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AISC Live Webinar Fatigue of Welded Connections

May 23, 2013 A Primer, Part I

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AISC Live Webinar Fatigue of Welded Connections
May 23, 2013 A Primer, Part I

AISC Live Webinars Course Description

Copyright Materials May 23, 2013 Fatigue of Welded Connections: A Primer, Part I
Using AISC 360 Appendix 3, this live webinar examines the basic
concepts behind fatigue including the definition, application and
This presentation is protected by US and International Copyright causation; as well as welded connections and variables affecting
laws. Reproduction, distribution, display and use of the fatigue. The presentation then reviews the aspects of the design
presentation without written permission of AISC is prohibited. model including fatigue testing, categories of connection details and
predictive model.
The American Institute of Steel Construction 2013

Learning Objectives

Fatigue of Welded
To learn and understand the provisions included in Appendix 3 of
Connections: A Primer, Part I
the 201 AISC Specification for Structural Steel Buildings. written and presented by
To learn and understand the concepts behind the fatigue design Duane K. Miller, Sc. D., P.E.
requirements.
Manager, Engineering Services,
Become familiar with fatigue testing, categories of connection details The Lincoln Electric Company,
and predictive models. Cleveland, OH.
To understand the implementation of the fatigue design
requirements for welded connections.

American Institute of Steel Construction


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May 23, 2013 A Primer, Part I

Fatigue of Welded Connections: A Primer Fatigue of Welded Connections: A Primer

This session is specifically geared toward The basic concepts behind fatigue-resistant steel
Engineers and Contractors involved with bridge structures are considered, explaining the
construction, but is equally applicable to interrelated variables of stress range, connection
individuals involved with the design and geometry and the expected life of the welded
fabrication of crane girders and supports, and connection. The role of dead load stress versus
other weldments subject to cyclic loading. live load stress are discussed, as are the variable
of weld quality and steel strength.

Fatigue of Welded Connections: A Primer Fatigue of Welded Connections: A Primer

Using AISC 360 Appendix 3, weld geometries are Fatigue enhancement methods are presented. The
considered in detail with a practical focus on how role of material toughness on fatigue life is
to increase the fatigue resistance of welded discussed. Case studies, including the bad and
connections. ugly, are presented.

American Institute of Steel Construction


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AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION

AISC 360-10
APPENDIX 3
SPECIFICATION
For Structural DESIGN FOR FATIGUE
Steel Buildings

14

Fatigue of Welded Connections: A Primer Fatigue of Welded Connections: A Primer

1. Background and Theory 1. Background and Theory


2. Design Model Definition
3. Design and Construction Details Applications
4. Fatigue Enhancement Causation
5. Examples: Good, Bad and Ugly Welded Connections
Variables Affecting Fatigue

American Institute of Steel Construction


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AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION

GLOSSARY

Fatigue.

Limit state of crack initiation and growth resulting from


repeated application of live loads.

17 18

FRACTURE and FATIGUE CONTROL in STRUCTURES AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION

APPENDIX 3
Fatigue is the process of cumulative damage in a benign
environment that is caused by repeated fluctuating loads DESIGN FOR FATIGUE
and, in the presence of an aggressive environment, is
known as corrosion fatigue .
This appendix applies to members and connections subject
to high cycle loading within the elastic range of stresses of
frequency and magnitude sufficient to initiate cracking and
progressive failure, which defines the limit state of fatigue.

Barsom and Rolfe User Note: See AISC Seismic Provisions for Structural
Steel Buildings for structures subject to seismic loads.

19 Elastic, high cycle loading 20

American Institute of Steel Construction


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AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION

APPENDIX 3
APPENDIX 3 Commentary
DESIGN FOR FATIGUE
3.1. GENERAL PROVISIONS
3.1. GENERAL PROVISIONS (contd)
In general, members or connections subject to less than a
No evaluation of fatigue resistance of members consisting few thousand cycles of loading will not constitute a fatigue
of shapes or plate is required if the number of cycles of condition except possibly for cases involving full reversal of
application of live load is less than 20,000. loading and particularly sensitive categories of details. This
is because the applicable cyclic allowable stress range will
be limited by the static allowable stress.

21 Not for low cycle loading 22

AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION

APPENDIX 3
APPENDIX 3 Commentary
DESIGN FOR FATIGUE
.Issues of fatigue are not normally encountered in
This appendix applies to members and connections subject building design; however, when encountered and if the
to high cycle loading within the elastic range of stresses of severity is great enough, fatigue is of concern and all
frequency and magnitude sufficient to initiate cracking and provisions of Appendix 3 must be satisfied.
progressive failure, which defines the limit state of fatigue.

User Note: See AISC Seismic Provisions for Structural


Steel Buildings for structures subject to seismic loads.

Not for seismic loading 23 Not for typical building design 24

American Institute of Steel Construction


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Crane Supports Reciprocating Machinery Supports

25 26

AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION Bridges

CHAPTER J

DESIGN OF CONNECTIONS

J1.10 Limitations on Bolted and Welded Connections


Joints with pretensioned bolts or welds shall be used for
the following connections:
(3) In all structures carrying cranes of over 5 ton (50 kN)
capacity; ....and crane supports
(4) Connections for the support of machinery and other live
loads that produce impact or reversal of load.
27 28

American Institute of Steel Construction


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Bridges What is fatigue?

AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION

Fatigue APPENDIX 3

DESIGN FOR FATIGUE

Fatigue is the result of 3.1. GENERAL PROVISIONS (contd)


repeated plastic
deformation. The provisions of this Appendix apply to stresses
calculated on the basis of service loads. The maximum
permitted stress due to service loads is 0.66Fy.

Omer W. Blodgett
Globally elastic 32

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FRACTURE and FATIGUE CONTROL in STRUCTURES DEFORMATION AND FRACTURE MECHANICS OF


ENGINEERING MATERIALS

Fatigue damage of components subjected to normally


elastic stress fluctuations occurs at regions of stress It is important to recognize that fatigue damage will occur
(strain) raisers where the localized stress exceeds the yield only when cyclic plastic strains are generated. This basic
stress of the material. After a certain number of load rule should not be construed as a security blanket
fluctuations, the accumulated damage causes the initiation whenever nominal applied stresses are below the material
and subsequent propagation of a crack, or cracks, in the yield strength, since stress concentrations readily elevate
plastically damaged regions. local stresses and associated strains into the plastic
Barsom and Rolfe range.

