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LT1038

10A Positive
OBSOLETE PRODUCT Adjustable Voltage
DATA SHEET FOR REFERENCE ONLY Regulator
Consult www.linear.com for possible alternate source.
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FEATURES DESCRIPTIO
Guaranteed 0.8% Initial Tolerance The LT1038 is a three terminal regulator which is capable
Guaranteed 0.4% Load Regulation of providing in excess of 10A output current over 1.2V to
Guaranteed 10A Output Current 32V range. The device is packaged in a standard T0-3
100% Thermal Limit Burn-In power package and is plug-in compatible with industry
24A Transient Output Current standard adjustable regulators, such as the LM117 and
Standard Adjustable Pinout LM138. Also, the LT1038 is a functional replacement for
Operates to 35V the LM396.

U In addition to excellent load and line regulations, the


APPLICATIO S LT1038 is fully protected by current limiting, safe area
protection and thermal shutdown. New current limiting
System Power Supplies circuitry allows transient load currents up to 24A to be
High Power Linear Regulator supplied for 500s without causing the regulator to cur-
Battery Chargers rent limit and drop out of regulation during the transient.
Power Driver
Constant Current Regulator On-chip trimming of initial reference voltage to 0.8%
combined with 0.4% load regulation minimize errors in all
high current applications. Further, the LT1038 is manufac-
tured with standard bipolar processing and has Linear
Technologys high reliability.
, LTC and LT are registered trademarks of Linear Technology Corporation.

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TYPICAL APPLICATIONS
5V, 10A Regulator Load Regulation
0.2
VIN = 15V
VOUT = 10V
OUTPUT VOLTAGE DEVIATION (%)

0.1 PRELOAD = 100mA


LT1038
5V
VIN 8V VIN VOUT
AT 10A 0
ADJ 121 IOUT = 6A
+ 1% +
1F 10F 0.1 IOUT = 10A

365
1% 0.2
1038 TA01

0.3

0.4
75 50 25 0 25 50 75 100 125 150
TEMPERATURE (C)
1038 TA02

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LT1038
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ABSOLUTE AXI U RATI GS PACKAGE/ORDER I FOR ATIO
(Note 1)
BOTTOM VIEW
Power Dissipation ............................... Internally Limited ORDER PART
VIN
Input to Output Voltage Differential ......................... 35V NUMBER
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Operating Junction Temperature Range
LT1038MK
LT1038M Control Circuitry ................ 55C to 150C 1
LT1038CK
LT1038M Power Transistor ............... 55C to 200C ADJ
CASE
IS OUTPUT
LT1038C Control Circuitry ..................... 0C to 125C K PACKAGE
2-LEAD TO-3 METAL CAN
LT1038C Power Transistor .................... 0C to 175C TJMAX = 3C, JA = 35C/W
Storage Temperature Range ................. 65C to 150C
Lead Temperature (Soldering, 10 sec).................. 300C
OBSOLETE PACKAGE
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PRECO DITIO I G 100% Thermal Limit Burn-in

ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS The denotes the specifications which apply over the full operating
temperature range, otherwise specifications are at TA = 25C. (Note 2)

LT1038M LT1038C
SYMBOL PARAMETER CONDITIONS MIN TYP MAX MIN TYP MAX UNITS
VREF Reference Voltage IOUT = 20mA, Tj = 25C 1.24 1.25 1.26 1.23 1.25 1.275 V
3V (VIN VOUT) 35V 1.22 1.25 1.285 1.22 1.25 1.285 V
20mA IOUT 10A, P 75W
VOUT Line Regulation 3V (VIN VOUT) 35V, 0.005 0.01 0.005 0.02 %/V
VIN IOUT = 20mA (Note 3) 0.02 0.03 0.02 0.03 %/V
VOUT Load Regulation 20mA IOUT 10A (Note 3)
IOUT 3V (VIN VOUT) 35V 0.1 0.4 0.1 0.6 %
3V (VIN VOUT) 35V 0.3 0.8 0.3 1.0 %
Thermal Regulation 20ms Pulse 0.002 0.005 0.002 0.01 %/W
Ripple Rejection VOUT = 10V, f = 120Hz
CADJ = 0F 60 60 dB
CADJ = 10F 60 75 60 75 dB
IADJ Adjust Pin Current 50 100 50 100 A
IADJ Adjust Pin Current Change 20mA IOUT 10A
3V (VIN VOUT) 35V 0.2 3 0.2 3 A
Minimum Load Current (VIN VOUT) = 35V 7 20 7 20 mA
(VIN VOUT) 20V 10 10 mA
ISC Current Limit (VIN VOUT) 10V
DC 10 14 10 14 A
Transient (0.5ms) 14 22 12 22 A
(VIN VOUT) = 30V, Tj = 25C 1 2 1 2 A
VOUT Temperature Stability 1 2 1 %
Temp
VOUT Long Term Stability TA = 125C, 1000 Hours 0.3 1 0.3 1 %
Time
en RMS Output Noise 10Hz f 10kHz 0.001 0.001 %
(% of VOUT)
JC Thermal Resistance Power Transistor 1 1 C/W
Junction to Case Control Circuity 0.5 0.5 C/W

