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KE3 KE3 6 6 303 303 CONTROL CONTROL SYSTEMS SYSTEMS Assoc. Prof Ir Dr Yang

KE3KE366303303 CONTROLCONTROL SYSTEMSSYSTEMS

Assoc. Prof Ir Dr Yang Soo Siang BEng(Hons) MSc PhD MIEM PEng

Room 28 Level 3 Block A Faculty of Engineering Universiti Malaysia Sabah

KE36303 CONTROL SYSTEMS

KE36303 CONTROL SYSTEMS LECTURE 5: STABILITY ANALYSIS Assoc Prof Ir Dr Yang Soo Siang 2

LECTURE 5: STABILITY ANALYSIS

Assoc Prof Ir Dr Yang Soo Siang

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OVERVIEW

• General.

• Routh-Hurwitz criterion.

• Stability design.

Assoc Prof Ir Dr Yang Soo Siang

OVERVIEW • General. • Routh-Hurwitz criterion. • Stability design. Assoc Prof Ir Dr Yang Soo Siang

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GENERAL

GENERAL • Transient requirements: time constant, rise time, settling time, peak overshoot, damping ratio etc… •

• Transient requirements: time constant, rise time, settling time, peak overshoot, damping ratio etc…

• Steady state requirements: errors

• Stability: MOST IMPORTANT SYSTEM SPECIFICATION! WHY?

Assoc Prof Ir Dr Yang Soo Siang

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GENERAL

GENERAL • • If If system system is is unstable unstable … … need need not

IfIf systemsystem isis unstableunstableneedneed notnot considerconsider otherother specificationsspecificationsnono basisbasis forfor controllercontroller design.design.

FormalFormal definitions:definitions:

AnAn LTILTI systemsystem isis stablestable ifif thethe naturalnatural responseresponse appapproachesroaches zerozero asas timetime approachesapproaches infinity.infinity.

AnAn LTILTI systemsystem isis unstableunstable ifif thethe naturalnatural responseresponse ggrowsrows withoutwithout boundbound asas timetime approachesapproaches infinity.infinity.

AnAn LTILTI systemsystem isis marginallymarginally stablestable ifif thethe naturalnatural rresponseesponse neitherneither decaysdecays nornor growsgrows butbut remainsremains constantconstant oror oscillatesoscillates asas timetime approachesapproaches infinity.infinity.

Assoc Prof Ir Dr Yang Soo Siang

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GENERAL

GENERAL OR OR can can be be described described as: as: “ “ A A system

OROR cancan bebe describeddescribed as:as:

AA systemsystem isis stablestable ifif everyevery boundedbounded inputinput yieldsyields aa boundedbounded outputoutput

AA systemsystem isis unstableunstable ifif anyany boundedbounded inputinput yieldsyields anan unboundedunbounded outputoutput

thisthis definitiondefinition isis moremore relevantrelevant inin termsterms ofof contrcontrolol systemsystem stability!stability!

Assoc Prof Ir Dr Yang Soo Siang

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GENERAL

GENERAL •• RememberRemember whichwhich partpart ofof thethe transfertransfer functionfunction effecteffectss

••

RememberRemember whichwhich partpart ofof thethe transfertransfer functionfunction effecteffectss systemsystem stability?stability?

Hint:Hint:

ifif polespoles inin leftleft halfhalf planeplane (s-plane)(s-plane)

IfIf polespoles inin rightright halfhalf planeplane (s-plane)(s-plane)

Assoc Prof Ir Dr Yang Soo Siang

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GENERAL

GENERAL Assoc Prof Ir Dr Yang Soo Siang 8
GENERAL Assoc Prof Ir Dr Yang Soo Siang 8

Assoc Prof Ir Dr Yang Soo Siang

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GENERAL

GENERAL • • Unstable Unstable results results in in damage damage of of equipment, equipment, adjacent

UnstableUnstable

resultsresults inin

damagedamage ofof equipment,equipment, adjacentadjacent propertiesproperties

andand mostmost importantlyimportantlyhumanhuman lives.lives.