Richard W. Hertzberg

33 34

75
Plastic
Stress (ksi)

50
30 kips

1
25

Elastic 1

0 nominal = P/A = 30 kips/1 in2 = 30 ksi


Strain 35 36

American Institute of Steel Construction


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75

Stress Concentrator (kt)


kt = 2
Stress (ksi)

50
30 kips

Nominal Design Stress: 1


25 30 ksi (60% of yield)

0
kt = maximum/nominal = max/nom
Strain 37 38

75

Stress Concentrator (kt)


kt = 2 max = 60 ksi

Stress (ksi)
50
30 kips

1 Nominal Design Stress:


25 30 ksi (60% of yield)

kt = 2 = max / 30 max = 60 ksi 0


39
Strain 40

American Institute of Steel Construction


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FRACTURE and FATIGUE CONTROL in STRUCTURES Residual Stresses

Welding technology is complex and fabrication by welding


encompasses characteristics that should be understood to
different levels by the design engineer, the fabricator, and
the welder. Some of these characteristics pertinent to the
present discussion are residual stresses, imperfections,
and stress concentrations.
Barsom and Rolfe

41

Residual Stresses Residual Stresses

American Institute of Steel Construction


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Residual Stresses Residual Stresses

Residual Stresses FRACTURE and FATIGUE CONTROL in STRUCTURES

MPa
36 Ksi, 250 MPa 50 Ksi, 350 MPa 100 Ksi, 690 MPa 690
Welding technology is complex and fabrication by welding
encompasses characteristics that should be understood to
different levels by the design engineer, the fabricator, and
350
the welder. Some of these characteristics pertinent to the
present discussion are residual stresses, imperfections,
and stress concentrations.
0
Barsom and Rolfe

47 48
From Economical and Fatigue Resistant Steel Bridge Details, National Highway Institute Course No. 13049

American Institute of Steel Construction


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Imperfections Imperfections

Crack in Weld Crack in Heat Affected Zone (HAZ)

49 50

Imperfections Imperfections

Incomplete Joint Penetration in CJP Incomplete Joint Penetration in CJP

51 52

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Imperfections Imperfections

Incomplete Fusion Porosity

53 54

Imperfections Imperfections

Slag Inclusions Undercut

55 56

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FRACTURE and FATIGUE CONTROL in STRUCTURES Stress Concentrations

Weld Toes

Welding technology is complex and fabrication by welding


encompasses characteristics that should be understood to
different levels by the design engineer, the fabricator, and
the welder. Some of these characteristics pertinent to the
present discussion are residual stresses, imperfections,
and stress concentrations.
Barsom and Rolfe

57 58

Stress Concentrations Stress Concentrations

Unfused Root of Single Sided PJP Groove Weld Unfused Root of Double Sided PJP Groove Weld

59 60

American Institute of Steel Construction


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Stress Concentrations Stress Concentrations

Weld Toes and Width Transitions in Butt Joints


Weld Roots in
Cruciform Joints

tp 2a

62
61

Stress Concentrations Stress Concentrations

Ends of Intermittent Fillet Welds Ends of Fillet Welds at Partial Length Cover Plates

63 64

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AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION

APPENDIX 3
APPENDIX 3 Commentary
DESIGN FOR FATIGUE
3.5. GENERAL PROVISIONS
3.1. GENERAL PROVISIONS (contd)
Extensive test programs using full-size specimens,
substantiated by theoretical stress analysis, have Stress range is defined as the magnitude of the change in
confirmed the following general conclusions (Fisher et al., stress due to the application or removal of the service live
1970; Fisher et al., 1974): load.

(1) Stress range and notch severity are the dominant stress
variables for welded details and beams;

65 66

Stress Range

Applied Stress
total load
max. stress, max
= max - min
Stress range,

min. stress, min

live load dead load

Time
67 68

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15 Complete Reversal 20 Zero to Full Tensile


Applied Stress (ksi)

Applied Stress (ksi)


10 15

5 max. stress, max 10 max. stress, max

0 Stress range, 5 Stress range,

-5 min. stress, min 0 min. stress, min

-10 -5

= max min = 5 (-5) = 10 ksi = max min = 10 0 = 10 ksi


-15 -10
Time 69
Time 70

25 Tensile to Full Tensile 10 Compression Only


Applied Stress (ksi)

Applied Stress (ksi)


20 5

15 max. stress, max 0 max. stress, max

10 Stress range, -5 Stress range,

5 min. stress, min -10 min. stress, min

0 -15

= max min = 15 5 = 10 ksi = max min = 0 (-10) = 10 ksi


-5 -20
Time 71
Time 72

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5 AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION


0 Stress range, = 10 ksi
-5
APPENDIX 3 Commentary
10
5 Stress range, = 10 ksi
0 3.5. GENERAL PROVISIONS

15 Extensive test programs using full-size specimens,


10 Stress range, = 10 ksi substantiated by theoretical stress analysis, have
confirmed the following general conclusions (Fisher et al.,
5
1970; Fisher et al., 1974):
0

0 (1) Stress range and notch severity are the dominant stress
variables for welded details and beams;
-5 Stress range, = 10 ksi
-10 74

FRACTURE and FATIGUE CONTROL in STRUCTURES Residual Stresses: Before Welding

Welding technology is complex and fabrication by welding


encompasses characteristics that should be understood to
different levels by the design engineer, the fabricator, and
the welder. Some of these characteristics pertinent to the
present discussion are residual stresses, imperfections,
and stress concentrations.
Barsom and Rolfe

75

American Institute of Steel Construction


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Residual Stresses: After Welding Residual Stresses: Tensile Load Applied

Residual Stresses: Tensile Load RemovedSome Stress Reduction Residual Stresses: After Welding

American Institute of Steel Construction


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Residual Stresses: Compressive Load Applied Residual Stresses: Compressive Load RemovedNo Reduction

Complete Reversal Zero to Full Tensile

y y
Stress

Stress

0 0

Time Time
83 84

American Institute of Steel Construction


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Tensile to Full Tensile Compression Only

y y
Stress

Stress
0 0

Time Time
85 86

AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION

APPENDIX 3 Commentary

3.5. GENERAL PROVISIONS

Extensive test programs using full-size specimens,


substantiated by theoretical stress analysis, have
confirmed the following general conclusions (Fisher et al.,
1970; Fisher et al., 1974):

(1) Stress range and notch severity are the dominant stress
variables for welded details and beams;

87 88

American Institute of Steel Construction


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AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION


