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JANUARY 2018 Publication FEBRUARY 2018 Publication

The Wehrmacht Hitler’s Secret Weapons
michael e. haskew david porter
Rising from the ashes of the Following the invasion of the Soviet
post-World War I Reichswehr, Union and the realization that the war
the Wehrmacht became one of could continue for years, Hitler put
the cornerstones of Hitler’s re- WORLD WAR II GERMANY: great resources into the development WORLD WAR II GERMANY:

assertion of German military might. The Wehrmacht of technologically advanced Hitler’s Secret Weapons
240 x 189mm (9½ x 7½”) 240 x 189mm (9½ x 7½”)
With chapters on the history of the weaponry, in the belief that the
192pp 192pp
German Army, pre-war development, production of ‘wonder weapons’ was 50,000 words
50,000 words
command structures, infantry, the key to victory. From submarines 150 photos, diagrams and maps
150 photos, diagrams and maps
armoured formations, artillery and ISBN: 978-1-78274-592-1 to chemical and nuclear weapons, ISBN: 978-1-78274-595-2
support services, The Wehrmacht £19.99 Paperback from superguns to experimental £19.99 Paperback
offers military history enthusiasts aircraft, Hitler’s Secret Weapons
key data on every aspect of Nazi reveals the extent of Germany’s
Germany’s ground forces. munitions development.

c o m m an d s tr uc tur e c o m m a n d s t r u cture command structure command structure m issiles a nd a ir- la u nch ed wea po ns m issiles a nd a ir- la u nch ed wea po ns m issiles a nd a ir- la u nch ed wea po ns missile s and air-launche d we apons

authorized units of the Heer to utilize
extreme measures in the process.
Furthermore, officers were directed
authorized to exercise such authority
without fear of prosecution for actions
which would normally be violations
signature on the actual paper order
was his.
While Keitel had considered
people. Every German is liable to
military service. In time of war, in
addition to liability to military service,
considerable, given the limitations of
1940s technology.
Two options were seriously
at this time about the feasibility of
the large, liquid-fuelled missiles
under development at Peenemünde
supply port. The unit was supposed
to be equipped with 12 launchers, but
only seems to have received four.
accentuated the ineffectiveness
of the Rheinbote bombardment
which began on Christmas Eve and
rocket was militarily useless and
the project was finally cancelled the
following month.
Surface-to-Surface Missiles surFACE-To-surFACE mIssIlEs ComPArED

to use ‘collective measures’ against of German law. Generals and senior himself a loyal officer of the German In the spring of 1940, the German armed forces moved against Norway and Denmark. 1. While fighting for victory, the German soldier will observe every German man and every German Location Total considered, the first was guidance and that Rheinmetall-Borsig were The launcher was the FR-Wagen, continued into January 1945. The While the service version of Although they were far from being the decisive weapons that Hitler had envisaged,
the local population where attacks commanders who protested summary Army, he had fatally linked that Historically, such an operation would have been planned by the General Staff of the the rules of chivalrous warfare. Cruelties and needless woman is liable to service to the 18
18,000,000 Belgium 1664 by radio beacons which were to be requested to design a solid fuel a modification of the Meillerwagen average rate of fire for each launcher Rheinbote was a total disaster, the V-1 and V-2 inflicted significant damage to their targets and compelled the Allies to
against German forces occurred if the executions and acts of brutality loyalty to the person of Adolf Hitler. destruction are below his values. Fatherland,’ it read. Antwerp 1610 set up by German agents operating missile to act as back-up in the event transporter/erector trailer used for seems to have been roughly one there were designs derived from the
Army and executed through OKH. Liège 27 divert considerable resources to countering the threat that they posed. 6m
actual culprits could not be located. committed by both Army and Waffen- In doing so, he undermined the From 1935 on, German men were 16 in the USA and the second was to of the failure of the V-1 or V-2 design the V-2. The missile was fired from a missile per hour – estimates of the original study that could have been
Hasselt 13
Officers were also empowered to SS personnel were often relieved of effectiveness of the Army General 2. Combatants will be wearing uniform or will wear specially subject to military service from their utilize a manned version of the and construction projects. launch rail mounted on the erector total number of missiles fired vary, at least as effective as the V-2. The
Tournai 9
execute hostile persons without duty or otherwise silenced. Each of Staff and OKH, precipitated an However, Operation ‘Weserübung’ OKW. In its subordinate role, OB OB West no fewer than six times. introduced and clearly identifiable badges. Fighting in 18th birthday until the end of the 14 A-4b/A-9. In theory, the pilot was By May 1942, plans had been frame rather than from a separate but it was certainly no more than most advanced of these seems to V-1 While it was a crude engine, which and a speed of 720–800km/h (450– 3m
Mons 3
trial or formal adherence to any these orders originated with Hitler; indelible stain on the honour of the (Weser Exercise) was controlled from West was mainly responsible for Field Marshal Gerd von Rundstedt civilian clothes or without such badges is prohibited. month of March following their 45th to eject after setting the missile on drawn up for a multi-stage, solid fuel launch pad, as in the case of the V-2. 200. As predicted, the effectiveness have been the Rheinbote III, which In common with many other could only operate effectively at low 500mph) but in practice these figures V-1
12 Diest 2
law or legal process. Officers of the however, the implementation of them Army and the officer corps, and was the outset by OKW. Soon afterward, the implementation of orders issued was appointed and then sacked on birthday. Later, conscription was uK 1402
course to its target. rocket carrying a 1225kg (2695lb) of these missiles was very limited had a 771kg (1700lb) warhead and a countries, Germany had altitude, it would run well on low were reduced to approximately length: 8m (26ft)

Heer were assured that they were rested with Wilhelm Keitel and the hanged as a war criminal. OKW issued orders to move an entire directly by Hitler and transmitted three occasions. He commanded 3. No enemy who has surrendered will be executed, including extended to cover those aged 17 to 10,000,000
London 1358 The A4b/A-10 combination was warhead to a maximum range Combat Effectiveness and by the end of January 1945, range of 241km (150 miles). experimented with unmanned aircraft octane petrol and was ideally suited 240km (150 miles) and 560–640km/h 0m
10 0m 3m 6m 9m 12m 15m 18m 21m 24m 27m 30m 33m 36m
division of the Heer from Norway to through OKW. The OB West area OB West from October 1940 to April partisans and spies. They will be duly punished by courts. 61, and during the last days of the Norwich 43 designed in parallel with the A-9/A- of 241km (150 miles). Although a The shortage of launchers even the SS appreciated that the during the inter-war years, but had to power a flying bomb. (350–400mph).
Finland, establishing a new theatre of operations primarily included the 1941 and was replaced by Field Third Reich boys as young as 12 were 8 7,856,000 Ipswich 1 4b and its development was also production contract was issued, never seriously considered their The initial test flight of an air- Production examples of the V-1 9m
FIELD MARSHAL WILHELM BODEWIN GUSTAv KEITEL of war for the armed forces which coastal defences of the Atlantic Wall, Marshal Erwin von Witzleben from 4. POWs will not be ill-treated or mocked. Arms, maps and defending the smouldering ruins of France 76 officially suspended in 1943 to free it soon became apparent that potential as flying bombs. Tentative launched unpowered prototype was were fitted with an odometer driven
was completely outside the control or which opposed the Allied landings May 1941 to March 1942. Rundstedt records will be taken away from them, but their personal Berlin. Individuals who were deemed 6 Lille 25 resources for the V-2 programme. development would be a lengthy proposals for such weapons were made in early December 1942, with by a vane anemometer on the nose
A senior Nazi and member of Hitler’s inner circle throughout World War II, Keitel served as chief of the Oberkommando influence of the General Staff or OKH. in Normandy on 6 June 1944, and was reinstated and commanded OB belongings will not be touched. as somewhat short of immediate 4,606,000 Paris 22 However, there is some surprising business and attention turned to rejected in 1939 and 1941, but by the first powered flight following on that determined when the target area 6m
When the invasion of the Soviet the occupied territories of the Low West from March 1942 to July 1944 4 Tourcoing 19 evidence to the contrary at two smaller versions of the missile that Christmas Eve, when a missile was
der Wehrmacht (OKW) and conducted the armistice negotiations with the French government in the Forest of fitness for service were classified in 3,250,000 1942, the erosion of German air had been reached. Before launch, the
Arras 6 North Sea
Compiègne in 1940. Keitel was a career soldier and was wounded in action during World War I. Acknowledged as a Union began on 22 June 1941, and Countries. At the end of the war, the and was followed by Field Marshal 5. Dum-Dum bullets are prohibited; also no other bullets may one of several reserve components locations in Normandy, one at Haut could be brought into service more superiority prompted the Luftwaffe to air-launched from a Focke-Wulf Fw counter was set to a value that would
2 Cambrai 4 V-2
capable staff officer, his blind allegiance to Hitler facilitated numerous errors in the strategic and tactical prosecution 120 German divisions attacked the remnants of the OB West command Günther von Kluge from early July be transformed into Dum-Dums. and subject to activation as needed. Mesnil, near Caen and the other at quickly. The selected type, the reconsider the matter and begin the 200 Condor from Peenemünde. reach zero upon arrival at the target 3m length: 14m (46ft)
netherlands (maastricht) 19
of the German war effort. Field Marshal Keitel was tried at Nuremberg and convicted of war crimes and crimes against Red Army along a 1600km (1000-mile) were concentrated in Bavaria. to mid-August of that year. Field Certain classes of the population, 0
La Meauffe, near St Lo. Both were Rh-Z-61/9, was dubbed Rheinbote Rijs development of a small, cheap flying in the prevailing wind conditions. As
Germany (remagen) 11
humanity. He was hanged on 16 October 1946. front, Hitler could not refrain from Indicative of Hitler’s continuing Marshal Walther Model held the 6. Red Cross institutions are sacrosanct. Injured enemies such as Jews, were excluded from Total killed, Total dead and Killed and Wounded POWs quarries that had been taken over for and was a four-stage, fin-stabilized NETHERLANDS bomb, with a range of about 250km New launch system the missile flew, the airflow turned
wounded and wounded missing
interfering with ongoing operations. suspicions of the Army General Staff post for only two weeks in August are to be treated humanely. Medical personnel and army service. However, as the need for captured conversion to V-2 storage areas in missile with no guidance or control Norwich Dalfsen
(155 miles) and a 800kg (1760lb) Considerable development work the propeller, with every 30 rotations 0m
0m 3m 6m 9m 12m 15m 18m 21m 24m 27m 30m 33m 36m
Birth: 22 September 1882 He accomplished this through orders and the high-ranking commanders and September 1944, and Rundstedt chaplains should not be hindered in performing their manpower increased the standards failures, von Braun was confident 1942, but little work was completed system that had to be accurately warhead, that could hit an area was still required, but by mid-1943, a counting down one number on the
Death: 16 October 1946 issued via OKW. Just as he had done whose careers were traced to the again commanded OB West from medical or clerical activities. for physical fitness were lowered, and tactical situation after 1942. n every German campaign, even the that the design was sound, but the up to the end of 1943. In early 1944, aimed at its target before launch to Hellendoom Burgsteinfurt target, evading interception by flying workable catapult launching system counter. This counter triggered the 9m

in France weeks earlier, ordering his officer elite of the Junker class, September 1944 until March 1945. deteriorating military situation forced urgent construction work suddenly have any chance of hitting it. Nikverdal Darfield A-9/A-10
Place of Birth: Helmscherode, Braunschweig convicts serving prison terms Although some Heer units are successful ones, added significantly to Wassenaar Haaksbergen in at high speed and low altitude. had been devised. A gyrocompass- arming of the warhead after about length: 25.8m (84ft 8in)
father: Carl Keitel ground troops to halt and allowing he replaced the commanders of The final commander of OB West was 7. The civilian population is sacrosanct. No looting nor were pressed into the ranks, and known to have committed atrocities the death toll on the German army. the evacuation of the Peenemünde began at both sites and after their General Dornberger expressed Ipswich The Hague The project was given the cover based autopilot guidance system had 60km (38 miles). When the counter
Mother: Apollonia vissering thousands of British and French egregious destruction is permitted by the soldier. convalescing soldiers who might against prisoners of war and civilians tens of thousands died in poland, site before any further trials could be capture, Allied intelligence teams deep reservations about the Hoek van Holland designation of Flakzielgerät 76 (FZG been adopted which gave sufficient reached zero, two explosive bolts 6m

soldiers to escape from Dunkirk, carried out. found that they contained networks practicality of the design which Kleve
Personal relationshiPs: Married to Lisa Fontaine (six children) Landmarks of historical value or buildings serving religious have previously been sent on leave alike, most common soldiers of the france, and the Balkans, but the real 76) – ‘AA target equipment 76’. accuracy for use against area were fired and two spoilers on the
THEATRE COMMANDS, 1940–45 Serooskerke
Service: Cadet Officer 1901 he grew restless as German forces purposes, art, science, or charity are to be especially were returned to their units. German Army acquitted themselves price was paid on the eastern front. A final variant of the A-4b was of tunnels and loading equipment used a 1715kg (3775lb) multi-stage London The FZG 76 was powered by an targets and selection of launch sites elevator were released, the linkage
Wounded in action 1914 neared the Soviet capital of Moscow. respected. Deliveries in kind made, as well as services During World War II, the strength honourably in combat. intended to be fitted with a ring of for missiles almost twice the size missile to inaccurately deliver a Argus pulse jet – a simple tube began. Potential launch sites were between the elevator and servo was 3m
Joined Freikorps 1919 Hitler diverted troops of Field Marshal u füHrer Adolf Hitler rendered by the population, may only be claimed if ordered of the Heer at its peak approached In his acclaimed book For all his ineptitude as a military 10 solid propellant booster rockets of the V-2. Perhaps, therefore, work 40kg (88lb) warhead containing only containing a fuel injection system and fewer than had been anticipated, jammed and a guillotine device cut
Head of Army Organization Fedor von Bock’s Army Group Centre n by superiors and only against compensation. n a young German soldier poses for the camera 10 million men. Between 1939 and Frontsoldaten, Stephen G. Fritz points strategist, particularly his strategic to achieve a speed of Mach 6 at an on A-4b/A-10 was much closer 20kg (44lb) of explosives. However, a spark plug, with its front covered as steadily increasing weight had off the control hoses to the rudder
to the north and south of the Soviet altitude of 20km (12 miles), extending to completion than official historical the SS believed that the system Maastricht 0m
Department 1929 during the invasion of france, may 1940. He is 1945, the Heer suffered more than out, ‘As perpetrators, whether out of blunders committed in 1940 and by a screen of spring-loaded flaps. degraded the missile’s performance. servo, setting the rudder in neutral. 0m 3m 6m 9m 12m 15m 18m 21m 24m 27m 30m 33m 36m
research suggests. had real potential to damage Allied BELGIUM
Brigadier-General 1934 capital, rendering Bock’s planned n OB West Gen FM Gerd von Rundstedt (1940–1, 1942–4, 1944–5) 8. Neutral territory will never be entered nor passed over by armed with a Kar 98 rifle and has a stick grenade 4.2 million dead and nearly 400,000 conviction or not, these common men later, Adolf Hitler was nevertheless the range of the missile to 950– Liège In flight, the airflow forced the It had been estimated that it would These actions put the V-1 into a steep
Head of Armed Forces Office 1935 armoured thrust to capture Moscow Gen FM Erwin von Witzleben (1941–2) aircraft, nor shot at; it will not be the focus of warmaking tucked in his belt. taken prisoner, bearing by far the existed as part of a great destructive the catalyst for the growth and 1000km (590–621 miles). targets and used their increasing flaps open, which operated a valve have a range of 483km (300 miles) dive.
Major-General 1936 impossible and depriving him of the Gen FM Günther von Kluge (1944) of any kind. lion’s share of the burden of the fight machine, ready and willing to kill and development of a fighting machine Rheinbote (Rhine Messenger) influence over missile development spraying fuel into the tube. The fuel/ range
initiative necessary to potentially win In the late 1930s, the armaments to issue a production order for the English Channel
General of Artillery 1937 Gen FM Walter Model (1944) for Germany. The combat prowess destroy in order to achieve the goals which was, up to that time, the most First ICBM air mix was ignited by the spark plug
Armed Forces High Command 1938 the war in the East. 9. If a German soldier is made a POW he will give his name and rank if he is asked for them. Under no circumstances of the German soldier in World War of a murderous regime. In the role formidable in the world. The Heer, in The first stage of the proposed ICBM, firm Rheinmetall-Borsig had built Rheinbote in November 1944. and the explosion blew the flaps Rheinbote, V-1, V-2, AnD A9/A10 sIZEs ComPArED V-1 240km (149 miles)
Gen FM Albert Kesselring (1945) V-2 launch sites
Colonel-General 1938 From the autumn of 1940 until n OB Süd West Gen FM Albert Kesselring (1943–5) will he reveal the unit to which he belongs, nor will he give any information about German military, political and II was grudgingly acknowledged of victims, they lived daily with the turn, was the premier component of the A-10, was to be powered by six up considerable expertise in the The Rheinbote trials unit was shut, producing a brief burst of thrust Missile Length Max Diameter Span V-2 330km (205 miles)
Chief of OKW 1938 the end of the war, the Feldheer Gen FM Heinrich von Vietinghoff-Scheel (1945) economic conditions. Neither promises nor threats may induce him to do so. by his adversaries, and historians physical hardships, the psychological that machine, fighting across fronts modified V-2 rocket engines and was development of solid fuel rockets accordingly mobilized as Artillerie FRANCE before the flaps were again forced Rheinbote 11.5m (37ft 6in) 0.535m (1ft 9in) 1.49m (4ft 10in)
Targeted cities
Field Marshal 1940 in the West, also known as the n OB Süd Ost Gen-Ob Alexander Löhr (1943–5) have noted that as a whole the burdens, and the often crushing which extended from the Caucasus intended to carry the second stage for army use in the short-range Abeitlung 709 and deployed to open by the airflow to restart the V-1 8m (26ft) 0.84m (2ft 9in) 5m (17ft)
A-9/A-10 5000km (3107 miles)
n Keitel (left) talks with Luftwaffe supremo Convicted and executed at Westheer, was under the control n OB Nord West Gen FM Ernst Busch (1945) 10. Offences against the a/m matters of duty will be punished. Enemy offences against the principles under 1 to 8 are to German Army acquitted itself with anxieties of death and killing that to the deserts of North Africa and A-4b/A-9 embedded in its nose. The bombardment role (the 28/32cm Nunspeet in the Netherlands to take Distance: 319km (198 miles)
operating cycle. At full speed, the V-2 14m (46ft) 1.68m (5ft 6in) 3.5m (11ft 6in)
Altitude: 80km (50 miles) A-9/A-10 Amerikarakete 25.8m (84ft 8in) 4.3m (14ft 1in) 9m (29ft 6in)
Hermann Göring, 1943. Nuremberg 1946 of Oberbefehlshaber West, or OB be reported. Reprisals are only permissible on order of higher commands. tremendous courage in the face of constitute the everyday life of all from the English Channel to the problem of achieving any sort of (11/12.6in) NbW 41 series). It appears part in the massive bombardment of engine produced these pulses at an
West, which answered directly to a continually deteriorating strategic combat soldiers.’ Arctic Circle. accuracy against US targets was that there were some misgivings Antwerp, which was an important approximate rate of 42 per second.