systems-systems-

physicallyphysically

SystemsSystems areare designeddesigned withwith limitlimit stopsstops toto preventprevent totaltotal runawayrunaway

Assoc Prof Ir Dr Yang Soo Siang

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ssttiillll rreelleevvaanntt

aavvaaiillaabbiilliittyy

ffaaccttoorriissaattiioonn??

iiss tthhiiss tthhee ffoorr iissssuuee

ssooffttwwaarree

wwiitthh

GENERAL

o o f f t t w w a a r r e e w w

NotNot allall mathematicalmathematical modelsmodels oror transfertransfer functionsfunctions areare easilyeasily factorisedfactorised forfor youyou toto observeobserve theirtheir polespoles conveniently!conveniently!

ForFor exampleexample

ooff
ooff

Assoc Prof Ir Dr Yang Soo Siang

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ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION

ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION • • This This method- method- yields yields stability stability information information

ThisThis method-method- yieldsyields stabilitystability informationinformation withoutwithout thethe needneed toto solvesolve forfor thethe closedclosed looploop poles.poles.

Results-Results- thethe numbernumber ofof closedclosed looploop systemsystem polespoles inin thethe leftleft halfhalf plane,plane, inin thethe rightright halfhalf planeplane andand onon thethe jjωω axis.axis.

HowHow manymany butbut notnot where!where! SoSo backback toto thethe previousprevious quequestionsstionswhywhy isis thisthis methodmethod stillstill relevant?relevant? Hint:Hint: forfor controllercontroller designdesignableable toto yieldyield aa rangerange ofof parametersparameters toto ensureensure stabilitystability ofof systemsystem

Assoc Prof Ir Dr Yang Soo Siang

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ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION

RequiresRequires twotwo steps:steps:

CRITERION • • Requires Requires two two steps: steps: – – Generate Generate a a data

GenerateGenerate aa datadata tabletable knownknown asas aa RouthRouth tabletable

InterpretInterpret thethe RouthRouth tabletable toto knowknow howhow manymany closedclosed looploop polespoles areare inin thethe leftleft halfhalf planeplane

etc etc

Assoc Prof Ir Dr Yang Soo Siang

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ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION

ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION • • Generating Generating the the Routh Routh table: table: – – For For

GeneratingGenerating thethe RouthRouth table:table:

ForFor example:example:

Routh table: table: – – For For example: example: – – Begin Begin by by labeling

BeginBegin byby labelinglabeling thethe rowsrows withwith powerspowers ofof ss fromfrom thethe highesthighest ofof thethe denominatordenominator ofof thethe closedclosed looploop transfertransfer functionfunction toto ss 00

Assoc Prof Ir Dr Yang Soo Siang

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ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION

ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION StartStart withwith coeffcoeff ofof thethe highesthighest powerpower ofof ss inin thethe
StartStart withwith coeffcoeff ofof thethe highesthighest powerpower ofof ss inin thethe denominatordenominator andand
StartStart withwith coeffcoeff ofof thethe highesthighest powerpower ofof
ss inin thethe denominatordenominator
andand listlist
horizontallyhorizontally inin thethe firstfirst row,row, everyevery otherother
coeff.coeff.

Assoc Prof Ir Dr Yang Soo Siang

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ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION

ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION InIn thethe secondsecond row,row, listlist horizontallyhorizontally startingstarting withwith
InIn thethe secondsecond row,row, listlist horizontallyhorizontally startingstarting withwith thethe nextnext
InIn thethe secondsecond row,row, listlist horizontallyhorizontally
startingstarting withwith thethe nextnext highesthighest powerpower ofof
ss,, everyevery coeffcoeff thatthat waswas skippedskipped inin thethe
firstfirst row.row.

Assoc Prof Ir Dr Yang Soo Siang

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ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION

ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION • • Generating Generating the the Routh Routh table: table: the the remaining remaining

GeneratingGenerating thethe RouthRouth table:table: thethe remainingremaining entryentry

EachEach entryentry isis aa negativenegative determinantdeterminant ofof entriesentries inin thethe previousprevious twotwo rowsrows divideddivided byby thethe entryentry inin thethe firstfirst columnscolumns directlydirectly aboveabove thethe calculatedcalculated row.row.

