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Vocabulary Notes (Prepared by Aamir Mahar)



Vocabulary Notes (Prepared by Aamir Mahar)


have compiled these Vocabulary Words (from different sources) asked in various examinations held by
FPSC. Readers, must read each word a minimum of three (3) times, and understood synonyms, antonyms
and sample sentences carefully. Also, writing your personal version on each word will aid in the indelible
impression that each word can make. Albeit, there is certainly no more productive means of concrete
vocabulary acquisition than the actual use of the terms in your daily verbal or written communiqus!
Remember that: If you do not use it, you will use it. I hope these notes will stand up to your expectations.
Wishing you all the very best and a bright future ahead.
Synonyms: garish, loud Synonyms: adulation, cajolery
Antonyms: genuine, real Antonyms: criticism, condemnation
Sentence: He believes in living a meretricious life. Sentence: At first he used his arts of blandishment and
honeyed words in order to lure his boss.
Synonyms: combative, hostile IMPERTURBABILITY (NOUN): balance
Antonyms: agreeable, calm Synonyms: aplomb, coolness
Sentence: She comes across bellicose to men who Antonyms: agitation, anxiety
approach her. Sentence: His imperturbability always had the effect of a
goad upon his fathers temper.
SNIPER (NOUN): bandit
Synonyms: criminal, crook AUGURY (NOUN): omen
Antonyms: law, police Synonyms: auspice, harbinger
Sentence: He is a notorious sniper. Antonyms: short-sighted, assurance
Sentence: This incident of his infancy was accepted as an
FOIBLE (NOUN): shortcoming augury of his maturity, and he did not believe it.
Synonyms: eccentricity, frailty
Antonyms: advantage, normality GLIB (ADJECTIVE): slick, smooth-talking
Sentence: I cant let this whole project work go wrong Synonyms: artful, facile
just because of some foible. Antonyms: stuttering, inarticulate
Sentence: She advises women with similar issues not to
GLOAT (VERB): exclaim triumph settle for glib explanations.
Synonyms: rejoice, relish
Antonyms: be sad, commiserate OSTRACISM (NOUN): banishment
Sentence: The winning team was polite enough to not Synonyms: avoidance, boycott
gloat over its huge win. Antonyms: acceptance, allowance
Sentence: Only cruel teachers can follow ostracism and
IMBUE (VERB): inculcate ill-treat their children.
Synonyms: ingrain, instil
Antonyms: drain, take out REPINE (VERB): complain
Sentence: When cinnamon is added to the sweet Synonyms: grumble, lament
potato batter, it will imbue the pie with a hint of spice. Antonyms: appreciate, praise
Sentence: She likes to repine about her colleagues.
HAGGLE (VERB): bicker
Synonyms: barter, quibble FEINT (NOUN): pretense
Antonyms: agree, concur Synonyms: ruse, bluff
Sentence: Ill pay the sticker price because I do not Antonyms: honesty, truth
want to haggle with the trader. Sentence: She pretended to be making great efforts to
cope up with the course but it was merely a feint.
FRITTER (VERB): Waste away
Synonyms: misspend, dally INURE (VERB): accustom
Antonyms: conserve, preserve Synonyms: familiarize, habituate
Sentence: It is advised to not to fritter your money. Antonyms: neglect, soften
Sentence: A continuation of the wrongful exclusion of
GRASP (NOUN): understanding these Pakistanis from their lands should not inure to the
Synonyms: awareness, knowledge benefit of the wrongdoers.
Antonyms: ignorance, avoidance
Sentence: I like his grasp over the subject. RECONDITE (ADJECTIVE): mysterious, obscure
Synonyms: arcane, cabalistic
FLINCH (VERB): Avoid Antonyms: simple, straightforward
Synonyms: dodge, duck Sentence: How else to explain the popularity of a novel
Antonyms: face, confront so free of plot, so obsessed with existential rumination
Sentence: Do not try to flinch your duties. and recondite philosophy?
Vocabulary Notes (Prepared by Aamir Mahar)
ABSTRUSE (ADJECTIVE): difficult to understand MOUTHY (ADJECTIVE): Talkative
Synonyms: esoteric, perplexing Synonyms: chatty, gabby
Antonyms: lucid, clear Antonyms: reticent, silent
Sentence: He is an extremely mouthy boy.
Sentence: Dont get into abstruse task and dont bite
off more than you can chew. DEBONAIR (ADJECTIVE): charming
Synonyms: affable, elegant
ACCOST (VERB): approach for conversation Antonyms: awkward, inelegant
Synonyms: address, confront Sentence: Arsalan has a debonair personality.
Antonyms: dodge, shun
Sentence: She waited him to accost and then played it PESTILENT (ADJECTIVE): Baneful
Synonyms: contagious, deleterious
by ear.
Antonyms: harmless, innocuous
Sentence: To many, homeless beggars are nothing more
BARRAGE (NOUN): assault than pestilent irritants.
Synonyms: blast, attack
Antonyms: defence, shield PERPETRATE (VERB): Be responsible for
Sentence: When she was experiencing the barrage the Synonyms: carry out, commit
royal Prince came like a knight in shining armour. Antonyms: halt, stop
Sentence: Who would perpetrate for this crime?
BENIGN (ADJECTIVE): curable RAKISH (ADJECTIVE): Charming and immoral
Synonyms: not cancerous, remediable Synonyms: dashing, jaunty
Antonyms: cancerous, injurious Antonyms: moral, upright
Sentence: His ailment was benign but at that last Sentence: She gave Ahmed a rakish smile.
moment doctors turned a blind eye.
Synonyms: captivate, enrapture
ABDICATION (NOUN): relinquishment Antonyms: disenchant, disgust
Synonyms: abandonment, disavowal Sentence: I was totally engrossed by her beauty.
Antonyms: sanction, allowance
Sentence: The family was fed up with the abdication MIDDLING (ADJECTIVE): adequate
from the society. Synonyms: mediocre, passable
Antonyms: extreme, exceptional
Sentence: The patient needs middling amount of water
BABBLE (VERB): mumble
every half an hour.
Synonyms: mutter, murmur
Antonyms: be quiet, be silent DECOY (NOUN): trap
Sentence: She would not babble is like a fat chance. Synonyms: attraction, inducement
Antonyms: honesty, frankness
BAIT (VERB): entice Sentence: We caught a rat, using a decoy to trick it into
Synonyms: tempt, seduce the cage.
Antonyms: repel, repulse
Sentence: She knows the ropes how to bait him. Synonyms: quarrelsome, critical
Antonyms: pleasant, peaceful
ABET (VERB): instigate Sentence: You are a cantankerous man.
Synonyms: provoke, incite
Antonyms: resist, prevent DANK (ADJECTIVE): moist
Sentence: He abets his neighbour all the time, dont you Synonyms: clammy, muggy
Antonyms: parched, dry
know he is mad as a hatter. Sentence: The middle section of the house is fully dank.
Vocabulary Notes (Prepared by Aamir Mahar)
Synonyms: profitless, stale Synonyms: buffoon, jerk
Antonyms: productive, fertile Antonyms: brain, genius
Sentence: His plan is utterly barren, he has his head in Sentence: He is a simpleton boy and tries to make
the clouds now a days. everybody around him laugh.

ABJURE (VERB): give up CLANNISH (ADJECTIVE): exclusive

Synonyms: forswear, recant Synonyms: selected, reserved
Antonyms: allow, emphasize Antonyms: welcoming, open
Sentence: I abjure working on his poor etiquettes as he is Sentence: Celebrities believe in wearing clannish dresses.
driving me round the bend now.
COMPETENCE (NOUN): capability Synonyms: torture, distress
Antonyms: please, relieve
Synonyms: ability, proficiency
Sentence: She was lacerated with her filthy remarks.
Antonyms: bluntness, dullness
Sentence: I regard him as a man of integrity and high SATANIC (ADJECTIVE): demonic
professional competence. Synonyms: cruel, maniacal
Antonyms: angelic, good
COMPENDIUM (NOUN): summary Sentence: His fathers satanic remark stung deeply and
Synonyms: digest, compilation brought the boy to tears.
Antonyms: extension, enlargement
Sentence: His book is a delightful compendium of MURKY (ADJECTIVE): obscure
important questions. Synonyms: cloudy, dark
Antonyms: bright, apparent
COMPASSION (NOUN): pity Sentence: The plane crashed due to murky weather.
Synonyms: tenderness, gentleness
PAROXYSM (NOUN): outburst
Antonyms: antipathy, ruthlessness
Synonyms: seizure, spasm
Sentence: There is no need to show compassion. Antonyms: peace, calm
Sentence: Nazia overcome a paroxysm of grief.
Synonyms: sensual, lascivious CHOLERIC (ADJECTIVE): irritable
Antonyms: moral, decent Synonyms: peevish, irascible
Sentence: The child should be kept away from Antonyms: happy, pleasant
Sentence: He was beaten by a choleric old schoolmaster.
libidinous movies.
MARSHAL (VERB): organize
REVELRY (NOUN): merrymaking Synonyms: assemble, mobilize
Synonyms: festivity, celebration Antonyms: disperse, disarrange
Antonyms: mourning, sadness Sentence: The government marshaled its economic
Sentence: I called the police when my neighbours resources.
refused to settle down and end their revelry.
OCCULT (NOUN): supernatural practices and
RUSE (NOUN): trick, deception Synonyms: magic, mystic
Synonyms: gimmick, ploy Antonyms: open, clear
Antonyms: honesty, openness Sentence: Imran has made a study of witches and the
Sentence: It was a ruse to bring him there. occult.
Vocabulary Notes (Prepared by Aamir Mahar)
PREEMPT (VERB): To acquire or take Synonyms: incoherent, blurred
Synonyms: confiscate, annex Antonyms: articulate, communicative
Antonyms: relinquish, surrender Sentence: He made an inarticulate noise in the back of his
Sentence: I've preempted the next compartment. throat.

ASPERITY (NOUN): the quality of being hard VENGEANCE (NOUN): revenge

Synonyms: harshness, acerbity Synonyms: reprisal, requital
Antonyms: sweetness, courtesy Antonyms: forgiveness, pardon
Sentence: I told you he had no idea she remarked with Sentence: She wanted vengeance for the loss of her
some asperity. daughter.

BEATITUDE (NOUN): a state of supreme happiness BESEECH (VERB): beg earnestly

Synonyms: bliss, ecstasy Synonyms: implore, adjure
Antonyms: sorrow, misery Antonyms: command, reply
Sentence: After qualifying the CSS Exam, Aamir was in a Sentence: I beseech you, dont punish him.
state of beatitude.
PUNY (ADJECTIVE): small and weak
CAPRICIOUS (ADJECTIVE): changeable Synonyms: inconsequential, diminutive
Synonyms: erratic, fickle Antonyms: giant, strong
Antonyms: constant, predictable Sentence: What can we expect from a puny child?
Sentence: She may change her mind, she's very
capricious. CONJECTURE (NOUN): guesswork
Synonyms: speculation, hunch
DENOUEMENT (NOUN): the outcome of a complex Antonyms: certainty, reality
sequence of events Sentence: Sidra made several conjectures about where
Synonyms: conclusion, result her son might be.
Antonyms: beginning, opening
Sentence: The unexpected denouement of the affair JAMBOREE (NOUN): noisy celebration
was surprising for all. Synonyms: ceremony, festival
Antonyms: weary, condolence
RESPLENDENT (ADJECTIVE): impressive Sentence: Our company has planned a nice jamboree.
Synonyms: splendid, dazzling
Antonyms: dull, gloomy JAUNDICED (NOUN): prejudiced
Sentence: Yesterday, my wife bought a resplendent Synonyms: biased, bitter
purse from the market. Antonyms: unbiased, unprejudiced
Sentence: The writer of a novel showed his jaundiced
PIQUE (NOUN): irritation vision in the novel.
Synonyms: annoyance, ruckus
Antonyms: delight, joy LACKADAISICAL (ADJECTIVE): lazy
Sentence: In a fit of pique, he threw down his bag. Synonyms: lethargic, indifferent
Antonyms: excited, inspired
DISARMING (ADJECTIVE): charming Sentence: he seemed a little lackadaisical at times.
Synonyms: irresistible, saccharine
Antonyms: despicable, disgusting LAMBASTE (VERB): punish
Sentence: He approached with a disarming smile. Synonyms: castigate, criticize
Antonyms: praise, loud
FATHOM (VERB): measure the depth of Sentence: No one should be lambasted without any fault.
Synonyms: comprehend, penetrate
Antonyms: neglect, misinterpret LARCENY (NOUN): theft
Sentence: It is hard to fathom the pain felt at the Synonyms: stealing, robbery
death of a child. Antonyms: pay, reimbursement
Sentence: He was arrested because of grand larceny
INARTICULATE (ADJECTIVE): unable to express charges.
oneself clearly
Vocabulary Notes (Prepared by Aamir Mahar)
LARGESS (NOUN): generosity PEDANTIC (ADJECTIVE): marked by a narrow
Synonyms: magnanimity, altruistic focus on
Antonyms: greediness, meanness Synonyms: bookish, didactic
Sentence: Largess is an absolute quality of a nobleman. Antonyms: plain, simple
Sentence: His lecture was pedantic and uninteresting.
Synonyms: secret, concealed PECUNIARY (ADJECTIVE): relating to or involving
Antonyms: developed, expressed money
Sentence: Advertisements attempt to project a latent Synonyms: monetary, financial
meaning behind an overt message. Antonyms: nonfinancial, noncommercial
Sentence: She denies obtaining a pecuniary advantage by
LIMPID (ADJECTIVE): understandable deception.
Synonyms: clear, unambiguous
Antonyms: incomprehensible, obscure PALL (NOUN): melancholy
Sentence: The speech was a model of its kind - limpid Synonyms: dismay, gloom
and unaffected. Antonyms: happiness, excitement
Sentence: His absence cast a pall over the celebration.
Synonyms: supple, agile PAUPER (NOUN): a person who is poor
Antonyms: clumsy, rigid Synonyms: supplicant, bankrupt
Sentence: His walk was lithe and graceful. Antonyms: rich, wealthy
Sentence: Although Meryam is a pauper, she wears fancy
PENCHANT (NOUN): a strong liking dresses.
Synonyms: fondness, inclination
Antonyms: antipathy, dislike TENACITY (NOUN): diligence
Sentence: He had a penchant for playing jokes on Synonyms: determination, perseverance
people. Antonyms: idleness, slackness
Sentence: Without tenacity, you will not be able to
PENANCE (NOUN): atonement complete the marathon.
Synonyms: punishment, penalty
Antonyms: reward, price PANICKY (ADJECTIVE): frightened
Sentence: The penance imposed on him proved light. Synonyms: worried, afraid
Antonyms: confident, calm
PELLUCID (ADJECTIVE): transparently clear; easily Sentence: Many women feel panicky when traveling
understandable alone at night.
Synonyms: bright, explicit
Antonyms: unclear, doubtful PANEGYRIC (NOUN): tribute
Sentence: Alis plan is pellucid therefore I cant object. Synonyms: praise, homage
Antonyms: dishonor, disrespect
PEJORATIVE (ADJECTIVE): expressing disapproval Sentence: It is traditional to deliver a panegyric to the
Synonyms: negative, debasing departed.
Antonyms: praising, positive
Sentence: Imran used the word in a pejorative sense. PANDER (VERB): indulge
Synonyms: please, satisfy
PEEVISH (ADJECTIVE): easily irritated or annoyed Antonyms: anger, annoy
Synonyms: irritable, crabbed Sentence: The government has pandered to the terrorists
Antonyms: pleasant, cheerful for far too long.
Sentence: Lack of sleep never made me peevish.
OBESE (ADJECTIVE): very overweight
PEER (NOUN): person who is another's equal Synonyms: corpulent, heavy
Synonyms: companion, compeer Antonyms: skinny, underweight
Antonyms: opponent, foe Sentence: My sister was fairly slim as a child, but has had
Sentence: His personality made him popular with his to fight obesity all her adult life.
Vocabulary Notes (Prepared by Aamir Mahar)
PARRY (VERB): ward off DEBAUCH (VERB): deprave
Synonyms: avoid, dodge Synonyms: corrupt, defile
Antonyms: allow, attract Antonyms: defend, clean
Sentence: He parried questions about his involvement Sentence: Faizan wanted to debauch his friend but
in the affair. he failed.


Synonyms: obvious, apparent Synonyms: affable, elegant
Antonyms: concealed, hidden Antonyms: awkward, inelegant
Sentence: This was a patent lie. Sentence: Danish is a handsome and debonair boy
although he is not interested in modeling.
Synonyms: serious, sober DECAMP (VERB): depart suddenly
Antonyms: ignorant, negligent Synonyms: evacuate, escape
Sentence: Nowadays, Ahmed is looking very pensive. Antonyms: arrive, enter
Sentence: A child planned to decamp but his mother
PEREMPTORY (ADJECTIVE): autocratic caught him at the door.
Synonyms: intolerant, dogmatic
Antonyms: lenient, mild DECOROUS (ADJECTIVE): suitable
Sentence: He treated his colleagues in a peremptory Synonyms: polite, sedate
manner. Antonyms: impolite, indecent
Sentence: We all should behave in a decorous manner.
SHED (VERB): cast off
Synonyms: discard, scrap DECOY (NOUN): trap
Antonyms: keep, collect Synonyms: attraction, inducement
Sentence: The failing economy had forced the company to Antonyms: honesty, frankness
shed over 500 positions this past quarter. Sentence: He acted as a decoy to draw the dogs' attention
away from the children.
Synonyms: absurd, crazy REDUNDANT (ADJECTIVE): excessive, repetitious
Antonyms: intelligent, smart Synonyms: superfluous, unnecessary
Sentence: I wasn't so daft as to believe my friend. Antonyms: necessary, essential
Sentence: The programmer deleted the redundant line of
DANK (ADJECTIVE): moist code that added no value to the software program.
Synonyms: clammy, muggy
Antonyms: parched, dry SUPPLE (ADJECTIVE): flexible
Sentence: The kitchen was very dank. Synonyms: pliant, stretchable
Antonyms: stiff, rigid
DAREDEVIL (ADJECTIVE): adventurous Sentence: Paul was incredibly supple and strong.
Synonyms: daring, bold
Antonyms: fearful, cowardly SURREPTITIOUS (ADJECTIVE): secret
Sentence: He enjoys playing daredevil games. Synonyms: underhand, private
Antonyms: open, clear
DAUB (VERB): make dirty Sentence: They had several surreptitious
Synonyms: deface, smear conversations.
Antonyms: cleanse, purify
Sentence: They daubed his home with slogans. SYCOPHANT (NOUN): flatterer
Synonyms: polisher, leech
DAUNT (VERB): discourage Antonyms: master, dictator
Synonyms: frighten, scare Sentence: Whatever Farhan says about his boss, cant
Antonyms: encourage, inspire be believed because he is a sycophant.
Sentence: Nothing evil could daunt them.
Synonyms: intoxicated, boozy
Vocabulary Notes (Prepared by Aamir Mahar)
Antonyms: sober, straight Antonyms: inarticulate, stuttering
Sentence: The inebriated partygoers were very loud. Sentence: The salesman was a very glib man.