42 43 48 49 148 149 138 139

The SS Fighting Techniques
chris mcnab
of a Panzergrenadier 1941–45
The SS examines the history and matthew hughes
development of the Schutzstaffel and chris mann
from its origin as Hitler’s personal During World War II, the Germans
fielded 29 panzergrenadier divisions, Fighting Techniques of a
bodyguard to its growth into a WORLD WAR II GERMANY: Panzergrenadier 1941–45
millions-strong organization by the The SS in which the infantry units were fully
285 x 213mm (11¼ x 8¼in)
war’s end. Highly illustrated and 240 x 189mm (9½ x 7½”) motorised to operate alongside tanks 96 pages
broken down into key constituent parts 192pp and assault guns on the battlefield. 35,000 words
– such as the police, concentration 50,000 words Illustrated with more than 90 50 artworks, 40 photos
150 photos, diagrams and maps photographs and artworks, Fighting ISBN: 978-1-78274-599-0
camps, security services, Waffen-SS,
ISBN: 978-1-78274-593-8 Techniques of a Panzergrenadier is a £14.99 Paperback
slave labour and Einsatzgruppen – the £19.99 Paperback
book is an essential reference guide comprehensive guide to the training,
for anyone interested in the history and techniques and weaponry of these
structure of this infamous organization. soldiers.

C H A P T E R 3 36 Panzergrenadiers in action in the West Panzergrenadiers in action in the West, 1939–45 37

Stukas dropped their bombs a ‘hair’s breadth’ from the combat engineers to build ferries and a bridge onto which
attacking Germans as they stormed the French defences on the panzers could pass. All along the Meuse, the experience
chapter 6 police and intelligence police and intelligence the slopes of the hill of La Marfée. The French defenders, of the men of the Grossdeutschland was repeated as other
many of whom were raw conscripts, were left bewildered Wehrmacht motorised infantry units paddled across the

6 kripo offices Kriminalpolizei – the Criminal Police, who were not oriented towards the
in Action in the West, by the ferocity of the German bombardment. The ensuing
battle for the west bank shows that panzergrenadiers often
fought fixed piece assaults on prepared defences. This
river in the face of fierce French fire. Casualties in such an
assault were high and for men wounded on the west bank
the delay in ferrying them back to regimental aid posts on the

1939– 45
uNITS WITHIN THE ORDNUNGSPOLIZEI (ORDER POLICE; ORPO) was classic infantry action. Courbiere again: ‘After a short east bank often proved fatal. Another problem was the lack of
the kripo maintained offices in better known as the Kripo – and the Nazi Party, in the process depriving
fight the bunker is reached by a sergeant and two men. water, and the Germans relied on captured bottles of water to
most of the major towns and cities Ordnungspolizei (Order Police; Orpo). the force of thousands of excellent
Baupolizei (Buildings Police) Motorisierte Gendarmerie (Motorized Traffic Gendarmerie) The enemy are smoked out by hand grenades; they are keep them going.
Feuerschutzpolizei (Fire Protection Police)
across the reich. the offices at a The Orpo was commanded from 1936 officers and consequently reducing
Polizei Fliegerstaffeln (Police Flying units) completely vanquished; they come out. Their faces reveal
sub-regional level would report to 1945 by SS-Oberstgruppenführer its efficiency.

Feuerwehren (Fire Brigades) 1 Polizei Nachrichtenstaffeln (Police Signal units)
back to the relevant regional office Kurt Daluege, an unpleasant and He also encouraged members the psychological strain of this fighting. Close to each other Combat Engineers at the Crossing
Luftschutzpolizei (Air Raid Police) Gendarmerie (Rural Police)
headquarters. in turn, the reports brutish man who was generally of the Allgemeine-SS to join the they stand with their backs to their bunker and raise their of the Meuse
Technische Nothilfe, TeNo (Technical Emergency Service) Polizei Reiterstaffeln (Mounted Police units) Although the invasion of
Feldjägerkrops, FJK (Auxiliary Police) from regional offices were then unpopular with the civilian career police ranks, breeding tensions and hands.’ In the savage fighting, some of the French defenders The Grossdeutschland was just one motorised infantry
Schutzpolizei des Reichs (Reich Protection Police) 5
Verwaltungspolizei (Administrative Police) Schutzpolizei, Schupo (Protection Police) passed on to the central office in policemen who made up the service’s suspicions amongst the older officers Poland saw the first use of in the bunkers were shot after they had surrendered. The regiment crossing the Meuse. The experience of the other

Gesundheitspolizei (Health Police) Verkehrsbereitschaften (Traffic Police) Berlin, part of the rsha. ranks. Daluege purged Orpo officials and the new intake. panzergrenadiers cleared out bunker after bunker so there motorised infantry crossing the river was very similar
motorised infantry, the 1940
Gewerbepolizei (Factory & Shops Police) Verkehrskompanien (mot) zbV (Motorized Special Duty Traffic Police) would be a foothold on the west bank sufficiently large for to that of the Grossdeutschland. But it was an all-arms
Hochgebirgs Gendarmerie (Mountain Gendarmerie) Wasserschutzpolizei (Waterways Protection Police) French campaign showed
Panzergrenadiers were used war in the West, before examining
Kasernierte Polizei (Barrack Police) LOCATION OF KRIPO REGIONAL OFFICES
throughout World War II, from the the German blitzkrieg tactics events on the Eastern Front in the next
Schutzpolizei der Gemeinden (Municipal Police) 1. Served as an auxiliary force to the Feuerschutzpolizei
Landespolizei (Barracked Territorial Police) 2 2. under Wehrmacht authority from 1935 invasion of Poland in September 1939, to full effect. Conversely, by chapter. With this in mind, this chapter
3. Assisted the Gendarmerie to the battle for Berlin in April 1945. As a will deal briefly with the invasion of
Landwacht (Rural Guards) 3
The Nazi system of policing the Third Reich was 4. Assisted the Schutzpolizei
fighting elite accompanying the panzers 1944, the panzergrenadiers
Poland before examining two case
Stadtwacht (City Guards) 4 5. Responsible for cities and large towns
labyrinthine in the extreme. There were multiple security into action, or as infantry fighting proved themselves highly studies in which panzergrenadiers
and police organizations, some of them legacies from stubborn rearguard actions, they were were heavily involved: firstly, the elite
skilled at delaying the Allied
the Weimar Republic and older police institutions, while typically engaged in the thickest fighting Grossdeutschland Regiment’s offensive
In a sense, the regular street-level Another major organizational into the following administrative of the war. They fought in both offensive advance through France and action in Operation Niwi and across the
others were new creations established after Hitler’s policing continued much as it had change in policing during the 1930s divisions. At the regional level was Danzig n Königsberg and defensive mode; as the war went river Meuse at the battle of Sedan in May
the Low Countries.
taking of power in 1933. always done, but there were distinct came with the formation of the the Landespolizeibehörde (Regional
EAST against Germany from 1942–43 it was 1940 during the Fall of France; secondly,
signals that it was now the SS that Reichssicherheitshauptamt (Reich Police Authority), controlled by
PRuSSIA increasingly in the latter role that they the defensive action of the 12th SS Hitler
What came to unite all the police and security was in ultimate control, as Gordon Main Security Office; RSHA), which the Länder authorities or, in the
were deployed. Throughout the war, Jugend (Hitler Youth) Panzer Division
Williamson here points out: was established in September 1939 case of Prussia and Bavaria, Stettin
services of the Third Reich was the SS. When the Nazis as the supreme security office by the Regierungspräsident
some of the best units of the German armed forces fought in Normandy in 1944. Chapter Four will then cover the
n Bremen
took control in 1933, the police forces of Germany were Berlin Posen as panzergrenadiers. These included the Grossdeutschland panzergrenadiers’ war on the Eastern Front by examining
Himmler would ensure that the in the Third Reich. (The previous (Government President). The next n n

Division, 1st SS Leibstandarte Adolf Hitler Division, 2nd three pertinent case studies: firstly, the German advance on
arranged on an individual state basis. This arrangement majority of senior and middle-level security office had been known as level of command came with the Hanover
SS Das Reich Division, 12th SS Hitler Jugend Division, the Moscow following Operation Barbarossa when it looked as
was not suited to a centralized dictatorship, so Hitler, Police posts were filled by men the Sicherheitshauptamt.) Headed Kreispolizeibehörde (City/County
who were also members of the SS by Reinhard Heydrich until his Police Authority), headed by various POLAND Brandenburg Division and the Luftwaffe’s elite Hermann though Germany would capture Moscow and conquer the
Göring and Himmler began to shift existing Landespolizei Dresden n Breslau Göring Division. Although many of these panzergrenadier USSR; secondly, panzergrenadiers in action during the battle
and thus owed obedience to him... assassination in 1942, the RSHA civic officials depending on the n

(State Police) under SS control, while also establishing Senior ranks who remained in the became the umbrella organization for nature of the territory, and finally divisions were later reorganised as panzer divisions, even of Kursk in 1943, the biggest tank battle of the war, with
new security services such as the Sicherheitspolizei Police and who were not already suppressing ‘enemies of the state’. the Ortspolizeibehörde (Local Police n Cologne with such reorganisation, all panzer divisions, including elite over 6000 tanks and self-propelled guns involved, where the
members of the SS were pressured Authority), controlled typically by GERMANY n Kattowice
formations such as the Wehrmacht’s Panzer Lehr Division, Soviets halted the German advance; finally, panzergrenadiers
(Security Police; Sipo) and Sicherheitsdienst n Prague goes unnoticed. The enemy fire begins to slacken noticeably, Above: SS panzergrenadiers crossing a river. River crossings were
into joining; membership became Structured law enforcement a local mayor. While the security always had attached panzergrenadier regiments that would in a defensive role on the borders of Germany in 1944 as the
(Security Service; SD).
a prerequisite for a successful The RSHA was divided into seven services were the most feared CZEC go into battle with the armour. Red Army steamrollered west into Poland and Germany. but nevertheless the crossing of the first storm boats, the extremely hazardous and costly operations, and required large
Nuremberg HOSL amounts of courage, as those crossing the river were extremely
Police career. major departments, including two elements of policing, the main
OVAK To make sense of the widely spread theatres of war These case studies provide accounts of panzergrenadiers engineers, remains a hard task, a task from which many don’t
The German police and security services would Stuttgart IA come back. In impotent rage, the tank crews watch boats torn exposed to any defensive enemy fire.
(Williamson, 2006) SD departments (Amt III and Amt VI) interface of law and order – and n in which panzergrenadiers fought, the two chapters on in a variety of different theatres of war, and show how the
responsible for domestic and foreign therefore the most pervasive tool of Strasbourg to pieces by direct hits.’
become both instruments of terror and order, integral n
n Munich
Vienna n the panzergrenadiers’ war record will focus firstly on the panzergrenadier performed in attack as well as defence. As
Williamson also goes on to note that intelligence respectively, and Amt the domestic SS – was the regular will be seen, whether fighting in the woods of the Ardennes, While the tanks remained static, the men of the allowed junior officers and NCOs to react to the situation on
to the ideological and daily life of the Third Reich. Salzburg Grossdeutschland (and 1st Motorised Rifle Regiment) the ground, and ignore orders if they thought their actions
A common blitzkrieg tactic: whilst the German tanks Should the bridge be blown, tanks would again provide
police forces.
from 1942 all police were issued with IV – the Gestapo. It also included the Left: SS panzergrenadiers from Kampfgruppe Hansen smoking
the bocage of Normandy, or the steppes of the Soviet Union, fixed the bridge’s defenders with their support fire, the supporting fire with the panzergrenadiers, while the pioneers
a pay book ‘bearing the SS runes Kriminalpolizei in Amt V (see below). German panzergrenadiers invariably proved the maxim of attempted to consolidate the bridgehead. The would help achieve the unit’s mission. panzergrenadiers would outflank the position, and race attempted to cross the river in rubber boats. Once across,
n The Gestapo often used dogs for lightning swoops on homes and snatches
rather than the Police eagle on the In terms of their regional and Ordnungspolizei AuSTRIA captured American Camel cigarettes, somewhere in the Ardennes
the German army commander of the 1920s, Hans von Seekt: panzergrenadiers operated within the German military The Ju-87 Stuka dive-bomber was invaluable in providing through the defences to capture the bridge intact. they would seize a bridgehead, and build an assault bridge.
of suspects. Here, dogs are being trained at the Gestapo School of Canine during the Battle of the Bulge, 1944. Behind them is a knocked-out

Intelligence at Rotengal.
cover’. There was no doubt as to who local arrangements, the police The two major regular police American M8 armoured car. ‘Mehr seins als Schein’ (‘Be more than you appear to be’). tradition of auftragstaktik (mission-oriented tactics), which mobile fire support for the attacking infantry at the Meuse.
was in charge. forces within Germany were split forces in the Third Reich were the

152 153

2 3
Fighting Techniques How to Look After Your Horse
of a Japanese Infantryman 1941–45 PETER BROOKESMITH
Leo J. Daugherty III How to Look After Your Horse covers
During World War II, the Japanese all the practical details of horse
armed forces first captured then ownership, as well as delving into
defended large swathes of the Fighting Techniques of the psyche of this most majestic of How to Look After Your Horse
Pacific island groups and the Asian a Japanese Infantryman creatures. The book includes a guide 240 x 189mm (9½ x 7½”)
1941–45 to breeds, basic handling care and Extent: 192pp
mainland. Fighting Techniques of a
285 x 213mm (11¼ x 8¼in) riding techniques, tips for feeding Illustrations: 120 black & white
Japanese Infantryman is an in-depth 96 pages artworks
analysis of the infantryman’s tactics, and grazing, and guidelines for
35,000 words Text: 60,000 words
equipment and training, and how that understanding your horse’s character
50 artworks, 40 photos ISBN: 978-1-78274-591-4
translated into success (or failure) on and history. There is invaluable advice
ISBN: 978-1-78274-600-3 £19.99 Paperback
the battlefield, where after 1943 the £14.99 Paperback on choosing a horse, stabling it in the
Japanese fought a skilful and brave most equine-friendly manner, feeding
defence against overwhelming odds. and grooming and riding your horse
in a way that will give you and your
mount the maximum satisfaction.
74 Offensive and defensive TacTics, 1931–1945 Offensive and defensive TacTics, 1931–1945 75
72 Offensive and defensive TacTics, 1931–1945 Offensive and defensive TacTics, 1931–1945 73