Effect of Minimum Stress, Maximum Stress

APPENDIX 3 Commentary
20

Stress Range MPa

Stress Range ksi


100 14.5
2) Other variables such as minimum stress, mean stress
10
and maximum stresses are not significant for design
purposes; and
Minimum Stress Welded Rolled Maximum Stress 5
3) Structural steels with a specified minimum yield stress of ksi [MPa] (at 14.5 ksi [100 MPa])
36 to 100 ksi (250 to 690 MPa) do not exhibit
significantly different fatigue strengths for given welded - 6 [-41.4] +8.5 [58.6]
details fabricated in the same manner. 2 [13.8] +16.5 [113.8]
10 [68.9] +24.5 [168.9]
10 1.4
89
0.1 1.0 10
Cycles x 106 Adapted from A Fatigue Primer for Structural Engineers
by Fisher, Kulak, Smith, published by NSBA

AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION


Effect of Base Metal Strength

APPENDIX 3 Commentary
20

Stress Range MPa

Stress Range ksi


100 14.5
2) Other variables such as minimum stress, mean stress
10
and maximum stresses are not significant for design
purposes; and

3) Structural steels with a specified minimum yield stress of Steel 5


36 to 100 ksi (250 to 690 MPa) do not exhibit A 36 36 ksi [250 MPa]
significantly different fatigue strengths for given welded
details fabricated in the same manner. A441 50 ksi [350 MPa]
A514 100 ksi [690 Mpa]
10 1.4
91
0.1 1.0 10
Cycles x 106 Adapted from A Fatigue Primer for Structural Engineers
by Fisher, Kulak, Smith, published by NSBA

American Institute of Steel Construction


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Lower Yield Steel Higher Yield Steel

y
y
Stress

Stress
0 0

Time Time
93 94

Higher strength steel Fatigue of Welded Connections: A Primer


will not allow for
greater live loads
Applied Stress

1. Background and Theory: SUMMARY


total load
max. stress, max

Stress range,

min. stress, min

live load dead load

Higher strength steel


Time will allow for greater
dead loads 95

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FRACTURE and FATIGUE CONTROL in STRUCTURES FRACTURE and FATIGUE CONTROL in STRUCTURES

Fatigue damage of components subjected to normally


elastic stress fluctuations occurs at regions of stress Welding technology is complex and fabrication by welding
(strain) raisers where the localized stress exceeds the yield encompasses characteristics that should be understood to
stress of the material. After a certain number of load different levels by the design engineer, the fabricator, and
fluctuations, the accumulated damage causes the initiation the welder. Some of these characteristics pertinent to the
and subsequent propagation of a crack, or cracks, in the present discussion are residual stresses, imperfections,
plastically damaged regions. and stress concentrations.
Barsom and Rolfe Barsom and Rolfe

97 98

AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION

APPENDIX 3 Commentary
APPENDIX 3 Commentary

2) Other variables such as minimum stress, mean stress


3.5. GENERAL PROVISIONS and maximum stresses are not significant for design
purposes; and
Extensive test programs using full-size specimens,
substantiated by theoretical stress analysis, have 3) Structural steels with a specified minimum yield stress of
confirmed the following general conclusions (Fisher et al., 36 to 100 ksi (250 to 690 MPa) do not exhibit
1970; Fisher et al., 1974): significantly different fatigue strengths for given welded
details fabricated in the same manner.
(1) Stress range and notch severity are the dominant stress
variables for welded details and beams;

99 100

American Institute of Steel Construction


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Fatigue of Welded Connections: A Primer Fatigue of Welded Connections: A Primer

1. Background and Theory 2. Design Model


2. Design Model Fatigue Testing
3. Design and Construction Details Categories of Connection Details
4. Fatigue Enhancement Predictive Model
5. Examples: Good, Bad and Ugly Special Categories: C and C

Full Scale Fatigue Tests

103 104

American Institute of Steel Construction


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90o

45o

22 1/2o

11 1/4o

Number of Cycles to Failure


105 106

Two standard deviations


Mean Regression Line (95% confidence intervals)
Log Stress Range

Log Stress Range

97.5% above this line

Threshold value

Log Number of Cycles to Failure Log Number of Cycles to Failure


107 108

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Log Stress Range Effect of Details

20

Stress Range MPa

Stress Range ksi


100 14.5
10

Detail 5

Design Curve Welded Beams


Welded beams with end
welded cover plates
Log Number of Cycles to Failure 10 1.4
109
0.1 1.0 10
Cycles x 106 Adapted from A Fatigue Primer for Structural Engineers
by Fisher, Kulak, Smith, published by NSBA

UNWELDED STEEL

A B D F A B D F
C E C E

111 112

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Category B Details CJP Flange Splice

Longitudinal Fillet

Longitudinal CJP

A B D F
C E

113 114

Category C Details

A B D F
C E

115 116

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Category E Details

Coverplated Beam
Transverse Stiffener
A B D F
C E

117 118

3
Log Stress Range (SR, ksi)

Log Stress Range (SR, ksi)


100 100

1
Category A Category A
Category B Category B

Category F Category C Category F 1 Category C


10 10
6
Category D Category D

Category E Category E

1 1
20x103 105 106 107 108 20x103 105 106 107 108

Log Number of Cycles (N) Log Number of Cycles (N)


119 120

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Log Stress Range (SR, ksi)


100

Coverplated Beam
Transverse Stiffener
Category A
Category B
Category B
Category F Category C
10

Category G Category D

Category E

Category E
A B D F
1 C E
20x103 105 106 107 108

Log Number of Cycles (N)


121 122

AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION

APPENDIX 3

DESIGN FOR FATIGUE

3.3. PLAIN MATERIAL AND WELDED JOINTS

A B C D E E F In plain material and welded joints the range of stress at


B G
service loads shall not exceed the allowable stress range
computed as follows:

123 124

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AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION

where
(a) For stress categories A, B, B, C, D, E and E the
allowable stress range, FSR, shall be determined by Cf = constant from Table A-3.1 for the fatigue category
Equation A-3-1 or A-3-1M, as follows:
0.333 FSR = allowable stress range, ksi (MPa)
Cf
FSR = FTH (A-3.1) FTH = threshold allowable stress range, maximum stress
n
SR range for indefinite design life from Table A-3.1,
ksi (MPa)
0.333
C f x 329 nSR = number of stress range fluctuations in design life
FSR = FTH (S.I.) (A-3.1M) = number of stress range fluctuations per day 365
n SR years of design life

125 126

AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION


3

Log Stress Range (SR, ksi)


100

1
(a) For stress categories A, B, B, C, D, E and E the
allowable stress range, FSR, shall be determined by Category A
Equation A-3-1 or A-3-1M, as follows: Category B

0.333 Category B
Cf 10
Category F Category C

FSR = FTH (A-3.1)


n
SR
Category G Category D

Category E

0.333 Category E
C f x 329
FSR = FTH (S.I.) (A-3.1M) 1

n SR 20x103 105 106 107 108

Log Number of Cycles (N)