Synonyms: splendid, deluxe Synonyms: excess, oversupply
Antonyms: plain, cheap Antonyms: dearth, lack
Sentence: They live in sumptuous surroundings. Sentence: There's a glut of agricultural products in Sindh.


Synonyms: haughty, egotistic Synonyms: content, delight
Antonyms: humble, meek Antonyms: discontent, dissatisfy
Sentence: Sohail is a supercilious boy. Sentence: She was gratified by his response.


Synonyms: laborious, burdensome Synonyms: common, banal
Antonyms: effortless, half-hearted Antonyms: fresh, new
Sentence: This is a better advice for you that you Sentence: That's the old hackneyed phrase, but it's true.
should avoid strenuous exercise in the evening.
INCARCERATE (VERB): imprison Synonyms: aimless, casual
Synonyms: jail, captive Antonyms: planned, systematic
Antonyms: free, give liberty Sentence: A haphazard arrangement makes him angry.
Sentence: It can cost Rs. 50,000 to incarcerate a
prisoner for a year. HAUGHTY (ADJECTIVE): arrogant
Synonyms: proud, pompous
INCIPIENT (ADJECTIVE): starting Antonyms: humble, modest
Synonyms: beginning, inceptive Sentence: He spoke in a haughty tone.
Antonyms: final, mature
Sentence: There were signs of incipient panic. ELEGANT (ADJECTIVE): beautiful
Synonyms: dignified, fancy
TAINT (VERB): disgrace Antonyms: dull, ugly
Synonyms: shame, dishonour Sentence: You look elegant today.
Antonyms: respect, honour
Sentence: The celebrities were tainted by the media. ENUNCIATE (VERB): declare
Synonyms: propound, express
TANTALIZE (VERB): torture Antonyms: conceal, suppress
Synonyms: frustrate, tease Sentence: He was always ready to enunciate his views to
Antonyms: please, encourage anyone who would listen.
Sentence: When Ahmed had joined the college he was
tantalized there. PERSISTENT (ADJECTIVE): constant
Synonyms: continual, endless
TRADUCE (VERB): defame Antonyms: intermittent, occasional
Synonyms: denigrate, malign Sentence: A persistent effort is required to get success.
Antonyms: glorify, honor
Sentence: We shouldnt traduce anyone by saying ENNUI (NOUN): apathy
something wrong. Synonyms: boredom, fatigue
GERMANE (ADJECTIVE): relevant Antonyms: activeness, speed
Synonyms: pertinent, apposite Sentence: He suffered from ennui whenever he was alone.
Antonyms: irrelevant, inappropriate
Sentence: Germane advertisements are not published ENMESH (VERB): intricate
in the local newspaper. Synonyms: entangle, involve
Antonyms: free, liberate
GLIB (ADJECTIVE): smooth-spoken Synonyms: He tried to enmesh Ali but he was fortunate
Synonyms: artful, eloquent enough to be saved.
Vocabulary Notes (Prepared by Aamir Mahar)
Synonyms: unclear, ambiguous Synonyms: excited, frenzied
Antonyms: clear, definite Antonyms: balanced, rational
Sentence: He was evasive about the circumstances of Sentence: He was delirious with joy.
his first meeting.
DERANGE (VERB): disorder
EVINCE (VERB): manifest Synonyms: addle, muddle
Synonyms: show, display Antonyms: order, arrange
Antonyms: conceal, hide Sentence: This does not derange the numbers, since
Sentence: We shouldnt evince our weakness to the order of succession is observed.
ESCULENT (ADJECTIVE): edible Synonyms: dishonouring, disparaging
Synonyms: palatable, eatable Antonyms: appreciable, honouring
Antonyms: uneatable, indigestible Sentence: She refused to withdraw her derogatory
Sentence: Esculent plants are those which are suitable remarks.
for food.
DESCENT (NOUN): going down
EXONERATE (VERB): absolve Synonyms: drop, plunge
Synonyms: exculpate, forgive Antonyms: ascent, climb
Antonyms: condemn, punish Sentence: That is a steep descent.
Sentence: The official report exonerated the school of
any blame. DESPICABLE (ADJECTIVE): contemptible
Synonyms: shameful, vile
PERFIDY (NOUN): infidelity Antonyms: honorable, reputable
Synonyms: faithlessness, dishonesty Sentence: He said that it was a despicable crime.
Antonyms: honesty, straightforwardness
Sentence: Can anyone believe perfidy is a quality of a DESPISE (VERB): abhor
noble man? Synonyms: loathe, contemn
Antonyms: regard, admire
DEFT (ADJECTIVE): efficient Sentence: I know she despises me for failing in the test.
Synonyms: adroit, dexterous
Antonyms: dull, blunt COGNOSCENTE (NOUN): expert
Sentence: Her movements during dance were neat Synonyms: judge, specialist
and deft. Antonyms: inexperienced, novice
Sentence: My father is a cognoscente in every field.
Synonyms: lifeless, dead COLLOQUIAL (ADJECTIVE): conversational
Antonyms: live, active Synonyms: informal, familiar
Sentence: Can a defunct law change the face of a Antonyms: formal, unfamiliar
country? Sentence: He converses in colloquial Japanese as easily as
in English.
Synonyms: decline, degrade COLOSSUS (NOUN): gigantic
Antonyms: improve, upgrade Synonyms: enormous, huge
Sentence: The quality of his writing degenerated as he Antonyms: small, pygmy
continued to drink. Sentence: The Landmark hotel in Sukkur is very colossus.

DEIFY (VERB): elevate COMBAT (VERB): battle

Synonyms: idolize, adore Synonyms: fight, war
Antonyms: condemn, critize Antonyms: compromise, negotiate
Sentence: The audience deified the singers Sentence: The residents of the town tried to combat the
performance. government's plans to build a motorway.
Vocabulary Notes (Prepared by Aamir Mahar)
Synonyms: remember, memorialize Synonyms: penchant, predilection
Antonyms: forget, neglect Antonyms: antipathy, dislike
Sentence: This inscription commemorates those who
Sentence: The new book concludes in a way that hardly
matches my own social proclivity.
Synonyms: appeasing, mollifying QUISLING (NOUN): Traitor
Antonyms: aggravating, instigating Synonyms: betrayer, collaborator
Sentence: The next time he will use a conciliatory tone. Antonyms: loyalist, patriot
Sentence: He was proved to be a quisling.
Synonyms: docile, pliant
Antonyms: obstinate, stubborn PLEBIAN (ADJECTIVE): Native
Sentence: My brother is a compliant boy. Synonyms: local, indigenous
Antonyms: uncommon, different
TITULAR (ADJECTIVE): having a title Sentence: He is a plebian author.
Synonyms: nominal, so-called
Antonyms: actual, real OPULENCE (NOUN): Wealth
Sentence: He always refused any titular distinction; Synonyms: abundance, affluence
but he was credited by many. Antonyms: dearth, deficiency
Sentence: Her opulence made her have many friends.
Synonyms: flecked, mottled OBVIATE (VERB): Counteract
Antonyms: plain, simple Synonyms: preclude, forestall
Sentence: The valley was speckled with flowers. Antonyms: assist, support
Sentence: Climatic conditions obviate the necessity
BEFOUL (VERB): contaminate of rain.
Synonyms: dirty, malign
Antonyms: cleanse, purify OVERT (ADJECTIVE): Obvious
Sentence: The kids befouled their hands by playing Synonyms: apparent, definite
in the garden. Antonyms: obscure, uncertain
Sentence: The new guest smiled in return but gave no
FLURRY (NOUN): commotion overt sign of knowing the man.
Synonyms: turmoil, outbreak
Antonyms: calm, peace MEDDLESOME (ADJECTIVE): Interfering
Sentence: During weekends the street markets are in a Synonyms: intrusive, meddling
state of flurry. Antonyms: avoiding, dodging
Sentence: She made a meddlesome remark.
QUANDARY (NOUN): Delicate situation
Synonyms: difficulty, dilemma MINCING (ADJECTIVE): Affected
Antonyms: advantage, boon Synonyms: artificial, dainty
Sentence: I found myself in a quandary. Antonyms: extroverted, unaffected
Sentence: Ria cant put up with his mincing voice for
QUIETUDE (NOUN): Calm rest of her life.
Synonyms: dispassion, peace
Antonyms: agitation, clamor LAVISH (ADJECTIVE): wasteful
Sentence: Ayesha lived here in quietude. Synonyms: extravagant, profligate
Antonyms: economical, mean
Vocabulary Notes (Prepared by Aamir Mahar)
Sentence: She came to a grief because of his lavish RAPT (ADJECTIVE): fully attentive
spending habits. Synonyms: elated, ecstatic
Antonyms: dejected, doleful
LACONIC (ADJECTIVE): brief Sentence: He listened to the speaker with rapt attention.
Synonyms: short, terse
Antonyms: verbose, wordy PERPETUATE (VERB): maintain
Sentence: Though his speech was laconic, yet it was Synonyms: preserve, conserve
lucid. Antonyms: discontinue, cease
Sentence: In order to perpetuate the method of amending
MAMMOTH (ADJECTIVE): huge the constitution was made extremely rigid.
Synonyms: enormous, gargantuan
Antonyms: little, miniature MALIGNANT (ADJECTIVE): deadly
Sentence: A mammoth project will be completed soon. Synonyms: destructive, mortal
Antonyms: harmless, healthful
MENACE (NOUN): danger Sentence: He died of a malignant tumour.
Synonyms: threat, peril
Antonyms: safety, surety DENIGRATE (VERB): besmirch
Sentence: Terrorism is a potential menace to the Synonyms: defame, disparage
integrity of the country. Antonyms: praise, laud
Sentence: We should not try to denigrate the character
MANIFEST (ADJECTIVE): clear of anyone.
Synonyms: understandable, palpable
Antonyms: unclear, obscure DAUNTLESS (ADJECTIVE): bold
Sentence: His evil intentions were manifest when he Synonyms: brave, gallant
mentioned the question of dowry. Antonyms: timid, fearful
Sentence: Z.A. Bhutto was a dauntless politician.
MODICUM (NOUN): small amount
Synonyms: ounce, shred DECORUM (NOUN): grace
Antonyms: lot, whole Synonyms: propriety, dignity
Sentence: There is no modicum of truth in her words. Antonyms: Impropriety, Levity
Sentence: We all should maintain our decorum.
OBLIVION (NOUN): mental blankness
Synonyms: forgetfulness, unconsciousness DETRIMENT (NOUN): damage
Antonyms: awareness, concern Synonyms: harm, loss
Sentence: He drank himself into oblivion. Antonyms: profit, benefit
Sentence: Smoking is a detriment to good health.
REFURBISH (VERB): make clean
Synonyms: repair, renovate DREARY (ADJECTIVE): cheerless
Antonyms: ruin, destroy Synonyms: comfortless, dark
Sentence: A person can refurbish his image by leading Antonyms: inspiring, pleasant
life dedicated to his vocation. Sentence: I will have to go to another dreary meeting
RAZE (VERB): destroy completely
Synonyms: demolish, obliterate GROTESQUE (ADJECTIVE): ugly
Antonyms: build, construct Synonyms: absurd, odd
Sentence: Dozens of villages have been razed. Antonyms: graceful, natural
Sentence: His grotesque appearance makes him defame.
Vocabulary Notes (Prepared by Aamir Mahar)
Synonyms: relapse, go by Synonyms: warm, unenthusiastic
Antonyms: stop, freeze Antonyms: enthusiastic, keen
Sentence: He players glided across the field easily. Sentence: The applause from the audience was tepid.


Synonyms: cautiously, delicately Synonyms: glimmer, indication
Antonyms: hesitantly, timidly Antonyms: information, lot
Sentence: Ahmed gingerly moved his injured foot. Sentence: Some people are said to have revealed no
vestige of religion.
TEEM (VERB): Overflow
Synonyms: overrun, full INGRAINED (ADJECTIVE): Deep-rooted
Antonyms: lack, need Synonyms: deep-seated, inbred
Sentence: The sagas teem with references to the Antonyms: acquired, learned
inhabitants. Sentence: The notion of scarcity is ingrained in them.

CHUNKY (ADJECTIVE): Chubby FEUD (NOUN): major argument

Synonyms: stocky, stout Synonyms: conflict, dispute
Antonyms: skinny, thin Antonyms: friendship, accord
Sentence: Urooj is a chunky fellow of mine. Sentence: The feud between the two sisters lasted for
two hours.
Synonyms: grab, catch FLUSTER (NOUN): perturbation, upset
Antonyms: loose, release Synonyms: agitation, disturbance
Sentence: Ali went to the window and hasped it. Antonyms: peace, calmness
Sentence: There was no longer any fluster or hesitation in
UNDERTONE (NOUN): Mumble his manner.
Synonyms: murmur, hint
Antonyms: overtone, enunciate FEALTY (NOUN): allegiance
Sentence: Nisha was talking in undertone. Synonyms: faithfulness, loyalty
Antonyms: disloyalty, treachery
UNSCATHED (ADJECTIVE): Unharmed Sentence: Everyone expect fealty from their good friends.
Synonyms: unhurt, uninjured
Antonyms: hurt, injured BROACH (VERB): bring up a topic
Sentence: The passengers escaped unscathed. Synonyms: introduce, moot
Antonyms: stop, close
VARNISH (VERB): add a layer to; embellish Sentence: The subject was broached to nurture the
Synonyms: lacquer, cover students in a better way.
Antonyms: uncover, reveal
Sentence: The painter varnished the doors. COY (ADJECTIVE): bashful
Synonyms: skittish, timid
TOUT (VERB): Laud Antonyms: aggressive, forward
Synonyms: praise, promote Sentence: Sania gave him a coy smile.
Antonyms: blame, discourage
Sentence: They touted her performance. CONCOCT (VERB): formulate, think up
Synonyms: contrive, create
Antonyms: demolish, destroy
Vocabulary Notes (Prepared by Aamir Mahar)
Sentence: He concocted an idea to start a new business. APPAL (VERB): horrify
Synonyms: alarm, amaze
DILATORY (ADJECTIVE): procrastinating Antonyms: comfort, encourage
Synonyms: delaying, laggard Sentence: Yesterday I was appalled by seeing the horror
Antonyms: diligent, eager movie.
Sentence: He had been dilatory but now he intended to
get down to business. ASTOUND (VERB): amaze
Synonyms: astonish, bewilder
GAMBOL (VERB): run or jump about playfully Antonyms: calm, expect
Synonyms: prank, play Sentence: I was astounded at your presence.
Antonyms: work, study
Sentence: The kids gamboled all around the house. EXALTED (VERB): praised
Synonyms: elevated, illustrious
IMPEACH (VERB): denounce, censure Antonyms: criticized, debased
Synonyms: accuse, criticize Sentence: She exalted the cuisines made by me.
Antonyms: praise, commend
Sentence: He impeached the celebrity in the public for ABANDON (VERB): cease to support or look after sb
his wrong deeds. Synonyms: desert, leave
Antonyms: adopt, adapt
INDIGNATION (NOUN): anger Sentence: They abandoned their old parents.
Synonyms: rage, displeasure
Antonyms: delight, cheer BOREDOM (NOUN): disinterest
Sentence: The boss came out in indignation from a Synonyms: apathy, disgust
meeting. Antonyms: concern, energy
Sentence: Boredom had settled heavily over his outlook
BESMIRCH (VERB): taint on the operation.
Synonyms: blacken, defile
Antonyms: honor, praise STUPEFY (VERB): stun
Sentence: The celebrity insisted that the accusation was Synonyms: benumb, daze
an attempt to besmirch his name. Antonyms: enliven, inspire
Sentence: She stupefied her mom with her acts.
SMEAR (VERB): To make something blurred
Synonyms: smudge, stained QUIXOTIC (ADJECTIVE): generous
Antonyms: clean, purify Synonyms: idealistic, dreamy
Sentence: She brushed against the newly painted notice Antonyms: cautious, pragmatic
and smeared the lettering. Sentence: Shahrukh has not been successful in life
SPONGY (ADJECTIVE): cushioned because of his non quixotic ideas.
Synonyms: soft, porous NOXIOUS (ADJECTIVE): harmful
Antonyms: hard, inflexible Synonyms: offensive, putrid
Sentence: She baked a spongy cake. Antonyms: helpful, healthy
Sentence: Emission from diesel cars producing noxious
BREVITY (NOUN): briefness gases causes air pollution.
Synonyms: concise, short
Antonyms: longevity, lengthiness NARCISSISM (NOUN): self-love and devotion
Sentence: She explained the paragraph in brevity. Synonyms: egotism, selfishness
Antonyms: humility, modesty
Sentence: Narcissism leads to selfishness in character.
Vocabulary Notes (Prepared by Aamir Mahar)
Synonyms: astringent, sardonic Synonyms: disorder, disorganise
Antonyms: courteous, gracious Antonyms: Organise, Arrange
Sentence: By the time Zahid began the final round, the Sentence: Asads life is getting jumbled day by day.
audience was vitriolic, already turned against Shahid.
AGILITY (NOUN): quickness
PILFERAGE (NOUN): theft Synonyms: swiftness, sprightliness
Synonyms: burglary, misappropriation Antonyms: dullness, sluggishness
Antonyms: veto, disapprove Sentence: I always find agility in my pets movements.
Sentence: The damage and losses by pilferage of certain
descriptions of goods are enormous. RAMPART (NOUN): defensive wall
Synonyms: barricade, fortification
MYRIAD (ADJECTIVE): infinite Antonyms: opening, ditch
Synonyms: multitudinous, multiple Sentence: They built rampart across the area.
Antonyms: finite, limited
Sentence: There the stars seem to have shrunk away QUANDARY (NOUN): dilemma
from you, a myriad of miles. Synonyms: in a fix, predicament
Antonyms: advantage, good fortune
REPOSITION (VERB): alter Sentence: Yesterday I saw my student in a quandary.
Synonyms: deviate, change
Antonyms: keep, hold QUIP (NOUN): A clever remark
Sentence: How do you effectively reposition brands in Synonyms: banter, gag
a global environment? Antonyms: praise, flattery
Sentence: Iqra is quite intelligent and is in the habit of
RAMBUNCTIOUS (ADJECTIVE): noisy making quips.
Synonyms: boisterous, raucous
Antonyms: calm, quiet PERNICIOUS (ADJECTIVE): destructive
Sentence: In his party the kids are being especially Synonyms: injurious, unsafe
rambunctious. Antonyms: safe, harmless
Sentence: Bushras approach is self-pernicious; she needs
RANKLE (VERB): annoy to improve a lot.
Synonyms: bother, embitter
Antonyms: comfort, aid QUINTESSENCE (NOUN): perfect example
Sentence: An article revealed the release of the killer Synonyms: paragon, ideal
from prison is surely to rankle the victims family. Antonyms: artificial, copy
Sentence: Everybody admires Aleena because she is a
RECIDIVISM (NOUN): lapse quintessence of benevolence.
Synonyms: backsliding, decadence
Antonyms: ascent, increase QUALMS (NOUN): feeling of doubt
Sentence: The mentor program hopes to reduce Synonyms: anxiety, apprehension
recidivism by keeping juvenile offenders off the crime. Antonyms: certainty, calm
Sentence: The mentally ill patients are the last to feel
APPOSITE (ADJECTIVE): apt qualms while committing cruel deeds.
Synonyms: appropriate, relevant
Antonyms: inapt, inapplicable BEHEMOTH (NOUN): Giant
Sentence: This dress is pretty much apposite for me. Synonyms: colossus, mammoth
Antonyms: mite, dwarf
Vocabulary Notes (Prepared by Aamir Mahar)
Sentence: Ali took a behemoth step for humanity. Antonyms: expert, professional
Sentence: Nazia is considered an amateur makeup artist.
Synonyms: amaze, astonished PROPAGATE (VERB): breed
Antonyms: bore, calm Synonyms: inseminate, multiply
Sentence: The burglar was flabbergasted when he Antonyms: decrease, deplete
broke into the house and found himself surrounded by Sentence: The political candidate hopes to propagate his
police officers. vision to potential voters.