surface craft and landing vehicles. howitzers in the defence of such positions.
of extensive trench lines, Japanese soldiers constructed Key
As for the types and calibres of gun used, the Japanese
anti-tank ditches and slit trenches that permitted riflemen Machine gun
Pillbox normally employed 76mm (3in) to 203mm (8in) guns. Field Fortifications
to position themselves in the defence.
Japanese defence structures followed no set pattern,
Medium aa gun
coast defence gun
The 203mm guns were usually in turrets, while the Japanese defence of the small islands or atolls was
sports and pastimes sports and pastimes the nature of the horse the nature of the horse
127mm (5in) and 152mm (6in) guns were separate field characterised by an extensive use of field fortifications,
but were made, in general, to conform to the surrounding Heavy aa gun
anti-tank ditch pieces protected by shields. All of these guns were placed which in turn prompted a change in US Marine tactics
terrain in order to meet the immediate tactical
requirements. With only a few exceptions, most defensive Warehouses
Barbed wire
concrete pyramides (Tetrahedrons)
Log boat barricade
in heavy revetments, with ammunition for the weapons
being stored in covered emplacements near the guns.
and organisation in dealing with them. After Tarawa, US
Marine units organised special assault teams of ‘bunker-
rod while remaining mounted, race to the
bin and drop the carton into it, and charge
inculcate this kind of attitude, but that does
take time, patience and skill. And if you’re
Showjumping: the water jump come along with you. And all horses have a
profoundly personal space extending roughly
But speak a language the horse understands
and you shouldn’t have a problem. Slump
Putting on a head collar
structures were flat and extended no more than 1–1.5m
(3–5ft) above ground level, or were irregularly shaped and
Trenches Machine guns were situated so as to fire outwards around busters’ that employed the method called ‘Find’em, back over the start line to pass the rod to going in for gymkhana, do remember, these 1.5m (5ft) around them, plus a less intense your shoulders as you slowly but steadily 1 2
built around a base of trees. Japanese manuals on field dispersal area
Mine field
the perimeter. Most of these weapons were positioned for fix’em and blast’em’, which had the task of dealing the next rider. This is not as easy as it may are games. It helps to be a good loser, and Horses are generally wary of water, and one of water, which it sees only at the last moment. one that starts about 6m (20ft) away. A approach. Lower your head. Keep your
fortifications stated: ‘it was most important not to adhere
crossfire and covered the beaches with enfilading fire. A specifically with Japanese bunkers. The machine guns seem. Some ponies really don’t like the sight to be tolerant of others’ mistakes too. Your the most challenging obstacles in showjump- It’s at such moments that the absolute trust horse that is feeling awkward will definitely hands by your sides or behind your back.
few were situated to fire to the rear of their positions in were the centre of these bunker and pillbox defences. take umbrage if you storm into this space, Avoid eye contact and turn your head and
blindly to set forms in construction work, but to adapt Hangers
or sound of the carton on the stick, flying good humour will also keep your horse in ing is over water that’s usually hidden behind that must be built up between steed and rider
case the enemy had managed to achieve a breakthrough These fortifications ranged from simple fortifications of intent on making your presence felt, without shoulders slightly away from the horse. Talk
such work to fit the tactical situation’. 305m 610m hooves kick the bin and contents all over good heart. a hedge-like jump. The horse has to clear the comes into its own.
0 (1000ft) (2000ft) elsewhere and were encircling the guns. Some machine palm logs and sand manned by two to three men, to the giving a thought to the offence it might soothingly, meanwhile. The rest of you,
When the Japanese Army was forced to take up
guns were situated in open emplacements, while others more extensive versions made of concrete and steel, and
the place, and of course the cartons on the
defensive positions, it adhered to the basic rule that
machine guns were set up in pillboxes. manned by a squad of soldiers. As the Japanese Army was
ground can be blown or scattered about. SHOWJUMPING cause him. though, is speaking the body language of a
construction of defensive positions involved a continual Barracks Cartons can get trampled – so the rider has Hugely popular as a spectator sport, top- submissive, cautious horse
Above: Dead Japanese soldiers line a trench on Namur island, Those located in the open pillboxes were generally dual forced increasingly onto the defensive, American forces asking for acceptance. You
defence would entail different requirements in order to Above: In order to counter a US Marine landing, the Japanese process of development. Starting out as a foxhole, fighting to dismount to put them back into shape, level showjumping offers big prize money
purpose and had wide fields of fire, while those situated encountered more of the latter heavily reinforced defences.
Softly, softly
part of Kwajalein Atoll in the Marshall Islands. Few prisoners were Lagoon
repel or defeat an enemy landing operation. devised an elaborate system of beach defences. This ‘defender’s hole or slit trench, these were eventually linked to form Lagoon but she must be mounted again before she and is very demanding on horse and rider – should be allowed to come
taken here, as those who were not killed in battle took their own in enclosed pillboxes had a much narrower field of fire. Built with concrete and steel, they were relatively safe from
eye’ view shows the barbed wire defences, and beyond them the a coordinated defence system. The third stage involved lives by committing hara-kiri. picks one up. Needless to say, the rider is but many people jump their horses just for close enough to exchange
mined anti-landing craft defences intended to disrupt a landing. These latter machine-gun positions were situated to fire in most smaller calibre shells and could only be destroyed
Atoll Defences construction of strongpoints, bunker and pillbox types of greetings (hold out a free
only one direction. All emplacements were protected by not permitted to clutch the litter to the stick: fun, and not always competitively.
Atolls were low-lying islets enclosed with a lagoon which earthworks, and log positions. Reef When you approach a horse that’s out on grass, go indirectly, hand for the horse to sniff,
riflemen positioned in foxholes and trenches around the Below: A Japanese pillbox reinforced with coconut logs and
she must use one hand on the rod only. Pray Rules for showjumping are very simple.
ran anywhere from 3.2km to 105km (2–65 miles) in level, were covered by dense scrub brush and coconut or Bunkers were normally found in those areas where high keep any headcollar out of sight, adopt a submissive posture, chat and give him some
fortifications. Some positions were defended by howitzers covered with sand on Tarawa in November 1943. Coconut logs it’s not a windy day. Depending on the level of competition,
diameter. These islets extended from a few metres to a few palm trees, and were bordered by salt marshes. The water Japanese Defensive Positions water-levels precluded the digging of deep trenches and in and avoid eye contact with the animal. He will read these signs strokes in return) and then
kilometres in length to several kilometres in width. Total table was normally only a few feet below the ground, thus Japanese positions included bunkers, pillboxes, dugouts, more or less open terrain, such as coconut tree groves or
and trench mortars, although on Tarawa, because the were a common material featured in many Japanese bunkers in the For this kind of thing you need a pony the course usually consists of eight to 20 3 4
Rikusentai had few of these weapons, they instead employed Pacific. that can canter from a standing start and turn obstacles of various heights, up to about 2.2m as a message that you mean no harm, and want to cooperate . put the head collar on. Once
land area of a typical atoll in the Central Pacific area ranged negating the use of extensive trench or dug-in positions. shelters, blockhouses, rifle and machine-gun emplacements, sugarcane fields, and on the edges of airfields. The finished you’ve done this, always
from a few hundred square metres to 10km (6 miles) in Here, the Japanese normally built pillboxes and fortified foxholes, trenches and anti-aircraft emplacements, and interiors of bunkers varied from sizes of 1.2–1.8m (4–6ft) on the proverbial sixpence (or dime). Given (7ft). Jumps may be simple vertical fences
boxes filled with sand, and additional piles of logs. The Above: A typical Japanese-controlled atoll in the Pacific, showing the uproar from spectators and the possib- and gates (these are actually among the most show your appreciation,
length. They were rarely more than 7.6m (25ft) above sea bunkers. Despite the limitations placed upon the digging revetments. in height, 1.8–3m (6–10ft) in width, and 3.7–9.1m
outside of the bunker was covered with dirt, rocks, the extensive and varied defensive preparations against any Allied ility of mayhem occurring in most mounted difficult for the horse); ‘walls’ that look solid, physically and verbally.
(12–30 feet) in length. Larger bunkers had two bays or
coconuts and short pieces of logs. Camouflage of these landing. At the centre of the atoll is the all-important airfield which
games, this is not work for a highly strung but with the top row of blocks loose so that If this doesn’t work,
compartments that were separated by a large, solid block would make this an important target for the Allies.
of earth. Each bunker had one or more narrow firing slits
bunkers consisted of a painted exterior with fast-growing animal. It’s important to have a pony that they will fall off easily if the horse knocks and the horse scoots away
for machine guns. As the Marines discovered on landing,
vines and other types of vegetation. is unflappable and will concentrate on the them with his hooves; ‘spreads’ with, for (probably not more than a
The defence of a beach on an atoll was centred on job in hand. It is by no means impossible to example, two or more parallel bars set one few metres), retreat quietly
the neutralisation of these bunkers proved difficult, as
the machine gun and a final protective line. The defence Disrupting an Attack until you’re at least 6m
rifle fire often could not penetrate the narrow firing ports.
consisted of a shallow line of strongpoints with a secondary Japanese defence of these small islands was based on the (20ft) away, still retaining
The Japanese covered these slits up with some form of
line of lesser density defences located slightly to the rear idea of breaking up an attack before it reached the shore, your submissive posture.
camouflage when not in use.
As US and Australian soldiers likewise discovered on
of the main defences. Because of the small size of atolls, and all coast guns up to 203mm (8in) calibre were sited so Mounted games: the litter race Wait for a few minutes, then
the depth of the defence was limited. Strongpoints that they could be employed against small boats, landing advance again. Continue this Approach the horse quietly and submissively 2. Pass your right hand under your
Buna in New Guinea, the bunkers and pillboxes (the latter
consisted of a group of bunkers and pillboxes, connected craft and any amphibian vehicles carrying assault troops.
referred to as small bunkers) were built around the same Reckoned the most challenging of mounted the centre is a dump bin: riders carry a rod, advance and retreat, if need if necessary, so that he can see you coming. horses’ chin and put it palm down on the
by communication trenches and in mutual support of Coastal and land batteries had local fire-director control,
general lines. With a shallow trench as a foundation, log games, this is run as a relay race for teams (as use it to pick up a carton from the far end, be, until the horse decides Talk as you walk. Exchange greetings. Make bridge of his nose, not so quickly that you
each other. Each rifleman who was assigned to protect with two or three guns positioned with observation
columns and beams were erected, log revetment walls
the pillbox or bunker had several alternative positions shown here, with one rider ready at the start and dash back to dump it in the bin. you aren’t, after all, a threat sure the lead rope is clipped to the head col- make him start, but firmly enough so that you
towards various gun positions to give mutual support. Flat
constructed, and a ceiling made of several layers of logs, line) or as a straight race for individuals. At or a nuisance and lets you lar. Hold the loose end of the lead rope in the have his head under gentle control. Slide the
to carry out his mission. As the situation warranted, the trajectory weapons were used extensively by the Japanese,
laid laterally to the trench. With the completion of this right up to him. palm of your left hand. Hold the head collar head collar up over his nose so that the nose-
Japanese infantryman ran from position to position. This in contrast to indirect howitzer-type weapons which were
basic superstructure, the revetment walls were reinforced For really determinedly by the noseband in the fingers of the same band is in place. Hold it there with the your
often led to much confusion among Marine and US Army rarely, if at all, used. The guns were placed well forwards
by such materials as sheets of iron, oil drums, ammunition uncatchable horses, hand. Then: left hand.
commanders and troops as to the actual strength of the on the beach where direct fire was then targeted against behind the other, creating an extended jump of jump, complexity of the approaches and
Left: ‘The Price of Victory’. A member of the US Marine 4th Division defenders. In such positions, Japanese infantrymen made the approaching landing craft. Their grouping was shallow with depth as well as height; the ‘triple bar’ the level of difficulty accordingly. equestrian journalist Lesley 1. Stand at the horse’s left shoulder, facing 3. As you slide the head collar on, use your
lies dead on the sands of Iwo Jima after being shot in the head extensive use of hand-grenades particularly in the defence and all weapons were sited with the distinct mission of (three bars set at graduated heights); a water The idea is to create a course that only Bayley suggests ‘walking in the same direction as he is. Some people right hand to catch and bring the headband
by intense Japanese sniper fire. Snipers were a constant and of small islands such as Tarawa and Makin in the Gilberts, defeating the seaborne assault at the water’s edge. In this jump; and a combination of two or three half a dozen or so horses will complete down’. You will need to set put the lead rope over the horse’s neck at this round behind his ears. Make all these move-
unwelcome threat to Allied landing forces.
and Kwajalein, Eniwetok and Roi-Namur in the Marshalls. capacity, the Japanese also used anti-aircraft guns to repel different jumps a short distance apart. All without faults within the given time limit. aside plenty of time for this. point, but it can distract the horse, or slip out ments smoothly so you don’t startle the horse,
these have to be jumped in a set sequence, These are scored as follows: when any part Just follow the horse around of reach, down the side away from you. So and talk to him all the time.
which can be quite labyrinthine. No two of a fence is knocked down the pair receives in his field, maintaining this is by no means a golden rule. Just do what 4. Do up the buckle (not too tight), take
courses are the same: designers work with four faults. If a horse steps on the edge of, or your non-aggressive stance, works best for you and the particular horse, the lead rope in both hands, give a scratch or
the abilities of the competing horses in in, the water jump, the penalty is four faults. but staying close enough to but don’t let the rope dangle on the ground. pat as thanks for the cooperation.
mind, and vary colours and textures, types A refusal at a fence receives three faults, and keep him on the move. He

20 21 70 71

The Orient Express
Anthony Burton
Having been launched in 1883, in its MARCH 2018 Publication
prime the Orient Express provided a
stylish service that crossed borders, Pawfect Friends
overcoming national interests and The Orient Express
rivalries. The Orient Express traces 297 x 227mm (11¾ x 9”)
jack russell
112pp Playing, protecting, keeping a sleepy
the history of the service, from its
35,000 words eye out for each other – even putting
glamorous beginnings, its popularity
90 b/w photos, 10 line artworks up with each other’s eccentricities –
with European royalty and heads of
ISBN: 978-1-78274-602-7 the photographs in Pawfect Friends Pawfect Friends
state, on to its demise in the age of 153 x 153mm (6 x 6”)
£14.99 Paperback celebrate 90 of the cutest cat and
postwar austerity, the Cold War and 96 pages
dog pairs that you will ever see.
cheaper air travel. Illustrated with 90 colour photographs
outstanding, rarely seen photographs, ISBN: 978-1-78274-586-0
this is a classic portrait of luxury train £6.99 Hardback

The early years The early years
T urmoil and C hange Turmoil and Change

Ottoman state and its hierarchies, and in its place a modern,
independent, western-style state would be built. That man was
Kemal Ataturk. The Great War was over: civil war in Turkey
was about to begin. Germany was defeated, and was, for a
time at least, to be a pariah rather than a partner in the new
Europe that was being built on the ruins of the old. All these
factors played an important, and in some cases a decisive, part
in discussions on international rail travel.

Train de Luxe Militaire
One thing was very clear: there was no way, at the end of
1918, that the Orient Express could simply be reinstated. The
first move towards restoring railway normality came from the
military, anxious to ensure that the victors would be unimpeded
on their journeys across the continent. In February 1919, the
French minister of war organised the Train de Luxe Militaire,
strictly reserved for high-ranking officers and VIPs. It ran
from Paris via Vienna, Warsaw and Prague to Bucharest. But
there was an equally urgent need to restore something like

right The Simplon-Orient Express at Milan in the 1930s
en route from Paris to Istanbul. The photograph gives some idea
above A poster of 1905, Another day of coach travel lay ahead, through spectacular
of the thousands of tons of steel used in the station’s construction.
showing a variety of mountain gorges, which offered some compensation for the
compartment interiors and filthy resting places along the way. The last stage, from Sofia
Below The Wagons-Lits travel agency at Timisoara in Romania
concentrating very much onwards, was the most demanding of all, with rough tracks and
in 1925. As well as advertising the usual luxury trains, it also
on the luxury on offer, extreme gradients that almost brought the horses to their knees.
promotes the trains bleus.
from the dining car with its At last, after a three-day journey, the weary travellers reached
panoramic views to the richly the railhead at Tatar-Bazardjik (Pazardzhik). As a place, it had
carpeted salon. Private toilet as little to commend it as the squalid villages passed en route,
facilities may not have been but at least here the cramped diligence was left behind for the
as romantic, but were still comforts of a railway carriage. The accommodation, though not
sufficiently novel to earn their on a par with that offered by the luxury wagons-lits, must have
normality to ordinary European relations, to provide lines of to Venice and Trieste. But this would no longer be the end Below A simple but effective luggage label, printed in red
place in the overall picture. seemed heaven after what had gone before. And the company
communication between capitals, to restore economic dialogue of the line: the route would continue through the brand new and green. With an increasing number of routes being run by
made the proud boast that they would now be whirling along
and, just as importantly, to ensure freedom of movement, kingdom of Yugoslavia to Laibach (now Ljubljana), Zagreb and Wagons-Lits, each named express was given its own distinctive
Left A major improvement to at the dizzy speed of 26 mph (42 kph). The Sea of Marmara
which would send out a clear signal that the continent was, on to Vincovce (now Vinkovci). Here, the train would divide, one
the service in the 1880s came finally came into view, and, at six in the evening, after twelve
indeed, at peace again. It was time to restore the trains de luxe part going to Bucharest and Constanta, the other to Athens via
with the opening up of a rail hours on the rails, the train finally pulled into Sirkedji (now
to the tracks. Thessalonika. And there was to be a new daily link, the Bordeaux-
link through Bulgaria, and to Sikerci) Station in Constantinople, splendidly sited between the
A conference was held in Paris in March, 1919, organised Milan Express, which would be mainly made up of Wagons-Lits
celebrate the event the Orient quays of the Golden Horn and the great dome of Saint Sofia.
by the French, but with the active encouragement of other cars, but with the addition of an ordinary first-class carriage.
Express staff posed for this There was no getting away from the fact that, regardless of the
governments, including the Swiss, Dutch, Italian and Yugoslav. Milan had suddenly acquired considerable importance in
photograph at an unnamed official purple prose, this was a long and wearisome journey. It is
The aim was to establish the long-term future of international the European rail system, and plans were at once put in hand
Bulgarian station. The not surprising to find that few passengers booked for the through
trains and their routes. At the heart of the proposals was the for a new station. The foundation stone was duly laid, but a
gentleman in the handsome, trip: it is simply astonishing that any booked at all. Everyone
newly named Simplon-Orient Express. In general terms, the decade was to pass before Milan Central, the biggest station in
double-breasted uniform was aware of the shortcomings, not least the railway engineers
aim was to provide a link that would stretch from London, the world, covering 103 acres (42 hectares), was completed. It
is the chef de train. building the new lines. Nevertheless, they did their work well,
through Calais or Boulogne, to the Orient. There was no was a most remarkable building, of two seemingly unrelated
blasting and hacking their way through the mountains with
question of sending trains through Germany. As before the parts. The main entrance, concourse and booking hall are
remarkable speed. Early in 1889, the work was complete. On
war, trains were to make their way south through France grandiloquence taken to extremes, a riot of stained glass windows
1 June of that year, a train, composed entirely of Wagons-Lits
and Switzerland, via the Simplon tunnel and from Milan and marbled walls. It was aptly summed up by Jeffrey Richards

26 27
68 69

4 5
Ghost Towns The Zeppelin
chris mcnab Christopher Chant
From Pripyat in Ukraine to Deception From the first tentative steps at the
Island in Antarctica to thousands of end of the 19th century, through to
empty apartments in Inner Mongolia, important service during World War
from Greek leper colonies to deserted Ghost Towns I, the golden age of airship travel The Zeppelin
Italian mountain villages, Ghost Towns 297 x 227mm (11¾ x 9”) in the 1920s and 1930s, and on to 297 x 227mm (11¾ x 9”)
is a brilliant pictorial work examining 224pp the Hindenburg disaster in 1937, 112pp
lost worlds. With reasons ranging from 10,000 words this revealing book delves deep into 35,000 words
the collapse of local industry to natural 150 colour photographs the history and science of airship 90 black-and-white photos and 10
ISBN: 978-1-78274-550-1 line artworks
disasters to chemical spills, the book travel. Illustrated with many seldom
£19.99 Hardback ISBN: 978-1-78274-603-4
explores, in 150 striking photographs, archive photographs, The Zeppelin £14.99 Paperback
100 desolate urban environments from gives a unique insight into one of
around the globe. engineering’s most remarkable

T ravelling in S Tyle T ravelling in S Tyle Tr avelling in S Tyle T r a v e l l i n g i n ST y l e
Dooley, Montana, USA
This abandoned church is all the
remains of the town of Dooley,
in Sheridan County, Montana.
Dooley was founded in 1913, as
a stop on the Soo Line Railroad
branch line. A settlement grew
there with shops, a post office, the
Rocky Valley Lutheran Church
(seen here) and three large grain
elevators. Yet the town seemed to
have persistent bad luck, with fires,
tornados, pestilence and harsh
winters taking their toll, and it was
abandoned by 1957.