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LT1038
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
Note 1: Absolute Maximum Ratings are those values beyond which the life than 10V, achievable output current and power dissipation decrease due to
of a device may be impaired. protection circuitry.
Note 2: Unless otherwise specified, these specifications apply: Note 3: See thermal regulation specifications for changes in output voltage
VIN VOUT = 5V and IOUT = 5A. These specifications are applicable for due to heating effects. Load and line regulation are measured at a constant
power dissipations up to 75W. At input-output voltage differentials greater junction temperature by low duty cycle pulse testing.

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TYPICAL PERFOR A CE CHARACTERISTICS
Dropout Voltage Adjustment Current Temperature Stability
4 65 1.27
VOUT = 100mV
60
INPUT-OUTPUT DIFFERENTIAL (V)

ADJUSTMENT CURRENT (A)

REFERENCE VOLTAGE (V)


1.26
55
3
IOUT = 10A 50
1.25
IOUT = 6A 45
2
40
IOUT = 2A 1.24

35

1 30 1.23
75 50 25 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 75 50 25 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 50 25 0 25 50 75 100 125 150
TEMPERATURE (C) TEMPERATURE (C) TEMPERATURE (C)
1038 TA02 1038 G02 1038 G03

Output Impedance Minimum Operating Current Ripple Rejection


10 10 100
VIN = 15V
CADJ = 10F
VOUT = 10V
IOUT = 1A 8 80
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QUIESCENT CURRENT (mA)
OUTPUT IMPEDANCE ()

RIPPLE REJECTION (dB)

Tj = 150C CADJ = 0F
CADJ = 0F 6 60
0.1 Tj = 25C
COUT = 0F

CADJ = 10F Tj = 55C


0.01 4 40
COUT = 10F

VIN VOUT = 5V
0.001 2 20 IOUT = 1A
f = 120Hz
Tj = 25C
0.0001 0 0
10 100 1k 10k 100k 1M 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
FREQUENCY (Hz) INPUT-OUTPUT DIFFERENTIAL (V) OUTPUT VOLTAGE (V)
1038 G04 1038 G05 1038 G06

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LT1038
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TYPICAL PERFOR A CE CHARACTERISTICS
Ripple Rejection Ripple Rejection Current Limit
100 80 32
VIN = 15V PEAK CURRENT LIMIT
CADJ = 10F VOUT = 10V CADJ = 10F DC CURRENT LIMIT
IOUT = 1A TCASE = 25C
80
70 24 PRELOAD = 0A

RIPPLE REJECTION (dB)


RIPPLE REJECTION (dB)

OUTPUT CURRENT (A)


60
CADJ = 0F PRELOAD = 10A
60 CADJ = 0F 16
40
PRELOAD = 2A
50 VIN = 15V 8
20 VOUT = 10V
f = 120Hz
TCASE = 25C
0 40 0
10 100 1k 10k 100k 1M 0.1 1 10 0 10 20 30 40
FREQUENCY (Hz) OUTPUT CURRENT (A) INPUT-OUTPUT DIFFERENTIAL (V)
1038 G08 1195 G20
1038 G07

Current Limit Current Limit Line Transient Response


28 28 1.5
VIN = 10V PRELOAD CURRENT = 0A VOUT = 10V
VOUT = 5V TCASE = 25C 1.0 IOUT = 100mA
24 24

OUTPUT VOLTAGE
TCASE = 25C Tj = 25C

DEVIATION (V)
0.5 CL = 1F; CL = 10F
OUTPUT CURRENT (A)

OUTPUT CURRENT (A)

20 20
PRELOAD = 0A VIN VOUT = 10V 0
PRELOAD = 10A
16 16 0.5
VIN VOUT = 15V COUT = 0A
12 12 1.0
CADJ = 0A
1.5
8 8 VIN VOUT = 20V
INPUT VOLTAGE
CHANGE (V)

1.0
4 4 VIN VOUT = 30V
0.5
0 0 0
0.1 1 10 100 0.1 1 10 100 0 10 20 30 40
TIME (ms) TIME (ms) TIME (s)
LTXXX GXX 1038 G11 1038 G12

Load Transient Response


3
VIN = 15V
2 VOUT = 10V
OUTPUT VOLTAGE

TCASE = 25C
DEVIATION (V)