127 128

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AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION

Log Stress Range (SR, ksi)


100

(b) For stress category F, the allowable stress range, FSR,


shall be determined by Equation A-3-2 or A-3-2M, as Category A
follows: Category B

0.167 1 Category B
Cf 10
Category F
6
Category C

FSR = FTH (A-3.2)


n
SR
Category G Category D

Category E

FSR =
(
C f 11 x 10 4 ) 0.167

FTH (S.I.) (A-3.2M)


Category E

nSR 20x103 105 106 107 108

Log Number of Cycles (N)


129 130

AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION

(c) For tension-loaded plate elements connected at their (a) For stress categories A, B, B, C, D, E and E the
end by cruciform, T or corner details with complete-joint- allowable stress range, FSR, shall be determined by
penetration (CJP) groove welds or partial joint-penetration Equation A-3-1 or A-3-1M, as follows:
(PJP) groove welds, fillet welds, or combinations of the
0.333
preceding, transverse to the direction of stress, the
Cf
allowable stress range on the cross section of the tension- FSR = FTH (A-3.1)
loaded plate element at the toe of the weld shall be n
SR
determined as follows:
0.333
C f x 329
FSR = FTH (S.I.) (A-3.1M)
n SR
131 132

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AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION

SECTION 1PLAIN MATERIAL AWAY FROM ANY WELDING

SECTION 2CONNECTED MATERIAL IN MECHANICALLLY


FASTENED JOINTS
133 134

SECTION 1 SECTION 2
PLAIN MATERIAL AWAY FROM ANY WELDING CONNECTED MATERIAL IN
MECHANICALLY FASTENED JOINTS

135 136

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SECTION 3 SECTION 4
WELDED JOINTS JOINING COMPONENTS OF LONGITUDINAL FILLET WELDED END CONNECTIONS
BUILT-UP MEMBERS

137 138

SECTION 5 SECTION 6
WELDED JOINTS BASE METAL AT WELDED
TRANSVERSE TO DIRECTION OF STRESS TRANSVERSE MEMBER CONNECTIONS

139 140

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SECTION 7 SECTION 8
BASE METAL AT SHORT ATTACHMENTS MISCELLANEOUS

141 142

SECTION 1PLAIN MATERIAL AWAY FROM ANY WELDING


SECTION 1
1.1 A
PLAIN MATERIAL AWAY FROM ANY WELDING

Description: Base metal, except noncoated weathering steel, with


rolled or cleaned surface. Flame-cut edges with surface roughness
value of 1,000 in. (25 m) or less, but without re-entrant corners.

Potential Crack Initiation Point: Away from all welds or


structural connections.
143 144

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SECTION 1PLAIN MATERIAL AWAY FROM ANY WELDING SECTION 1PLAIN MATERIAL AWAY FROM ANY WELDING

1.2 B 1.3 B

Description: Noncoated weathering steel base metal with rolled or Description: Member with drilled or reamed holes. Member with
cleaned surface. Flame-cut edges with surface roughness value of re-entrant corners at copes, cuts, block-outs or other geometrical
1,000 in. (25 m) or less, but without re-entrant corners. discontinuities made to requirements of Appendix 3, Section 3.5,
except weld access holes.

Potential Crack Initiation Point: Away from all welds or Potential Crack Initiation Point: At any external edge or at
structural connections. hole perimeter.
145 146

SECTION 1PLAIN MATERIAL AWAY FROM ANY WELDING


SECTION 2
1.4 C
CONNECTED MATERIAL
IN MECHANICALLY FASTENED JOINTS

Description: Rolled cross sections with weld access holes made to


requirements of Section J1.6 and Appendix 3, Section 3.5.
Members with drilled or reamed holes containing bolts for
attachment of light bracing where there is a small longitudinal
component of brace force.

Potential Crack Initiation Point: At reentrant corner of weld


access hole or at any small hole (may contain bolt for minor
connections). 147 148

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SECTION 2CONNECTED MATERIAL IN MECHANICALLY FASTENED JOINTS SECTION 2CONNECTED MATERIAL IN MECHANICALLY FASTENED JOINTS

2.1 B 2.3 D

Description: Gross area of base metal in lap joints connected by Description: Base metal at the net section of other mechanically
high-strength bolts in joints satisfying all requirements for slip- fastened joints except eye bars and pin plates.
critical connections.

Potential Crack Initiation Point: Through gross section near Potential Crack Initiation Point: In net section originating at
hole. side of hole.
149 150

SECTION 2CONNECTED MATERIAL IN MECHANICALLY FASTENED JOINTS


SECTION 3
2.4 E
WELDED JOINTS JOINING COMPONENTS OF
BUILT-UP MEMBERS

Description: Base metal at net section of eyebar head or pin plate.

Potential Crack Initiation Point: In net section originating at


side of hole.
151 152

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SECTION 3WELDED JOINTS JOINING COMPONENTS OF BUILT-UP MEMBERS SECTION 3WELDED JOINTS JOINING COMPONENTS OF BUILT-UP MEMBERS

3.1 B 3.2 B

Description: Base metal and weld metal in members without Description: Base metal and weld metal in members without
attachments, built up of plates or shapes connected by continuous attachments, built up of plates or shapes, connected by continuous
longitudinal CJP groove welds, back gouged and welded from longitudinal CJP groove welds with backing bars not removed, or by
second side, or by continuous fillet welds. continuous PJP groove welds.

Potential Crack Initiation Point: From surface or internal Potential Crack Initiation Point: From surface or internal
discontinuities in weld away from end of weld. discontinuities in weld, including weld attaching backing bars.
153 154

SECTION 3WELDED JOINTS JOINING COMPONENTS OF BUILT-UP MEMBERS SECTION 3WELDED JOINTS JOINING COMPONENTS OF BUILT-UP MEMBERS

3.3 D 3.4 E

Description: Base metal at weld metal terminations of longitudinal Description: Base metal at ends of longitudinal intermittent fillet
welds at weld access holes in connected built-up members. weld segments.

Potential Crack Initiation Point: From the weld termination into Potential Crack Initiation Point: In connected materials at start
the web or flange. and stop locations of any weld deposit.
155 156

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SECTION 3WELDED JOINTS JOINING COMPONENTS OF BUILT-UP MEMBERS SECTION 3WELDED JOINTS JOINING COMPONENTS OF BUILT-UP MEMBERS

3.5a E 3.5b E

Description: Base metal at ends of partial length welded Description: Base metal at ends of partial length welded
coverplates narrower than the flange having square or tapered coverplates narrower than the flange having square or tapered
ends, with or without welds across the ends. Coverplates wider ends, with or without welds across the ends. Coverplates wider
than the flange with welds across the ends. than the flange with welds across the ends.