above The two- and four-blade propeller units were identical in
concept, although not in size, to those employed in heavier-than-
air craft.
above The luxury of Zeppelin airship travel, here on the
right Landing was controlled by means of ropes pulled by the LZ127, was emphasised by the use of monogrammed silver and
ground crew, and a large ‘bumper’ under the control gondola porcelain.
cushioned the impact with the ground.
Left The dining saloon of the LZ127 offered comfortable
the LZ62 of 1916 with a greater beam/length ratio, the LZ104 accommodation, full waiter service, a good selection of wines,
of 1917 with a greater length/beam ratio, the LZ120 of 1919 and the choice of hot or cold food.
with a shorter hull and greater beam/length ratio, and from the
LZ126 of 1924 a longer hull of greater length/beam ratio. accommodation, which now included a pilot’s compartment,
the radio operator’s compartment, an officer’s compartment
structural coNsiDeratioNs and a position for a defensive machine-gun. The third of the
Throughout this period the size of the Zeppelin airships, with gondola types was of a shorter length and introduced on the
the exception of the LZ120, increased steadily, for the greater LZ95 (naval L48). On the LZ120 Bodensee intended for civil
the internal volume of the hull, the greater the volume of the gas use, the gondola was considerably lengthened to the rear and
cells that could be incorporated and thus the greater the lift that now included a pilot’s compartment and a passenger section
could be provided. Size, and the structural considerations that with a lounge and other compartments.
went along with it, was arguably the single most important con- Provision for the crew was altogether more austere, and
sideration in the development of the Zeppelin airship for both comprised simple accommodation along the sides of the walk-
civil and military applications, even though these demanded way inside the hull, where provision was made for hammocks
a number of different features: in civil airships, for example, to be slung. It was only with the advent of the ocean-crossing
maximisation of the payload/range parameter was all important airships with their considerably longer endurance that more
whereas a very high speed and good altitude performance were naval L10 of 1915) had a capacity of 1,126,500ft3 (31,900 m3) ratio of 6.46/1 for its 396-ft (120-m) hull. The implication of a capacity of 7,000,000ft3 (198,000m3) and a length/beam ratio miles (1,700km), the military and naval airships provided great- Between 1912 and 1914 the Viktoria Luise carried 9,738 Accommodation on the Zeppelin airships evolved from the comfortable provision was made for the crew, who then enjoyed
only very secondary considerations, and in military airships a and a length/beam ratio of 8.74/1 for its 536-ft (163-m) hull; the LZ120’s design was that the emphasis was no longer being of 5.95/1 for its 800-ft (245-m) hull. er lift and longer range, typically about 24,500lb (11,100kg) service persons including crew and 2,995 fare-paying passengers, very spartan open gondolas of the LZ1 to the luxurious fully the benefits of sleeping cabins and common rooms.
high payload was important but in fact came to be subordinated the LZ62 (naval L30 of 1916) had a capacity of 1,949,000ft3 placed so much on altitude and outright payload-carrying cap- and 1,300 miles (2,100km) respectively. The demands of on 489 flights totalling 33,750 miles (54,310km) in 981 flying enclosed spaces of the LZ127 and LZ129. The gondola of the Other features that came to be added to the standard
opposite above: opposite below: above: amphitheatre was a work of superb to the need for the good speed and altitude performance of the (55,200m3) and a length/beam ratio of 8.28/1 for its 649-ft ability but rather on safety, comfort and general performance. liFtiNg the airshiP World War I then resulted in an enormous expansion of lift/ hours, while during the autumn of 1919 the Bodensee carried LZ1 was large enough for the crew, engine and basic operation- equipment of Zeppelin airships included electric lighting by an
Pompeii, Campania, Italy Pompeii, Campania, Italy Pompeii, Campania, Italy architectural sophistication. It was
One of the many cobbled streets A narrow alleyway in one of An interior passageway in buried in ash during the Mount type that was basically irrelevant to the civil airship. The LZ5 (198-m) hull; and the LZ104 (naval L59 of 1917, and admit- However, the LZ126 built for the US Navy in 1924 had a The hydrogen gas that provided the Zeppelin airships’ lift was range capability, and while the LZ40 (naval L10 of 1915) had 4,050 persons including 2,253 fare-paying passengers on 103 al equipment. Over the following period there appeared three engine-driven generator, and this first appeared in the LZ14
lacing ancient Pompeii. The raised Pompeii’s backstreets. Many of Pompeii’s famous amphitheatre. Vesuvius eruption, but it actually (the Imperial German Army’s ZII of 1909) had a capacity of tedly an ‘odd man out’ as it was built for a special purpose) had capacity of 2,472,000ft3 (70,000m3) and a length/beam ratio of contained in the so-called Traggaszellen (‘gas cells’). In the early a lift of 35,000lb (15,900kg) and possessed a range of 2,600 trips totalling 31,851 miles (51,258km) in 532 flying hours. different types of gondola. The first of these, attached under (naval L1) – earlier airships had relied on battery-powered light-
stone blocks are stepping stones, the more developed Roman towns The building was constructed in survived the event with surprisingly miles (4,200km), the comparative data for the LZ62 (naval L30 The later commercial airships of course had longer ranges, and the walkway, was a watertight assembly with a rounded front ing. Radio equipment was first used in the LZ6 (military ZIII),
530,000ft3 (15,000m3) and a length/beam ratio of 10.46/1 for a capacity of 2,420,000ft3 (68,500m3) and a length/beam ratio 6.27/1 for its 660-ft (200-m) hull; the LZ 127 Graf Zeppelin airships these were made of a heavy cotton fabric covered with
which allowed the citizens to cross and cities had their streets laid out 70 BCE, and like other Roman little damage, hence historians have
amphitheatres it hosted violent its 446-ft (136-m) hull; the LZ18 (Imperial German Navy L2 of 9.48/1 for its 743-ft (226-m) hull. Then, after the end of the civil airship of 1928 had a capacity of 2,650,000ft3 (75,000m3) a rubber coating. Experience revealed that this combination was of 1916) were 61,700lb (28,000kg) and 4,600 miles (7,400km) the LZ127 could cover 6,370 miles (10,250km) and the LZ129 and a pointed rear. The second of these, which first made its and the standard of flight and navigation equipment steadily
the street when it was wet or dirty, in a grid pattern, much as we see been able to study the building’s
but permitted cart wheels to pass today in modern town planning in gladiatorial games. Despite design and how it worked in of 1913) had a capacity of 953,500ft3 (27,000m3) and a length/ war the first new Zeppelin airship was the LZ120 Bodensee and and a length/beam ratio of 7.76/1 for its 774-ft (236-m) hull; too porous to prevent gas escaping from the cells and pooling and those for the LZ61 (naval L21 of 1916) were 99,200lb 8,390 miles (13,500km). The lift of the LZ127 and LZ129 were appearance on the LZ36 (naval L9), was an enclosed control improved, ranging from the compass and barometer of the LZ1
through the gaps. countries such as the United States. the brutality of its events, the exceptional detail. (44,500kg) and 7,455 miles (12,000km). 66,140lb and 132,275lb (30,000kg and 60,000kg) respectively. gondola about three times larger than it had been to provide to the full suites of equipment typical of the LZ127 and LZ129.
beam ratio of 9.52/1 for its 518-ft (158-m) hull; the LZ40 (and this had a capacity of 785,750ft3 (22,250m3) and a length/beam and the ultimate LZ129 Hindenburg civil airship of 1936 had under the upper part of the outer covering, so the company
116 117
166 167
44 45 52 53

The Pan Am Clipper
The Military Quiz Book roy allen
John Pimlott The Pan Am Clipper: The History of
Arranged chronologically, The Military Pan American’s Flying-Boats 1931 to
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weapons to uniforms. Written by a 45,000 words 35,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-605-8 Illustrated with more than 100 archive
former instructor in war studies at photographs, this impressive book is
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£12.99 Paperback £14.99 Paperback
Sandhurst, this is an excellent book for a tribute to a technical wonder that
professional quizzes, challenging your continues to fascinate many people
friends, or just reading alone. today.

E A R LY M ODE R N 1 6 0 0 – 1 9 1 4 • A N S W E R S M ODE R N F ROM 1 9 1 4 • Q U E S T I ON S
A N C I E N T A N D M E DI E VA L TO 1 6 0 0 • A N S W E R S E A R LY M ODE R N 1 6 0 0 – 1 9 1 4 • Q U E S T I ON S D own T o T he Se a D own To T he Se a D own T o T he Se a D o w n T o T h e S e a

Answers 56
From 1914
Answers I Questions 56
a. They commanded the French army’s ill-fated Genoese crossbowmen. a. Which self-styled ‘Napoleon of the West’ was also known as the ‘Immortal a. Mexican President-General Antonio de Lopez Santa Anna.
b. Claudius. Three-Fourths’ and the ‘Hero of Tampico’? b. French General Bosquet. left PAA publicity map of the period show- added for both mail and passengers. The journey took seven impression on senior officers in the service.
c. Richard I. b. Who, on witnessing the Charge of the Light Brigade, exclaimed, ‘C’est magnifique, c. Edgehill (i642). ing the widening coverage of the Caribbean hours and fifteen minutes and was the first trans-continental He turned down jobs with aircraft makers William Boeing
d. A sharp, many-pointed device usually of metal, that when scattered could break up mais ce n’est pas la guerre.’ (‘It is magnificent, but it isn’t war.’)? d. Maoris. They are a type of club and long-shafted tomahawk. and South American services. air route in South America. Mail contracts were obtained by and Glenn Curtiss, and incorporated the Consolidated Aircraft
e. It is derived from a word meaning enemy. Questions I NYRBA from the governments of Argentina, Chile and Uruguay. Corporation in the State of Delaware on 29 May 1923. He
enemy cavalry or infantry attacks by piercing hooves or the soles of shoes. (In more c. At which English Civil War battle did Sir Jacob Ashley offer the prayer, ‘Lord, thou
f. Frederick the Great. a. Where did ‘the Tiger’ beat ‘the Rabbit’? end, had been developed from nothing In November of that year, authorisation was obtained from the gained a first order from the military for twenty TW-3 training
modern parlance, a calthrop is a similar device used for stopping wheeled vehicles by knowest how busy I am, or will be, this day; if I forget thee, do not thou forget me.
g. James Wolfe, in a letter of November 1757. b. Which two countries fought the ‘Soccer War’? more than large fields to purposeful landing Brazilian government to operate within that country; a week aircraft, which on modification was renumbered the PT-1.
piercing the tyres). March on, boys.’?
c. In which conflict did the first helicopter assault from the sea take place? sites. These accommodated the military later a new route was opened from Buenos Aires to Asuncion, A further contract for the PT-1 was placed in 1924, for fifty
e. An early form of handgun. d. Who would be equipped with Patu Onewa and Toki Poto?
Answers 57 d. What did the Butt Report of August 1941 prove? fighters and bombers and observation Paraguay. The former US Assistant Secretary of Commerce for aircraft, at which point Fleet moved the production facilities to
f. Narses was a eunuch. e. What is the meaning of the name Apache? aircraft which carried on their destructive Aeronautics, W. P. McCracken, became chairman of the board. Buffalo, New York, where he took over a former Curtiss factory.
a. Confederate General Albert Sidney Johnston, commander of the Army of Mississippi, e. According to British Army legend, what is ‘the most dangerous thing in the world’?
g. Armour to protect the shoulder. f. Who said to a captured deserter, ‘Come, come, let us fight another battle today: if I tasks over the 1914–18 period and which O’Neill bought Ford Tri-Motors for his services, three Further orders followed for training aircraft, for the navy
killed at Shiloh (April 1862). f. Where did the multi-national ‘Dunsterforce’ serve at the end of World War I?
am beaten we will desert together tomorrow.’? had been large fields and open areas for the Sikorsky S-38 amphibians and six Commodore flying-boats as well as army, and by 1927 Consolidated Aircraft was
b. In 1704, during the War of Spanish Succession. The acquisition was formalised in 1713 g. Which medal was known to its recipients as the ‘Order of the Frozen Meat’?
Answers 2 g. Who said, ‘In war something must be allowed to chance and fortune seeing it is, original European aviation experiments. from the Consolidated Aircraft Corporation, of which Reuben making money. Further military designs followed, including
a. Aetius. in its nature, hazardous and an option of difficulties.’? at the Treaty of Utrecht, The Wright Brothers had brought the Fleet was the owner. While the Sikorsky S-38 was an adequate a new bomber, the Guardian, which was a joint venture
c. Louis Riel’s Metis uprising in present-day Manitoba. Questions 2
b. Three, aeroplane to Europe as a landplane and craft, seating eight passengers and offering the dual functions of between Consolidated and Sikorsky, produced when Fleet and
d. The Mitrailleuse (early French machine gun). a. Which British naval officer commanded a squadron of armoured cars in Russian Igor Sikorsky had agreed to collaborate on what had been a
c. Although the combat was to be on foot, at a vital moment one knight mounted his Questions 57 that was how it was viewed, with a few land and seaplane at the handling point, the Commodore was
e. Captain of the I st Company of Louis XIV’s Mousquetaires de la Garde from 1667 Galicia during the War of Intervention of 1917-19? experimenters attempting flights from the above A truly memorable sight for those fortunate enough an advanced new machine which would seat 22 passengers, and Sikorsky design. Significantly, Sikorsky, a former competitor
horse and charged into the English. a. Who was the highest-ranking officer to be killed in the American Civil War?
until his death at the siege of Maastricht in 1673. b. Name the communications route that ran between Port Moresby and Buna rivers, such as the Seine. to experience it – the view from an S-42, somewhere over the represented the first of a new breed of water-borne craft. of Consolidated, came to play a more significant role with Pan
d. So they would bend when they penetrated enemy shields, rendering the shields b. When was Gibraltar first taken by British forces?
f. Napoleon. in New Guinea in World War II. There had been no such war and no Caribbean. American than did Consolidated. Indeed, Trippe was already
unusable, and also becoming useless themselves, c. The Battle of Batoche (1885) ended which Rebellion?
g. Tigers’, because of the wild-cat skin worn around their headgear. c. What was a ‘Big Wing’? such military aviation in the United States enter tHe Flying-boat using a fleet of Sikorsky S-38s by the time of the NYRBA
e. A sling mounted on a staff for throwing large projectiles. d. What type of weapon was manufactured by Chevalier et Grenier, Bollee and Gabert? challenge.
d. What kind of warship is the Kiev?. and consequently no purposely constructed activities on the water-borne aircraft. The general view in the The Commodore was originally designed for naval patrol work
f. Count Belisarius. e. Who was the real D’Artagnan? landing grounds. Governments had put countries of the region was that if the United States wished to by Fleet’s company. It was a sizeable craft for its day, with a NRYBA was gaining ground in an area which Trippe had
Answers 58 e. What was renounced by countries signing the Briand-Kellogg Pact of 1927?
g. The Due de Berri. f. Who said, The Ancients had a great advantage over us in that their armies were their money behind military aerodromes operate air services permission would be granted, but that was all wingspan of 100ft (30m), a length of 68ft (21m) and overall already been working hard to call his own, and on 18 February
a. Wallenstein. f. Who described the Argentine invasion of the Falklands as, ‘a most ungentlemanly act’?
not trailed by a second army of pen-pushers.’? in Europe to provide for their new military that could be expected from local governments, many of which height of 16ft (5m). It was powered by two Pratt & Whitney 1930, O’Neill launched the first through service between Miami
b. Colonel Todleben. g. Which famous child care specialist was prominent in the anti-Vietnam War movement?
Answers 3 g. What was the nickname of Rimington’s Scouts in the Second Anglo-Boer War? craft (for which they had shown little or no were generally impoverished and often corrupt. Hornet engines, each developing 575hp, and the gross weight of and Santiago, using the east coast route via Brazil. In a great
a. Mohammad II and Constantine XI. c. George II at Dettingen, 1743. interest prior to the war) and there was no Pan American’s actions in this area were furthered by a the aircraft was just under 18,000lb (8200kg). Its designed range flourish of publicity he gained the services of no less than Mrs
d. 23. He owed his command first to his status as a bastard son of the Emperor Questions 3
b. Alesia. Questions 58 such requirement in the United States. A development among the airlines which led to an early takeover was 1000 statute miles (1609km), and with a cruising speed of Herbert Hoover, the President’s wife, to christen a Consolidated
Charles V and half-brother of Philip II of Spain and secondly to his successful a. Who was the first British Secretary of State for Defence? number of enlightened towns or states had and the acquisition of a new fleet for Pan American. In March 100mph (161kmh) and a capability for carrying 22 passengers,
c. Patay(l429). a. Which 17th Century general held to the maxim that ‘war should feed war’?
campaign against the Spanish Moriscos (1569-70). b. How many Indo-Pakistan Wars have been fought since the partition of 1947? seen the potential for air services as a result 1929, a new company was formed in New York called the the Commodore was, all-in-all, a fine craft. It was a product below In its airline form, the Commodore carried a total of 22
d. To assault a walled city: it was a solid formation where locked shields defended b. Which engineer improved Sevastopol’s defences during the Crimean War?
e. The Duke of Wellington. c. What did the Soviets dub the ‘Circle of Death’? of the US Post Office’s air services, but the New York, Rio and Buenos Aires Line, or NYRBA, and this of the company founded by Reuben Fleet in May 1923, the passengers and cruised at 100mph (160kmh). It was used in
infantry against missiles from the sides and from the top. c. Who was the last British monarch to accompany his men into battle?
f. Frederick the Great, Instruction to his Generals. d. n World War I, how was the German Staaken R-VI aircraft better known? sum total of designated aerodromes in the represented a direct challenge to the Aviation Corporation of Consolidated Aircraft Corporation. the Caribbean.
e. ‘Yeni ceri’ literally ‘new troops’. d How old was Don John of Austria when he won the Battle of Lepanto (1571)?
g. In memory of his friend and comrade-in-arms, General James Wolfe, killed at e. Which two Latin American countries contributed forces to Allied operations in whole of the United States in the 1920s was the Americas. The head of the company was Captain Ralph Fleet was a self-made businessman with six years’ experience
f. Sennacherib, King of Assyria. d. Who said, ‘The whole art of war consists in getting at what lies on the other side of just over 1000. O’Neill, a former World War I fighter ace and later a Boeing in the US Army Air Service. Later, when war added to the above The S-42 was probably Sikorsky’s finest flying-boat. It landing bases than from over-water crossings of great distance.
Quebec in the same year. World War II?
g. A jacket lined with iron scales. the hill, or, in other words, what we do not know from what we do know.’? The situation was worse in Central salesman in South America. O’Neill had seen the enormous demands for aeroplanes, Consolidated Aircraft Corporation was seated up to 32 passengers and cruised at 150mph (240kmh). Trippe had strong political influence in the US Post Office
f. Who said, in 1944, ‘The real trouble with the Yanks is that they are completely
e. Who said, ‘The success of my whole project is founded on the firmness of conduct America and the Caribbean, with proper potential for air transport in that transport-starved continent to become one of the largest aircraft manufacturers in the United This aircraft served with Pan Am until July 1946. Department, however, and conflict soon arose between NYRBA
Answers 59 ignorant as to the rules of the game we are playing with the Germans. You play so
of the officer who will command it.’? landing grounds being virtually non- and had gone to New York to look for backers for his proposed States. Like the Trippe family, Fleet’s forebears had their roots and Pan American. Pan American held the US mail contracts
a. The Duke of Cumberland, so nicknamed because of his activities after the Battle of much better when you know the rules.’?
f. Why did the British Army’s Colonel Hale adopt the skull and crossbones existent. The practical necessities of a airline. He found them in the form of an impressive collection of in England, and his father had reached the Pacific Northwest Commodore for this service. Having begun services with as far as Paramaribo, Dutch Guiana, and NYRBA found its
Culloden(l746). g. In which war did the Commonwealth Division fight?
and motto ‘or Glory’ for his newly raised regiment of Light Dragoons Caribbean service precluded the use of industrialists, which included Reuben Fleet of the Consolidated by way of Kansas City. After finishing school, Fleet entered the NYRBA in November 1929, the Commodores had already path blocked for mail and passenger traffic across the gap from
(later the 17th Lancers) in 1759? b. Union General George Thomas, landplanes, as routes were either over water Aircraft Corporation, F. C. Munson of the Munson Steamship Culver Military Academy in Indiana, graduated in 1906, and been successful enough for O’Neill to increase his original Port of Spain, Trinidad, along the chain of islands to Miami.
c. The War of Heavenly Peace. or across short stretches of land. In most of Line, W. B. Mayo of the Ford Motor Company, J. E. Reynolds for a brief period was a school teacher in Washington. He then order for six to fourteen. It might be said that the US Navy’s Relations became strained and conflict continued and reached