STAGGER (VERB): walk falteringly DWINDLE (VERB): to become gradually less or smaller
Synonyms: careen, falter Synonyms: decrease, diminish
Antonyms: continue, stay Antonyms: rise, grow
Sentence: If my father doesnt stagger on his decision, Sentence: The members of this department have
I wont be able to attend the sleepover. dwindled from 50 to 20.


Synonyms: abusive, arrogant Synonyms: bedew, dabble
Antonyms: cowardly, modest Antonyms: collect, dry
Sentence: The captain put the insolent soldier Sentence: Even the red sun couldn't dampen her mood.
on report.
TINSEL (NOUN): particular type of embellishment
POMPOUS (ADJECTIVE): arrogant Synonyms: color, design
Synonyms: boastful, grandiose Antonyms: plainness, eyesore
Antonyms: humble, kind Sentence: His exuberant style is Venetian which he
Sentence: The millionaire was a pompous man who bestrews with tinsel and spangles.
believed he should never wait in line for anything.
DECEITFUL (ADJECTIVE): dishonest Synonyms: affectionate, amicable
Synonyms: artful, deceptive Antonyms: cold, cool
Antonyms: actual, athentic Sentence: If you treat people in a cordial manner, they
Sentence: The early difficulties of Elizabeth's reign will treat you well also.
secured him a deceitful peace on that side for a time.
DIFFIDENCE (NOUN): hesitancy Synonyms: congenital, hereditary
Synonyms: backwardness, doubt Antonyms: acquired, learned
Antonyms: arrogance, boldness Sentence: At the same time the inborn gift of style
Sentence: Zakir was a diffident student who never stood can be starved or stimulated.
up to his bullies.
DOCILITY (NOUN): agreement Synonyms: acceptable, admissible
Synonyms: conformity, consent Antonyms: illegal, improbable
Antonyms: difference, refusal Sentence: As long as a justifiable way to handle the
Sentence: As soon as they shake hands docility reflects problem is discovered, everyone will be in compliance
from their gesture. with it.

AMATEUR (NOUN): casual participant REMISSIBLE (ADJECTIVE): well-founded

Synonyms: aspirants, beginner Synonyms: allowable, defensible
Vocabulary Notes (Prepared by Aamir Mahar)
Antonyms: illegitimate, invalid Antonyms: impotent, incapable
Sentence: This is remissible to apply for CSS Exam. Sentence: Yoga is very efficacious at reducing stress.

ANIMOSITY (NOUN): extreme dislike INTUITION (NOUN): insight

Synonyms: acrimony, animus Synonyms: hunch, instinct
Antonyms: friendliness, good will Antonyms: knowledge, reasoning
Sentence: Why do you have such animosity towards me Sentence: They say that when you feel something is
when I have done nothing wrong to you? wrong you should trust your intuition.

EMPATHY (NOUN): understanding PARSIMONY (NOUN): stinginess

Synonyms: affinity, appreciation Synonyms: frugality, miserliness
Antonyms: disdain, hatred Antonyms: generosity, kindness
Sentence: Because her parents immigrated to the USA Sentence: To save money, the parsimonious old man
to give her a better life, Maria has empathy for illegal always bought used clothes.
LUNACY (NOUN): craziness
MELANCHOLIA (NOUN): low spirits Synonyms: absurdity, folly
Synonyms: abashment, abjection Antonyms: intelligence, wisdom
Antonyms: advantage, benefit Sentence: The committee of a lunatic, with the sanction
Sentence: After his examination result he was in of the judge in lunacy, may refer disputes to arbitration.
FRIGID (ADJECTIVE): extremely cold
PROTUBERANCE (NOUN): lump Synonyms: chilly, freezing
Synonyms: bulge, bump Antonyms: friendly, heated
Antonyms: depression, ingrowth Sentence: His look was one of frigid anger as he stormed
Sentence: He got protuberance after falling out.
from the swing.
JUBILANT (ADJECTIVE): happy Synonyms: rigid, steely
Synonyms: elated, euphoric Antonyms: flexible, loose
Antonyms: depressed, discouraged Sentence: Most ferrous materials are magnetic.
Sentence: Laughing always puts me in a jubilant mood.
BOGEY (NOUN): ghost
AUDACIOUS (ADJECTIVE): reckless Synonyms: apparition, bugaboo
Synonyms: adventurous, bold Antonyms: being, reality
Antonyms: afraid, careful Sentence: He walked off the green with a bogey four.
Sentence: The millionaire earned his fortune by being an
audacious player on the stock market. IMPECCABLE (ADJECTIVE): above suspicion
Synonyms: exquisite, immaculate
OUTRAGEOUS (ADJECTIVE): very bad Antonyms: flawed, imperfect
Synonyms: barbaric, brazen Sentence: With your impeccable English skills, writing
Antonyms: moral, delightful essays should be a cinch.
Sentence: The outrageous cartoon made fun of the boy
who was dying from cancer. BLEMISH (NOUN): flaw
Synonyms: bruise, blot
EFFICACIOUS (ADJECTIVE): efficient Antonyms: blank, clarity
Synonyms: effective, active
Vocabulary Notes (Prepared by Aamir Mahar)
Sentence: Uroojs wedding dress is free of the slightest Antonyms: closure, continuation
blemish, which is why it cost Aamir so much money. Sentence: There was a lacuna between the two sessions
of the parliament.
MANGLE (VERB): mutilate, deform
Synonyms: bruise, contort INCIPIENT (ADJECTIVE): developing
Antonyms: beautify, help Synonyms: embryonic, nascent
Sentence: His hand was caught in the machine accidently Antonyms: developed, mature
and was totally mangled. Sentence: The best way to stop the disease from
spreading is by identifying it while it is incipient.
CONTAMINATE (VERB): adulterate
Synonyms: corrupt, harm INCLEMENT (ADJECTIVE): bitter, nasty (weather)
Antonyms: clean, improve Synonyms: brutal, cold
Sentence: The nurse put on gloves so as not to Antonyms: clear, kind
contaminate herself or the patient. Sentence: During hurricane season, cruises are often
cancelled because of inclement conditions.
SANCTIFY (VERB): hold in highest esteem
Synonyms: glorify, purify RESPONSIVE (ADJECTIVE): quick to react
Antonyms: condemn, degrade Synonyms: active, aware
Sentence: The priests have to sanctify the holy water. Antonyms: ignorant, impassive
Sentence: By the time they entered the building, her arms
HIATUS (NOUN): pause, and legs were responsive again.
Synonyms: interval, break
Antonyms: continuation, juncture IMPINGE (VERB): trespass
Sentence: The professor will take his family on a long Synonyms: encroach, intrude
vacation during his hiatus. Antonyms: avoid, dodge
Sentence: Hopefully the bad weather will move in a
HALCYON (ADJECTIVE): calm different direction and not impinge upon our plans for an
Synonyms: bucolic, quiet outdoor reception.
Antonyms: agitated, angry
Sentence: I was very content during the halcyon days of PRY (VERB): interfere in someone else's business
my childhood. Synonyms: poke, bug
Antonyms: close, neglect
TRANQUIL (ADJECTIVE): peaceful Sentence: I don't mean to pry, but you seem on edge.
Synonyms: amicable, balmy
Antonyms: fierce, excited RANSACK (VERB): turn inside out in search; ravage
Sentence: The doctor says I need to be in a tranquil place Synonyms: raid, pillage
so I can relax. Antonyms: ignore, offer
Sentence: If you dont have an emergency plan for
PASTORAL (ADJECTIVE): rustic power outages youll have to ransack your home for
Synonyms: agrarian, bucolic candles and matches.
Antonyms: city, metropolitan
Sentence: When I looked at the artists pastoral FERRET (VERB): dig, uncover
paintings, I could clearly see the fields and trees in which Synonyms: beat, break
he played as a child. Antonyms: cover, dirty
Sentence: She would face that fear ferret it out and
LACUNA (NOUN): pause destroy it.
Synonyms: break, gap
Vocabulary Notes (Prepared by Aamir Mahar)
RUMMAGE (VERB): search FICKLE (ADJECTIVE): changeable
Synonyms: forage, poke Synonyms: capricious, vacillating
Antonyms: arrange, organize Antonyms: constant, stable
Sentence: The dog will rummage through the garbage Sentence: My brother Imran is fickle by nature.
for food when it gets hungry. FORTITUDE (NOUN): bravery
Synonyms: courage, boldness
HAPLESS (ADJECTIVE): unfortunate Antonyms: apathy, cowardice
Synonyms: unlucky, woeful Sentence: My mother faced the problems of life with
Antonyms: happy, fortuitous fortitude.
Sentence: It is always good to help the hapless people.
WINTRY (ADJECTIVE): cold, snowy Synonyms: untrue, artificial
Synonyms: bleak, chilly Antonyms: authentic, true
Antonyms: warm, pleasant Sentence: Dont believe her story because it is just
Sentence: The weather was too wintry for me fictitious.
to go outside.
MALINGER (VERB): evade Synonyms: annoyed, enraged
Synonyms: dodge, avoid Antonyms: happy, pleased
Antonyms: do, face Sentence: I am a very irate person therefore my wife
Sentence: The lazy student tried to malinger when dislikes me.
it was time to work on his essay.
LASSITUDE (NOUN): lethargy Synonyms: effortless, simple
Synonyms: dullness, fatigue Antonyms: complicated, difficult
Antonyms: action, diligence Sentence: His facile win tells us he's in form.
Sentence: After the long race, Mohsin experienced
a feeling of lassitude. IRRESOLUTE (ADJECTIVE): Indecisive
Synonyms: doubtful, fickle
MACHINATION (NOUN): maneuver Antonyms: resolute, definite
Synonyms: conspiracy, ploy Sentence: Shazia is very irresolute by nature.
Antonyms: frankness, honesty
Sentence: Reading about the criminals machination to PURSUIT (NOUN): Search
rob the casino was enthralling. Synonyms: hunt, seek
Antonyms: retreat, surrender
MENTOR (NOUN): person who advises Sentence: She left home in pursuit of happiness.
Synonyms: adviser, coach
Antonyms: pupil, student SOVEREIGN (ADJECTIVE): Autonomous
Sentence: Syed Qasim Ali is a world class mentor. Synonyms: self-governed, monarchial
Antonyms: subordinate, dependent
MANIFEST (ADJECTIVE): clear Sentence: That government was sovereign in
Synonyms: understandable, obvious its culture.
Antonyms: hidden, unclear
Sentence: His evil intentions were manifest when he CESSATION (NOUN): end
mentioned the question of dowry. Synonyms: abeyance, finish
Antonyms: beginning, introduction
Vocabulary Notes (Prepared by Aamir Mahar)
Sentence: The principal believes the cessation of the ALLEVIATE (VERB): relieve
school dress code will open the door for inappropriate Synonyms: allay, assuage
behaviour. Antonyms: increase, intensify
Sentence: Take a Disprin to alleviate your headache.
QUANDARY (NOUN): Difficult situation TOLERANCE (NOUN): fortitude
Synonyms: predicament, dilemma Synonyms: patience, resilience
Antonyms: good fortune, boon Antonyms: lethargy, weakness
Sentence: He has been trapped in quandary. Sentence: She had a low tolerance for noise.

ENDEAR (VERB): Attract attention CONCEITED (ADJECTIVE): egotistical

Synonyms: captivate, cherish Synonyms: arrogant, big talking
Antonyms: dislike, hate Antonyms: diffident, humble
Sentence: She tried to endear everyone. Sentence: The conceited man would not stop talking
about himself.
DISSEMINATE (VERB): distribute
Synonyms: advertise, circulate SPURIOUS (ADJECTIVE): counterfeit
Antonyms: hide, conceal Synonyms: bogus, false
Sentence: It took years to disseminate information Antonyms: genuine, true
about Aids. Sentence: To win elections, politicians often make
spurious promises to voters.
Synonyms: charm, magic OBSTRUCTION (NOUN): obstacle
Antonyms: reality, actuality Synonyms: blockage, hindrance
Sentence: The sorcerer knows an incantation to raise Antonyms: aid, assistance
the dead. Sentence: Once the obstruction is removed, water will
continue to flow through the pipe.
Synonyms: bicker, dispute ESTEEM (NOUN): think highly of
Antonyms: agree, comply Synonyms: respect, admiration
Sentence: Do not haggle with me. Antonyms: abandon, condemn
Sentence: He treated all his colleagues with the same
DALLY (VERB): Dawdle level of esteem.
Synonyms: boondoggle, delay
Antonyms: hurry, hasten RIDICULE (NOUN): contemptuous laughter at
Sentence: Don't dally otherwise we'll miss the train. someone or something
Synonyms: caricature, derision
EXEMPTION (NOUN): freedom from a responsibility Antonyms: admiration, approval
Synonyms: discharge, dispensation Sentence: It may have been a simple ridicule, but it still
Antonyms: accountability, liability made him feel rejected.
Sentence: The report confirmed their exemption from
military duty. PERSIFLAGE (NOUN): teasing
Synonyms: banter, frivolity
HILARIOUS (ADJECTIVE): very funny Antonyms: seriousness, humorlessness
Synonyms: amusing, comical Sentence: This persiflage is not appropriate when we
Antonyms: boring, sad have such serious problems to discuss.
Sentence: Ali is a very hilarious student in the class.
Vocabulary Notes (Prepared by Aamir Mahar)
CAULK (VERB): secure BORROW (VERB): to take by request
Synonyms: block, barricade Synonyms: loan, beg
Antonyms: free, loosen Antonyms: snatch, rob
Sentence: It only remained to caulk their important Sentence: Can I borrow your notebook?
task, and this occupied them for a day or two.
CONFLICT (VERB): fight Synonyms: shameful, scandalous
Synonyms: brawl, scuffle Antonyms: dignified, distinguished
Antonyms: serene, peace Sentence: The ignominious stealing has given him
Sentence: Raheel appeared extremely disturbed by the nefarious identity.
COUNTENANCE (VERB): to have a favorable opinion of
DROUGHT (NOUN): scarcity Synonyms: approve, favor
Synonyms: shrinkness, depletion Antonyms: censure, disapprove
Antonyms: plentiful, lavish Sentence: Our management will not countenance
Sentence: The party criticized opposition who were cheating.
responsible for the financial drought faced by the nation.
PLEA (NOUN): request Synonyms: various, manifold
Synonyms: pray, appeal Antonyms: identical, same
Antonyms: order, instruct Sentence: Divers men have tried to bring about social
Sentence: The teacher's plea for silence went unheard, reforms.
resulting in extreme discomfort to the student.
JOVIAL (ADJECTIVE): Cheerful Synonyms: crestfallen, despairing
Synonyms: merry, exultant Antonyms: happy, pleased
Antonyms: solemn, morose Sentence: I feel heartsore for the poor lady.
Sentence: Shehrish is a jovial fellow.
UPHILL (ADJECTIVE): difficult Synonyms: disdainful, scornful
Synonym: tough, unimaginable Antonyms: polite, respectful
Antonyms: banal, mundane Sentence: Adeel gave a harsh, derisive laugh.
Sentence: The article had a glorious description
regarding the uphill task done by the cricket team. GLOAMING (NOUN): Sunset
Synonyms: sundown, twilight
RIFT (NOUN): division Antonyms: daybreak, sunrise
Synonyms: gap, difference Sentence: Many lights are shimmering in the gloaming.
Antonyms: bridge, joint
Sentence: The opposition and the government seemed DISINTERESTED (ADJECTIVE): free from prejudice
to be focused on removing the rift between the poor Synonyms: unselfish, neutral
and the rich. Antonyms: biased, partial
Sentence: A great leader renders disinterested services to
IMPART (VERB): convey his society.
Synonyms: bestow, divulge
Antonyms: suppress, withhold PILFER (VERB): Steal
Sentence: Ever since I was of tender age, I have seen my Synonyms: filch, purloin
teachers imparting a great deal of knowledge. Antonyms: give, offer
Vocabulary Notes (Prepared by Aamir Mahar)
Sentence: Ejaz pilfered enough pieces of wood from the Sentence: The teenager knew there would never be an
factory to make a chair. opportune time to tell her parents that she was pregnant.