TheThe leftleft handhand columncolumn ofof thethe determinantdeterminant isis alwaysalways tthehe firstfirst columncolumn ofof thethe previousprevious twotwo rows,rows, andand thethe rightright handhand columncolumn isis thethe elementselements ofof thethe columncolumn aboveabove andand toto thethe right.right.

TheThe tabletable isis completecomplete whenwhen allall thethe rowsrows areare completcompleteded downdown toto ss 00

Assoc Prof Dr Ir Yang Soo Siang

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ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION

ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION • • Generating Generating the the Routh Routh table: table: Assoc Prof Ir Dr

GeneratingGenerating thethe RouthRouth table:table:

CRITERION • • Generating Generating the the Routh Routh table: table: Assoc Prof Ir Dr Yang

Assoc Prof Ir Dr Yang Soo Siang

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ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION

ForFor example:example:

ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION • • For For example: example: Assoc Prof Ir Dr Yang Soo Siang 18
ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION • • For For example: example: Assoc Prof Ir Dr Yang Soo Siang 18

Assoc Prof Ir Dr Yang Soo Siang

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ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION

ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION … for convenience any row can be multiplied by a positive constant without changing
ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION … for convenience any row can be multiplied by a positive constant without changing

… for convenience any row can be multiplied by a positive constant without changing the value of the rows below. Not to be multiplied by negative constants!

Assoc Prof Ir Dr Yang Soo Siang

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ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION

Interpretation:Interpretation:

CRITERION • • Interpretation: Interpretation: – – The The Routh-Hurwitz Routh-Hurwitz criterion

TheThe Routh-HurwitzRouth-Hurwitz criterioncriterion declaresdeclares thatthat thethe numbenumberr ofof rootsroots ofof thethe polynomialpolynomial thatthat areare inin thethe rightright hahalflf planeplane isis equalequal toto thethe numbernumber ofof signsign changeschanges inin thethe firstfirst column.column.

IfIf closedclosed looploop tftf hashas allall polespoles inin LHPLHP thenthen systemsystem isis stable;stable; nono signsign changechange inin thethe firstfirst column!column!

FromFrom thethe exampleexample shownshowntwotwo polespoles inin rightright RHPRHPWhy?Why? (based(based onon Routh-HurwitzRouth-Hurwitz criterioncriterion))

Assoc Prof Ir Dr Yang Soo Siang

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ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION

ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION Positive number Negative number Positive number 2 2 sign sign change change = =
Positive number Negative number
Positive number
Negative number
ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION Positive number Negative number Positive number 2 2 sign sign change change = =

Positive number

22 signsign changechange == 22 RHPRHP polespoles exist!exist! HenceHence systemsystem isis unstableunstable!

Assoc Prof Ir Dr Yang Soo Siang

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ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION

SpecialSpecial cases:cases:

CRITERION • • Special Special cases: cases: – – Zero Zero in in first first column

ZeroZero inin firstfirst columncolumn ofof aa rowrow

EntireEntire rowrow consistingconsisting ofof zerozero

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ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION

ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION • • For For example example (zero (zero in in first first column): column):

ForFor exampleexample (zero(zero inin firstfirst column):column):

T(s)=T(s)= 10/s10/s 55 +2s+2s 44 +3s+3s 33 +6s+6s 22 +5s+3+5s+3

Assoc Prof Ir Dr Yang Soo Siang

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ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION

ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION Assoc Prof Ir Dr Yang Soo Siang 24
ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION Assoc Prof Ir Dr Yang Soo Siang 24

Assoc Prof Ir Dr Yang Soo Siang

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ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION

ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION • • Replace Replace zero zero by by a a small small number, number,

ReplaceReplace zerozero byby aa smallsmall number,number, ϵϵ

AssumeAssume aa sign,sign, positivepositive oror negativenegative forfor thethe quantityquantity ϵϵ

Assoc Prof Ir Dr Yang Soo Siang

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ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION

ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION Assoc Prof Ir Dr Yang Soo Siang 26
ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION Assoc Prof Ir Dr Yang Soo Siang 26
ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION Assoc Prof Ir Dr Yang Soo Siang 26

Assoc Prof Ir Dr Yang Soo Siang

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ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION

ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION • • Whether Whether positive positive or or negative, negative, results results of of

WhetherWhether positivepositive oror negative,negative, resultsresults ofof interpretationinterpretation willwill bebe thethe same.same.