Questions 59 d. A light cannon used in the English Civil War. the countries of the Antilles, West Indies of International Founders and Lewis Pierson of the Irving Trust started his own business and became a real estate dealer. With his loss was NYRBA’s gain, for while the navy had turned down a critical point. The US Post Master General took issue with
e. Navarino. and Central America, landing grounds Company. Pierson brought in his son-in-law Richard Bevier as first flight in 1914, he became an immediate convert to flying. the Commodore, Fleet found a ready buyer for a commercial NYRBA’s cut-price mail rates. The Post Master General made
a. Who was ‘the bloody butcher’? were mostly of the most primitive type vice-president, together with J. K. Montgomery. These three Fleet became a member of the Washington State Legislature version of the aircraft in NYRBA – the airline in which Fleet it clear that he would not award any US mail contract for an
b. Who was known as the ‘Rock of Chickamauga’? f. Captain Jenkins, a merchant captain whose ear was allegedly cut off by Spanish
or non-existent. In contrast, the building had been partners in the original Pan American Airways and had and introduced a bill appropriating $250,000 for aviation was a major investor. east-coast route to Buenos Aires to any other company than Pan
c. The bloody Taiping Rebellion (1851 -65) was also known by what name? forces that captured his vessel in the Caribbean. This incident sparked off popular
of harbours for flying-boats was relatively left when Trippe and the AVCO organisation took over their training in the National Guard. The Bill died, but Fleet had Both Consolidated and NYRBA came out well from this American, and with so many countries in the region pledging
d. What was a saker? fury in England and forced Prime Minister Walpole, unwillingly, to go to war with easy and both climate and water conditions company and began the first flights to Cuba. attracted attention and was among 11 men to be chosen for pilot deal: it had a beneficial effect for Consolidated, for it provided exclusive allegiance to Pan American, NYRBA’s economic
e. Admiral Sir Edward Codrington versus Ibrahim Pasha. Which battle of 1827? Spain in 1739. were favourable. As Pan American’s In July 1929, a proving flight was made with a Ford Tri- training in the scheme that had come from his Bill. He made work on the 14 aircraft, and the deal gave O’Neill an excellent problems mounted. Despite a high standard of operations,
f. Who was Jenkins of the War of Jenkins’ Ear? g. Louis XIV. route network lengthened, so did its Motor to Buenos Aires and the first NYRBA scheduled service his first flight from San Diego in 1917, and joined the military aircraft for the South American services. The Commodores NYRBA passenger figures were as limited as its mail traffic and
g. Who said, ‘If there is one area where severity is necessary for a sovereign, it is with above The interior of an S-38, illustrating the wonderful views that were requirement for landing sites. Accordingly opened on 21 August 1929 from the Argentine capital to when the United States entered World War I in 1917. He left (whose naval name had been Admiral) had the capability for it was actually losing money on its operations.
regard to his soldiers.’? enjoyed by passengers on these early flights. Pan American decided to concentrate its Montevideo. In September, a Buenos Aires–Santiago route was the Air Service in 1922, during which time he had made an long ranges which resulted more from the shortage of adequate Pan American did not itself receive US mail rights for the
58 71
8 57
22 23 24 25

6 7
Fighting Techniques The Kriegsmarine
of a U.S. Marine 1941–1945 david porter
Leo J. Daugherty III The Kriegsmarine reveals the
Fighting Techniques of a US Marine workings of the German Navy
1941–1945 is a detailed examination through its organization, command
of how the individual Marine operated Fighting Techniques structure, economic resources, WORLD WAR II GERMANY:
of a U.S. Marine 1941–1945 production figures, recruitment, The Kriegsmarine
during World War II, the organisation 240 x 189mm (9½ x 7½”)
285 x 213mm (11¼ x 8¼in) training and philosophy. Broken
of Marine units, and the weapons and 96 pages 192pp
equipment used, illustrating why the down by campaigns and subject
35,000 words 50,000 words
Corps was such a powerful force in areas, the book includes reference 150 photos, diagrams and maps
50 artworks, 40 photographs
the Pacific. Detailed artworks show the tables, diagrams, maps and charts, ISBN: 978-1-78274-596-9
ISBN: 978-1-78274-601-0
uniforms and other equipment worn by £14.99 Paperback presenting all the core data in £19.99 Paperback
Marines throughout the conflict. easy-to-follow formats. This is an
essential reference guide for anyone
interested in the history and structure
of Germany’s wartime navy.

su b m a rines o f th e Krieg sm a rine su b m a rines o f th e Krieg sm a rine u - b o a t o pera tio ns u-boat ope rat ions

66 Marine Battlefield tactics and techniques, 1942–1945 Marine Battlefield tactics and techniques, 1942–1945 67 74 Marine Battlefield tactics and techniques, 1942–1945 Marine Battlefield tactics and techniques, 1942–1945 75

into operational use in 1939 due to sinking 11 Allied vessels and Type II was its tiny size. Known unsuccessful. They underwent have been found to be relatively expected to score considerable

War I proved anything, the battlefield had been dominated that war, as found later in the US Army’s landmark 1923 front of a critical area or, as was the case on Okinawa, could part of the island, where the Japanese were dug in along the the shortage of later submarines. damaging two others. It was scuttled as the Einbaum (Dugout Canoe), it a severe test during their first immune to depth charges because, successes.’ The reality was very
by the artillery and machine gun, and in assault after FSRs and IDRs. As the nature of the fighting shifted from assist in the exploitation of a wavering enemy line of defence, Shuri Castle line, its open-country terrain permitted a greater Both boats had short but successful on 1 July 1940 after sustaining severe had some advantages over larger operation, but despite negligible due to their shape, they offer so different – in the entire period from
assault, ‘Again, was decisively shown the great importance the jungles of the Solomon Islands to the coral atolls and and thus allow the Marines to follow through quickly with an use of all three arms – tanks, artillery or mortars, and infantry. Conventional U-boats came close to winning the Battle of the Atlantic in 1940–43 but combat careers. U-25 made five war damage from attacks by the Flower- boats, as it could operate more successes, the operations were of little resistance. They are tossed 1 January 1945 to the war’s end, January 11

of artillery to infantry. Infantry alone without material, volcanic islands of the Central Pacific, the fighting came attack. During the Okinawa campaign Private Jack Wiggins, Supported by an attached Army 4.2in (107mm) mortar unit, were defeated by increasingly effective Allied counter-measures. In an attempt to regain patrols, sinking eight enemy ships. On class corvette HMS Gladiolus and an safely in shallow water, dive more the greatest value. aside like a cork instead of being manned torpedoes and midget February 14

makes little progress. If the enemy combines personnel to resemble more and more that endured by the Marines who served with the 29th Marines during the fighting on the which provided highly-effective suppressive firepower, the 3 August 1940, while on a minelaying RAAF Sunderland flying boat. quickly, and was difficult to spot ‘All the defects which might damaged.… The crews have submarines made 254 sorties from March 16
the initiative, German naval yards produced highly sophisticated vessels, which were to
and material, we must do the same or lose the game.’ In during World War I. Oroku Peninsula and rode into battle atop a Sherman tank, tanks of the 1st Marine Division and its supporting infantry mission near Norway, U-25 struck a when surfaced due to the low never have been discovered in gained considerable confidence in their Dutch bases. They lost 102 April 9
influence submarine design for the next 50 years. mine and sank with all hands. Type II U-boats conning tower. However, it had a the Baltic showed up under the their equipment and future mass of their number and sank just 15 May 4
a direct parallel to the fighting on Tarawa (1943) and later stated: ‘Once dismounted, we could then direct and exploit were able to close in at greater quarters with the Japanese,
U-26 carried out eight war patrols, The principal characteristic of the shallower maximum diving depth, severe conditions in the Hoofden operations of Seehunde under merchant vessels totalling 18,078 June 12
during the savage fighting on Saipan and Peleliu in 1944, their firepower to the utmost against the Japs.’ and prevented them from using their suicide squads against
Jungle Fighting and Small unit Type IA U-boats The submarine was based on the Versailles). The Type I later served as and can thus be corrected.… They favourable weather conditions are tonnes (17,792 tons). July 14
and on Iwo Jima and Okinawa in 1945, the Marine Brigade the Marine tanks. In fact, working with Lieutenant Colonel
OperatiOnS, 1942–1943 The Type I U-boat was the outcome Finnish Vetehinen class and the a basis for the development of other August 17
lost 112 officers and 4598 men in one month’s fighting in Okinawa ‘Jeb’ Stuart’s 1st Tank Battalion, the Marines ‘developed a
of the first attempt to produce an Spanish Type E-1, both of which classes, primarily the Type VII and

Final Operations, 1944–45
20m September 8
Belleau Wood. With such losses, and with the nature of For Marines, Guadalcanal was a war of small unit operations. It was on Okinawa, in fact, that Marines refined their tank– new method of protecting tanks and reducing vulnerability to ocean-going submarine for the were designed by Ingenieurskantoor the Type IX. October 4
the open warfare fighting that General John J. Pershing Indeed, many of the tactical innovations used by the infantry tactics, and successfully employed two techniques the infantry in the assault’. This method, according to Marine Kriegsmarine. Only two, designated voor Scheepsbouw (the Dutch The two Type IA boats, U-25 and 15m
November 5
and other American commanders insisted upon, Marine Marines had been used by their predecessors in France, in that further enhanced the striking power of both these Colonel Wilburt S. Brown, ‘placed an artillery observer in one Type IA, were completed, as service dummy company set up by the U-26, were commissioned in the
December 11
officers concluded at the war’s end that the battles they Central America, primarily in Nicaragua, and on the islands Marine arms. As the Marines pushed toward the southern of the tanks with a radio to one of the 155mm [6.1in] howitzer trials revealed poor seaworthiness Reichsmarineamt in 1922 to develop spring of 1936, serving as training 10m
Type IA As Dönitz impatiently awaited the re-equipment of all front-line U-boats with the
length: 72.5m (237ft 10in)
participated in during the fighting offered many lessons for of Haiti and the Dominican Republic during the interwar battalions. We’d also had an aerial observer overhead. We and an inability to dive quickly, U-boat technology and to circumvent vessels. Despite their technical Schnorchel, increasing evidence of the build-up of Allied invasion forces put paid to his
the operational and tactical nature of future wars. In fact, era. Even with the deployment to China in the 1920s and used 75mm [2.95in] pack [howitzers] and LVT-A’s [armed coupled with mechanical unreliability. the limitations set by the Treaty of limitations, they were both brought
Japanese defences on part of the island of Tarawa as iden- hopes of renewing the battle against the Atlantic convoys.
the US Army later incorporated many of these same lessons 1930s, as Marines guarded the US legation’s compound, with 75mm howitzers] that had an air burst capability. If any 0m
tified by the intelligence section of the 2nd Marine Division
0m 10m 20m 30m 40m 50m 60m 70m 80m 90m 100m U-BOAT SUCCESS IN TONNES (1944)
in its 1923 Field Service Regulations (FSRs) and Infantry the leathernecks developed the basic tactical formation of a prior to the attack on 20 November 1943. Every inch of the Jap [suicider] showed anywhere we opened fire with an air
20m 96,241
Drill Regulations (IDRs) that Marines studied and trained rifle company comprised of three rifle platoons composed beach was covered by sandbags and barricades. burst and kept a pattern of shell fragments patterning down Surface Speed Submerged SpeedSubmerged Speed As early as February 1944, 10 new but immediately returned to his A losing battle 100,000 (94,721 tons)
(91,454 tons)
by during the interwar era. Thus when the US Marines of six fighting teams of four Marines each. Each fire team around the tanks.’ Marine tanks likewise shuttled fresh troops
Type IIA
speed: 12.8km/h (6.9 knots) 15m Type VIIC U-boats earmarked for HQ, ‘Koralle’, near Berlin, ordering All Dönitz’s rhetoric could not alter 76,017
(74,816 tons) 67,103 63,146 62,380
Corps entered World War II, many of its senior officers had was led by a senior private or junior non-commissioned
Type IIB
speed: 13km/h (7 knots)
operations in the Atlantic were 17 of Gruppe Landwirt’s boats to the impossible odds that the (66,043 tons) (62,149 tons) 58,327
(57,406 tons)
(61,395 tons) 51,605 54,123
(50,790 tons) (53,268 tons)
either seen combat in France during the last war, or had officer, and due to its tactical flexibility could be employed Wire Type IID
speed: 13.7km/h (7.4 knots)
10m diverted to Norwegian bases attack invasion shipping whilst the U-boats faced – by early July, 50,000
24,815 25,597

Type I Type IIA in response to Allied deception remainder patrolled the Bay of Biscay 10 U-boats had been sunk whilst

80 ) ant
(24,423 tons) (25,193 tons)
been well-grounded in the tactical and doctrinal lessons of in an independent action. Upon the expansion of the


speed: 15.4km/h (8.3 knots) length: 40.9m (134ft 2in)

Type IID 5m
speed: 23.5km/h (12.7 knots) measures that hinted at dual assaults to guard against further possible attempting to attack the stream 1685

10 airc
Above: A Marine rifle squad fords a stream on Guadalcanal in two decades later, Guadalcanal closely resembled Vietnam, Type IIA (1659 tons)

5m ra
against France and occupied landings on the French Atlantic coast. of supply traffic to the Normandy

speed: 24km/h (13 knots) 0

Type I

mid-August 1942. For the Marines, jungle conditions such as this which was also a war waged by small units. Marines, armed Type IIB 0m January February March April May June July August September October November December

(3.2 gu
speed: 34.4km/h (18.6 knots)
speed: 24km/h (13 knots) 0m 10m 20m 30m 40m 50m 60m 70m 80m 90m 100m Scandinavia. These formed Gruppe He also issued a typically forthright beachheads, and virtually all the
were common in the early part of the war, before the fighting observation

with rifles, bayonets, hand grenades, mortars, machine the fact that the Sherman found itself outgunned in Europe,

One- or two-man foxholes gave Marines protection Above: A Marine tank–infantry team in action on Bougainville in
Mitte, which was reinforced by a order to their commanders: ‘Every survivors had been damaged. They
Complement 20m

moved to open coral atolls such as Tarawa.

against sudden Japanese banzai attacks or artillery fire. guns, and 37mm anti-tank guns – used primarily as anti- mid-1943. Close cooperation between the tanks and Marines at least by the more powerful German Tiger and Panther
further 12 boats in March. Also in enemy vessel supporting the landing, had sunk two frigates, four freighters boats sortied from Norwegian bases Admiralty report: ‘By mid-December When they reached their inshore
The foxholes were intended to protect most of a Marine’s forged an effective combined arms team which was capable of Type I 15m
personnel weapons and normally against bunkers – fought 40
tanks, Marines skillfully employed their tanks very effectively March, Gruppe Landwirt with even though it may be carrying only and one tank landing ship, besides to cover the withdrawal, only one of the U-boat campaign had gradually operating areas, they could exist for

body whilst allowing him to aim and fire his weapon easily. ant to dealing with most Japanese threats.
Marine Corps, however, and with the issuance of the off daily Japanese banzai attacks or sought out the elusive i-ai 75
as infantry assault weapons. Furthermore, for those tanks Type IIA 24 15 Type VIIC boats was formed at 50 men or a tank, is a target. Press damaging a frigate and a freighter – which, U-482, achieved any success, changed since August 1944 into a lengthy periods without molestation
m 10m
rc m
E-Tables of Organization, the Marine rifle team went from Japanese snipers, and engaged in constant patrolling. disabled though not destroyed, Marine maintenance crews Brest to provide a striking force home your attack, even at the cost a tiny fraction of the Allied shipping sinking four merchant vessels and a condition of stalemate in the inshore as long as they committed no hostile

ra (1.6 24 Type IIB
ft Type IIB length: 42.7m (140ft 1in)
/bo to
four to six men, with the average Marine squad being From the start, Marine infantry and artillery commanders at 3in right to the front line by dropping them underneath the hull worked round the clock and restored practically every one 5m to counter the anticipated cross- of your boat. Should it be necessary supporting the invasion forces. corvette. Its achievement prompted operational areas. Both sides had act. It was only when they attacked

gu ) Type IID 24
twelve Marines: squad leader, six riflemen, and two BAR effectively used the terrain on Guadalcanal to their ns
e from inside the tank, as well as assisting in the evacuation of of them, and, as a result of their ingenuity, ‘the assault Channel invasion. The Gruppe was to close with the enemy landing Overwhelming Allied air and sea Dönitz to adopt the strategy of the made technical advances which and hit a target that surface craft
W 0m
and two assistant BAR men, all armed with M-1 Garands advantage in order to maximize the effectiveness of their wounded Marines, placed aboard through the crew’s escape infantry battalions never lacked for armored firepower, 0m 10m 20m 30m 40m 50m 60m 70m 80m 90m 100m
steadily reinforced over the next fleet, pay no regard to the danger power had secured the cross- ‘inshore campaign’ for the rest of the tended to cancel each other out. The were provided with a datum point for
or BARs. All Marine formations had been organized on the weapons. Thus, Marine positions were usually dug in and hatches in the bottom of the tank, or, less safely, strapped mobility, and shock action. The concept of Marine Type I 14
20m few months, totalling 36 boats of shallow water, mines or other Channel sea lanes, and on 5 July war – an offensive against the mass U-boats had adopted the snorkel an immediate retributive hunt and
triangular organization of three squads per platoon, three anchored along the rivers and ravines that bisected the stores onto the outside of the tank. combined-arms task forces was now well underway.’ Type IIA 5 immediately before D-Day. hazards. Each soldier and each Allied forces in Normandy passed the of shipping in British coastal waters. and possessed an efficient search counter-attack.’
bomb-proof Type IIB 5
Type IID 5
15m Including boats at sea, a total of weapon destroyed before reaching one million mark. This was feasible only for Schnorchel- receiver which together nullified the

platoons per company, three companies per battalion, and main line of resistance located at Henderson Airfield, and ammo storage barracks Marine tanks played an important role in cracking the

three battalions per regiment, and finally three regiments allowed the leathernecks to effectively employ all of their Japanese defensive line anchored on Kunishi Ridge through 73 U-boats were within range of the the beachhead diminishes the The Allied breakout from the equipped boats which, to everyone’s improved airborne radar … and the Tables turned