1
PRELOAD = 200mA
0
1 CL = 0F; CADJ = 0F

2
CL = 1F; CADJ = 10F
3
LOAD CURRENT (A)

6
4
2
0
0 10 20 30 40
TIME (s)
1038 G13

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LT1038
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APPLICATIO S I FOR ATIO
General If a very large output capacitor is used, such as a 100F
The LT1038 develops a 1.25V reference voltage between shown in Figure 2, the regulator could be damaged or
the output and the adjustment terminal (see Figure 1). By destroyed if the input is accidentally shorted to ground or
placing a resistor, R1, between these two terminals, a crowbarred, due to the output capacitor discharging into
constant current is caused to flow through R1 and down the output terminal of the regulator. To prevent this, a
through R2 to set the overall output voltage. Normally this diode, D1 as shown, is recommended to safely discharge
current is the specified minimum load current of 10mA or the capacitor.
20mA. Because IADJ is very small and constant when
Load Regulation
compared with the current through R1, it represents a
small error and can usually be ignored. Because the LT1038 is a three-terminal device, it is not
possible to provide true remote load sensing. Load regu-
Bypass Capacitors lation will be limited by the resistance of the wire connect-
Input bypassing using a 1F tantalum or 25F electrolytic ing the regulator to the load. The data sheet specification
is recommended when the input filter capacitors are more for load regulation is measured at the bottom of the
than 5 inches from the device. Improved ripple rejection package. Negative side sensing can be a true Kelvin
(80dB) can be accomplished by adding a 10F capacitor connection if the bottom of resistor R2 is returned to the
from the ADJ pin to ground. Increasing the size of the negative side of the load. Although it may not be immedi-
capacitor to 20F will help ripple rejection at low output ately obvious, best load regulation is obtained when the
voltage since the reactance of this capacitor should be top of the resistor divider, R1, is connected directly to the
case, not to the load. This is illustrated in Figure 3. If R1
small compared to the voltage setting resistor, R2. For
were connected to the load, the effective resistance be-
improved AC transient response and to prevent the possi-
tween the regulator and the load would be:
bility of oscillation due to unknown reactive load, a 1F
capacitor is also recommended at the output. Because of
R2 + R1
their low impedance at high frequencies, the best type of Rp R = Parasitic Line Resistance
capacitor to use is solid tantalum. R1 p

Protection Diodes Connected as shown, Rp is not multiplied by the divider


ratio. Rp is about 0.004 per foot using 16 gauge wire.
The LT1038 does not require a protection diode from the This translates to 4mV/ft at 1A load current, so it is
adjustment terminal to the output (see Figure 2). Im- important to keep the lead between the regulator and the
proved internal circuitry eliminates the need for this diode load as short as possible, and use large wire or PC board
when the adjustment pin is bypassed with a capacitor to traces.
improve ripple rejection.
D1
1N4002 Rp
PARASITIC
LT1038 LT1038 LINE RESISTANCE
VIN VIN VOUT VOUT LT1038 VIN VIN VOUT
VIN VIN VOUT VOUT CONNECT
ADJ VREF + ADJ
R1 COUT R1 TO CASE
ADJ
IADJ R1 * 100F
50A R1 RL
R2
R2
R2 CADJ
+ R2 *NOT NEEDED
VOUT = VREF (1 + ) + IADJ R2
R1 10F
1038 F01
CONNECT R2
1038 F02
TO LOAD
1038 F03

Figure 1. Basic Adjustable Regulator Figure 2 Figure 3. Connections for


Best Load Regulation

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LT1038
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TYPICAL APPLICATIO S
Paralleling Regulators

LT1038
VIN VIN VOUT
2 FEET #18 WIRE*
ADJ R2
VOUT = 1.25 (1 + )
R1
IOUT = 0A TO 20A
0.015
LT1038
VIN VOUT
ADJ * THE #18 WIRE ACTS AS
BALLAST RESISTANCE
R1 INSURING CURRENT SHARING
120 BETWEEN BOTH DEVICES

R2

1038 TA03

10A Variable Regulator*

T1
TRIAD L
F-269U C30B 1MHz LT1038
0V TO 35V
VIN VOUT
0A TO 10A
+ C1 ADJ +
20 1N4003 750* 1.5k 100F
50,000F
T2
3 4
110V AC
20 1 2 LT1004-1.2
C30B

