Maslow's hierarchy of needs

Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a theory in psychology, proposed by Abraham Maslow in his 1943 paper A Theory of Human Motivation. Maslow subsequently extended the idea to include his observations of humans' innate curiosity.

The higher one is the need for self-respect. Maslow noted two versions of esteem needs. be it in a profession or hobby. 3. esteem presents the normal human desire to be accepted and valued by others. Self-actualization “What a man can be. prestige. Also known as the belonging need. the third layer of human needs are social and involve feelings of belongingness. such as:    Friendship Intimacy Family 4. recognition. Love and belonging After physiological and safety needs are fulfilled.MASLOW'S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS : 1. Maslow describes this desire as the desire to become more and more what one is. Safety and Security needs include:     Personal security Financial security Health and well-being Safety net against accidents/illness and their adverse impacts . to feel accepted and self-valued. Esteem All humans have a need to be respected and to have self-esteem and self-respect. mastery.”This forms the basis of the perceived need for self-actualization. This level of need pertains to what a person's full potential is and realizing that potential. and attention. independence and freedom.This is a broad definition of the need for self-actualization. a lower one and a higher one. but when applied to individuals the need is specific. the need for strength. People need to engage themselves to gain recognition and have an activity or activities that give the person a sense of contribution. the individual's safety needs take precedence and dominate behavior. self-confidence. fame. The lower one is the need for the respect of others. competence. to become everything that one is capable of becoming. This aspect of Maslow's hierarchy involves emotionally based relationships in general. he must be. 2. Safety needs With their physical needs relatively satisfied. the need for status.

The link between effort and performance. If these requirements are not met (with the exception of clothing. or the degree to which the individual expects the anticipated outcome to satisfy personal needs (valence). The link between performance and outcome. and food are metabolic requirements for survival in all animals. . VICTOR VROOM’S EXPECTANCY THEORY A theory of motivation that holds that the probability of an individual acting in a particular way depends on the strength of that individual’s belief that the act will have a particular outcome and on whether the individual values that outcome. 1. or the strength of the individual’s expectation that a certain amount of effort will lead to a certain level of performance. 3.5. Physiological needs include:     Breathing Food Homeostasis Sex Air. water. shelter. physiological needs are obvious—they are the literal requirements for human survival. The link between outcomes and individual needs. or the strength that a certain level of performance will lead to a particular outcome. including humans. and sexual activity). the human body simply cannot continue to function. 2. The intensity of the human sexual instinct is shaped more by sexual competition than maintaining a birth rate adequate to survival of the species. The degree to which an employee is motivated depends on three important relationships. Physiological needs For the most part. Clothing and shelter provide necessary protection from the elements.

. Responsibility. Hygiene factors: Company policy Working conditions Basic salary Job security Supervision Hygiene factors also known as job dissatisfiers. A compliment of motivators and hygiene factors must be provided by management to ensure employees perform productively.when present. Recognition.HERZBERG’S TWO FACTOR THEORY Herzberg believed two sets of factors dictate an employee’s behaviour at work. do not motivate employees but only serve to keep them contented. Opportunity for growth. Motivational factors: Achievement. • Motivators are high level needs.


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