‘Find’em, Fix’em, and BlaSt’em’ taCtiCS, 10m
massive Allied invasion fleet on enemy’s chance of victory. A U-Boat Normandy beachhead in August surprise, proved they could operate in increased concentration on flying The point that the U-boats’ relatively

Completed Type IID

plus supporting arms per division. firepower. their elimination of Japanese General Ushijima’s veteran length: 44m (144ft)
1943–1945 Type I 2
5m 6 June 1944, but crucially only 25 of which inflicts losses on the invasion forced most of Gruppe Landwirt‘s such a heavily defended area without A/S patrols.… U-boats had, by the immunity was dependent upon their

Marines on Guadalcanal and on Tulagi likewise front-line troops that had manned these positions. Also Type IIA 6

Drainage or Type IIB 20 these were fitted with Schnorchel. forces fulfils her highest mission and boats to evacuate the Biscay bases suffering crippling losses. end of 1944, become almost immune not attacking was the main factor

Guadalcanal developed countermeasures to deal with Japanese positions an supporting the Marines was the M-7 Priest self-propelled In order to counter the overwhelming fire superiority of the Type IID 16

ti Dönitz was on leave when news of justifies her existence, even though and head for the relative security of The situation at the end of the from detection or attack while on in limiting losses to Allied shipping

-ta airstrip 0m
Tactically, the Guadalcanal campaign vindicated Marine carved into the sides of ridge lines and in caves. As would be 105mm (4.1in) howitzer, that added more firepower to a Americans, the Japanese, starting on Guadalcanal, as 1stLt 0m 10m 20m 30m 40m 50m 60m 70m 80m 90m 100m

the Normandy landings came through she herself may be destroyed.’ Norway. Seven Schnorchel-equipped year was summed up by a post-war passage to and from the British Isles. during this period. Between August

training, which focused on small unit operations with the the case later in the war on Peleliu, Iwo Jima, and Okinawa, Marine assault with its ability to ‘punch through’ the many Herb Merillat recounted above, retreated to fixed positions

emphasis being on initiative and tactical flexibility. Thus, Marines belonging to the 1st Raider Battalion, commanded steel and concrete bunkers and pillboxes along the Shuri and fortifications. This then involved both Marines and

machine gun 32 33 100 101
the tactics employed by Marines were primarily lineal by Colonel Merritt A. Edson, spent the majority of the 5in (127mm)
Castle–Sugar Loaf Mountain areas. On Okinawa, tanks soldiers in a costly war of attrition that did not let up until
in nature due to the defensive nature of the campaign. fighting on Guadalcanal and Tulagi destroying Japanese naval turrets
functioned as the supreme ‘direct-fire, close-in support the war’s conclusion in August 1945. In fact, this strategy
According to Sergeant George MacGillivray, who served machine guns that had been built inside the mouths of ammo storage weapon’ for the assaulting infantry. Tanks could go where of attrition became evident as the earlier Japanese tactics
Wir machine
One-man Two-man on a 37mm (1.45in) gun crew, the nature of the fighting caves, blasting them with satchel charges of dynamite and e gun artillery couldn’t, and destroy what the latter couldn’t see. of contesting the Marine’s landings gave way to a defence-
foxhole foxhole e guns
usually involved units no larger than companies and as explosives or canisters of gasoline with grenades attached. heavy machin By the battle’s end, 51 Marine Shermans had been in-depth, with a series of interlocking fortifications and
guns anD
anti-boat guns anD heavy machine guns anti-boat
small as squads. In fact, for the Marines who fought there Marine First Lieutenant Herbert L. Merillat provided an destroyed by Japanese artillery and anti-tank guns. Despite pillboxes built into a solid defensive network. This first

The Luftwaffe
S. Mike Pavelec
The Italian Front The Luftwaffe reveals the workings
michael e. haskew of the German Air Force through
The Italian Front is a superbly its command structure, economic
illustrated history of the original resources, production figures, WORLD WAR II GERMANY:
‘second front’ in Europe, including recruitment, training and philosophy. The Luftwaffe
artworks of key materiel and uniforms, Campaigns of World War II: Broken down by campaigns and 240 x 189mm (9½ x 7½”)
and campaign maps showing the The Italian Front subject areas, the book includes 192pp
movement of troops in the theatre. 297 x 227mm (11¾ x 9in) reference tables and maps, presenting 50,000 words
With detailed appendices containing 256 pages 150 photos, diagrams and maps
all the core data in easy-to-follow
70,000 words ISBN: 978-1-78274-597-6
orders of battle, losses and formats. The Luftwaffe is an essential
45 artworks, 230 b/w photos, 10 £19.99 Paperback
equipment, The Italian Front builds into reference guide for anyone interested
colour maps
a comprehensive account of the 1944- ISBN: 978-1-78274-606-5 in the history and structure of
45 campaign in Western Europe. £22.99 Paperback Germany’s wartime air force.

INVa SIO N O F pO LaND tO th e FaLL O F Fra Nce INVa SIO N O F pO LaND tO th e FaLL O F Fra Nce INVa SIO N O F pO LaND tO th e FaLL O F Fra Nce INVaSION OF pOLaND t O t he FaLL OF FraNce

Invasion of Poland, September 1939 them off. Further German infantry
then moved in to clean up the rear
areas, gathering prisoners. If the
and on the ground. With the Germans
attacking out of Germany, occupied
Czechoslovakia and East Prussia,
(SEPTEMBEr 1939)


Hs 126 45
On the morning of 1 September 1939, German tanks rolled across the Polish border and Germans encountered strongholds, Poland faced a triple threat. Type Total
Junkers Ju 87
length: 11m (36ft) He 45 13
Do 17
Luftwaffe planes flew attack missions into Poland. Two weeks later, the Soviets attacked the Luftwaffe targeted them with Staffeln 302 65
Bf 109
bombers. This method of warfare Airfields bombed ready crews 2370
Poland from the other side; Poland was doomed. Operational combat aircraft 2564 2m
proved extremely successful. The Luftwaffe’s primary targets were
Luftflotten 1 and 4 were the Polish airfields. For the Luftwaffe to 254
The Luftwaffe began the campaign which had been the tactic of World Panzers (tanks) spearheading the two main commands in the Polish gain (and maintain) air supremacy, He 111

with an assortment of aircraft: War I, the Germans reconceived attack and supported from the air, campaign. Twenty Kampfgeschwader the Polish Air Force would have to airfields were quickly destroyed, and 0m
122 / Anzio and Monte Cassino Anzio and Monte Cassino / 123 0m 2m 4m 6m 8m 10m 12m 14m 16m 18m 20m
strategic bombers, air-superiority warfare, incorporating the latest were incredibly successful against (bomber groups) of He 111 and Do be destroyed. Fighters covered the the few fighters they had, were shot 204
fighters and dive-bombers. The technology. Air units coordinated the Polish forces, who 17 aircraft faced Poland, ready bombers as the Polish airfields were down. In the first few days of the
Chapter six
they were confronted only by the 94th down steadily. It was virtually impossible to collection totalled 4000 aircraft: 1200 by radio combined with fast-moving were simply unprepared for the to bomb it into submission. There targeted. Many Polish planes were war, the Polish Air Force ceased to
Division, which was thinly stretched from construct bridges during the first 24 hours. fighters – Messerschmitt Bf 109s mechanized ground units (armoured German onslaught. were also five Stukageschwader caught on the ground on the opening exist. Over 800 aircraft (of which no n Luftflotte 2 was the organizational destruction caused but had brought had been victorious, the Germans
the river to the town of Terracina 48km (30 Nevertheless, 10 full battalions of and 110s; 1200 medium bombers and motorized) to penetrate deep In the opening phases of the (Stuka groups), flying Ju 87s at the day, and as the conflagration more than 400 were modern types for 2m Messerschmitt Bf 110C command for the Polish campaign. with it a cost. In addition, the high- had learned valuable lessons about

Anzio and
length: 12.3m (40ft 6in)
miles) to the north and had yet to experience infantry crossed the Garigliano and Senger – Heinkel He 111s and Dornier Do into enemy territory, avoiding battle for Poland, German Panzer point of the Blitzkrieg spear. Polish opened, the Polish Air Force was combat operations) were either shot Above are the numbers and types of intensity combat of Blitzkrieg, as attrition, tactics and the need for
combat. In planning their defences the soon began to realize the gravity of the 17s; about 400 Junkers Ju 87 dive- pockets of resistance and cutting units supported by Luftwaffe forces facing them were primarily destroyed. Its PZL aircraft were down or destroyed on the ground. aircraft ready for operations against well as air combat with the Polish increased production.
German commanders had hoped that the situation. Bypassing Vietinghoff in the chain bombers; and around 1200 transport, off front-line troops from supply bombers and dive-bombers drove unmechanized ground troops. hopelessly outclassed by the German In ground combat, the Blitzkrieg the Poles in September 1939. Air Force, indicated the high attrition

Monte Cassino
natural barrier of the river itself and 24,000 of command, Senger telephoned Kesselring, reconnaissance, liaison and obsolete and command. This ‘lightning war’, deep behind Polish forces, cutting Without a viable air weapon, and Bf 109 fighters, but a few were able tactics were also successful. The 0m 2m 4m 6m 8m 10m 12m 14m 16m 18m 20m rate of modern warfare. Even flying
thickly sown mines might provide enough who realized a British breakthrough to the 4m
types, the last-mentioned of which defined by surprise, manoeuvre and with few anti-tank weapons, the to harass the German bombers. Poles had little defence against with a wary eye. against the Poles, with their inferior
assistance to stymie a crossing. The attack Liri Valley would outflank the defences of
were being phased out but were coordination, worked best against n Number of Luftwaffe squadrons Poles were outmatched in the sky Unfortunately for the Poles, their either the German dive-bombers or anti-aircraft weapons and obsolete
commenced at 9 p.m. and combat engineers Monte Cassino, unhinge the Gustav Line and Dornier Do 17Z
worked to clear the mines and mark exits force a retreat of the entire XIV Panzer Corps still useful against the outclassed an acquiescent adversary, and came prepared for operations September length: 15.79m (51ft 9in) Combat record aircraft, the Germans incurred high n Poland lost 335 aircraft in the

on the far bank while German artillery came toward Rome. Polish air effort. to define the German way of war 1939. At this early stage of the war, 2m The record of the Luftwaffe in the losses. Over the course of the four- campaign – most of its air force. The
The attempt to outflank the Germans at Cassino by in subsequent years. Also known the number of observation and Polish campaign was instructive; week campaign, the Germans lost Germans lost 281 aircraft shot down,
Lightning war as Combined Arms Warfare, these bombing squadrons were higher many lessons emerged. Strategic 281 aircraft of all types in combat and another 263 or 273 (depending
landing at Anzio ended in failure as the Allies became The new German battle doctrine of methods aimed at attacking enemy than fighter squadrons; German
Ju 87
bombing of Polish cities had while accounting for the destruction on source) damaged, only 70 of
bogged down in the beachhead. Blitzkrieg was put to the test. Instead weak points with overwhelming force twin-engine bombers were effective
0m 2m 4m 6m 8m 10m 12m 14m 16m 18m 20m been successful in terms of the of 335 Polish planes. While they which could be repaired.
of sending massive numbers of men and exploiting gains quickly. The as the front line of attack in German 4m

into the attack across a wide front, combined attacks on Poland, with blitzkrieg combined arms attacks. 366
Polish PZL P.11
He 111H
length: 7.55m (24ft 9in) POLISH AnD GErMAn AIrCrAFT LOSSES COMPArED


above reported missing and more than 500 were undefended Cedro Hill after failing to capture
Marked with the distinctive lost to exposure to the elements and such it four days earlier, and two tough days of 400
reconnaissance squadrons He 111P
black cross, the German maladies as trench foot. Most of the missing fighting by the 168th Infantry, 34th Division 335

SdKfz Marder II self- armoured infantrymen eventually turned up, secured Cervaro after a lengthy artillery 55 GErMAny
Staff units 0m 2m 4m 6m 8m 10m 12m 14m 16m 18m 20m recce
ergeant Ross Carter, a veteran of the Eighth Army remained before the Gustav propelled assault weapon but among the dead was a heroic combat bombardment and air strikes. Now, Clark’s 13 Wing Span Maximum Speed 63
Bomber squadrons Bf 109
arduous campaign in Italy, observed Line defences north of the Sangro River was armed with a 75mm engineer sergeant, Joe C. Specker. army was drawn up to the banks of the He 111E 349
Ju 87 67
Christmas Day 1944 amid the misery of around Ortona. 90 38 13.8m (45ft 3in) Bf 110
(2.95in) cannon and a light Advancing along the slope of Mount Rapido, facing the heart of the Gustav Line Dive-bomber squadrons Do 17Z Do 17
battle-scarred Monte Sammucro. Below, the Although it had appeared that an machine gun. This version Porchia under cover of darkness, Specker defences, which were located beyond the 27 He 111 44
Fighter squadrons Bf 110C 16.3m (53ft 4in) Ju 87 17
town of San Pietro lay in ruins, its destruction amphibious operation intended to outflank remained in production had been sent forward by his company opposite bank of the stream. Approximately 40 Ju 87 Hs 123 14
Pursuit-interceptor squadrons 212 speed: 390km/h (242mph)
so thorough that the surviving civilians did the Gustav Line defences and facilitate the until 1944. commander on a reconnaissance of enemy 90,000 troops of the German XIV Panzer 27 Do 17E P.11
not bother to salvage much of anything. They drive for Rome had been cancelled for Ground-attack squadrons Do 17Z 18m (59ft) speed: 390km/h (242mph) Damaged
positions in his unit’s path. When he returned Corps were entrenched in the positions 3 119 Do 17Z
rebuilt their town some distance away, leaving good, the stillborn Operation Shingle was Specker reported that a German machine gun around Cassino, along the river and in the Weather recce squadrons Do 17M 40 speed: 425km/h (263mph)
1 Ju 88 18 10.72m (35ft 2in)
the heaps of rubble and jumbled remains of rapidly revived as a result of two events, nest and several snipers were located directly vicinity of Sant’ Ambrogio. naval aviation squadrons Hs 123 40
P.11 Bf 110C
speed: 560km/h (348mph)
their former homes as mute testimony to the the restructuring of command in the 20 70/263
in the path of his company. He volunteered
ravages of war. Mediterranean with a distinctive British to take a machine gun forward to place fire on bayonets and grenades
‘For 17 days, we had existed on the peak,’ perspective and the illness of Prime Minister the German positions and set out alone with While the fighting heated up in the east, the Germans, the latter turning their attentions westwards while the former watched German intentions
wrote Carter, ‘in freezing weather, constant Winston Churchill. The Italian campaign the weapon and a box of ammunition. Eighth Army sector on the Adriatic remained 42 43 46 47
rain, icy winds and inconceivable danger. In had long been Churchill’s favourite, and The sergeant’s Medal of Honour citation quiet, and it was conceivable that if Clark’s
all that time we had never washed our hands the Mediterranean Theatre was of particular reads: ‘He was observed by the enemy as offensive succeeded reinforcements could be
or shaved, and had managed to get our boots interest to him. Well aware that the window he walked along and was severely wounded forthcoming from the area of inactivity.
off three times. Lice were eating the hide of opportunity for a notable success in Italy by the deadly fire directed at him. Though On 12 January the 2nd Moroccan and 3rd
off our bodies and desperation was eating out was rapidly closing, Churchill departed the so seriously wounded that he was unable to Algerian divisions were launched against the
our hearts.’ conferences at Cairo and Teheran decidedly walk, he continued to drag himself over the mountains north of Cassino.
The desperation in the Allied ranks was, to pessimistic about the prosecution of the jagged edges of rock and rough terrain until Under French command, these units gained
a degree, being felt on a strategic scale as the war there. he reached the position at which he desired to 6.4km (4 miles) in four days, often fighting
frustrating advance toward Rome proceeded set up his machine gun. He set up the gun so hand-to-hand with the Germans. Bayonets
at a snail’s pace. Progress had been slow, Churchill in turmoil well and fired so accurately that the enemy and grenades were frequently employed
even at times non-existent. The prospects for Physically exhausted, the Prime Minister was opposite machine gun nest was silenced and the at close distances. Vietinghoff decided to
immediate forward movement seemed to be diagnosed with pneumonia while in Tunis to An American infantryman remainder of the snipers forced to retire, abandon nearby Mount Trocchio without leFt
fleeting at best as the bulk of Allied resources visit General Eisenhower’s headquarters on takes up a position in enabling his platoon to obtain their objective. a fight so that Senger would have adequate The devastation of war is
were funnelled to England in preparation for 11 December. During a week in bed he was the ruins of a house at SGT Specker was found dead at his gun. forces to contest a river crossing and defend apparent in this view of the
the Normandy invasion. For all intents and consumed with worry and finally decided that Monte Cassino. The Allies His personal bravery, self sacrifice, and the entrance to the Liri Valley. shattered wreckage of an
purposes the Italian campaign had reached a something must be done to rejuvenate the attempted four times to determination were an inspiration to his When the British 5th and 56th divisions Italian village. Only the
stalemate. By mid-December the Fifth Army campaign in Italy. The solution, he reasoned, take the heights and the officers and fellow soldiers.’ launched an assault by boat and amphibious bell tower of a church
offensive had ground to a halt, while the was the amphibious operation. His sights set Benedictine abbey which British troops subsequently occupied an DUKWs across the Garigliano on 17 January remains standing, and the
crowned it. ruins still smoulder.