Synonyms: disaffection, separation Synonyms: anger, bother
Antonyms: connection, friendliness Antonyms: calm, assist
Sentence: The growing estrangement between me and Sentence: The fact the plane is leaving two hours late is
my relative is awful. certainly going to rankle the passengers.


Synonyms: discordant, loud Synonyms: baneful, dangerous
Antonyms: low, mild Antonyms: upright, moral
Sentence: The atmosphere was utterly raucous. Sentence: The dogs noisome act is making me feel ill.

VIVID (ADJECTIVE): animated MORATORIUM (NOUN): suspension

Synonyms: theatrical, dramatic Synonyms: ban, delay
Antonyms: boring, undramatic Antonyms: continuation, continuance
Sentence: The movie was very vivid. Sentence: A large number of politicians and voters would
like to see a moratorium placed on home foreclosures.
Synonyms: fractious, obstinate NEXUS (NOUN): middle
Antonyms: agreeable, compliant Synonyms: center, connection
Sentence: Despite being offered treats by his parents, the Antonyms: divorce, exteriority
little boy was still recalcitrant about doing his Sentence: Today Facebook seems to be the nexus of
homework. communication.

REFRAIN (VERB): stop oneself from doing sth. NETTLE (VERB): provoke
Synonyms: withhold, abstain Synonyms: annoy, disgust
Antonyms: allow, continue Antonyms: appease, comfort
Sentence: You must refrain from all interference. Sentence: My brother often nettles me by reading my
Synonyms: blackball, exclude REFRACTORY (ADJECTIVE): stubborn
Antonyms: accept, admit Synonyms: disobedient, mulish
Sentence: Sadly, the rich children ostracize the other girl Antonyms: manageable, obedient
because she comes from a poor family. Sentence: The Convention took measures against the
emigres and the refractory priests.
RIFE (ADJECTIVE): overflowing
Synonyms: abundant, alive PETRIFY (VERB): make hard
Antonyms: limited, uncommon Synonyms: calcify, fossilize
Sentence: The beach is rife with young people during the Antonyms: soften, comfort
summer months. Sentence: The terrorist group tries to petrify the public
by showing gruesome videos.
Synonyms: apt, auspicious RECANT (VERB): take back something said
Antonyms: inappropriate, unfortunate Synonyms: annul, renounce
Antonyms: accept, agree
Vocabulary Notes (Prepared by Aamir Mahar)
Sentence: The judge ordered the magazine to recant the PREPAREDNESS (NOUN): a state of readiness,
false statements it made about the actress. especially for war.
Synonyms: readiness, preparedness, alacrity, ready
PUERILE (ADJECTIVE): childish Example: People now accept that a minimum level of
Synonyms: callow, infantile preparedness is crucial to tackle a military contingency.
Antonyms: mature, adult
Sentence: The fireman was scolded for playing puerile CONSOLATION (NOUN): comfort received by a
pranks on his coworkers. person after a loss or disappointment.
Synonyms: comfort, solace, sympathy, compassion, pity,
RHAPSODIZE (VERB): rave commiseration, empathy, relief.
Synonyms: babble, declaim Example: She always had a word of consolation and
Antonyms: be quiet, be happy comfort to all who had the pleasure of knowing her.
Sentence: You'd rhapsodize with him to his heart's
content. PREY (NOUN): a person harmed, injured, or killed as a
result of a crime, accident, or other event or action.
NEFARIOUS (ADJECTIVE): bad Synonyms: target, object, subject, focus, recipient
Synonyms: horrible, odious Example: A lot of youth are illiterate and unemployed
Antonyms: delightful, gentle and easy prey.
Sentence: One man employed his nefarious scheme to
hack into people's computers and steal bank accounts CONSTRAIN (Meaning: compel, force, drive, oblige)
information. Definition: compel or force (someone) to follow a
particular course of action.
Usage: Children are constrained to work in the way the
JITTERY (ADJECTIVE): nervous book dictates.
Synonyms: restless, anxious
Antonyms: calm, composed RECEPTIVE
Sentence: She felt jittery before her stage performance. Meaning: Open-mined, responsive, flexible
Definition: willing to consider or accept new suggestions
OBFUSCATE (VERB): confuse and ideas. Usage: A receptive audience.
Synonyms: baffle, becloud
Antonyms: clarify, enlighten Meaning: sluggishness, inertia, inactivity, inaction,
Sentence: Because I am a sympathetic teacher, I avoid Definition: a lack of energy and enthusiasm.
using language which will obfuscate my students. Usage: There was an air of lethargy about him.


Synonyms: culpable, disgraceful Meaning: enfeebling, enervating, enervative
Definition: make (someone) very weak and infirm.
Antonyms: good, kind
Usage: He was severely debilitated by a stomach upset.
Sentence: Instead of making reprehensible comments
about women, go spread some cheer. AGGREGATE
Meaning: Total, combined, gross
MENACE (ADJECTIVE): threaten, especially in a Definition: formed or calculated by the combination of
malignant or hostile manner. several separate elements; total.
Usage: The aggregate amount of grants made
Synonyms: threatening, ominous, intimidating,
frightening, terrifying, alarming TUMULTUOUS
Example: He said various agencies of the Centre and the Meaning: loud, thunderous, ear-shattering
concerned state police are coordinating to tackle the Definition: making an uproar or loud, confused noise.
menace of terrorist funding. Usage: He left the stage to tumultuous applause.
Vocabulary Notes (Prepared by Aamir Mahar)
Meaning: small-town, non-metropolitan, non-urban, Meaning: retreat, go back, move back, move away
back woods, backwater Definition: go or move back or further away from a
Definition: of or concerning a province of a country or
previous position. Usage: The floodwaters had receded.
empire of or concerning a province of a country or
empire. Usage: Provincial elections.
REBUKE Meaning: mercifulness, mercy, clemency, lenity
Meaning: reprimand, reproach, scold, admonish Definition: The fact or quality of being more merciful or
Definition: express sharp disapproval or criticism of tolerant than expected; clemency.
(someone) because of their behaviour or actions express Usage: The court could show leniency.
sharp disapproval or criticism of (someone) because of
their behaviour or actions.
Usage: she had rebuked him for drinking too much. BETRAY
Meaning: break one's promise to, be disloyal to, be
LAMBASTED unfaithful to, break faith with, play someone false
Meaning: criticize, castigate, chastise, censure, condemn Definition: expose (one's country, a group, or a person) to
Definition: criticize (someone or something) harshly. danger by treacherously giving information to an enemy.
Usage: They lambasted the report as a gross distortion of Usage: A double agent who betrayed some 400 British
the truth.
and French agents to the Germans.
Meaning: Blast, sound loudly, toot, honk, shriek TRITE
Definition: make or cause to make a loud, harsh sound. Meaning: hackneyed, banal, cliched, vapid,
Usage: The ambulance arrived outside, siren blaring. Definition: (of a remark or idea) lacking originality or
freshness; dull on account of overuse.
Usage: This point may now seem obvious and trite
Meaning: ring, jingle, jangle, chime, peal, ding, ping
Definition: make or cause to make a light
Usage: Cool water tinkled in the stone fountains. ARRAIGN
Meaning: Criticize, censure, attack, condemn
TRUMPET Definition: call or bring (someone) before a court to
Meaning: proclaim, announce, declare, broadcast, blazon answer a criminal charge.
Definition: proclaim widely or loudly. Usage: Her sister was arraigned on charges of
Usage: The press trumpeted another defeat for the
attempted murder

Meaning: Exultation, Joy, elation, glee, triumph Meaning: case, legal proceeding, legal dispute
Definition: a feeling of great happiness and triumph. Definition: The process of taking legal action
Usage: Unbelievable scenes of jubilation. Usage: The company wishes to avoid litigation.

Meaning: Plunge, fall headlong, hurtle, dive, drop Meaning: toady, creep, crawler, fawner, flatterer,
Definition: fall or drop straight down at high speed. flunkey, truckler, groveller, minion,
Usage: A climber was killed when he plummeted 300 feet Definition: a person who acts obsequiously towards
down an icy gully. someone important in order to gain advantage.
Usage: My sister is a shallow sycophant who will
MALEVOLENT flatter anyone for a free designer handbag.
Meaning: malicious, spiteful, hostile, evil-minded
Definition: having or showing a wish to do evil to others. GARNER
Usage: The glint of dark, malevolent eyes Meaning: gather, collect, assemble
Vocabulary Notes (Prepared by Aamir Mahar)
Definition: gather or collect (something, especially Sentence: If you dye your hair purple, you will be very
information or approval). conspicuous among the other teachers.
Usage: The police struggled to garner sufficient
evidence. CAPRICIOUS (ADJECTIVE): volatile
Synonyms: fickle, changeable
Antonyms: constant, stable
REPRIMAND Sentence: You need to settle down and stop being so
Meaning: rebuke, reproof, admonition, reproach, capricious!
Definition: a formal expression of disapproval.
Usage: The golfer received a reprimand for a breach ERRABLE (ADJECTIVE): liable to err
of rules. Synonyms: faulty, frail
Antonyms: perfect, infallible
Sentence: My younger brother is inclined towards
OSTENTATION errable tasks.
Meaning: showiness, show, showing off,
Definition: the pretentious or showy display of wealth DEVOUT (ADJECTIVE): enthusiastic
and luxury, designed to impress Synonyms: zealous, ardent
Usage: The office was spacious, but without any trace Antonyms: apathetic, dull
of ostentation Sentence: It takes more than one devout employee to
make a successful business.
Meaning: impulsive, rash, hasty, reckless, heedless, Synonyms: mythical, fictional
foolhardy, injudicious, unthinking Antonyms: genuine, authentic
Definition: acting or done quickly and without thought Sentence: Scott created a fictitious non-profit
or care organization, funneling his money through it tax free.
Usage: She might live to rue this impetuous decision.
Synonyms: risky, irresponsible
CRUCIFY Antonyms: careful, alert
Meaning: condemn, attack, tear apart, arraign, Sentence: It is easy to be impetuous when you want
denounce, pillory, malign, revile, vilify something really badly!
Definition: criticize (someone) severely and
unrelentingly. DENOUEMENT (NOUN): conclusion
Synonyms: climax, finale
Usage: Our fans would crucify us if we lost.
Antonyms: initiation, debut
Sentence: The plays denouement saw the main
SLOVENLY character die tragically just before the curtain fell.
Meaning: scruffy, untidy, messy, unkempt, slatternly,
dishavelled, blowsy, down at heel FITFUL (ADJECTIVE): spasmodic
Definition: (especially of a person or their appearance) Synonyms: intermittent, fluctuating
untidy and dirty Usage: A fat, slovenly ex-rock star Antonyms: continuous, continual
Sentence: Jim was tired when he woke up after a fitful
night of sleep.
Meaning: disillusioned, disappointed, let down
Definition: cause (someone) to be disappointed
Synonyms: possible, doable
Usage: He may have been disenchanted by the loss of
Antonyms: impossible, implausible
his huge following.
Sentence: With school, kids and a busy job, it just isn't
feasible to waste time.
Synonyms: noticeable, clear
REPUDIATE (VERB): show contempt for
Antonyms: invisible, hidden
Synonyms: defy, disregard
Antonyms: honour, praise
Vocabulary Notes (Prepared by Aamir Mahar)
Sentence: During his next speech, the president will OPUS (NOUN): Creation
repudiate blame for the economic situation. Synonyms: Product, Production
Antonyms: Destruction, Ruin
CONSPICIOUS (ADJECTIVE): Manifest Sentence: The part of this work is called opus.
Synonyms: noticeable, salient
Antonyms: inconspicuous, unremarkable PLOWED (ADJECTIVE): cultivated
Sentence: During the summer season, the flies are very Antonyms: recovered, instilled
conspicuous all around. Sentence: Salman plowed into him, nearly knocking him
Synonyms: felicity, enchantment SLAPPED (ADJECTIVE): hard hit/imposed
Antonyms: misery, woet Synonyms: beaten, pat
Sentence: He was famous for his ecstasy of the passion. Antonyms: avoided, saved
Sentence: He was slapped by the disaster.
REGRESS (VERB): Fall back
Synonyms: back slide, retreat EVAPORATE (VERB): dry, dissolve
Antonyms: develop, forge Synonyms: absorb, vaporize
Sentence: Many students start regressing into the Antonyms: appear, moist
practice of not studying once they get a position in the Sentence: The water was evaporated from the pan.
FINERY (NOUN): best clothing
DYSPATHY (NOUN): Animosity Synonyms: apparel, suit
Synonyms: Aversion, animus Antonyms: rags, tatters
Antonyms: love, rapport Sentence: He was in the worlds best finery.
Sentence: My dyspathy for John is so great that I can
not stand to be around him. ALUMNUS (NOUN): educated/ ex-student
Synonyms: old grad, alumna
AMORPHOUS (ADJECTIVE): Vague Antonyms: undergraduate, uneducated
Synonyms: Nebulous, Baggy Sentence: He is an intelligent alumnus.
Antonyms: Definite, Distinct
Sentence: I could not make an idea because the UNCOUTH (ADJECTIVE): clumsy, uncultivated
painting was amorphous. Synonyms: awkward, barbaric
Antonyms: agile, couth
REPLICATE (VERB): Clone Sentence: Ahmed behaved in an uncouth manner.
Synonyms: Reflect, Repeat
Antonyms: Ignore, Reject TRITE (ADJECTIVE): hackneyed
Sentence: DNA replicates itself in the cell nucleus. Synonyms: dull, cliche
Antonyms: fresh, new
EXULTANTLY (ADVERB): Cheerfully Sentence: I dont want to involve in the trite
Synonyms: Freely, Gladly conversation they were having.
Antonyms: Unsuccessfully, Unhappily
Sentence: The crowd let out an exultant cheer. PALLIATE (VERB): abate
Synonyms: allay, assuage
EVACUATE (VERB): Abandon Antonyms: increase, intensify
Synonyms: Desert, Discharge Sentence: Perhaps a nap will palliate my headache.
Antonyms: Continue, Hold
Sentence: Residents have been ordered to evacuate. MELANGE (NOUN): mixture
Synonyms: medley, mishmash
CONDUCE (VERB): Advance Antonyms: constituent, element
Synonyms: Assist, Forward Sentence: Rias set list included a mlange of her
Antonyms: Block, Decrease old and new hits.
Sentence: I would conduce for the further research.
INSTIL (VERB): inject
Synonyms: infuse, implant
Vocabulary Notes (Prepared by Aamir Mahar)
Antonyms: eradicate, extract HYPOCRITE (NOUN): person who pretends, is
Sentence: The instructor tried to instil fear in the deceitful
students. Synonyms: charlatan, trickster
Antonyms: true, genuine
ENCROACH (VERB): violate Sentence: His friend wrongly said that he was a
Synonyms: trespass, infringe hypocrite.
Antonyms: shun, abide
Sentence: As the forests continue to be destroyed for HEARSAY (NOUN): unsubstantiated information
development, bears have no choice but to encroach Synonyms: rumors, grapevine
into residential areas. Antonyms: reality, truth
Sentence: One should not believe in hearsay.
EVASION (NOUN): avoidance
Synonyms: evasiveness, obliqueness VARNISH (VERB): add a layer to; embellish
Antonyms: directness, frankness Synonyms: lacquer, cover
Sentence: She is in the habit of making evasion from Antonyms: uncover, reveal
every situation. Sentence: The painter varnished the doors.

PERSECUTE (VERB): harass SMEAR (VERB): To make something blurred

Synonyms: torment, domineer Synonyms: smudge, stained
Antonyms: comfort, console Antonyms: clean, purify
Sentence: The major kept on persecuting the soldiers. Sentence: She brushed against the newly painted notice
and smeared the lettering.
Synonyms: enormous, immense JINX (NOUN): Curse
Antonyms: small, slight Synonyms: enchantment, spell
Sentence: A gigantic lily grows at a height of 20 feets. Antonyms: boon, benefit
Sentence: Superstitious persons consider number
RAVAGE (VERB): destroy thirteen a jinx.
Synonyms: ruin, devastate
Antonyms: restore, reconstruct MELEE (NOUN): stampede
Sentence: Sehrish ravaged all our weekend plans. Synonyms: battle, fight
Antonyms: calm, harmony
TRECHAREOUS (ADJECTIVE): disloyal Sentence: In the village fair many pilgrims were
Synonyms: faithless, unreliable injured in the melee.
Antonyms: faithful, reliable
Sentence: He is a treacherous junk-dealer. CASTIGATE (VERB): condemn
Synonyms: denounce, vilify
SANGUINE (ADJECTIVE): confident Antonyms: applaud, laud
Synonyms: hopeful, optimistic Sentence: Nuclear explosions must be castigated by the
Antonyms: pessimistic, depressed world powers.
Sentence: He is a sanguine person in every adverse
situation. DECRY (VERB): criticize
Synonyms: blame, derogate
ORDAIN (VERB): impose Antonyms: approve, praise
Synonyms: order, proclaim Sentence: The foreign policy of the party has always been
Antonyms: violate, revoke decried.
Sentence: Arsalan knows the ministry will never ordain
him as a priest. PLUNGE (NOUN): fall
Synonyms: quick drop, dive
INSIPID (ADJECTIVE): tasteless Antonyms: rise, increase
Synonyms: vapid, unflavoured Sentence: Fanatics went straight from the hot room to
Antonyms: delicious, pungent take a cold plunge.
Sentence: Tomato soup tastes insipid.
Vocabulary Notes (Prepared by Aamir Mahar)
SPEW (VERB): spit out WANTON (ADJECTIVE): gratuitous
Synonyms: expel, throw up Synonyms: senseless, unjustifiable
Antonyms: contain, restrain Antonyms: rational, reasonable
Sentence: Ria is going to spew right here in the car. Sentence: He presented a wanton idea in the meeting.