Flange thickness (tf) < 0.8 in. (20 mm). Flange thickness (tf) > 0.8 in. (20 mm).

Potential Crack Initiation Point: In flange at toe of end weld or Potential Crack Initiation Point: In flange at toe of end weld or
in flange at termination of longitudinal weld or in edge of flange in flange at termination of longitudinal weld or in edge of flange
with wide coverplates. 157 with wide coverplates. 158

SECTION 3WELDED JOINTS JOINING COMPONENTS OF BUILT-UP MEMBERS


SECTION 4
3.6 E
LONGITUDINAL FILLET WELDED END CONNECTIONS

Description: Base metal at ends of partial length welded


coverplates wider than the flange without welds across the ends.

Potential Crack Initiation Point: In edge of flange at end of


coverplate weld.
159 160

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SECTION 4LONGITUDINAL FILLET WELDED END CONNECTIONS SECTION 4LONGITUDINAL FILLET WELDED END CONNECTIONS

4.1a E 4.1b E

Description: Base metal at junction of axially loaded members with Description: Base metal at junction of axially loaded members with
longitudinally welded end connections. Welds shall be on each side longitudinally welded end connections. Welds shall be on each side
of the axis of the member to balance weld stresses. of the axis of the member to balance weld stresses.

Thickness t < 0.5 in. (12 mm). Thickness t > 0.5 in. (12 mm).

Potential Crack Initiation Point: Initiating from end of any weld Potential Crack Initiation Point: Initiating from end of any weld
termination extending into the base metal. termination extending into the base metal.
161 162

SECTION 5WELDED JOINTS TRANSVERSE TO DIRECTION OF STRESS


SECTION 5
5.1 B
WELDED JOINTS
TRANSVERSE TO DIRECTION OF STRESS

Description: Weld metal and base metal in or adjacent to CJP


groove welded splices in rolled or welded cross sections with welds
ground essentially parallel to the direction of stress and with
soundness established by RT or UT.

Potential Crack Initiation Point: From internal discontinuities in


weld metal or along the fusion boundary.
163 164

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SECTION 5WELDED JOINTS TRANSVERSE TO DIRECTION OF STRESS SECTION 5WELDED JOINTS TRANSVERSE TO DIRECTION OF STRESS

5.2a B 5.2b B

Description: Weld metal and base metal in or adjacent to CJP Description: Weld metal and base metal in or adjacent to CJP
groove welded splices with welds ground essentially parallel to the groove welded splices with welds ground essentially parallel to the
direction of stress at transitions in thickness or width made on a slope direction of stress at transitions in thickness or width made on a slope
no greater than 1:2 1/2 and with weld soundness established by RT no greater than 1:2 1/2 and with weld soundness established by RT
or UT. or UT.
Fy < 90 ksi (620 MPa) Fy 90 ksi (620 MPa).

Potential Crack Initiation Point: From internal discontinuities in Potential Crack Initiation Point: From internal discontinuities in
weld metal or along fusion boundary. weld metal or along fusion boundary or at start of transition when
165 Fy 90 ksi (620 MPa). 166

SECTION 5WELDED JOINTS TRANSVERSE TO DIRECTION OF STRESS SECTION 5WELDED JOINTS TRANSVERSE TO DIRECTION OF STRESS

5.2b B 5.4 C

Description: Weld metal and base metal in or adjacent to the toe of


CJP groove welds in T or corner joints or splices, with or without
B transitions in thickness having slopes no greater than 1:2 1/2. Weld
5.3
reinforcement is not removed. Weld soundness established by RT or
UT.

Potential Crack Initiation Point: From surface discontinuity at


toe of weld extending into base metal or into weld metal.
167 168

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SECTION 5WELDED JOINTS TRANSVERSE TO DIRECTION OF STRESS


SECTION 6
5.5a C
BASE METAL AT WELDED
TRANSVERSE MEMBER CONNECTIONS

Description: Base metal and weld metal at transverse end


connections of tension-loaded plate elements using PJP groove
welds in butt or T- or corner joints, with reinforcing or contouring
fillets. FSR shall be the smaller of the toe crack or root crack allowable
stress range.
Crack initiating from weld toe.

Potential Crack Initiation Point: Initiating from geometrical


discontinuity at toe of weld extending into base metal.
169 170

SECTION 6BASE METAL AT WELDED TRANSVERSE MEMBER CONNECTIONS SECTION 6BASE METAL AT WELDED TRANSVERSE MEMBER CONNECTIONS

6.1a B 6.1b C

Description: Base metal at details attached by CJP groove welds Description: Base metal at details attached by CJP groove welds
subject to longitudinal loading only when the detail embodies a subject to longitudinal loading only when the detail embodies a
transition radius, R, with the weld termination ground smooth and transition radius, R, with the weld termination ground smooth and
with weld soundness established by RT or UT. with weld soundness established by RT or UT.

R 24 in. (600 mm). 24 in. > R 6 in. (600 mm > R 150 mm)

Potential Crack Initiation Point: Near point of tangency of Potential Crack Initiation Point: Near point of tangency of
radius at edge of member. radius at edge of member.
171 172

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SECTION 6BASE METAL AT WELDED TRANSVERSE MEMBER CONNECTIONS SECTION 6BASE METAL AT WELDED TRANSVERSE MEMBER CONNECTIONS

6.1c D 6.1d E

Description: Base metal at details attached by CJP groove welds Description: Base metal at details attached by CJP groove welds
subject to longitudinal loading only when the detail embodies a subject to longitudinal loading only when the detail embodies a
transition radius, R, with the weld termination ground smooth and transition radius, R, with the weld termination ground smooth and
with weld soundness established by RT or UT. with weld soundness established by RT or UT.