8 9
APRIL 2018 Publication The Pacific War
The Third Reich From the attack on Pearl Harbor in
chris mcnab 1941 to the bombing of Nagasaki
The Third Reich covers the in 1945, The Pacific War examines Campaigns of World War II:
geography, economy, political in depth the whirlwind Japanese The Pacific War
structures, legal framework, military victories of 1941-42, and how the 297 x 227mm (11¾ x 9”)
organization, social policies and WORLD WAR II GERMANY: Allies organised a counterattack, 256 pages
ideology of Hitler’s Germany. Maps The Third Reich gradually forcing the Japanese on 70,000 words
range from pre-war annexations to 240 x 189mm (9½ x 7½”) 65 maps and artworks, 210 b/w
to the defensive. The authoritative
the location of concentration camps, 192pp photos
50,000 words
text is complemented by full-colour
while charts offer information as ISBN: 978-1-78274-607-2
150 photographs, diagrams and maps and artworks of the uniforms, £22.99 Paperback
diverse as industrial output and armoured fighting vehicles, aircraft and
verdicts at the Nuremberg trials. ISBN: 978-1-78274-598-3 ships – with specification tables – that
Packed with hundreds of maps and £19.99 Paperback took part in the campaign.
graphs, this book offers wide-ranging
data on one of the twentieth century’s
most complex regimes. 122 / Anzio and Monte Cassino Anzio and Monte Cassino / 123

Chapter six
they were confronted only by the 94th down steadily. It was virtually impossible to
Division, which was thinly stretched from construct bridges during the first 24 hours.
the river to the town of Terracina 48km (30 Nevertheless, 10 full battalions of

Anzio and
miles) to the north and had yet to experience infantry crossed the Garigliano and Senger
combat. In planning their defences the soon began to realize the gravity of the
German commanders had hoped that the situation. Bypassing Vietinghoff in the chain

Monte Cassino
natural barrier of the river itself and 24,000 of command, Senger telephoned Kesselring,
thickly sown mines might provide enough who realized a British breakthrough to the
assistance to stymie a crossing. The attack Liri Valley would outflank the defences of
commenced at 9 p.m. and combat engineers Monte Cassino, unhinge the Gustav Line and
worked to clear the mines and mark exits force a retreat of the entire XIV Panzer Corps
on the far bank while German artillery came toward Rome.
The attempt to outflank the Germans at Cassino by
landing at Anzio ended in failure as the Allies became
bogged down in the beachhead.

above reported missing and more than 500 were undefended Cedro Hill after failing to capture
Marked with the distinctive lost to exposure to the elements and such it four days earlier, and two tough days of
black cross, the German maladies as trench foot. Most of the missing fighting by the 168th Infantry, 34th Division

SdKfz Marder II self- armoured infantrymen eventually turned up, secured Cervaro after a lengthy artillery
ergeant Ross Carter, a veteran of the Eighth Army remained before the Gustav propelled assault weapon but among the dead was a heroic combat bombardment and air strikes. Now, Clark’s
arduous campaign in Italy, observed Line defences north of the Sangro River was armed with a 75mm engineer sergeant, Joe C. Specker. army was drawn up to the banks of the
Christmas Day 1944 amid the misery of around Ortona. (2.95in) cannon and a light Advancing along the slope of Mount Rapido, facing the heart of the Gustav Line
battle-scarred Monte Sammucro. Below, the Although it had appeared that an machine gun. This version Porchia under cover of darkness, Specker defences, which were located beyond the
town of San Pietro lay in ruins, its destruction amphibious operation intended to outflank remained in production had been sent forward by his company opposite bank of the stream. Approximately
so thorough that the surviving civilians did the Gustav Line defences and facilitate the until 1944. commander on a reconnaissance of enemy 90,000 troops of the German XIV Panzer
not bother to salvage much of anything. They drive for Rome had been cancelled for positions in his unit’s path. When he returned Corps were entrenched in the positions
rebuilt their town some distance away, leaving good, the stillborn Operation Shingle was Specker reported that a German machine gun around Cassino, along the river and in the
the heaps of rubble and jumbled remains of rapidly revived as a result of two events, nest and several snipers were located directly vicinity of Sant’ Ambrogio.
their former homes as mute testimony to the the restructuring of command in the in the path of his company. He volunteered
ravages of war. Mediterranean with a distinctive British to take a machine gun forward to place fire on bayonets and grenades
‘For 17 days, we had existed on the peak,’ perspective and the illness of Prime Minister the German positions and set out alone with While the fighting heated up in the east, the
wrote Carter, ‘in freezing weather, constant Winston Churchill. The Italian campaign the weapon and a box of ammunition. Eighth Army sector on the Adriatic remained
rain, icy winds and inconceivable danger. In had long been Churchill’s favourite, and The sergeant’s Medal of Honour citation quiet, and it was conceivable that if Clark’s
all that time we had never washed our hands the Mediterranean Theatre was of particular reads: ‘He was observed by the enemy as offensive succeeded reinforcements could be
or shaved, and had managed to get our boots interest to him. Well aware that the window he walked along and was severely wounded forthcoming from the area of inactivity.
off three times. Lice were eating the hide of opportunity for a notable success in Italy by the deadly fire directed at him. Though On 12 January the 2nd Moroccan and 3rd
off our bodies and desperation was eating out was rapidly closing, Churchill departed the so seriously wounded that he was unable to Algerian divisions were launched against the
our hearts.’ conferences at Cairo and Teheran decidedly walk, he continued to drag himself over the mountains north of Cassino.
The desperation in the Allied ranks was, to pessimistic about the prosecution of the jagged edges of rock and rough terrain until Under French command, these units gained
a degree, being felt on a strategic scale as the war there. he reached the position at which he desired to 6.4km (4 miles) in four days, often fighting
frustrating advance toward Rome proceeded set up his machine gun. He set up the gun so hand-to-hand with the Germans. Bayonets
at a snail’s pace. Progress had been slow, Churchill in turmoil well and fired so accurately that the enemy and grenades were frequently employed
even at times non-existent. The prospects for Physically exhausted, the Prime Minister was opposite machine gun nest was silenced and the at close distances. Vietinghoff decided to
immediate forward movement seemed to be diagnosed with pneumonia while in Tunis to An American infantryman remainder of the snipers forced to retire, abandon nearby Mount Trocchio without leFt
fleeting at best as the bulk of Allied resources visit General Eisenhower’s headquarters on takes up a position in enabling his platoon to obtain their objective. a fight so that Senger would have adequate The devastation of war is
were funnelled to England in preparation for 11 December. During a week in bed he was the ruins of a house at SGT Specker was found dead at his gun. forces to contest a river crossing and defend apparent in this view of the
the Normandy invasion. For all intents and consumed with worry and finally decided that Monte Cassino. The Allies His personal bravery, self sacrifice, and the entrance to the Liri Valley. shattered wreckage of an
purposes the Italian campaign had reached a something must be done to rejuvenate the attempted four times to determination were an inspiration to his When the British 5th and 56th divisions Italian village. Only the
stalemate. By mid-December the Fifth Army campaign in Italy. The solution, he reasoned, take the heights and the officers and fellow soldiers.’ launched an assault by boat and amphibious bell tower of a church
offensive had ground to a halt, while the was the amphibious operation. His sights set Benedictine abbey which British troops subsequently occupied an DUKWs across the Garigliano on 17 January remains standing, and the
crowned it. ruins still smoulder.

Hitler’s Masterplan Tracking a Serial Killer
chris mcnab
Chris mcnab This gripping, fully-illustrated true
What would Europe have looked crime book explores a range of serial
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the unrealized plans for a Europe WORLD WAR II GERMANY:
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£16.99 Hardback
Masterplan reveals the true scale of ISBN: 9781782745945 Andrei Chikatilo and Volker Eckert.
Hitler’s vision for a Greater Germany £19.99 Paperback
and a world dominated by Nazi

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paranoid schizophrenic, Dale would end up was hard to see how the life of Aileen Wuornos
t he p h y s i c al r eic h t h e p h y s ic a l reich the physical reich the physical reich A witness near the scene of the shooting reported made their arrest—a fact that seemed to amuse Timeline of a Murder
incarcerated in mental institutions following could get much lower.
a car speeding away with a parking ticket on its Berkowitz. convictions for child abuse. Although it was a
windshield. Police checked both the parking blessing that Aileen would grow up free from his DESCENT 1: May 19, 1990. David Spears of Bradenton, Florida, 3: Having had sex, Wuornos produces the .22 handgun she
tickets issued that day and cross-referenced them JUDGED TO BE SANE informs his boss (Spears is a heavy equipment operator) carried with her. She shoots Spears a total of six times,
influence, there remains the question of what The 1980s marked a new, and appalling, era in the

State Architecture Imperial Plans to the description of the vehicle. The information The subsequent trial of David Berkowitz rested that he is going to be heading up to Orlando, to visit his killing him at the scene.
Deutsche Arbeitsfront (DAF; German this state organization eventually there to promote workers’ rights, genetic legacy Dale left his unwanted daughter. life of Aileen Wuornos. Having squandered an
NuReMBeRG RALLY GROuND, 1940 pointed to a vehicle registered by one David largely upon evaluations of his mental health—he ex-wife. He sets off that day from his workplace in
Labour Front). Created on 10 May came to manage the affairs of 20 including improving workplace (Dale hanged himself in 1969.) opportunistic marriage and a sudden inheritance, Sarasota. 4: Wuornos dumps Spears’ body along Interstate 75 in
1933, and headed by Dr Robert Ley, million workers. Ostensibly it was conditions, stabilizing wages across Berkowitz of 35 Pine Street, Yonkers. Further quickly confessed to the shootings, so responsibility Diane finally had enough of her responsibilities she embraced crime as her principal means of Citrus County. She has removed the license plate and
key industries and providing worker One of the most visible reminders of the new National Socialist regime was its state 0 3000ft
Although Hitler oversaw huge public works during his time in power, he envisioned an details about Berkowitz provided by Sam Carr led was not in question. Most of the evidence seemed to when Aileen was four years old, and abandoned 2: While traveling through Citrus County, he picks up leaves the doors to the vehicle unlocked.
education. Although it did achieve and party buildings. even greater future for Germany and its architecture. Berlin, in particular, was to have police to be confident that they had their man. point to Berkowitz being a sufferer of paranoid her and her brother. The duty of raising them  The Last Resort Bar in Port Orange, Florida, the Aileen Wuornos. It is likely that they had sex, as a used
AVeRAGe WORkING HOuRS FOR GeRMAN WORkeRS, 1929–44 0 1000m
some elements of these goals, at its The police quickly swooped on Berkowitz’s schizophrenia. His apartment, for example, was condom was later found near his naked (apart from a 5: Later, at Ormand Beach, Wuornos pawns a set of
become Welthauptstadt Germania (World Capital Germania) – quite literally, the centre passed to their Finnish grandparents, Lauri and scene of Wuornos’ arrest for an outstanding warrant
50 heart the DAF was committed simply During the 1920s and early 1930s, Bahnhof address. They spotted his car, in which the police scrawled with messages such as “I kill for my baseball cap) body. machine tools that match the description of those taken
THe ReICHSkANZLeI (ReICH CHANCeLLeRY) Dutzendteich of the world. Britta Wuornos, who lived in Troy, Michigan. The (not a murder charge). Only when she was in custody
to exploiting the German workforce there had been much debate 1 2 Kdf-Stadt found a duffel bag holding ammunition and a master.” Yet other psychiatrists believed that the from Spears’ truck.
49.1 move did not bring the security nor love the did police begin to connect her with the murders.
49.1 for maximum profit and productivity. amongst architects, and interested 23 22 rifle on the back seat, plus a letter written in the apparent madness was a pretence, and pushed that
49 24 N 3 children desperately needed in these formative
Wages did increase in small annual party members, about the To demonstrate this status, it would high, similar in style to the Arc de (although given to Speer to realize), handwriting and style of the Son of Sam. They he be found sane as well as guilty. This viewpoint
48.7 increments, but these increases were appropriate architectural style to 4 have to be transformed into a place Triomphe in Paris. The north-south this building was much inspired by years. Later Aileen alleged that she was sexually
5 put the car under observation, and eventually prevailed, and on June 12, 1978 he was sentenced
48 48.3
often offset by a leap in working manifest National Socialist ideology 8 13 of transcendent grandeur, the perfect avenue – known as the ‘Avenue of the Pantheon of Rome, but was on abused by her grandfather and beaten regularly by
47.6 Großer
11 12
Berkowitz emerged from his apartment block and to 365 years in prison for six murders. He is in both grandparents. Whatever the reality of these
hours – by 1939 many workers in key ‘in stone’. One of the most influential Dutzendteich vision of a thousand-year empire. Victory’ – ran through the arch, and an even greater scale. The height at
47.6 15 climbed into the vehicle. The police rushed in and prison to this day. claims, it is true that she grew into a disruptive and
industries were putting in working voices to emerge from the chatter 7
The guiding lines of Welthauptstadt would be five kilometres (three miles) the summit of the dome was to be
46.5 26
weeks of 70-plus hours, with few was Paul Schultze-Naumburg, an Kleiner
Germania were to be provided in length. At the northern end was 290m (950ft) from the street, while aggressive adolescent. She was sexually promiscuous
46.0 outlets to redress grievances. ardent nationalist who struck a chord Bestehende Dutzendteich by two huge avenues, forming a to be a huge open forum, the Großer the dome’s diameter would measure by the time she was 12 years old, and had her first
11 10 Timeline of a Murderer—Berkowitz’s Shootings
Furthermore, wage deductions to with Hitler. Gebüade 6 14 crossroads at their meeting point. Platz (Great Square), dominated by 250m (820ft). Inside, three tiers of child at the age of 15—it went straight to adoption.
compulsory state schemes (including Schultze-Naumburg condemned 1 Luitpoldarena At the intersection was to be a huge the vast, domed Volkshalle (People’s seating would have enclosed an Shortly afterward, her grandmother died, and both
45 membership of the DAF) also reduced the industrial starkness of modernist 9 14 triumphal arch more than 100m (328ft) Hall). Sketched out by Hitler himself echoing, lofty space – the building children became wards of court.
2 Gefallenendenkmal
salaries further, the total deductions architecture, and instead wanted 6 15 July 29, 1976 Donna Lauria 18 Both Lauria and Valenti are shot outside Donna’s home in From then on it was downhill fast for the young
3 Rednerkanzel 7
by 1939 averaging about 18 per cent. a return to traditional German 16 17
Jody Valenti 19 Pelham Bay. Lauria is killed and Valenti injured. girl. By the time she was in her late teens, she was
44 44.4 STRuCTuRe OF THe ReICHSWeRke HeRMANN GöRING, 1945
As we can see, Germany’s forms of design, plus the orderly 1 4 Luitpoldhalle
working as a prostitute between intermittent dead-
‘economic miracle’ was bought at a beauty and authoritarianism of 2
13 18 5 kongresshalle end jobs, and getting in regular trouble with the
cost to workers’ rights. Germany’s classical Roman and Greek edifices. 5
25 6 Grosse Strasse u FühReRhauPTquaRTIeR Führer’s Headquarters October 23, 1976 Rosemary Keenan 18 Rosemary Keenan and her boyfriend Carl Denaro are shot in law, not only for prostitution but also on charges
foreign currency exchange situation, Hence the defining quality of Nazi 3 n
19 7 Deutches Stasion 8 Carl Denaro 25 Forest Hills Gardens, Queens. Both are injured in the attack. such as drunk driving and disorderly conduct. She
42 plus its needs for raw materials, architecture was to be Ordnung 21
Vierjahresplan (Four-Year Plan) & Rüstungsministerium (Defence Ministry)
8 Märzfeld also appeared to be developing an early love affair
meant that the economic rise could n Reichswerke Hermann Göring
not be sustained indefinitely. For n ReIch chaNcelleRy 9 ehrentribune des Märzfeldes 9 with firearms—on one occasion she was arrested
41 1 Mittelbau mit Marmorgalerie (Mittelbau 12 Gewächshaus (Greenhouse) n Montan- und Rüstungsgesellschaften (Mining and Defence Companies)
Hitler, however, such considerations The Reichskanzlei (Reich chancellery) HP Zollhaus October 26, 1976 Donna DeMasi 16 Donna DeMasi and Joanne Lomino are shot while chatting and charged for having fired a gun from a moving
Marble Gallery) 13 ehrenhof (Courtyard of Honour) 10 Städisches Stadion n Waffen- und Maschinenblock (Weapons and Machines Section)
did not affect his plans to create the was hitler’s seat of power in Berlin. 2 eingang zur Reichskanzlei (entrance to the 14 Festsaal mit Wintergarten (Ballroom and Joanne Lomino 18 outside Lomino’s home. Both are wounded; Joanne is vehicle—and in her early 20s had also been charged
11 Zeppelinfeld Bahnhof n Schiffahtsblock (Shipping Section)
40 physical structure of a ‘Thousand- It was a vast complex, designed to Reich Chancellery) Conservatory)
Märzfeld paralyzed. with assault.
1929 1933 1935 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 n Berg- und Hüttenwerksgesellschaften Ost (Mining and Metallurgical Companies East)
3 eingang zur Präsidialkanzlei (entrance to the 15 Alte Reichskanzlei (Old Reich Chancellery) 12 Huaptribune des Zeppelinfeldes As Aileen drifted across America, there were a
Year Reich’. overawe visitors with its grandeur. n Sonstige Monopolgesellschaften (Other Monopolies)
Office of the Reich President) 16 Speisesaal (Dining Hall)
The plan of the chancellery here 13 Trafostation couple of potential bright spots. In Florida, she met
4 kasernenbauten (Barracks Buildings) 17 Propagandaministerium (Ministry of 16 n Spinnstoff- und Fasergesellschaft (Textile and Fibre Company)
shows the building after its extensive 5 Hebebühne zu den katakomben (Lift to the Propaganda) 14 Stadionbad n Chemie-Ost (Chemistry East) January 30, 1977 Christine Freund 26 Christine Freund and John Diel are shot in their car outside a a wealthy 69-year-old yacht club president, Lewis
reconstruction by albert Speer, Catacombs) 18 erweiterungsbau zur Reichskanzlei (Reich 15 SS-kaserne n Superphosphat Ost (Superphosphate East) John Diel 30 movie theater in Queens. Diel suffers superficial injuries, but Fell, and struck up an unlikely relationship. They
a redevelopment that cemented 6 Gartenportal zu Hitlers Arbeitszimmer (Garden Chancellery extension) were married in March 1976, but within a few
16 Zeltlager der Wehrmacht n Konstinental Öl AG (Konstinental Oil AG) Freund dies later of her wounds.
unskilled portal to Hitler’s Office) 19 u-Bahn-eingang Wilhelmsplatz (Wilhelmsplatz
workers 10.1 million Speer’s influence within the n Betriebliche Ostwirtschaft (Eastern Economy Operations) months the marriage was annulled—Fell discovered
Skilled 7 Bauzufahrt zum Führerbunker (entranceway Subway entrance)
4.5 million Third Reich. hitler was extremely
to the Führer Bunker) 20 kaufhaus Wertheim (Wertheim Department n Betriebliche Wirtschaft Serbiens (Economic Operations Serbia) that Aileen’s tendency to fight in bars spilled over
/white collar 4.1 million interested in every aspect of its 8 Zufahrt – Tiefgarage und Führerbunker Store) n Betriebliche Wirtschaft Rumäniens (Economic Operations Romania) into the home, when Aileen beat her aging husband
Master 2.6 million March 8, 1977 Virginia Voskerichian 19 Shot as she walks home from Columbia University. She is
craftsmen design, as he felt it had to express (Access: underground Parking and Führer 21 Leipziger Platz (Leipziger Plaza) n NuReMBeRG Rally GRouND n Gesamte Kohlewirtschaft (Total Coal Production) with his own cane. Shortly afterward, Aileen shot
Farmers 2.1 million Bunker) 22 Ministergärten (Ministry Garden) killed at the scene by a head shot.
National Socialist ideology – he once The Nuremberg rallies, also called the parteitage (Party Days), were spectacular political/ceremonial events in the Nazi n Treuhänder gesamter Erzbergbau (Trustee Ore Mining)
Merchants 1.6 million 9 einfahrt – Tiefgarage und Feuerwehr 23 Tiergarten (Animal Garden – Zoo) herself in the stomach in a botched suicide attempt.
stated that ‘Berlin must change its calendar. The rally ground was never quite developed to the full extent of hitler’s ambitions, but it was an imposing n Sonstige Treuhandsch. HGW mit SS-Betrieb (Other Trusts – HGW with SS-Operations)
1.5 million (entrance – Parking and Fire Brigade) 24 Hermann-Göring-Straße (Herman Göring Also in 1976, Aileen inherited $10,000 when
Managers face to adapt to its new mission’. 10 Zufahrt – Führerbunker (Access – Führer Street)
space nevertheless. The main road that ran down the central axis of the ground measured more than 2km (1.2 miles) n Militärgouverneue, zivile Parteverwaltg. im Osten (New Military Governments, Civilian in the East)
234,000  Westchester County Deputy Sheriff Craig Glassman, the young couple escaped with minor injuries, but April 17, 1977 Alexander Esau 20 Alexander Esau and Valentina Suriani are both shot and Keith died from throat cancer in July. In now
The chancellery was eventually Bunker) 25 Voßstraße (Voss Street) in length and was 40m (132ft) wide. Towers, temple-like structures, stadia and public address platforms, plus the
who lived near Berkowitz, shows two threatening the second shooting resulted in one young woman characteristic style, she took all the money and blew
demolished by Soviet occupiers. 11 Haus kempka (kempka House) 26 Wilhelmstraße (Wilhelm Street) theatrical lighting additions of albert Speer, made the Nuremberg venue a place of great visual power. Valentina Suriani 18 killed at close quarters, the shooting occurring only a few
letters he received. The letters had a similar style of dead and her boyfriend blinded. Yet from this it within two months on drink, drugs, and a car
blocks from the Voskerichian shooting.
handwriting to those written by the “Son of Sam.” last shooting came a solid lead for the police. (which she crashed and destroyed). At this point it
90 91 96 97