DEMURRER (NOUN): argument for ideas. AUSTERE (ADJECTIVE): stringent

Synonyms: discussion, explanation Synonyms: rigid, inflexible
Antonyms: denial, sympathy Antonyms: flexible, gentle
Sentence: The headmaster was about to enter a Sentence: Anu has an austere family background.
stinging demurrer when the phone rang.
QUIZZ (VERB): cross examine Synonyms: rage, displeasure
Synonyms: investigate, inquire Antonyms: delight, cheer
Antonyms: answer, reply Sentence: Exasperation was clearly visible from his face.
Sentence: For the next few days, Ria quizzed me about
Nikhil. DOUR (ADJECTIVE): bad tempered
Synonyms: rude, blunt
RUCHED (VERB): fold Antonyms: kind, polite
Synonyms: bend, curl Sentence: In a dour voice, the police officer ordered the
Antonyms: flatten, unbend suspect out of his vehicle.
Sentence: Ria hinted towards her ruched T-shirt.
CAVORT (VERB): jump about playfully
MEADOWS (NOUN): grassy fields Synonyms: prank, play
Synonyms: grassland, steppe Antonyms: work, study
Antonyms: cactus, semi-arid Sentence: A kid was cavorting around the corner.
Sentence: They both grazed towards the far meadows.
BEHINDHAND (ADJECTIVE): procrastinating
DOGGED (ADJECTIVE): determined Synonyms: delaying, laggard
Synonyms: Adamant, stubborn Antonyms: diligent, eager
Antonyms: indifferent, irresolute Sentence: I dont like behindhand mind-set of
Sentence: Her dogged efforts eventually paid off. the people.


Synonyms: overflow, plenty Synonyms: snowy, wintry
Antonyms: few, lack Antonyms: warm, heated
Sentence: The job came with a plethora of opportunities. Sentence: She woke up to a frore morning in America.


Synonyms: approve, confirm Synonyms: futile, fruitless
Antonyms: deny, agree Antonyms: profitable, fruitful
Sentence: Shareholders will ratify any merger that will Sentence: The rebel officers who led the abortive coup
increase their dividends. were shot.

STANCE (NOUN): attitude PERVERT (VERB): mix up

Synonyms: viewpoint, stand Synonyms: jumble, twist
Antonyms: ignorance, avoidance Antonyms: clear up, organize
Sentence: She poses her clear stance over every issue. Sentence: The boy started to pervert the poem when
he could not remember the words.
FELICITY (NOUN): ecstasy
Synonyms: cheerfulness, euphoria STYGIAN (ADJECTIVE): dark, inky
Antonyms: despair, gloom Synonyms: clouded, brunet
Sentence: I hope my friend finds much felicity in her Antonyms: optimistic, hopeful
career. Sentence: It was a stygian night.
Vocabulary Notes (Prepared by Aamir Mahar)
TOUT (VERB): brag about, show off PONTIFICATE (VERB): sermonize
Synonyms: publicize, trumpet Synonyms: admonish, dogmatize
Antonyms: blame, condemn Antonyms: praise, applaud
Sentence: A liberal group supporting the opposition Sentence: He loves to hear himself talk and will often
tried to tout their pro-middle class. pontificate on even the most trivial issues.

ELLIPSIS (NOUN): abbreviation BROMIDE (NOUN): platitude

Synonyms: abstract, shortness Synonyms: clich, banality
Antonyms: elongate, prolong Antonyms: coinage, original saying
Sentence: This letter is full of ellipsis. Sentence: Years of coal mining and natural gas
extraction have elevated the concentration of
EXTIRPATION (NOUN): extermination bromides in the river.
Synonyms: annihilation, destruction
Antonyms: construction, formation DISTEMPER (NOUN): disorder
Sentence: After the extirpation of the Indians, the labor Synonyms: affliction, ailment
of African slaves was introduced. Antonyms: health, healer
Sentence: Excessive distemper should not be practiced.
Synonyms: dandified, natty TINTINNABULATION (NOUN): loud ringing
Antonyms: non-fashionable, boring Synonyms: chime, jingle
Sentence: He always dress-up in a foppish way. Antonyms: silence, peace
Sentence: The tintinnabulation that could be heard
GAFFE (NOUN): mistake, goof throughout the village was from the church on the
Synonyms: blooper, blunder common announcing morning services.
Antonyms: correction, edition
Sentence: The gaffe created a furor in the scientific SEPTENTRIONAL (ADVERB): polar
community, which attacked the publication for flawed Synonyms: northward, arctic
and faulty research. Antonyms: southward, Antarctic
Sentence: When he tired of the long, septentrional
MINATORY (ADJECTIVE): threatening winters of New England, Grandfather retired to Florida.
Synonyms: alarming, dangerous
Antonyms: pleasing, harmless PANGLOSSIAN (ADJECTIVE): optimistic
Sentence: And now we know for all time that these Synonyms: assured, confident
countless scolding and minatory voices were not mere Antonyms: pessimistic, uncertain
angry units, but that they were in. Sentence: This is simply a Panglossian idea.

PLUMB (ADJECTIVE): vertical ANABASIS (NOUN): forward movement

Synonyms: perpendicular, straight Synonyms: advance, progress
Antonyms: horizontal, flat Antonyms: hinder, backward
Sentence: The plumb lines near the well were for Sentence: Reluctantly, the general ordered a hasty
protection. anabasis in the face of overwhelming opposing forces.


Synonyms: ultimate, ideal Synonyms: scoundrel, louse
Antonyms: secondary, flawed Antonyms: brave, bold
Sentence: But in reality, he is the quintessential Sentence: A woman was killed by a caitiff.
example of how Pakistan corrupts.
CRENEL (NOUN): scrape
RUNIC (ADJECTIVE): bewitching, charming Synonyms: indentation, incision
Synonyms: charismatic, enchanted Antonyms: increase, bulge
Antonyms: normal, unmoving Sentence: Leaning into a crenel between two square
Sentence: My uncle looked keenly at the document for merlons, he took a deep breath of relief.
some moments and then declared that it was runic.
Vocabulary Notes (Prepared by Aamir Mahar)
FLAPDOODLE (ADJECTIVE): ridiculous situation or SUCCUMB (VERB): bow
behaviour Synonyms: surrender, break down
Synonyms: craziness, foolishness Antonyms: fight, defend
Antonyms: intelligence, judgment Sentence He succumbed before the enemy.
Sentence: You're the last man I ever expected to hear
that kind of flapdoodle from. BEMOAN (VERB): deplore
Synonyms: mourn, lament
CRITICAL (ADJECTIVE): demanding Antonyms: be happy, praise
Synonyms: analytical, fault-finding Sentence: They bemoan at the sudden demise of their
Antonyms: unimportant, trivial father.
Sentence: It is a critical point of view.
SUBSTANTIVE (ADJECTIVE): real Synonyms: antipathy, aversion
Synonyms: tangible, palpable Antonyms: admiration, approval
Antonyms: impractical, insignificant Sentence: I have so much disdain for cheaters.
Sentence: She knows about its substantive use.
INNOVATION (NOUN): addition Synonyms: awful, frightful
Synonyms: alteration, contraption Antonyms: attractive, beautiful
Antonyms: stagnation, custom Sentence: She is expert in making gruesome facial
Sentence: She is known for her innovation. expressions.


Synonyms: liable, culpable Synonyms: arduous, backbreaking
Antonyms: unaccountable, excused Antonyms: easy, effortless
Sentence: You will be held responsible. Sentence: It is a grueling task.

REBUFF (NOUN): rejection GARGANTUAN (ADJECTIVE): very large

Synonyms: rebuke, reprimand Synonyms: enormous, gigantic
Synonyms: praise, compliment Synonyms: dwarfed, miniature
Sentence: When my wife is angry with me, she will Sentence: Ahmed has a gargantuan body.
rebuff my attempts to get back in her favour.
BESET (VERB): besiege
RECONCILE (VERB): adjust Synonyms: embarrass, beleaguer
Synonyms: accommodate, attune Antonyms: free, surrender
Antonyms: refuse, disobey Sentence: He is beset with difficulties.
Sentence: The church split into several factions after
the leaders refused to reconcile their differences. DETEST (VERB): abhor
Synonyms: hate, loathe
ADMONISH (VERB): exhort Antonyms: like, love
Synonyms: warn, chide Sentence: The animal activists detest people who
Antonyms: permit, allow purchase fur coats.
Sentence: Critics always admonish me for my
pitchy singing. MODICUM (NOUN): iota
Synonyms: ounce, pinch
DETAIN (VERB): confine Antonyms: lot, entirety
Synonyms: constrain, restrain Sentence: All I need is a modicum of money to pay
Antonyms: free, liberate for my basic needs.
Sentence: He was detained from giving the examination.
EXHUME (VERB): disclose Synonyms: dwarf, meager
Synonyms: resurrect, unearth Antonyms: big, large
Antonyms: bury, entomb Sentence: I saw a miniscule animal there.
Sentence: He exhumed the secret.
Vocabulary Notes (Prepared by Aamir Mahar)
GRIEVANCE (NOUN): complaint
Synonyms: grief, outrage COCKY (ADJECTIVE): arrogant
Antonyms: joy, delight Synonyms: brash, nervy
Sentence: He has a grievance to share. Antonyms: humble, meek
Sentence: He is such a cocky entrepreneur.
BYGONE (ADJECTIVE): in the past
Synonyms: former, ancient APATHY (NOUN): indifference
Antonyms: alive, modern Synonyms: aloofness, coldness
Sentence: It was his bygone statement. Antonyms: concern, sympathy
Sentence: He is full of apathy.
BALK (VERB): hesitate
Synonyms: resist, shirk ARCANE (ADJECTIVE): esoteric
Antonyms: accept, face Synonyms: cabalistic, occult
Sentence: He balked at such a drastic solution. Antonyms: known, common
Sentence: They follow the arcane procedures for
AVID (ADJECTIVE): ardent electing people.
Synonyms: eager, fervent
Antonyms: apathetic, cold ARBITRARY (ADJECTIVE): capricious
Sentence: Kamran is an avid man. Synonyms: discretionary, erratic
Antonyms: logical, reasonable
BUTTRESS (VERB): support Sentence: He had an arbitrary idea.
Synonyms: strengthen, uphold
Antonyms: weaken, letdown ANTIPATHY (NOUN): animosity
Sentence: This pillar can buttress this wall. Synonyms: animus, aversion
Synonyms: admiration, appreciation
CANONICAL (ADJECTIVE): accepted Sentence: His mind is full of antipathy towards them.
Synonyms: lawful, legal
Synonyms: unacceptable, unauthorized APPEASE (VERB): allay
Sentence: It is a canonical truth. Synonyms: alleviate, assuage
Antonyms: agitate, irritate
CASTIGATE (VERB): berate Sentence: That statement appeased me.
Synonyms: chastise, criticize
Antonyms: praise, laud AUGMENT (VERB): make greater
Sentence: She was castigated by the teacher. Synonyms: enhance, aggrandize
Antonyms: reduce, curtail
BURGEON (VERB): prosper Sentence: The lights augmented the beauty.
Synonyms: sprout, blossom
Antonyms: fade, diminish AUDACIOUS (ADJECTIVE): adventurous
Sentence: You will burgeon day after day. Synonyms: bold, resolute
Antonyms: timid, weak
BENIGN (ADJECTIVE): kindly Sentence: Saad is such an audacious boy.
Synonyms: favorable, friendly
Antonyms: unkind, unfriendly ARCHAIC (ADJECTIVE): outmoded
Sentence: She like her benign presence at the party. Synonyms: obsolete, ancient
Antonyms: current, modern
BOGUS (ADJECTIVE): counterfeit Sentence: This saree is archaic these days.
Synonyms: fake, forged
Antonyms: real, honest AVER (VERB): affirm
Sentence: She is a bogus person. Synonyms: assert, claim
Antonyms: deny, disprove
BOOR (NOUN): clod Sentence: He averred that he was late that day.
Synonyms: barbarian, brute
Antonyms: charmer, enthusiast ABATE (VERB): lessen
Sentence: Why do act as a boor? Synonyms: recede, dwindle Antonyms: develop, enlarge
Vocabulary Notes (Prepared by Aamir Mahar)
Sentence: His pain was abated. BELLYACHE (NOUN): complaint
Synonyms: grouse, gripe
ABDICATE (VERB): forgo Antonyms: compliment, flattery
Synonyms: relinquish, renounce Sentence: They had a bellyache regarding his entourage.
Antonyms: pursue, remain
Sentence: He was accused of abdicating his LICITNESS (NOUN): legality
responsibilities. Synonyms: authority, legitimacy
Antonyms: unjustice, unfairness
ABHOR (VERB): despise Sentence: It includes much licitness into it.
Synonyms: loathe, scorn
Antonyms: admire, cherish RECONDITE (ADJECTIVE): abstruse
Sentence: He abhorred talking over phone. Synonyms: arcane, cabalistic
Antonyms: simple, plain
ABJURE (VERB): forswear Sentence: To me, my daughters foolish actions are
Synonyms: renege, retract recondite and not understandable at all.
Antonyms: allow, emphasize
Sentence: MPs were urged to abjure their Jacobite FLAIR (NOUN): ability
allegiance. Synonyms: elegance, knack
Antonyms: inability, stupidity
ABRASIVE (ADJECTIVE): rough Sentence: He has an immense flair in him.
Synonyms: grinding, scuffing
Antonyms: pleasant, smooth RUDIMENTARY (NOUN): elemental
Sentence: He made an abrasive statement. Synonyms: elementary, vestigial
Antonyms: complex, difficult
ARTIFACT (NOUN): lie Sentence: Education is a rudimentary objective of the
Synonyms: untruth, fiction meeting.
Antonyms: reality, truth
Sentence: He made a statement full of artifacts. HUNKER (VERB): crouch
Synonyms: grovel, kneel
ARTLESS (ADJECTIVE): simple Antonyms: face, meet
Synonyms: guileless, honest Sentence: He hunkered down before me.
Antonyms: contrived, artful
Sentence: He is such an artless man. ANARCHY (NOUN): disorder
Synonyms: chaos, unrest
ABSTINENT (ADJECTIVE): ascetic Antonyms: harmony, peace
Synonyms: austere, moderate Sentence: He has spreaded out the anarchy.
Antonyms: hungry, greedy
Sentence: The patients are best advised to be totally PROPITIATION (NOUN): conciliation
abstinent from alcohol. Synonyms: abatement, placation
Antonyms: provocation, annoyance
SATE (VERB): satisfy Sentence: I lifted his hands in propitiation.
Synonyms: cloy, gorge
Antonyms: abstain, deprive PERPETRATE (VERB): be responsible for
Sentence: Ate your appetite at the resort's restaurant. Synonyms: execute, perform
Antonyms: leave, halt
PEG (VERB): attach Sentence: A crime has been perpetrated against a
Synonyms: fasten, tighten sovereign state.
Antonyms: loose, loosen
Sentence: He pegged the nails into the ceiling joists. RUMPUS (NOUN): clamor
Synonyms: discord, fracas
PROFFER (VERB): suggest Antonyms: harmony, peace
Synonyms: propound, propose Sentence: A rumpus of clashing metal pierced the silent
Antonyms: refrain, hold night when the train derailed resulting in the cars
Sentence: Id proffer to not to go there. crashing into each other.
Vocabulary Notes (Prepared by Aamir Mahar)
Synonyms: cede, grant Synonyms: onrush, invasion
Antonyms: reject, deny Antonyms: retreat, defense
Sentence: After he beat me at chess five times, I had to Sentence: The party suddenly made an onslaught on him.
concede he was the better player.
SECEDE (VERB): split from Synonyms: bumptious, obnoxious
Synonyms: quit, break with Antonyms: humble, modest
Antonyms: maintain, continue Sentence: I dont know why but most of the times I find
Sentence: The small island nation opted to secede from him the most cocksure fellow.
its mothering country and bear its own flag.
ETHEREAL (ADJECTIVE): delicate Synonyms: rocky, rugged
Synonyms: light, vapory Antonyms: whole, individual
Antonyms: poor, indelicate Sentence: It was a craggy surface.
Sentence: The moon came into view over the wintry
landscape, its light accented by an ethereal halo. HUNK (NOUN): lump
Synonyms: block, glob
CURB (NOUN): rein Antonyms: accept, allow
Synonyms: limitation, control Sentence: The hunk of blood was there.
Synonyms: freedom, encouragement
Sentence: Taking a few deep breaths following a heated PRIGGISH (ADJECTIVE): complacent
argument may curb your temper. Synonyms: smug, satisfied
Antonyms: dis-contended, dissatisfied
ANGST (NOUN): feeling of anxiety Sentence: I got to meet a priggish person in the train.
Synonyms: agony, apprehension
Antonyms: calmness, confidence LUGUBRIOUS (ADJECTIVE): mournful
Sentence: A day before the fight, the inexperienced boxer Synonyms: sorrowful, pensive
was plagued with angst about losing his first match. Antonyms: cheerful, joyful
Sentence: It was a lugubrious day for them due to their
ACCOMPLICE (NOUN): aide elimination from the show.
Synonyms: associate, ally
Antonyms: opponent, enemy WACKY (ADJECTIVE): crazy
Sentence: Jacqueline could not have committed murders Synonyms: nutty, loony
in two different towns at the same time unless she had an Antonyms: sane, sensible
accomplice. Sentence: I found his idea bit wacky but still worth
doing just for fun.
Synonyms: outcome, consequences ENTOURAGE (NOUN): followers
Antonyms: source, origin Synonyms: cortege, companions
Sentence: Although the aftermath was daunting, nothing Antonyms: leader, torchbearer
could compare to the moment that the tornado struck Sentence: She has many entourages.
the building.
BAIT (NOUN): enticement Synonyms: gauche, gawky
Synonyms: allurement, attraction Antonyms: adroit, agile
Antonyms: discouragement, repulsion Sentence: I got such a clumsy crew.
Sentence: Herrings make excellent bait for pike.
ARID (ADJECTIVE): bone-dry
BAREFACED (ADJECTIVE): shameless Synonyms: parched, waterless
Synonyms: apparent, blatant Antonyms: humid, moist
Anonyms: careful, quiet Sentence: Thar has any arid fields.
Sentence: She revealed his barefaced lies.
Vocabulary Notes (Prepared by Aamir Mahar)
CONTORT (VERB): disfigure, distort Sentence: His voracity for food is increasing like
Synonyms: deform, writhe anything.
Antonyms: beautify, smooth
Sentence: Government is not going to contort DISCERNMENT (NOUN): perception
the refugee laws. Synonyms: acumen, understanding
Antonyms: ignorance, stupidity
TRANSMOGRIFY (VERB): convert Sentence: Tact is skill in touching; nice perception or
Synonyms: alter, mutate discernment in dealing with others.
Antonyms: preserve, stagnate
Sentence: In the play, the actor suddenly transmogrified NARCISSISM (NOUN): egotism
into a monster. Synonyms: arrogance, selfishness
Antonyms: shyness, timidity
SHODDY (ADJECTIVE): in bad shape Sentence: Narcissism is a result of stunted growth
Synonyms: inferior, shameful and of childhood abuse.
Antonyms: good, respectful
Sentence: The house was in a shoddy condition. MUTINY (NOUN): resistance
Synonyms: defiance, insurrection
INEBRIETY (NOUN): drunkenness Antonyms: calm, peace
Synonyms: boozing, alcoholism Sentence: This was a clear case of mutiny, and the only
Antonyms: sobriety, decent one in which I was ever implicated
Sentence: Police say he was in an advanced state of
inebriety. SABOTAGE (NOUN): damage
Synonyms: vandalism, disruption
JANITOR (NOUN): person who cleans and maintains Antonyms: fidelity, loyalty
Synonyms: attendant, custodian Sentence: The sabotage of the Preliminary had been the
Synonyms: polluter, contaminator first local step in that direction.
Sentence: He is in the habit of bribing the janitor.
PROTRUDE (VERB): stick out
GAG (NOUN): practical joke Synonyms: extrude, extend
Synonyms: hoax, quip Antonyms: shrink, sink
Antonyms: seriousness, sincerity Sentence: She had no flesh left; her bones seemed to
Sentence: The burglars gagged the home owner and tied protrude through the skin.
him to a chair.
RECEDE (VERB): withdraw
OPINE (VERB): think Synonyms: abate, regress
Synonyms: say, suggest Antonyms: increase, extend
Antonyms: calculate, measure Sentence: The Cabinet will recede more and more from
Sentence: The reason is, I opine, that each doth wait for our principles, our party.
his neighbour to make a move.
WANTON (ADJECTIVE): extravagant
EFFUSIVE (ADJECTIVE): gushing, profuse Synonyms: lustful, outrageous
Synonyms: lavish, exuberant Antonyms: good, moral
Antonyms: economical, unexcited Sentence: Between 1868 and 1872 they added ten
Sentence: He lives in an effusive way. millions by wanton extravagance to the State debt.

