are:

28 35 37 50 69 84 40 65 29 42 51 45 31 40

creativity score (x)

4.5 3.9 3.9 6.1 4.3 8.8 2.1 5.5 5.7 3 7.1 7.3 3.3 5.2

task score (y)

10

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

0 20 40 60 80 100

Page 8

Statistics 244.3 Review Problems for the Final Exam

b. Fit a linear equation predicting task score(Y) from creativity score (X).

Interpret the parameters.

Solution Now Sxx = 3503.714, Syy = 44.555, Sxy = 219.1

S 219.1

Hence = xy = = 0.06253 and

S xx 3503.714

= y x = 5.05 ( 0.06253)( 46.143) = 2.1645

S xy2

S yy

S xx 30.854

s= = = 2.571 = 1.603

n2 12

interval

Solution

Confidence interval for :

s

t / 2 or 0.004 to 0.122

S xx

Confidence interval for :

1 x2

t / 2 s + or -0.71 to 5.04

n S xx

d. Determine

i. Pearsons r

S xy 219.1

r= = = 0.5545

S xx S yy 3503.7143 44.55

ii. Spearmans

X 28 35 37 50 69 84 40 65 29 42 51 45 31 40

Y 4.5 3.9 3.9 6.1 4.3 8.8 2.1 5.5 5.7 3 7.1 7.3 3.3 5.2

Rank on X 1 4 5 10 13 14 6 12 2 8 11 9 3 7

Rank on Y 7 4 5 11 6 14 1 9 10 2 12 13 3 8

di -6 0 0 -1 7 0 5 3 -8 6 -1 -4 0 -1

n

6 d i2

n 6 ( 238 )

d 2

= 238 and = 1 i =1

= 1 = 0.4769

i =1

i

(

n n 1 2

) (

14 142 1 )

iii. The coefficient of determination

The coefficient of determination = r2 = (0.5545)2 = 0.3075

30.75% of the variance in Y is explained by X,

Page 9

Statistics 244.3 Review Problems for the Final Exam

e. Predict the task score (Y) of a company with a creativity score (X) of 50

using a 99% prediction interval.

1 (x x)

2

Use + x0 s t / 2 1 + + 0

n S xx

Solution: 0.21 to 10.37

Solution: 1.37 to 12.96

Page 10

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