6 in. > R 2 in. (150 mm > R 50 mm) R < 2 in. (50 mm)

Potential Crack Initiation Point: Near point of tangency of Potential Crack Initiation Point: Near point of tangency of
radius at edge of member. radius at edge of member.
173 174

SECTION 6BASE METAL AT WELDED TRANSVERSE MEMBER CONNECTIONS SECTION 6BASE METAL AT WELDED TRANSVERSE MEMBER CONNECTIONS

6.1 6.2a B

Description: Base metal at details of equal thickness attached by


R 24 in. (600 mm). B CJP groove welds subject to transverse loading with or without
longitudinal loading when the detail embodies a transition radius, R,
24 in. > R 6 in. (600 mm > R 150 mm) C with the weld termination ground smooth and with weld soundness
established by RT or UT. Weld reinforcement is removed.
6 in. > R 2 in. (150 mm > R 50 mm) D R 24 in. (600 mm)

Potential Crack Initiation Point: Near points of tangency of


R < 2 in. (50 mm) E radius or in the weld or at fusion boundary or member or
175 attachment. 176

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SECTION 6BASE METAL AT WELDED TRANSVERSE MEMBER CONNECTIONS SECTION 6BASE METAL AT WELDED TRANSVERSE MEMBER CONNECTIONS

6.2e C 6.3a D

Description: Base metal at details of equal thickness attached by Description: Base metal at details of unequal thickness attached
CJP groove welds subject to transverse loading with or without by CJP groove welds subject to transverse loading with or without
longitudinal loading when the detail embodies a transition radius, R, longitudinal loading when the detail embodies a transition radius, R,
with the weld termination ground smooth and with weld soundness with the weld termination ground smooth and with weld soundness
established by RT or UT. Weld reinforcement is not removed. established by RT or UT. Weld reinforcement is removed.
R 24 in. (600 mm) R > 2 in. (50 mm).

Potential Crack Initiation Point: At toe of the weld either along Potential Crack Initiation Point: At toe of weld along edge of
edge of member or the attachment. thinner material.
177 178

SECTION 6BASE METAL AT WELDED TRANSVERSE MEMBER CONNECTIONS


SECTION 7
6.4a D
BASE METAL AT SHORT ATTACHMENTS

Description: Base metal subject to longitudinal stress at


transverse members, with or without transverse stress, attached
by fillet or partial-joint-penetration groove welds parallel to
direction of stress when the detail embodies a transition radius, R,
with weld termination ground smooth.
R > 2 in. (50 mm).

Potential Crack Initiation Point: Initiating in base metal at the


weld termination or at the toe of the weld extending into the base
metal. 179 180

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SECTION 7BASE METAL AT SHORT ATTACHMENTS SECTION 7BASE METAL AT SHORT ATTACHMENTS

7.1a C 7.1b D

Description: Base metal subject to longitudinal loading at details Description: Base metal subject to longitudinal loading at details
with welds parallel or transverse to the direction of stress where with welds parallel or transverse to the direction of stress where
the detail embodies no transition radius and with detail length in the detail embodies no transition radius and with detail length in
direction of stress, a, and thickness of the attachment, b. direction of stress, a, and thickness of the attachment, b.

a < 2 in. (50 mm) 2 in. (50 mm) a 12b or 4 in. (100 mm)

Potential Crack Initiation Point: Initiating in base metal at the Potential Crack Initiation Point: Initiating in base metal at the
weld termination or at the toe of the weld extending into the base weld termination or at the toe of the weld extending into the base
metal. 181 metal. 182

SECTION 7BASE METAL AT SHORT ATTACHMENTS SECTION 7BASE METAL AT SHORT ATTACHMENTS

7.1c E 7.1d E

Description: Base metal subject to longitudinal loading at details Description: Base metal subject to longitudinal loading at details
with welds parallel or transverse to the direction of stress where with welds parallel or transverse to the direction of stress where
the detail embodies no transition radius and with detail length in the detail embodies no transition radius and with detail length in
direction of stress, a, and thickness of the attachment, b. direction of stress, a, and thickness of the attachment, b.

a > 4 in. (100 mm) when b > 0.8 in. (20 mm) a > 12b or 4 in. (100 mm) when b 0.8 in. (20 mm)

Potential Crack Initiation Point: Initiating in base metal at the Potential Crack Initiation Point: Initiating in base metal at the
weld termination or at the toe of the weld extending into the base weld termination or at the toe of the weld extending into the base
metal. 183 metal. 184

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SECTION 7BASE METAL AT SHORT ATTACHMENTS


No attachments
7.1
A

a
a < 2 in.
a < 50mm
C
a < 2 in. (50 mm) C

2 in. (50 mm) a 12b or 4 in. (100 mm) D


a
a > 4 in.
a > 4 in. (100 mm) when b > 0.8 in. (20 mm) E
a > 100mm
E
a > 12b or 4 in. (100 mm) when b 0.8 in. (20 mm) E

185 186

SECTION 7BASE METAL AT SHORT ATTACHMENTS SECTION 7BASE METAL AT SHORT ATTACHMENTS

7.2a D 7.2b E

Description: Base metal subject to longitudinal stress at details Description: Base metal subject to longitudinal stress at details
attached by fillet or partial-joint-penetration groove welds, with or attached by fillet or partial-joint-penetration groove welds, with or
without transverse load on detail, when the detail embodies a without transverse load on detail, when the detail embodies a
transition radius, R, with weld termination ground smooth. transition radius, R, with weld termination ground smooth.

R > 2 in. (50 mm) R 2 in. (50 mm)

Potential Crack Initiation Point: Initiating in base metal at the Potential Crack Initiation Point: Initiating in base metal at the
weld termination, extending into the base metal. weld termination, extending into the base metal.
187 188

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SECTION 8MISCELLANEOUS
SECTION 8
8.1 C
MISCELLANEOUS

Description: Base metal at steel headed stud anchors attached


by fillet or automatic stud welding.

Potential Crack Initiation Point: At toe of weld


in base metal.
189 190

SECTION 8MISCELLANEOUS SECTION 8MISCELLANEOUS

8.2 F 8.3 E

Description: Shear on throat of continuous or intermittent Description: Base metal at plug or slot welds.
longitudinal or transverse fillet welds.

Potential Crack Initiation Point: Initiating at the root of the fillet Potential Crack Initiation Point: Initiating in the base metal at
weld, extending into the weld. the end of the plug or slot weld, extending into the base metal.
191 192

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SECTION 8MISCELLANEOUS SECTION 8MISCELLANEOUS

8.4 F 8.5 G

Description: Shear on plug or slot welds. Description: Snug-tightened high-strength bolts, common bolts,
threaded anchor rods, and hanger rods with cut, ground or rolled
threads. Stress range on tensile stress area due to live load plus
prying action when applicable.

Potential Crack Initiation Point: Initiating in the weld at the Potential Crack Initiation Point: Initiating at the root of the
faying surface, extending into the weld. threads, extending into the fastener.
193 194

AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION


Stress Coefficient Threshold
Category Cf FTH
(a) For stress categories A, B, B, C, D, E and E the A 250 x 108 24
allowable stress range, FSR, shall be determined by
Equation A-3-1 or A-3-1M, as follows: B 120 x 108 16

0.333
B 61 x 108 12
Cf C 44 x 108 10
FSR = FTH (A-3.1)
n
SR D 22 x 108 7
E 11 x 108 4.5
0.333
C f x 329 E 3.9 x 108 2.6
FSR = FTH (S.I.) (A-3.1M)
n F 150 x 1010 8
SR
G 3.9 x 108 7
195 196
For Imperial Units (ksi)

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DESIGN PROCEDURE DESIGN PROCEDURE

1. Determine the number of cycles the connection must


endure (nsr). 1, 2
2. Determine the forces on the connection due to live Note 1: For nsr < 20,000 cycles, fatigue need not be
and dead loads. considered if maximum stress < 0.66 Fy.