ForFor thethe example,example, systemsystem isis unstableunstable withwith 22 polespoles inin RHP.RHP.

Assoc Prof Ir Dr Yang Soo Siang

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ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION

AlternativelyAlternatively

CRITERION • • Alternatively Alternatively … … • • Write Write a a polynomial polynomial that

WriteWrite aa polynomialpolynomial thatthat hashas reciprocalreciprocal

writewrite thethe

rootsroots ofof thethe denominatordenominator denominatordenominator inin reversereverse order,order,

Assoc Prof Ir Dr Yang Soo Siang

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ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION

ViaVia thethe samesame example:example:

• • Via Via the the same same example: example: T(s)= T(s)= 10/s 10/s 5 5

T(s)=T(s)= 10/s10/s 55 +2s+2s 44 +3s+3s 33 +6s+6s 22 +5s+3+5s+3

TheThe denominatordenominator inin reversereverse orderorder

D(s)=D(s)= 3s3s 55 +5s+5s 44 +6s+6s 33 +3s+3s 22 +2s+1+2s+1

Assoc Prof Ir Dr Yang Soo Siang

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ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION

ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION Two sign changes hence system is unstable and has two RHP poles! Assoc Prof
Two sign changes hence system is unstable and has two RHP poles!
Two sign changes hence system
is unstable and has two RHP
poles!

Assoc Prof Ir Dr Yang Soo Siang

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ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION

ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION • • For For example example (row (row of of zeros zeros * *

ForFor exampleexample (row(row ofof zeroszeros**):):

T(s)=T(s)= 10/s10/s 55 +7s+7s 44 +6s+6s 33 +42s+42s 22 +8s+56+8s+56

** zerozero inin magnitudemagnitude NOTNOT zerozero ofof transfertransfer function!function!

Assoc Prof Ir Dr Yang Soo Siang

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ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION

ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION Assoc Prof Ir Dr Yang Soo Siang 32
ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION Assoc Prof Ir Dr Yang Soo Siang 32

Assoc Prof Ir Dr Yang Soo Siang

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ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION

ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION •• SecondSecond rowrow divideddivided byby 77 forfor convenience.convenience. ••

••

SecondSecond rowrow divideddivided byby 77 forfor convenience.convenience.

••

ThirdThird rowrow allall zeroszeros hencehence……

••

ObserveObserve thethe rowrow immediatelyimmediately aboveabove thethe rowrow ofof zeros,zeros, useuse entriesentries inin thatthat rowrow forfor coeffcoeff toto formform polynomiapolynomiall toto replacereplace allall zeroszeros inin thethe 33 rdrd row.row.

••

P(s)=sP(s)=s 44 +6s+6s 22 +8+8

••

Differentiating,Differentiating, dP(s)/ds=4sdP(s)/ds=4s 33 +12s+0+12s+0

Assoc Prof Ir Dr Yang Soo Siang

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ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION

ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION • • U U se se the the coeff coeff from from the the

UUsese thethe coeffcoeff fromfrom thethe differentiateddifferentiated polynomialpolynomial toto replacereplace thethe zeros,zeros,

44ss 33 ++1212s+s+00

••

ForFor convenience,convenience, multipliedmultiplied dividedivide byby 44 afterafter replareplacingcing thethe zeros.zeros.

••

RemainderRemainder ofof rowrow isis formedformed inin aa straightforwardstraightforward manmannerner byby followingfollowing thethe standardstandard form.form.

••

Obviously,Obviously, therethere areare nono RHPRHP poles!poles!