EPOCHAL (ADJECTIVE): irregular, sporadic NULLIFY (VERB): cancel

Synonyms: occasional, periodic Synonyms: revoke, abolish
Antonyms: regular, usual Antonyms: approve, allow
Sentence: Epochal decisions taken by him ruined the Sentence: Fortunately, the attempt to nullify its benefits
show. proved ineffectual.

VORACITY (NOUN): ravenousness ALIGN (VERB): line up

Synonyms: edacity, greed Synonyms: array, adjust
Antonyms: generosity, kindness Antonyms: disorder, mess up
Vocabulary Notes (Prepared by Aamir Mahar)
Sentence: Similar instruction is given the troopers in ODIOUS (ADJECTIVE): hateful
aligning themselves to the left. Synonyms: loathsome, abhorrent
Antonyms: attractive, likeable
GRAPPLE (VERB): grab Sentence: The chief had come forward with that odious
Synonyms: confront, cope smiling face of his.
Antonyms: release, let go
Sentence: Every blood-vessel was striving to grapple AFFABLE (ADJECTIVE): friendly
with the present. Synonyms: amiable, gracious
Antonyms: uncivil, unfriendly
ABASE (NOUN): disgrace Sentence: They are affable, charming companions, and
Antonyms: laud, praise give in readily to the wishes of others.
Synonyms: dishonour, degradation
Sentence: The demotion did not abase his credibility FERRET (VERB): to uproot
with his peers. Synonyms: beat, break
Antonyms: cover, dirty
PLAUSIBLE (ADJECTIVE): believable Sentence: We are trying to ferret out missing details.
Synonyms: probable, credible
Antonyms: impossible, improbable TOUCHSTONE (NOUN): criterion
Sentence: She stammered, and I realized that she had no Synonyms: barometer, benchmark
plausible plan. Antonyms: lawlessness, guess
Sentence: We were testing them against their very own
BLATANT (ADJECTIVE): obvious touchstone of truth.
Synonyms: glaring, conspicuous
Antonyms: inconspicuous, hidden AFFRONT (NOUN): to insult
Sentence: There are a number of others, but these are Synonyms: offence, humiliation
some of the most blatant. Antonyms: respect, appeasement
Sentence: He regarded my work as an affront to my
REPUDIATE (VERB): reject dignity.
Synonyms: abandon, revoke
Antonyms: accept, allow ENMITY (NOUN): hostility
Sentence: He repudiated my idea. Synonyms: friction, animus
Antonyms: approval, sympathy
PLEBIAN (ADJECTIVE): native Sentence: My colleague feels enmity towards me.
Synonyms: indigenous, local
Antonyms: uncommon, different DISSENT (NOUN): disagreement
Sentence: They are the plebian persons. Synonyms: objection, variance
Antonyms: acceptance, concurrence
POIGNANT (ADJECTIVE): affecting Sentence: These voices of dissent grew louder
Synonyms: bitter, pathetic against the master.
Antonyms: cheerful, happy
Sentence: It was too poignant, too deep-seated in the LUDICROUS (ADJECTIVE): so foolish
springs of her physical being. Synonyms: bizarre, farcical
Antonyms: grave, serious
OBSEQUIOUS (ADJECTIVE): submissive Sentence: We have found some of his words
Synonyms: abject, beggarly completely ludicrous.
Antonyms: arrogant, brazen
Sentence: With a flattering and obsequious bow our GROUNDSWELL (NOUN): an increase
guide leads the way. Synonyms: bloc, coalition
Antonyms: parting, severance
ADULATION (NOUN): praise Sentence: All the states of the country is usually merged
Synonyms: applause, flattery for a time by the groundswell of the population.
Antonyms: abuse, criticism
Sentence: Through all this adulation Franklin passed VALOR (NOUN): bravery
serenely, if not unconsciously. Synonyms: pluck, spine
Vocabulary Notes (Prepared by Aamir Mahar)
Antonyms: cowardice, fear Antonyms: inappropriate, improper
Sentence: He showed valor and skill on the battlefield. Sentence: There was an apposite quotation written in the
side of the wall.
ROUT (NOUN): to retreat
Synonyms: beating, confusion ARROGATE (VERB): claim without justification
Antonyms: miracle, triumph Synonyms: confiscate, expropriate
Sentence: His wife had to rout him out of the crowd. Antonyms: reject, refuse
Sentence: They arrogate to themselves the ability to
VAINGLORIOUS (ADJECTIVE): excessively proud of divine the nation's true interests.
oneself Synonyms: egotistical, haughty
Antonyms: timid, humble PRUDISH (ADJECTIVE): shy and strict in behavior
Sentence: He was rather vainglorious about his own Synonyms: fastidious, narrow minded
war record. Antonyms: extroverted, outgoing
Sentence: Conservative people unintentionally carry
WAFT (VERB): carry prudish approach to do things.
Synonyms: drift, convey
Antonyms: hold, keep FLECK (VERB): blemish
Sentence: They waft the information. Synonyms: mark, stain
Antonyms: clean, purify
ROCOCO (ADJECTIVE): florid Sentence: He tried to fleck his competitors image
Synonyms: ornate, gilt in the market.
Antonyms: plain, undecorated
Sentence: It was a rococo flower-vase. DEIGN (VERB): lower oneself
Synonyms: condescend, consent
CHIMERA (NOUN): bogy Antonyms: oppose, refuse
Synonyms: delusion, monstrosity Sentence: The queen would not deign to invite her maid
Antonyms: certainty, reality to dinner.
Sentence: The economic sovereignty you claim to
defend is a chimera. PRETERNATURAL (ADJECTIVE): unusual, abnormal
Synonyms: aberrant, extraordinary
PORTENT (NOUN): miracle Antonyms: regular, normal
Synonyms: marvel, prodigy Sentence: He often behaves in a preternatural manner.
Antonyms: expectation, doom
Sentence: It was a portent that she won. LEVEE (NOUN): embankment
Synonyms: dam, mound
PERVERION (NOUN): spoof Antonyms: basin, accommodate
Synonyms: burlesque, distortion Sentence: Only when government scientists determine
Antonyms: seriousness, solemnity there is a risk of flooding will the middle of the levee to
Sentence: The absurdly lenient sentence is a perversion be put in place.
of justice.
ABUT (VERB): touch or be next to something
BURGESS (NOUN): civilian Synonyms: adjoin, border on
Synonyms: inhabitant, resident Antonyms: separate, divide
Antonyms: alien, foreigner Sentence: There is some debate about how this will affect
Sentence: He is a nice burgess. clinics that abut sidewalks or public streets.

ARRAIGN (VERB): accuse PARENTHESIS (NOUN): digression

Synonyms: incriminate, indict Synonyms: aside, departure
Antonyms: exculpate, exonerate Antonyms: accord, agreement
Sentence: She was arraigned on charges of attempted Sentence: The parenthesis in the description of
murder. this view has been spoken of.

APPOSITE (ADJECTIVE): pertinent TAMP (VERB): compress

Synonyms: germane, relevant Synonyms: squeeze, pack
Vocabulary Notes (Prepared by Aamir Mahar)
Antonyms: abstain, diet EPICENE (ADJECTIVE): weak
Sentence: She tamped the sawdust in the bag. Synonyms: frail, sissy
Antonyms: strong,
PICAYUNE (ADJECTIVE): trivial Sentence: Clothing fashions are becoming increasingly
Synonyms: immaterial, meagre epicene.
Antonyms: significant, major
Sentence: The administration enthusiastically traded CANARD (NOUN): lie
winning the future for a picayune present gain. Synonyms: hoax, rumour
Antonyms: truth, reality Sentence:
VERITABLE (ADJECTIVE): authentic The collection includes some of Hollywoods oldest
Synonyms: actual, genuine canards.
Antonyms: fake, false
Sentence: His speech was a veritable tirade against STARVED (ADJECTIVE): deprived of food
everyone who is not an immediate supporter. Synonyms: craving, hungry
Antonyms: satisfied, fed
SYBARITIC (ADJECTIVE): luxurious Sentence: He felt rather starved close to bedtime.
Synonyms: grand, fancy
Antonyms: sober, abstinent CABOODLE (NOUN): collection of something
Sentence: He believes in living a sybaritic life. Synonyms: assemblage, chunk
Antonyms: individual, one
ERSTWHILE (ADJECTIVE): current Sentence: I have a caboodle of songs.
Synonyms: present, ongoing
Antonyms: former, past CHIVALROUS (ADJECTIVE): dreamy
Sentence: What are your erstwhile plans? Synonyms: impractical, unrealistic
Antonyms: practical, pragmatic
FUSS (NOUN): uproar, confusion Sentence: Having a moon top experience in an all new
Synonyms: disorder, turmoil Honda city is a chivalrous situation.
Antonyms: harmony, order
Sentence: He quickly became aware of the violent GROWL (VERB): criticize harshly
fuss near the city. Synonyms: abuse, accuse
Antonyms: honor, praise
AMOROUS (ADJECTIVE): loving, affectionate Sentence: We shouldnt growl anyone before everybody.
Synonyms: erotic, romantic
Antonyms: indifferent, frigid REPRIEVE (NOUN): a cancellation of a punishment.
Sentence: She appreciated his amorous nature. Synonyms: absolution, amnesty
Antonyms: accusation, denunciation
CUSTOM-MADE (ADJECTIVE): made to order Sentence: Maya accepted the death sentence and refused
Synonyms: tailored, handmade to appeal for a reprieve.
Antonyms: ready-made, mass produced
Sentence: Today, the custom-made movement is BULWARK (NOUN): barricade
starting to make a comeback. Synonyms: barrier, bastion
Antonyms: open, ditch
DOWNCAST (ADJECTIVE): unhappy Sentence: There was a castle with bulwark and a moat.
Synonyms: blue, gloomy
Antonyms: glad, elated HUBBUB (NOUN): a confusion of voices and other
Sentence: He is feeling downcast for what had sounds
happened today. Synonyms: bedlam, clang
Antonyms: calm, peace
GLOWER (VERB): frown Sentence: The children filled the room with hubbub.
Synonyms: scowl, glare
Antonyms: smile, grin ATTICISM (NOUN): grandeur
Sentence: He glowered at her for talking too loud. Synonyms: classicalism, elegance
Antonyms: imbalance, crudeness
Sentence: I see the majestic Atticism in her personality.
Vocabulary Notes (Prepared by Aamir Mahar)
CALISTHENICS (NOUN): exercise Antonyms: ignorance, carelessness
Synonyms: activity, drill Sentence: She gave me a tip-off of how to do it.
Antonyms: cessation, idleness
Sentence: Calisthenics is recommended to stay active APPEAL (NOUN): request for help
and fit. Synonyms: petition, proposal
Antonyms: disclaimer, revocation
TRAITOROUS (ADJECTIVE): reactionary Sentence: She appealed before the Police officer to
Synonyms: apostate, outlaw hushed up the matter there only.
Antonyms: obedient, submissive
Sentence: He was an agent who later turned out to be FORGE (VERB): counterfeit
a traitorous. Synonyms: fabricate, falsify
Antonyms: invent, produce
GALLANTRY (NOUN): bravery Sentence: He had forged with the Principal.
Synonyms: heroism, prowess
Antonyms: cowardice, meekness HUMANE (ADJECTIVE): humanitarian
Sentence: His gallantry is well known by his friends and Synonyms: unselfish, philanthropic
colleagues. Antonyms: uncharitable, selfish
Sentence: His altruistic habits worry his wife.
Synonyms: aim, plot BETROTHED (ADJECTIVE): engaged
Antonyms: neglect, ignore Synonyms: affianced, committed
Sentence: Atif will contrive before acting on the Antonyms: single, unattached
instructions given by the Chief Officer. Sentence: The betrothed couple was given blessings.

GALL (NOUN): brashness FROLICSOME (ADJECTIVE): full of spirit

Synonyms: arrogance, brazenness Synonyms: lively, romping
Antonyms: modesty, respect Antonyms: depressed, down
Sentence: With all of Jills unruly behavior, she has the Sentence: Shahbaz is actually a frolicsome man.
gall to tell me to stay out of trouble.
CHICANERY (NOUN): deception
THORNY (ADJECTIVE): knotty Synonyms: fraud, machination
Synonyms: barbed, rugged Antonyms: forthrightness, truthfulness.
Antonyms: smooth, unpointed Sentence: You can smell the chicanery from his character
Sentence: The metal sheet was thorny. very easily.