LT1004-2.5
20k
1N4003 1N4003 560
1F OUTPUT
15V 16k* ADJUST

82k LT1004-1.2
15k 8 15V 200k 11k* 16k* 2.7k
2
+
4
7
LT1011 15V
3
10k 1 0.1F
1N4148 NC
15V
100pF
8
15V 2N3904
3 1
4
*1% FILM RESISTOR 7 3
L-DALE TO-5 TYPE LT1011 8 +
2 10k 6
T2-STANCOR 11Z-2003 + LM301A
1
7 2
15k
15V
4
GENERAL PURPOSE REGULATOR WITH SCR PREREGULATOR TO LOWER 11k*
15V 1F 15V
POWER DISSIPATION. ABOUT 4V DIFFERENTIAL IS MAINTAINED ACROSS
THE LT1038 INDEPENDENT OF OUTPUT VOLTAGE AND LOAD CURRENT. 1038 TA04

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LT1038
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TYPICAL APPLICATIO S
Improving Ripple Rejection 1.2V to 25V Adjustable Regulator 5V Regulator with Shutdown
LT1038 LT1038 LT1038
VIN VIN VOUT 5V VIN VIN VOUT VOUT VIN VIN VOUT 5V
R1 ADJ R1 ADJ 121
ADJ
+ 121 121 + 1%
1F 1% 1F
+ C1*
+ C2
R2
R2 + C1* 1F 5k 1F 1k
365 TTL 2N3904
10F 365
1% 1%
1k

*C1 IMPROVES RIPPLE *NEEDED IF DEVICE IS FAR FROM FILTER CAPACITORS


REJECTION. XC SHOULD
OPTIONALIMPROVES TRANSIENT RESPONSE
1038 TA07
BE SMALL COMPARED TO R2.
1038 TA05 VOUT = 1.25V (1 + R2/R1) 1038 TA06

Remote Sensing Temperature Compensated Lead Acid Battery Charger


10A LT1038
Rp VIN
LT1038 (MAX DROP 300mV) VIN VOUT
VOUT 5V
VIN VIN ADJ
OUTPUT 121 10k*
ADJ VIN 1%

7 2 THERMALLY
COUPLED
25 6 50 +
LM301A 25k
12V
3 1k RL
121 1
+
2N3906
8
4 5F 2k*
CHARGE
+
365 100pF 50k*
2N3904
RETURN
25
*LOAD ON BATTERY 200A
RETURN 1038 TA08 WHEN NOT CHARGING 1038 TA09

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SCHE ATIC DIAGRA
VIN

Q24
310 310 190 50 5.6k 20k
300

Q11 Q23
200
Q27
Q4 Q6 Q9
Q26
Q2 6.7k 12k
Q15 Q19
120 Q28
Q14 1.6k Q21 D1
30k Q5 6.3V
C3 400 160
3k 5pF
4k Q18
Q22 18k
16k
12.4k Q16 Q20 Q25 D2
Q17 6.3V
Q1 130 Q8 Q10

Q12 Q13 C1 C2
30pF 2.4k 160
30pF
Q3 Q7
160k
3
12k
180 4.1k 6k 10k 5.1k
0.005

ADJ VOUT 1038 SD

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Information furnished by Linear Technology Corporation is believed to be accurate and reliable.
However, no responsibility is assumed for its use. Linear Technology Corporation makes no represen-
tation that the interconnection of its circuits as described herein will not infringe on existing patent rights.
LT1038
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TYPICAL APPLICATIO S
Lamp Flasher
12V
LT1038
15V VIN VOUT Automatic Light Control Protected High Current Lamp Driver
ADJ 12V
1F
LT1038 LT1038 10A
10F
+ VIN VOUT VOUT VIN 15V
ADJ ADJ
1.2k
OFF 12k TTL OR
10F
1k + CMOS
2N3904
12k 10F 10k
+
1039 TA11 1039 TA12
12k

1039 TA10

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PACKAGE DESCRIPTIO Dimensions in inches (millimeters) unless otherwise noted.

K Package
2-Lead TO-3 Metal Can
(60mil Diameter Leads)
(LTC DWG # 05-08-1312)
1.177 1.197
(29.90 30.40)

0.760 0.775 0.655 0.675


0.320 0.350 (16.64 17.15)
(19.30 19.69)
(8.13 8.89)
0.060 0.135 0.210 0.220
(5.33 5.59) 0.151 0.161
(1.524 3.429)
(3.86 4.09)
DIA, 2 PLACES

0.167 0.177
0.420 0.480 (4.24 4.49)
(10.67 12.19) 0.425 0.435 R
(10.80 11.05)
0.067 0.077 0.490 0.510
0.058 0.062
(1.70 1.96) (12.45 12.95) K2(TO-3) 1098
(1.47 1.57)
R

OBSOLETE PACKAGE

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1038fa LT/TP 0701 1.5K REV A PRINTED IN USA


Linear Technology Corporation
8 1630 McCarthy Blvd., Milpitas, CA 95035-7417
(408) 432-1900 FAX: (408) 434-0507
www.linear.com LINEAR TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION 2000
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