3. Determine fatigue category from illustration. Find Cf Note 2: For nsr = infinite, FSR < FTH
coefficient for the fatigue detail.
4. Calculate FSR.
5. For all Categories except Category F, for a given live
load, select a member geometry that results in a
stress range less than FSR. For Category F, modify
weld size.
6. Consider alternative connection details with
increased fatigue resistance and recalculate FSR. 197 198

DESIGN EXAMPLE
100,000 cycles
1. Determine the number of cycles the connection must
endure (nsr). 1, 2 100,000 cycles
Grade 50
2. Determine the forces on the connection due to live CJP, reinforcement
and dead loads. Fdead = - 20 K, Flive = + 80 K left in place, UT

3. Determine fatigue category from illustration. Find Cf


coefficient for the fatigue detail.
4. Calculate FSR.
5. For all Categories except Category F, for a given live Fdead = - 20K R = 1
load, select a member geometry that results in a
stress range less than FSR. For Category F, modify Flive = + 80 K t = 1
weld size.
Fmin = - 20 K, Fmax = + 60 K
W
6. Consider alternative connection details with
increased fatigue resistance and recalculate FSR. 199 200

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6.2h E

Fmax = 60 kips tension t = 1 Grade 50 R = 1


Fmin = 20 kips compression Reinforcement left in place
100,000 cycles required Weld receives UT

0.333
Cf
FSR = FTH
n
SR
201 202

6.2h E

Fmax = 60 kips tension t = 1 Grade 50 R = 1


Fmin = 20 kips compression Reinforcement left in place
100,000 cycles
100,000 cycles required Weld receives UT

0.333 0.333
11x10 8 11x10 8
FSR =
3
4.5 FSR =
3
4.5
100x10 100x10
203 204

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6.2h E 6.2h E

Fmax = 60 kips tension t = 1 Grade 50 R = 1 Fmax = 60 kips tension t = 1 Grade 50 R = 1


Fmin = 20 kips compression Reinforcement left in place Fmin = 20 kips compression Reinforcement left in place
100,000 cycles required Weld receives UT 100,000 cycles required Weld receives UT

0.333 0.333
Fmax Fmin 11x10 60 - 20 11x10
8 8
FSR = =
3
4.5 FSR = =
3
4.5
A 100x10 A 100x10
205 206

6.2h E 6.2h 4 wide E

Fmax = 60 kips tension t = 1 Grade 50 R = 1 Fmax = 60 kips tension t = 1 Grade 50 R = 1


Fmin = 20 kips compression Reinforcement left in place Fmin = 20 kips compression Reinforcement left in place
100,000 cycles required Weld receives UT 100,000 cycles required Weld receives UT

80
FSR = = 22.17
80
FSR = = 11x10 3( )0.333
4.5 A
A Amin = 3.6 in2
207
Use 4 in2 208

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6.2h 4 wide E Category D


6 > R > 2
Cf = 22 x 108
FTH = 7 ksi [48 MPa]
Fmax = 60 kips tension t = 1 Grade 50 R = 1
Fmin = 20 kips compression Reinforcement left in place
100,000 cycles required Weld receives UT

Static Strength Check:


60
F = = 15 < 0.66Fy = 0.66(50) = 33
4
OK
209 210

6.2h D 6.2h D

Fmax = 60 kips tension t = 1 Grade 50 R = 2 Fmax = 60 kips tension t = 1 Grade 50 R = 2


Fmin = 20 kips compression Reinforcement left in place Fmin = 20 kips compression Reinforcement left in place
100,000 cycles required Weld receives UT 100,000 cycles required Weld receives UT

80
0.333 FSR = = 27.93
22x10 8
A
FSR =
3
7
100x10 Amin = 2.9 in2
211
Use 3 in2 212

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6.2h 3 wide D Category C


24 > R > 6
Cf = 44 x 108
FTH = 10 ksi [69 MPa]
Fmax = 60 kips tension t = 1 Grade 50 R = 2
Fmin = 20 kips compression Reinforcement left in place
100,000 cycles required Weld receives UT

Static Strength Check:


60
F = = 20 < 0.66Fy = 0.66(50) = 33
3
OK
213 214

6.2h C 6.2h 2.5 wide C

Fmax = 60 kips tension t = 1 Grade 50 R = 6 Fmax = 60 kips tension t = 1 Grade 50 R = 6


Fmin = 20 kips compression Reinforcement left in place Fmin = 20 kips compression Reinforcement left in place

8 A
0
100,000 cycles required Weld receives UT 100,000 cycles required Weld receives UT

3
5
.
1
8

0.333 FSR = =
44x10 8

FSR =
3
10
100x10 Amin = 2.27 in2
215
Use 2.5 in2 216

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Category E
6.2h 2.5 wide C

Fmax = 60 kips tension t = 1 Grade 50 R = 6


Fmin = 20 kips compression Reinforcement left in place R = 1
100,000 cycles required Weld receives UT

Static Strength Check:


60
F = = 24 < 0.66Fy = 0.66(50) = 33
2.5 W = 4
OK
217 218

Category D Category C

R = 2

R = 6
W = 3 W = 2.5
219 220

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Width of Required Material = 2R + W


Category E
Category E Category D 2 > R
Cf = 11 x 108
FTH = 4.5 ksi [31 MPa]

6 7
CategoryC
= 2(1) + 4 = 2(2) + 3

14.5
= 2(6) + 2.5 222

Category E DESIGN PROCEDURE

1. Determine the number of cycles the connection must


endure (nsr). 1, 2
2. Determine the forces on the connection due to live
and dead loads.
3. Determine fatigue category from illustration. Find Cf
R=0 coefficient for the fatigue detail.
The best answer, 4. Calculate FSR.
despite the poor 5. For all Categories except Category F, for a given live
Category E detail load, select a member geometry that results in a
stress range less than FSR. For Category F, modify
weld size.
W = 4 6. Consider alternative connection details with
223
increased fatigue resistance and recalculate FSR. 224

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Category A

Base metal (except weathering)