Assoc Prof Ir Dr Yang Soo Siang

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STABILITY DESIGN

• • STABILITY DESIGN Stability Stability design design example: example: find find the the range range

StabilityStability designdesign example:example: findfind thethe rangerange ofof gaingain KK forfor systemsystem toto bebe stable,stable, unstableunstable andand marginallymarginally stablestable AssumeAssume K>0.K>0.

marginally stable stable Assume Assume K>0. K>0. • • • • Find Find the the closed

FindFind thethe closedclosed looploop transfertransfer function.function. FormForm thethe RouthRouth tabletable

closed closed loop loop transfer transfer function. function. Form Form the the Routh Routh table table

Assoc Prof Ir Dr Yang Soo Siang

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STABILITY DESIGN

StabilityStability designdesign example:example:

STABILITY DESIGN • • Stability Stability design design example: example: Assoc Prof Ir Dr Yang Soo
STABILITY DESIGN • • Stability Stability design design example: example: Assoc Prof Ir Dr Yang Soo

Assoc Prof Ir Dr Yang Soo Siang

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STABILITY DESIGN

StabilityStability designdesign example:example:

• Stability Stability design design example: example: •• SinceSince KK isis assumedassumed

••

SinceSince KK isis assumedassumed positive,positive, wewe seesee allall elementselements inin thethe firstfirst columncolumn areare alwaysalways positivepositive exceptexcept forfor thethe ss 11 row.row.

••

ThisThis entryentry cancan bebe positive,positive, negativenegative oror zero.zero.

••

IfIf KK << 13861386 allall termsterms willwill bebe positive,positive, hencehence nono sisigngn change-change- 33 polespoles onon thethe LHPLHP andand stable.stable.

••

IfIf KK >> 13861386 thethe ss 11 termterm willwill bebe negative,negative, hencehence 22 signsign change-change- 22 polespoles onon thethe RHPRHP andand 11 polepole inin LHP,LHP, systemsystem unstabunstable.le.

Assoc Prof Ir Dr Yang Soo Siang

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STABILITY DESIGN

StabilityStability designdesign example:example:

DESIGN Stability Stability design design example: example: • • • • • • If If K

IfIf KK == 13861386 wewe havehave entireentire rowrow ofof zerozero

ReturningReturning toto thethe ss 22 rowrow andand replacingreplacing KK withwith 1386,1386, formform thethe polynomial,polynomial,

P(s)=18sP(s)=18s 22 +1386+1386

DifferentiatingDifferentiating withwith respectrespect toto s,s, dP(s)/dsdP(s)/ds == 36s+036s+0

hencehence replacereplace coeffcoeff inin thethe rowrow ofof zeroszeros

Assoc Prof Ir Dr Yang Soo Siang

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STABILITY DESIGN

StabilityStability designdesign example:example:

STABILITY DESIGN • • Stability Stability design design example: example: Assoc Prof Ir Dr Yang Soo
STABILITY DESIGN • • Stability Stability design design example: example: Assoc Prof Ir Dr Yang Soo

Assoc Prof Ir Dr Yang Soo Siang

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STABILITY DESIGN

StabilityStability designdesign example:example:

• Stability Stability design design example: example: •• NoNo changechange ofof signsign hencehence thethe

••

NoNo changechange ofof signsign hencehence thethe eveneven polynomialpolynomial downdown toto bottombottom ofof table.table.

••

EvenEven polynomialpolynomial hashas twotwo rootsroots onon thethe jwjw axis.axis.

NoNo signsign changechange aboveabove eveneven polynomial,polynomial, hencehence remainingremaining rootroot isis inin LHP-LHP- systemsystem isis marginallymarginally stable.stable.

Assoc Prof Ir Dr Yang Soo Siang

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NEXT LECTURE

• Root Locus:

– Basic stuff- significance etc.

– Plotting and sketching

• What you need to do!

etc. – Plotting and sketching • What you need to do! – Review this lecture and

– Review this lecture and try out examples in Chp 5, Nise till pg 305. They are all relevant for your understanding and for you to be familiar with forming the Routh table and stability design via Routh Hurwitz.

– In addition, read about root locus of course!

Assoc Prof Ir Dr Yang Soo Siang

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