BLACK TEXT BLACK SER P112-117_5-116.pgs 28.05.2010 11:04 Rival Colour Ltd BLACK TEXT BLACK SER P156-163_3-158.pgs 28.05.2010 12:15 Rival Colour Ltd BLACK TEXT BLACK SER P159.pgs 18.06.2010 12:55 Rival Colour Ltd
TEXT BLACK SER P117.pgs 18.06.2010 12:02 Rival Colour Ltd

10 11
100 Best-Selling Albums of the 70s 100 Best-Selling Albums of the 90s
Hamish champ Dan auty, chris barrett,
With vinyl sales at their highest in 25 justin cawthorne,
years, 100 Best-selling Albums of the pete dodd
70s is an expert celebration of popular From Nirvana to U2, from Garth
music from Rumours to Houses of 100 Best-Selling Albums Brooks to Shania Twain, from Lauryn 100 Best-Selling Albums
the Holy, from Dark Side of the Moon of the 70s Hill to Celine Dion to Alanis Morissette, of the 90s
to Off The Wall. Each album entry is 184 x 210mm (7¼ x 8¼”) each entry in 100 Best-Selling 184 x 210mm (7¼ x 8¼”)
accompanied by the original sleeve 224pp Albums of the 90s is accompanied 224pp
artwork and is packed full of facts 100 colour photographs by the original sleeve artwork and 100 colour photographs
45,000 words 45,000 words
and recording information, along with is packed full of facts and recording
ISBN: 978-1-78274-620-1 ISBN: 978-1-78274-622-5
an authoritative commentary on the information, along with an authoritative
£12.99 Hardback £12.99 Hardback
record. commentary by an expert in the field.

25 Wish You Were Here 11 Tapestry 71 The Score 24 Nevermind
l • Album sales: 7,200,000 l • Release date: February 1996 l l • Album sales: 10,600,000 l • Release date: September 1991 l
l • Album sales: 6,000,000 l • Release date: September 1975 l l • Album sales: 10,000,000 l • Release date: March 1971 l
A nother marathon session of recording
activity – seven months – at London’s
takes the listener on a sort of aural space ship-
ride, with heavy use of synthesizers and futuristic C arole King tapped into the singer-songwriter
movement then taking shape to create
own right Tapestry stands as her one glorious
moment. Two of the album’s songs, ‘Will You
T he Fugee’s breakthrough album showcased
the eclectic tastes of all three MCs – Lauryn
Hill, Pras and Wyclef – while offering an incredibly
conscience. The group served up a fascinating
mixture of soul, reggae, gospel and blues, all
within the framework of inventive hip-hop.
T he single most important rock album of
the 1990s, Nevermind opened the door for
dozens of similarly angst-ridden bands from
produced album on a major label, but it was also
loud, brash and sounded very real.
The words may have been uncompromising,
famous Abbey Road studios went into producing sound effects as well as more conventional an album that set a new watermark for female Love Me Tomorrow’ and ‘(You Make Me Feel popular alternative to the macho-posturing of It was the group’s treatment of ‘Killing Me Seattle and sounded the death knell for the but the tunes were not – genre-defining songs
Wish You Were Here, Pink Floyd’s follow-up instruments such as acoustic guitars and piano. artists. Unassuming, yet beautifully crafted, this Like) A Natural Woman’, are reinterpretations from the gangster rap that dominated the mid-1990s. Softly’ and Hill’s moving vocal on ‘Ready or Not’ commercial glam-metal movement and power such as ‘Smells Like Teen Spirit’, ‘Come as You
to the highly regarded Dark Side Of The Moon, Signs that the band’s bassist and lyricist Roger 1971 release paved the way forward for female that period with Goffin, but it is the newer songs Innovative and derivative in equal measure, The that drove The Score to multi-platinum success. ballads of the previous decade. The album sold Are’, ‘Lithium’ or ‘On A Plain’ have classic rock
which was also recorded at Abbey Road. The Waters was becoming exasperated with the singer/songwriters, both in terms of the quality of that notably shine. In ‘It’s Too Late’, knowingly Score blends the work of Roberta Flack and Bob Released as singles, the former topped the UK over 10,000,000 copies worldwide and made structures, enabled by Krist Novoselic and Dave
band came close to break-up during recording whole business of music – and perhaps with his its songs and the honest, highly personal style in charting the breakdown of a relationship – she Marley with cinematic constraints and a social chart for five weeks, followed by a three week lead singer/guitarist Kurt Cobain a massive, if Grohl’s powerhouse rhythm section and Cobain’s
(both Water’s and Mason were splitting from fellow band members too – also take shape on which she delivers them. had split with Goffin three years earlier – she stint by ‘Ready Or Not’. While the singles failed sometimes, reluctant rock icon. vocal roar. It wasn’t all pedal-to-the-metal stuff

Sleeve artwork by Chuck Beeson, Roland Young and Jim McCrary
their wives at the time) but many critics, including the record; in ‘Have A Cigar’ he has a record Together with her husband Gerry Goffin, King created a US chart-topping single for herself (it Number One singles: UK: Prakazrel ‘Pras’ to hit the Top 40 in the US, The Score stayed at While Cobain’s lyrics were unquestionably – ‘Polly’ is a chilling acoustic tale of kidnap and
Dave Gilmour, now see the album as one of Pink company executive saying ‘the band is just had penned a string of hits for others in the reached Number Six in the UK), while in ‘You’ve Killing Me Softly; Ready Wyclef Jean the top of the Billboard chart for four weeks. powerful and heartfelt, the true success of the closing ‘Something In The Way’ is marked by
Floyd’s best. fantastic/that is really what I think/by the way, previous decade, among them ‘Up On the Roof’ Got A Friend’ she wrote a US Number One for or Not Garfield ‘Gus’ Parkinson Nevermind came from the music. Butch Vig Kirk Canning’s mournful cello – but as a blast of
It opens with a clear homage to founding which one’s Pink?’ and ‘The Locomotion’, but as an artist in her James Taylor. In turn, Taylor adds backing vocals Red Alert
Grammy awards: Ras Baraka managed to make the band sound both slick and pure punk rock energy, Nevermind has had few
member – and, at the time, institutionalized – Syd Wish You Were Here scored a Number One and guitar to the song’s original version. Best rap album; Best Handel Tucker 1 Red Intro (1:51) raw at the same time – this was an expensively rivals before or since.
Sleeve artwork by Hipgnosis and George Hardie

Barrett on ‘Shine On You Crazy Diamond (Parts in the album charts on both sides of the Atlantic, Number One singles: Personnel: Tapestry clocked up more than 300 weeks on R&B performance by Robbie Shakespeare 2 How Many Mics (4:28)
I – IV)’ which had to be re-recorded due to an only the second time thus far that the band had US: It’s Too Late; You’ve Carole King the US chart, 15 of them at Number One, while a duo Sly Dunbar 3 Ready Or Not (3:47)
Got A Friend Joel O’Brien or group – Killing Me Forte 4 Zealots (4:20) 1 Smells Like Teen Spirit (5:02)
inexperienced sound engineer. The album then topped the chart in their home market. it was named Album of the Year at the 1971 5 The Beast (5:37)
Charles Larkey Softly With His Song Omega 2 In Bloom (4:15)
Grammy awards: Grammy Awards. Diamond D 6 Fu-Gee-La (4:20) 3 Come As You Are (3:39)

Sleeve artwork by Robert Fisher
Danny Kootch Number One singles: Personnel:
Number One singles: Personnel: Record of the year; Album Label: US: Ruffhouse Pace 1 7 Family Business (5:43) 4 Breed (3:04)
James Taylor None Kurt Cobain (d. 1994)
8 Killing Me Softly With His Song (4:58) 5 Lithium (4:17)
None Dave Gilmour of the year; Best pop vocal Russ Kunkel UK: Columbia Young Zee Krist Novoselic
9 The Score (5:02) 6 Polly (2:56)
Roger Waters performance (female); Ralph Schuckett Ra Digga Grammy awards: None Dave Grohl
1 I Feel The Earth Move 8 Where You Lead (3:18) 10 The Mask (4:50) 7 Territorial Pissings (2:23)
Grammy awards: None Rick Wright Song of the year – You’ve Recorded in: New 11 Cowboys (5:23) Kirk Canning
(2:57) 9 Will You Love Me 8 Drain You (3:44)
Dave Mason 1 Shine On You Crazy Diamond (Parts I-V) (13:30)
Carole King Got A Friend Producer: 2 So Far Away (3:56) Tomorrow? (4:11)
Jersey & New York, USA; Producers: 12 No Woman, No Cry (4:33) Label: US & UK: Geffen 9 Lounge Act (2:37)
Pink Floyd

Label: US: Columbia; Lou Adler Kingston, Jamaica Wyclef 13 Manifest/Outro (5:59) Producer:

2 Welcome to the Machine (7:26) 3 It’s Too Late (3:53) 10 Smackwater Jack (3:43) 10 Stay Away (3:33)

UK: Harvest Producer: 3 Have A Cigar (5:08) Label: US: Ode; UK: A&M 4 Home Again (2:30) 11 Tapestry (3:12) Shawn King 14 Fu-Gee-La (4:24) Recorded in: Butch Vig 11 On A Plain (3:17)
Pink Floyd 4 Wish You Were Here (5:40) 5 Beautiful (3:06) 12 (You Make Me Feel) Like Personnel: Lauryn Hill 15 Fu-Gee-La (5:27) Van Nuys, USA 12 Something In The Way (3:51)
Recorded in: London, UK 5 Shine On You Crazy Diamond (Parts VI-IX) (12:22) Recorded in: New York, 6 Way Over Yonder (4:46) A Natural Woman (3:39) Lauryn Hill Salaam Remi
USA 7 You’ve Got A Friend Total album length: 67 minutes Total album length: 42 minutes
Total album length: 44 minutes (5:07) Total album length: 45 minutes
74 158
150 190

100 Best-Selling Albums of the 80s Bridges
Dan auty, chris barrett, David ross
justin cawthorne, From ancient abandoned aqueducts
pete dodd to today’s feats of engineering,
The 80s saw great albums both from Bridges is a pictorial celebration of
recording artists who had been around 100 Best-Selling Albums 200 suspension bridges, iron bridges, Bridges
since the 60s, such as Paul Simon of the 80s stone bridges, viaducts, railway 213 x 290mm (8¼ x 11½”)
and Tina Turner, and new acts, such 184 x 210mm (7¼ x 8¼”) bridges, footbridges and rope bridges 224pp
as Prince, George Michael and Tracey 224pp from the ancient world to the present 10,000 words
100 colour photographs day. Organised chronologically and 200 colour photographs
Chapman. Combining information
45,000 words ISBN: 978-1-78274-576-1
from both the US and UK charts, 100 presented in a landscape format with
£19.99 Hardback
ISBN: 978-1-78274-621-8
Best-Selling Albums of the 80s is an informative captions, Bridges is a
£12.99 Hardback
authoritative chart of the decade. stunning collection of images.

7 Purple Rain
l • Album sales: 13,600,000 l • Release date: August 1984 l
P rince’s previous album,1999, had brought the
diminutive singer considerable success in the
US, but it was his soundtrack to the 1984 hit film
With a reputation for lyrical lewdness, the Prince
retained his right to shock with tracks such as
‘Darling Nikki’, but there was a growing sense
Purple Rain that was to make him and backing of maturity in the starkly arresting ‘When Doves
band The Revolution, into global superstars. Cry’. The album won Prince two Grammy awards
The album spent 24 weeks at the top of the US and an Academy Award for Best Song Score.
album charts, reached Number Seven in the UK, In addition to making the soundtrack, Prince
and gave Prince his first two US Number One took the starring role in Purple Rain, a loosely
singles with ‘When Doves Cry’ and ‘Let’s Go autobiographical film about a young Minneapolis
Crazy’. The title track reached Number Two in rock musician struggling to make it big. The
the US, while ‘I Would Die 4 U’ and ‘Take Me movie grossed over $5 million dollars at the
With U’ charted in the Billboard Hot 100. box office and functioned as an extended
promotional video for the album. Coupled with
Number One singles: Personnel: the record breaking success of his 1984–85
US: When Doves Cry; Prince Purple Rain tour, the hype helped make the
Prince & The Revolution

Let’s Go Crazy Wendy Melvoin album into the biggest hit of Prince’s career.
Lisa Coleman
Grammy awards: Matt Fink
Best album or original Brown Mark
score for a motion picture; Bobby Z 1 Let’s Go Crazy (4:39)
2 Take Me With U (3:54)
Best rock performance by Apollonia LEFT: ABOVE:
3 The Beautiful Ones (5:15) Golden Gate Bridge, San Ponte Vecchio, Florence, Italy
a duo or group with vocal Novi Novog
4 Computer Blue (3:59) Francisco, California, USA Rebuilt in 1345, the Ponte Vecchio
David Coleman 5 Darling Nikki (4:15)
Opened in 1937, the Golden Gate is noted for still having shops built
Bridge was, until 1964, the longest along it. Butchers initially occupied
Label: US & UK: Warner Suzie Katayama 6 When Doves Cry (5:52) suspension bridge main span in the the shops; the present tenants are
world. It has only been closed three jewellers, art dealers and
7 I Would Die 4 U (2:51) times due to strong winds. souvenir sellers.
Recorded in: Producers: 8 Baby I’m a Star (4:20)
Los Angeles, USA Prince 9 Purple Rain (8:45)
The Revolution
Total album length: 44 minutes


12 13
Celtic Castles A-Z of Animals
Martin j. Dougherty tom jackson
Some of the most romantic castles in If you know your ABC, why not try the
the world are found in the British Isles, animal alphabet? A