Synonyms: deprecatory, derogatory Synonyms: cavalier, conceited
Antonyms: complimentary, praising Antonyms: modest, unassuming
Sentence: Abhimanyus deprecatory remark made Sentence: My bosss son is extremely brash.
her cry.
VISAGE (NOUN): appearance
COGWHEEL (NOUN): main part of device Synonyms: features, expression
Synonyms: cogwheel, pinion Antonyms: generality, expressionlessness
Antonyms: accessories prop Sentence: Salmans visage earned him many cover photos.
Sentence: The cogwheel of the truck must be restored
for repairing it. FAD (NOUN): a state of confusion
Synonyms: ballyhooed, commotion
SATIATE (VERB): gratify Antonyms: calm, quietude
Synonyms: content, gorge Sentence: Parliaments session was filled with fad.
Antonyms: deplete, fast
Sentence: He was satiated with the food served to him. SLOTHFUL (ADJECTIVE): sluggish
Synonyms: slow, lethargic
TIP-OFF (NOUN): hint Antonyms: active, energetic
Synonyms: prompt, suggestion Sentence: Shahrukh is extremely slothful person.
Vocabulary Notes (Prepared by Aamir Mahar)
ACQUITTAL (NOUN): freedom Antonyms: individual, one
Synonyms: emancipation, liberty Sentence: He addressed phalanx.
Antonyms: bondage, slavery
Sentence: They have caused the acquittal of all the NOSTALGIA (NOUN): pleasant remembrances
prisoners. Synonyms: longing, yearning
Antonyms: indifference, hatred
DIALOGUE (NOUN): talk Sentence: My grandmother says the jazz music triggers
Synonyms: parley, colloquy nostalgia for her youth.
Antonyms: soliloquy, monologue
Sentence: They might forget their dialogue. CEDE (VERB): acknowledge
Synonyms: accept, admit
NETTLE (VERB): provoke Antonyms: deny, refuse
Synonyms: annoy, chafe Sentence: The police will have to concede to the
Antonyms: appease, calm kidnappers demands to free the hostages.
Sentence: The politician nettled the multitude
yesterday. DOWNRIGHT (ADJECTIVE): whole
Synonyms: utter, absolute
PEDANTIC (ADJECTIVE): bookish Antonyms: partial, incomplete
Synonyms: learned, academic Sentence: He was paid for the downright service.
Antonyms: informal, imprecise
Sentence: He looks pedantic by face. FRILL (NOUN): convenience
Synonyms: service, facility
MELEE (NOUN): brawl Antonyms: discomfort, inconvenience
Synonyms: brouhaha, fracas Sentence: He presses the bell for the wifi frill.
Antonyms: harmony, peace
Sentence: Dont make such a melee out of a trivial issue. BACKING (NOUN): assistance
Synonyms: ministration, help
PELLUCID (ADJECTIVE): clear Antonyms: obstruction, hindrance
Synonyms: bright, explicit Sentence: I need your backing this time.
Antonyms: dull, implicit
Sentence: He is pellucid in his visions. INANITY (NOUN): truism
Synonyms: banality, clich
OFFERING (NOUN): donation Antonyms: coinage, original saying
Synonyms: contribution, beneficence Sentence: Your inanity is meaningless and does nothing
Antonyms: withdrawal, retreat for Uroojs anger.
Sentence: He made the offering of his kids.
NUMSKULL (NOUN): idiot Synonyms: sterilize, decontaminate
Synonyms: buffoon, dimwit Antonyms: make dirty, contaminate
Antonyms: genius, wise Sentence: The book was so upsetting it would take the
Sentence: You are such a numskull boy. author months to bowdlerize it and make it fit for
sensitive eyes.
Synonyms: assail, castigate MORBID (ADJECTIVE): lurid
Antonyms: laud, praise Synonyms: ghoulish, ghastly
Sentence: Dont lambaste him. Antonyms: jaunty, chirpy
Sentence: Police have made a morbid discovery.
OSSIFY (VERB): congeal BRUISE (VERB): distort
Synonyms: fossilize, freeze Synonyms: contort, deform
Antonyms: melt, soften Antonyms: beautify, repair
Sentence: The dream-catcher became ossified. Sentence: The body of the victim was bruised beyond
PHALANX (NOUN): multitude
Synonyms: horde, throng
Vocabulary Notes (Prepared by Aamir Mahar)
EXTOL (VERB): glorify PRATTLE (VERB): talk foolishly
Synonyms: applaud, celebrate Synonyms: jabber, idle chatter
Antonyms: castigate, criticize Antonyms: be quiet, be silent
Sentence: He extolled the virtues of the Russians. Sentence: They have been blabbering with each other
since morning.
Synonyms: waggish, superficial INOPPORTUNE (ADJECTIVE): unsuitable
Antonyms: intelligent, sensible Synonyms: problematic, inconvenient
Sentence: He is such a barmy man. Antonyms: convenient, appropriate
Sentence: The tiger cubs died because of the inopportune
GRUNGY (ADJECTIVE): shabby surroundings of the zoo.
Synonyms: filthy, messy
Antonyms: clean, spotless KEN (NOUN): perception
Sentence: Dont touch this paper with grubby hands. Synonyms: acumen, awareness
Antonyms: blindness, ignorance
AFFLICTIVE (ADJECTIVE): dole some Sentence: Due to the ken of my poor health, the doctor
Synonyms: dolorific, mournful advised me to eat healthier foods and exercise more.
Antonyms: cheery, hopeful
Sentence: Why are you living such a dolorous life? LAMBASTE (VERB): punish, beat
Synonyms: assail, berate
NEXUS (NOUN): link Antonyms: compliment, praise
Synonyms: bond, connection Sentence: The government was severely lambasted by the
Antonyms: interruption, exteriority opposition.
Sentence: There is always a nexus between politicians
and police. IMPUTE (VERB): attribute
Synonyms: ascribe, accredit
DERIDE (VERB): mock Antonyms: exculpate, exonerate
Synonyms: scoff, ridicule Sentence: Rather than impute his brother, he will accept
Antonyms: praise, commend blame for a crime he did not commit.
Sentence: He was derided by his colleague for his
foolish project. LAMENT (VERB): to mourn or grieve deeply
Synonyms: bemoan, deplore
CACHET (NOUN): distinctive and stylish elegance Antonyms: relieve, celebrate
Synonyms: prestige, stature Sentence: I lament for those who believe drinking is
Antonyms: common, usual beneficial.
Sentence: Amazon has the marketing power and
cachet to provide that demo. LUCRE (NOUN): money, profits
Synonyms: capital, cash
SATIATE (VERB): stuff, satisfy completely or Antonyms: bills, debt
excessively Sentence: Gangsters searched the house for hidden lucre
Synonyms: satisfy, sate but found nothing.
Antonyms: deprive, fast
Sentence: There is enough food to satiate the children. LAX (ADJECTIVE): slack, remiss
Synonyms: careless, lenient
CENSORSHIP (NOUN): forbiddance Antonyms: attentive, careful
Synonyms: suppression, restriction Sentence: Her lax attitude left people thinking she was
Anonyms: endorsement, compliment disinterested.

Sentence: We must criticize weird censorship. MAIM (VERB): cripple, put out of action
SUBSTANTIAL (ADJECTIVE): important Synonyms: disable, disfigure
Synonyms: significant, considerable Antonyms: care, aid
Antonyms: inconsiderable, insignificant Sentence: If you do not want your vicious dog to maim
Sentence: He made substantial changes in the system. or fatally injure people, then you should put him down.
Vocabulary Notes (Prepared by Aamir Mahar)
MANGLE (VERB): mutilate, deform Sentence: Edward succumbed to drink and a profligate
Synonyms: bruise, contort lifestyle.
Antonyms: beautify, repair
Sentence: How should I fret to mangle every line? PRY (VERB): poke
Synonyms: gaze, gape
NADIR (NOUN): lowest point Antonyms: ignore, evade
Synonyms: base, bottom Sentence: Not wanting to pry, I didnt ask why my
Antonyms: top, highest point neighbor was moving so suddenly.
Sentence: The sun does not spring at once from the nadir
to the zenith. RANT (NOUN): yelling
Synonyms: raving, diatribe
ODIUM (NOUN): shame, dishonor Antonyms: serene, tranquil
Synonyms: abhorrence, antipathy Sentence: Even though she made a fool out of herself
Antonyms: affection, approval during her rant, it still had a positive outcome.
Sentence: Because of my odium for the politicians views,
I have no plans to vote for him. MYRAID (ADJECTIVE): innumerable
Synonyms: countless, endless
SWERVE (VERB): deflect Antonyms: countable, bounded
Synonyms: skid, stray Sentence: Because Jacob is recovering from a stroke, he
Antonyms: abide, persist has myriad prescriptions to take.
Sentence: A lorry swerved across her path.
RACY (ADJECTIVE): zestful Synonyms: rutted, corrugated
Synonyms: saucy, energetic Antonyms: unfurrowed, unwrinkled
Antonyms: sluggish, lackadaisical Sentence: She laid the furrowed the bed sheet.
Sentence: The novel was considered rather racy at the
time. SMACKED (VERB): bang
Synonyms: pat, whack
PLOD (VERB): lumber Antonyms: tap, bide
Synonyms: slog, tramp Sentence: She smacked the door in my face.
Antonyms: creeping, sneaking
Sentence: We plodded back up the hill. EVANESCE (VERB): disappear
Synonyms: disperse, dissipate
PREPONDERANCE (NOUN): predominance Antonyms: collect, gather
Synonyms: prevalence, dominance Sentence: Her cozy feeling was evanesced immediately.
Antonyms: disadvantage, inferiority
Sentence: The preponderance of women among older GROSS (ADJECTIVE): awful
people is increasing. Synonyms: vulgar, foul
Antonyms: elegant, beautiful
PIETY (NOUN): devotion Sentence: He is such a gross man.
Synonyms: fervor, reverence
Antonyms: agnosticism, disloyalty OUTPACE (VERB): outdo
Sentence: He believes in the acts of piety and charity. Synonyms: outstrip, outrun
Antonyms: associate, connect
PITH (NOUN): center Sentence: He outpaced all six defenders.
Synonyms: crux, gist
Antonyms: exteriority, insignificance GALLIMAUFRY (NOUN): miscellany
Sentence: He made us understand the pith and core of Synonyms: assortment, mishmash
socialism. Antonyms: organization, regulation
Sentence: There was a gallimaufry of tender vegetables
PROFLIGATE (ADJECTIVE): immoral and herbs.
Synonyms: promiscuous, libertine
Antonyms: ethical, righteous EVANESCENT (ADJECTIVE): temporary
Synonyms: fading, disappearing
Vocabulary Notes (Prepared by Aamir Mahar)
Antonyms: unlimited, permanent SUPERSEDE (VERB): annul
Sentence: She gave her an evanescent look. Synonyms: overrule, repudiate
Antonyms: keep, retain
BROWBEAT (VERB): castigate Sentence: The federal court decision will supersede the
Synonyms: bully, coerce decision of the lower court.
Antonyms: aid, assist
Sentence: The commander had browbeaten her. IMBUED (VERB): inculcate
Synonyms: infuse, instill
DRENCH (VERB): wet thoroughly Antonyms: drain, take out
Synonyms: deluge, douse Sentence: By giving out loans, the bank hoped to imbue
Antonyms: parch, dry new homeowners with a sense of hope in the future.
Sentence: He was totally drench due to rain.
LEEWAY (NOUN): room to move
BARBARIC (ADJECTIVE): crude Synonyms: extent, headway
Synonyms: inhuman, uncivilized Antonyms: constraint, restriction
Antonyms: cultured, civilized Sentence: The judge has a lot of leeway in deciding
Sentence: It was a barbaric murder. matters in court.

INVIGORATING (ADJECTIVE): stimulating PUNITORY (NOUN): disciplinary

Synonyms: bracing, exhilarating Synonyms: penal, punishing
Antonyms: boring, dull Antonyms: beneficial, rewarding
Sentence: There is nothing like an invigorating shower Sentence: I will have to take punitory actions against him
after a long day at work. now.

EVADE (VERB): avoid DECIMATE (VERB): destroy

Synonyms: bypass, circumvent Synonyms: annihilate, exterminate
Antonyms: confront, encounter Antonyms: build, create
Sentence: You cant evade your duties. Sentence: She was trying to decimate my evening plans.


Synonyms: amassed, assorted Synonyms: bulletproof, impassable
Antonyms: similar, unvaried Antonyms: destructible, beatable
Sentence: The conglomerate views its collection of Sentence: Her ideology is invincible.
profitable shops.
CONSOLIDATION (NOUN): combination Synonyms: bland, inoffensive
Synonyms: merger, unification Antonyms: harmful, injurious
Antonyms: dispersal, separation Sentence: I found those practices more innocuous.
Sentence: The growth of railways has been
accompanied by the consolidation of small REASSURE (VERB): assure
independent ventures into large groups. Synonyms: comfort, console
Antonyms: annoy, discourage
BUFFET (VERB): hit repeatedly Sentence: They reassured his parents.
Synonyms: batter, clobber
Antonyms: pull, surrender PANACEA (NOUN): cure-all
Sentence: She was buffeted by her best friend. Synonyms: elixir, remedy
Antonyms: disease, injury
VIE (VERB): compete Sentence: She made the panacea for all.
Synonyms: contend, strive
Antonyms: assist, support DETEST (VERB): abhor
Sentence: The competitive twins often vie for the Synonyms: despise, loathe
attention of their parents. Antonyms: like, admire
Sentence: He detests everybody.
Vocabulary Notes (Prepared by Aamir Mahar)
PIOUS (ADJECTIVE): dedicated Antonyms: agreement, belief
Synonyms: devout, righteous Sentence: Court officials dismissed the witnesss
Antonyms: sinful, impious testimony as hearsay.
Sentence: I have a pious feeling in my mind.
STUPOR (NOUN): slumber Synonyms: sage, subdued
Synonyms: trance, apathy Antonyms: agitated, boisterous
Antonyms: consciousness, wakefulness Sentence: He gave a grave look.
Sentence: She was in a stupor.
GUST (NOUN): blast
INERTIA (NOUN): laziness Synonyms: breeze, burst
Synonyms: paralysis, passivity Antonyms: calm, quiet
Antonyms: activity, liveliness Sentence: I was feeling rather stifling save for a lone gust
Sentence: She did not wake up out of inertia. of wind

ENIGMA (NOUN): conundrum SPLINTER (NOUN): flake

Synonyms: puzzle, mystery Synonyms: fragment, bit
Antonyms: clarity, discernment Antonyms: entirety, lot
Sentence: Sadly, the little girls disappearance Sentence: That splinter of intelligence is substance.
continues to be an enigma.
FREAK (NOUN): aberration Synonyms: premonition, augury
Synonyms: anomaly, oddity Antonyms: doom, cataclysm
Antonyms: conformity, normality Sentence: She was not happy when the psychic told her
Sentence: The teacher says the accident was a total freak. the black cat represented a portent of bad luck.

DISCOURSE (NOUN): communication SLOVENLY (ADJECTIVE): bedraggled

Synonyms: dialogue, conversation Synonyms: botched, dingy
Antonyms: quiet, silence Antonyms: clean, organized
Sentence: This is the language of political discourse. Sentence: Once the slovenly stray was cleaned, he looked
quite adorable.
Synonyms: brave, fearless SPASMODIC (ADJECTIVE): intermittent
Antonyms: afraid, fearful Synonyms: fitful, irregular
Sentence: She is a gallant lady. Antonyms: resting, uninterrupted
Sentence: Days after the marathon, she had spasmodic
GRACIOUS (ADJECTIVE): kind muscle contractions that occurred without warning.
Synonyms: congenial, cordial
Antonyms: surly, irritable LITERAL (ADJECTIVE): actual
Sentence: Harika is a gracious hostess. Synonyms: authentic, true
Antonyms: counterfeit, dishonest
GULLIBLE (ADJECTIVE): foolish Sentence: She was making the literal translation.
Synonyms: unsophisticated, artless
Antonyms: wise, perceptive POACH (VERB): smuggle
Sentence: He had formulated a gullible idea. Synonyms: pilfer, filch
Antonyms: give, receive
GRATUITOUS (ADJECTIVE): free Sentence: They were poaching the animals skin.
Synonyms: charge-less, costless
Antonyms: costly, expensive
Sentence: The homeless shelter provides food gratuitous MAMMOTH (ADJECTIVE): huge
for needy individuals. Synonyms: enormous, gigantic
Antonyms: common, ordinary
HEARSAY (NOUN): blasphemy Sentence: There were mammoth islands.
Synonyms: fallacy, apostasy
Vocabulary Notes (Prepared by Aamir Mahar)
Synonyms: blithe, jocular Synonyms: composed, unflappable
Antonyms: sad, depressed Antonyms: upset, worried
Sentence: She was looking jocund. Sentence: She was looking unruffled.

KNOTTY (ADJECTIVE): troublesome ANNEX (NOUN): addendum

Synonyms: complicated, mystifying Synonyms: appendix, adjunct
Antonyms: easy, smooth Antonyms: base, lessening
Sentence: They have done the knotty journey. Sentence: To eliminate overcrowding, the county is going
to add an annex to the high school.
LANGUOR (NOUN): lethargy
Synonyms: inactivity, tiredness UNREFUTED (ADJECTIVE): accurate
Antonyms: energy, vigour Synonyms: authentic, definite
Sentence: They set about the new task with languor. Antonyms: incorrect, indefinite
Sentence: She has completed an unrefuted task.
TAME (ADJECTIVE): domesticated
Synonyms: docile, gentle IRASCIBLE (ADJECTIVE): cranky
Antonyms: harsh, rough Synonyms: grouchy, surly
Sentence: The fish are so tame you have to push them Antonyms: easygoing, happy
away. Sentence: His dog is irascible and has to be kept on a
leash at all times.
CRAM (VERB): overcrowd
Synonyms: stuff, pack WASPISH (ADJECTIVE): cantankerous
Antonyms: release, let out Synonyms: crabby, crotchety
Sentence: The ashtray by the bed was crammed with Antonyms: good-natured, cheerful
cigarette butts. Sentence: By nature, bulls are waspish animals that
prefer to be left alone.
REBUT (VERB): deny
Synonyms: quash, disapprove FORLORN (ADJECTIVE): depressed
Antonyms: allow, approve Synonyms: desolate, miserable
Sentence: He had to rebut charges of acting. Antonyms: joyful, elated
Sentence: Since Amish works so much, he does not
OUTLANDISH (ADJECTIVE): eccentric realize his wife is forlorn because she rarely gets to spend
Synonyms: extravagant, bizarre time with him.
Antonyms: common, familiar
Sentence: He is an outlandish king. INESTIMABLE (ADJECTIVE): priceless
Synonyms: invaluable, precious
SUAVITY (NOUN): sophistication Antonyms: cheap, idolized
Synonyms: charm, courtesy Sentence: I will continue to see the therapist because her
Antonyms: misbehaviour, rudeness stress management tips have proven inestimable to me.
Sentence: I need lessons in suavity.
THRONG (NOUN): bunch Synonyms: incarnate, personalize
Synonyms: flock, mass Antonyms: detach, alienate
Antonyms: individual, one Sentence: The observers were able to internalize the
Sentence: He pushed his way through the throng. happiness released from the event.

INCERTITUDE (NOUN): uncertainty SPARSE (ADJECTIVE): very few and scattered

Synonyms: doubt, insecurity Synonyms: inadequate, meager
Antonyms: certainty, certitude Antonyms: abundant, adequate
Sentence: Some schools broke down under the stresses of Sentence: There are many areas with sparse population.
policy incertitude.
HOODWINK (VERB): deceive
Synonyms: mislead, swindle
Vocabulary Notes (Prepared by Aamir Mahar)
Antonyms: help, offer Antonyms: leave, depart
Sentence: After the hurricane, many dishonest Sentence: She had sojourned once in France.
individuals tried to hoodwink generous people into
donating to fake charities. SQUALL (NOUN): disturbance
Synonyms: trouble, flurry
CONCRETIZE (VERB): demonstrate Antonyms: calm, quiet
Synonyms: epitomize, exemplify Sentence: I left the house because the squall of our new
Antonyms: conceal, obscure born baby was grating on my nerves.
Sentence: The medication will not be marketed until
it is concretized to be safe. SUNDRY (ADJECTIVE): miscellaneous
Synonyms: assorted, various
PERVERSELY (ADVERB): abnormally Antonyms: singular, individual
Synonyms: unusually, peculiarly Sentence: My grandmother decided to open a sundry
Antonyms: naturally, usually store where people could buy an assortment of goods.
Sentence: Zain knew almost nothing about him whom
he perversely misunderstood. SAVANT (NOUN): scholar
Synonyms: academic, egghead
SOMERSAULT (VERB): bounce Antonyms: amateur, ignoramus
Synonyms: hop, surge Sentence: The seven-year-old savant is a gifted pianist.
Antonyms: decline, decrease
Sentence: The gymnast stuck the somersault landing, RECEDE (VERB): withdraw
but the flip caused a little pain in her knees. Synonyms: retreat, fall back
Antonyms: enhance, increase
HUBBUB (NOUN): fracas Sentence: When the storm quiets, the waters will recede
Synonyms: commotion, brawl from the beach.
Antonyms: calm, peace
Sentence: The hubbub from the group of reporters gave VALOR (NOUN): boldness
the politician a headache. Synonyms: courage, firmness
Antonyms: cowardice, timidity
SHODDY (ADJECTIVE): inferior Sentence: I am impressed with his valor.
Synonyms: in bad shape, shabby
Antonyms: good, noble UNFLAPPABLE (ADJECTIVE): calm
Sentence: Because of shoddy accounting practices, our Synonyms: composed, relaxed
firm is being audited. Antonyms: nervous, disconcerted
Sentence: He is in unflappable state of mind.
SLEAZY (ADJECTIVE): disreputable
Synonyms: sordid, tacky UNCANNY (ADJECTIVE): strange
Antonyms: reputable, respectable Synonyms: weird, odd
Sentence: She was raising sleazy topics again and again. Antonyms: conventional, normal
Sentence: Seeing her uncanny behaviour, she was
SPURT (NOUN): commotion surprised.
Synonyms: eruption, explosion
Antonyms: peace, continuity VAUNT (VERB): boast
Sentence: With a spurt of energy, Ammy was able to Synonyms: brag, flaunt
cross over the finish line. Antonyms: be modest, be shy
Sentence: He was vaunting to heights.
SPREE (NOUN): binge
Synonyms: wild activity, bash ROUT (NOUN): defeat
Antonyms: care, thriftiness Synonyms: conquer, overthrow
Sentence: The alcoholic consumed two gallons of Antonyms: win, victory
whiskey during his last drinking spree. Sentence: The retreat degenerated into a rout.


Synonyms: stopover, reside Synonyms: arrogant, proud
Vocabulary Notes (Prepared by Aamir Mahar)
Antonyms: humble, modest Antonyms: arrogance, boldness
Sentence: He has a vainglorious nature. Sentence: I have seen diffidence in his speech.

VISTA (NOUN): glimpse SCHISM (NOUN): separation

Synonyms: look, sight Synonyms: breakup, alienation
Antonyms: blindness, darkness Antonyms: unity, agreement
Sentence: Sweeping lawns and landscaped vistas were Sentence: In the United States, the schism caused by
seen on the way. slavery led to the Civil War.


Synonyms: unharmed, uninjured Synonyms: faltering, hesitancy
Antonyms: hurt, injured Antonyms: peace, tranquility
Sentence: Some passengers came through all the perils Sentence: If a person has no scruples, there is not a great
unscathed. deal he will not do.


Synonyms: smooth, placid Synonyms: dotage, caducity
Antonyms: frantic, nervous Antonyms: adolescence, childhood
Sentence: He was talking about the unruffled waters Sentence: Old when I was ten, long gone in senility by
of the lake. thirteen.

VIGILANT (ADJECTIVE): careful BATE (VERB): to become gradually less

Synonyms: watchful, guarded Synonyms: decrease, diminish
Antonyms: careless, heedless Antonyms: rise, grow
Sentence: She is vigilant while talking to others. Sentence: Traffic has bated to a trickle.

GLIB (ADJECTIVE): eloquent SPLENETIC (ADJECTIVE): nasty in behavior, speech

Synonyms: loquacious, talkative Synonyms: rancorous, angry
Antonyms: quiet, silent Antonyms: kind, mild
Sentence: Ria is a glib girl. Sentence: Gulafsha is not splenetic by nature.


Synonyms: fertile, reproducing Synonyms: pinchpenny, niggard
Antonyms: impotent, sterile Antonyms: spender, spendthrift
Sentence: The airline is looking for fecund individuals Sentence: My uncle is a perfect of the skinflint.
who can complete many tasks in a short period of time..
SANITY (NOUN): mental health
BRAZEN (ADJECTIVE): boll Synonyms: prudence, acumen
Synonyms: abusive, arrogant Antonyms: ignorance, inability
Antonyms: cowardly, modest Sentence: I am concerned about her sanity.
Sentence: Amara presented a very brazen idea.
SOBRIQUET (NOUN): nickname
FRACAS (NOUN): fuel Synonyms: alias, moniker
Synonyms: riot, scuffle Antonyms: formal name, official name
Antonyms: harmony, peace Sentence: Aleena is my sobriquet.
Sentence: Fracas is going on in the city.
SIDEREAL (ADJECTIVE): pertaining to stars
DUPLICITOUS (ADJECTIVE): deceptive Synonyms: glittering, luminous
Synonyms: artful, deceptive Antonyms: dim, dull
Antonyms: actual, authentic Sentence: The teacher told that each sidereal year is
Sentence: She has a duplicitous personality. measured by looking at the position of the sun
relative to the stars.
DIFFIDENCE (NOUN): hesitance
Synonyms: backwardness, doubt
Vocabulary Notes (Prepared by Aamir Mahar)
LYNCHING (NOUN): to kill (someone) by mob MAR (VERB)
illegally as punishment for a crime Meaning: to ruin the beauty or perfection of
Synonym: execute illegally, hang, kill, string up (something), to hurt or damage the good condition
Usage 1: The accused killer was lynched by an of (something)
angry mob. Synonyms: damage, ruin, deface, harm, mutilate
Usage 2: Police arrested eight people, including Antonyms: heal, improve, renovate, arrange
four minors, for lynching a dentist in Karachi late Usage 1: It was a really nice day, marred only by a
on Thursday. little argument in the car on the way home.
Usage 2: I hope the fact that John isn't coming
STALLED (ADJECTIVE) won't mar your enjoyment of the evening.
Meaning: stop or cause to stop making progress
Synonyms: obstruct, impeded, hindered, muffled, FLEDGLING (ADJECTIVE)
closed, blocked Meaning: new and without experience, young &
Antonyms: advance, expedite, promote, permit inexperienced
Usage 1: Japan's economic growth has stalled, with Synonyms: unqualified, young, inexperienced
industrial production contracting in June for the Antonyms: skilled, efficient, adroit, capable
fourth straight month. Usage 1: The current economic climate is
Usage 2: Commandos stalled the enemy attack by particularly difficult for fledgling businesses.
destroying three bridges. Usage 2: The fledgling writer could use the benefit
of a good editor.
Meaning: something that cause action or activity INHERITED (VERB)
Synonyms: boost, encouragement, goad, impetus, Meaning: an inherited situation, problem,
incentive department, etc. is one that you have become
Antonyms: brake, inactivity, lethargy, standstill responsible for dealing with or managing
Usage 1: In an attempt to give new momentum to Synonyms: genetic, inborn, hereditary, willed,
their plans, the committee set a date for starting handed-down, transferred
detailed discussions. Antonyms: acquired, drifting,
Usage 2: The play loses momentum (= becomes less Usage 1: The inherited economy was recovering
interesting, energetic, etc.) by its half way stage. strongly, having been very sensibly managed for
four years.
DISSENT (NOUN) Usage 2: When my brother left for college,
Meaning: a strong difference of opinion on a I inherited his old computer.
particular subject, to disagree with other people
about something INTERVENE (VERB)
Synonyms: differ, disagreement, nonconcur Meaning: to get involved, become involved in
Antonyms: agree, assent, concur something (such as a conflict) in order to have an
Usage 1: In a democratic society, individuals who influence on what happens
disagree with Goverment are allowed to voice their Synonyms: negotiate, arbitrate, mediate
dissent by writing, speaking, and even marching in Antonyms: ignore, neglect, leave alone
the streets. Usage 1: The Central Bank intervened in the
Usage 2: Anyone wishing to dissent from the currency markets today to try to stabilize the
motion should now raise their hand. exchange rate.
Usage 2: The military had to intervene to restore
Meaning: not considering other people's feelings or
Synonyms: Careless, offhand, indifferent, casual, Meaning: the act of intentionally stopping or
dismissive, insouciant, unconcerned, slowing down an official process
Antonyms: humble, thoughtful, careful, cautious Synonyms: blocking, delay, interference,
Usage 1: Anne was irritated by his cavalier attitude. interruption
Usage 2: She has a cavalier attitude about spending Antonyms: helpfulness, assistance, support
Vocabulary Notes (Prepared by Aamir Mahar)
Usage 1: The party surely dread the kind of SEDULOUS
obstructionism they themselves practiced during Meaning: (of a person or action) showing dedication and
the last Congress. diligence.
Synonyms: diligent, careful, meticulous
THWARTED (VERB) Antonyms: nonchalant
Meaning prevent (someone) from accomplishing Sentence: He watched himself with the most sedulous
something. care.
Synonyms: baffled, failed, hindered, obstructed
Antonym: assisted, promoted, Extrapolate
Usage 1: Our holiday plans were thwarted by the Meaning: extend the application of (a method or
airline pilots' strike. conclusion) to an unknown situation by assuming that
Usage 2: She did all she could to thwart his plans. existing trends will continue or similar methods will be
MYOPIA (NOUN) Synonyms: deduce, hypothesize, anticipate
Meaning: disapproving of or refusing to accept ideas Antonyms: doubt
or ways of behaving that are different from your own Sentence: The results cannot be extrapolated to other
an unfair and unreasonable opinion or feeling, patient groups.
especially when formed without enough thought or
knowledge CIRCUMVENT
Synonyms: intolerance, Prejudice, bias Meaning: find a way around (an obstacle), deceive;
Antonyms: tolerance, fairness, adjustment outwit.
Usage 1: The campaign aims to dispel the myopia that Synonym: avoid
AIDS is confined to the homosexual community. Antonym: aid, assist
Usage 2: He had to battle against myopia to get a job. Sentence: If you come to an obstruction in a road you can
seek to circumvent it.
SCHISM (NOUN) He's circumvented her with some of his stories.
Meaning: a division among the members of a group
that occurs because they disagree on something
Synonyms: division, split, rift, breach, rupture, break, PERVASIVE
separation, severance, chasm, gulf, discord Meaning: (especially of an unwelcome influence or
Antonyms: union, harmony, agreement, physical effect) spreading widely throughout an area or a
Usage 1: The schism between my two best friends put group of people
me in the awkward position of having to choose one Synonyms: prevalent, penetrating,
over the other. Antonyms: rare, scarce, uncommon
Usage 2: The schism that divided the nation into two Sentence: "ageism is pervasive and entrenched in our
separate countries was caused by religious society"
PREJUDICE Meaning: leave (property) to a person or other
Meaning: preconceived opinion that is not based beneficiary by a will.
on reason or actual experience. Synonyms: commit, entrust, grant, transfer, convey;
Synonyms: preconception Antonyms: take, keep, receive
Sentence: Male prejudices about women Sentence: He bequeathed his art collection to the town.

Meaning: (of a person or process) diligent, Meaning: tending to obstruct or harm.
thorough, and extremely attentive to details. Synonyms: harmful, injurious, detrimental,
Synonyms: careful, meticulous, painstaking, Antonyms: helpful, advantageous
Antonyms: careless, slapdash Sentence: The policy was inimical to Britain's real
Sentence: The research has been carried out with interests.
scrupulous attention to detail.
Meaning: a person or thing viewed as a sign that
something is about to happen.
Vocabulary Notes (Prepared by Aamir Mahar)
Synonyms: harbinger, sign, indicator loved Vera sufficiently and of being so ready to get
Sentence: They considered the first primroses as her off their hands.
the herald of spring.
QUELL Meaning: (of computer hardware or software) able
Meaning: put an end to (a rebellion or other to operate independently of other hardware or
disorder), typically by the use of force. software
Synonyms: put an end to, stamp out, put a stop to, Synonym stands in, stand down
end, finish Sentence: Nothing but a standalone phone booth.
Antonyms: succumb to
Sentence: Extra police were called to quell the ALBEIT (CONJUNCTION)
disturbance. Meaning: though
Synonym admitting, even if
GESTATION (NOUN) Sentence: Your credit card statement captures an
Meaning: the process or period of developing inside accurate, albeit extremely abbreviated, record of
the womb between conception and birth your comings and goings.
Synonyms: evolution, fecundation
Sentence: The period of gestation in the mare is Meaning: causing one to feel unsettled
about eleven months. Synonyms: agitate, bafflestar
Antonyms; aid, assist
EVALUATED (VERB) Sentence: He found it both amusing and a bit
Meaning: form an idea of the amount, number, or disconcerting that both Sidwell womens initial
value of, assess reaction was to castrate him.
Synonyms: appraise, assess
Antonyms: neglect INTROSPECTION (NOUN)
Sentence: Wynn was a brilliant surgeon, the only Meaning: the examination or observation of ones
person Gabriel knew to bring in and evaluate own mental and emotional processes
Deidres claim that she was healed. Synonyms: contemplation, meditation
Sentence: Perhaps if you indulged in a little
COVETED (VERB) introspection, you would stop repeating the same
Meaning: yearn to possess (something, especially bad habits.
something belonging to another)
Synonyms: crave, envy SAVVY (NOUN)
Antonyms: dislike, hate Meaning: shrewdness and practical knowledge,
Sentence: The tone combined with the much especially in politics or business
coveted endearment of Dad caught him totally off Synonyms: acute, calculating
guard. Antonyms: blunt, coarse
Sentence: Hes book smart and business savvy, but
INTRIGUING (ADJECTIVE) hes still a boy in some ways.
Meaning: arousing ones curiosity or interest,
fascinating GRAVELY (ADVERB): very much; desperately
Synonyms: absorbing, alluring Synonyms: deeply, seriously
Antonyms: boring, unexciting Antonyms: lightly, calmly
Sentence: Thats the intriguing part and what I Sentence: She listened to her father gravely.
hope Vinnie Baratto will tell us.
QUACKERY (NOUN): charlatanism
CONSTRAINTS (NOUN) Synonyms: trickery, deception
Meaning: a limitation or restriction Antonyms: reality, frankness
Synonyms: pressure, restraint Sentence: The meanest and most contemptible
Antonyms: deterrent, discouragement kind of cheating is quackery.
Sentence: In the familys feeling toward this
wedding a certain awkwardness and constraint
was evident, as if they were ashamed of not having
Vocabulary Notes (Prepared by Aamir Mahar)
OUST (VERB): expel, get rid of Sentence: Mrs. Elena was thoroughly amused by
Synonyms: depose, evict her students waggish behavior, but concealed it
Antonyms: offer, retain really well to maintain her stern reputation.
Sentence: The leader of the party has been ousted
by his own party at their annual convention. YONDER (NOUN): to a far place
Synonyms: faraway, farther
SLUMMY (ADJECTIVE): (of housing or Antonym: close, nearby
residential areas) indicative of poverty Sentence: John denied to drive yonder as he had
Synonyms: damaged, faded spent the day behind the wheel and was
Antonyms: stable, repaired completely drained.
Sentence: Don't you believe she has been led away
into any slummy place, for the sake of politics. TAWDRY (ADJECTIVE): cheap and poor in
QUAGGY (ADJECTIVE): soft appearance or quality
Synonyms: cushiony, spongy Synonyms: tacky, sleazy
Antonyms: hard, rough Antonyms: expensive, tasteful
Sentence: Among other things, he noticed the Sentence: Jordan got the interiors done by a
quaggy nature of the meat he purchased for dinner. professional to make his tawdry apartment look
DECREPIT (ADJECTIVE): problems caused as a
result of age FARCE (NOUN): a ridiculous situation or event
Synonyms: dilapidated, crippled Synonyms: parody, absurdity
Antonyms: healthy, stable Antonym: tragedy, sobriety
Sentence: The owners have plans to renovate their Sentence: Mr. Williams is refused to enact the farce
decrepit hotel. as his acting skills were above such humor.
PILLAGE (VERB): loot PIVOTAL (ADJECTIVE): of crucial significance
Synonyms: desecrate, plunder Synonyms: vital, important Antonyms: inessential,
Antonyms: receive, build trivial
Sentence: Soldiers went on a rampage, pillaging Sentence: We left the theatre as the movie turned
stores and shooting. boring after the pivotal character died.
ELATION (NOUN): extreme happiness
Synonyms: bliss, ecstasy ABNEGATION (NOUN): the act of rejecting or
Antonyms: sorrow, woe refusing something
Sentence: His elation increased at the sight of the Synonyms: forbearance, abstinence
little girl he had saved. Antonyms: allowance, approval
Sentence: Jemma had no problem with abnegation
EERILY (ADVERB): strangely of worldly possessions as she wanted to be a nun.
Synonyms: weirdly, creepily
Antonyms: naturally, pleasantly CHURLISH (ADJECTIVE): rude
Sentence: His eyes glowed eerily in the dark kitchen. Synonyms: impolite, boorish Antonyms: polished,
CONCILIATE (VERB): make calm and content Sentence: James woke up churlish in the morning
Synonyms: placate, pacify but his mood improved considerably after the
Antonyms: incite, irritate heavenly cup of coffee.
Sentence: Harolds attempts to conciliate the angry
protesters failed when they started throwing ABAFT (ADJECTIVE): towards the back
stones at the building. Synonyms: astern, rearward
Antonyms: forward, forth
WAGGISH (ADJECTIVE): acting in a playful Sentence: Rihanna has sea sickness so she was told
manner to sit abaft as the rear of the ship is less wavy.
Synonyms: amusing, humorous Antonyms: tragic,