Maximum roughness of 1000 in
No re-entrant corners

A B D F
C E

225 226

Category B Category B

Noncoated weathering base metal Base metal


Maximum roughness of 1000 in Reamed or drilled holes
No re-entrant corners Copes, cuts, blockouts with large, smooth radius

227 228

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Category B Category B

CJPs with no reinforcement, no backing, no tabs


Slip critical bolted connections
UT or RT inspected

Same as above but with width or thickness transitions of 2.5:1

Continuous longitudinal CJPs and fillets


229

Category B Category C

Weld access hole in rolled section

CJPs with no reinforcement, no backing, no tabs


UT or RT inspected
R > 24

CJPs with reinforcement, no backing, no tabs

231
UT or RT inspected 232

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Category C Category C

Transverse fillet weldscracking at toes Short attachments


a < 2

CJPs with no reinforcement, no backing, no tabs


UT or RT inspected
Welded shear studs
24 > R > 6 233 234

Category D Category E

Eye bars

235 236

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Category E Category E

Ends of axially loaded members with longitudinal fillet welds


Intermittent fillet welds

CJPs with no reinforcement, no backing, no tabs

Ends of partial length coverplates UT or RT inspected


237 R < 2 238

Category E Category F

Shear on continuous PJP or fillet weld throat


Base metal at plug or slot welds

Shear on plug or slot weld


239 240

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Category D Category D

CJPs with no reinforcement, no backing, no tabs


Snug tightened bolts, rivets
UT or RT inspected
6 > R > 2

Weld access holes in build-up sections


241 Intermediate length attachments: 2 < a < 4 242

FRACTURE and FATIGUE CONTROL in STRUCTURES

Residual Major Stress


Category
Stress Imperfections Concentration
Welding technology is complex and fabrication by welding
A Low None None
encompasses characteristics that should be understood to
different levels by the design engineer, the fabricator, and B High Low None
the welder. Some of these characteristics pertinent to the
present discussion are residual stresses, imperfections, C High Low-Medium Low
and stress concentrations.
Barsom and Rolfe D High Medium Medium

E High Medium High

F High Medium Low


243 244

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Category B

Continuous longitudinal CJPs with backing


Continuous longitudinal PJPs

A B D F
C E

245 Transverse CJPs with Fy > 90 ksi, straight width taper

Category E Category G

In general, Category E are Category E details but


with thicker materials involved.

Threaded fasteners subject to stress range

Coverplates wider than the beam flange.


248

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AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION

APPENDIX 3

DESIGN FOR FATIGUE

3.3. PLAIN MATERIAL AND WELDED JOINTS

A B C D E E F In plain material and welded joints the range of stress at


B G
service loads shall not exceed the allowable stress range
computed as follows:

249 250

AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION

where
(a) For stress categories A, B, B, C, D, E and E the
allowable stress range, FSR, shall be determined by Cf = constant from Table A-3.1 for the fatigue category
Equation A-3-1 or A-3-1M, as follows:
0.333 FSR = allowable stress range, ksi (MPa)
Cf
FSR = FTH (A-3.1) FTH = threshold allowable stress range, maximum stress
n
SR range for indefinite design life from Table A-3.1,
ksi (MPa)
0.333
C f x 329 nSR = number of stress range fluctuations in design life
FSR = FTH (S.I.) (A-3.1M) = number of stress range fluctuations per day 365
n SR years of design life

251 252

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AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION

(b) For stress category F, the allowable stress range, FSR, (c) For tension-loaded plate elements connected at their
shall be determined by Equation A-3-2 or A-3-2M, as end by cruciform, T or corner details with complete-joint-
follows: penetration (CJP) groove welds or partial joint-penetration
(PJP) groove welds, fillet welds, or combinations of the
0.167
Cf preceding, transverse to the direction of stress, the
FSR = FTH (A-3.2) allowable stress range on the cross section of the tension-
n
SR
loaded plate element at the toe of the weld shall be
determined as follows:

(
C f 11 x 10 4
FSR =
) 0.167

FTH (S.I.) (A-3.2M)


nSR

253 254

Cruciform with CJPs

Inside Corner

T (tee)

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with PJPs with fillets

CJPs with fillets PJPs with fillets

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AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION

(c) For tension-loaded plate elements connected at their (i) Based upon crack initiation from the toe of the weld on
end by cruciform, T or corner details with complete-joint- the tension loaded plate element the allowable stress
penetration (CJP) groove welds or partial joint-penetration range, FSR, shall be determined by Equation A-3-3 or A-3-
(PJP) groove welds, fillet welds, or combinations of the 3M, for stress category C as follows:
preceding, transverse to the direction of stress, the
allowable stress range on the cross section of the tension- 0.333
loaded plate element at the toe of the weld shall be 44 x 10 8
determined as follows: FSR = 10 (A-3.3)
Three options follow, labeled i, ii, and iii. n SR
0.333
14.4 x 1011
FSR = 68.9 (S.I.) (A-3.3M)
261 n SR 262

SECTION 5WELDED JOINTS TRANSVERSE TO DIRECTION OF STRESS


Stress Coefficient Threshold
5.4 C
Category Cf FTH
A 250 x 108 24
B 120 x 108 16
B 61 x 108 12
Description: Weld metal and base metal in or adjacent to the toe of
C 44 x 108 10 CJP groove welds in T or corner joints or splices, with or without
D 22 x 108 7 transitions in thickness having slopes no greater than 1:2 1/2. Weld
reinforcement is not removed. Weld soundness established by RT or
E 11 x 108 4.5 UT.
E 3.9 x 108 2.6
F 150 x 1010 8 Potential Crack Initiation Point: From surface discontinuity at
G 3.9 x 108 7 toe of weld extending into base metal or into weld metal.
263 264
For Imperial Units (ksi)

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AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION


with CJPs

(i) Based upon crack initiation from the toe of the weld on Category C
the tension loaded plate element the allowable stress Condition i
range, FSR, shall be determined by Equation A-3-3 or A-3-
3M, for stress category C as follows:

0.333
44 C
x 10 8

FSR = f
10
FTH (A-3.3)
n SR
0.333 Toe Cracks
14.4 1011
Cf xx329
FSR = F
68.9
TH (S.I.) (A-3.3M)
n SR 265

SECTION 5WELDED JOINTS TRANSVERSE TO DIRECTION OF STRESS


AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION
5.5a C
(ii) Based upon crack initiation from the root of the weld
the allowable stress range, FSR, on the tension loaded
plate element using transverse PJP groove welds, with or
without reinforcing or contouring fillet welds, the allowable
stress range on the cross section at the toe of the weld shall
be determined by Equation A-3-4 or A-3-4M, for stress
category C as follows: Description: Base metal and weld metal at transverse end
0.333
connections of tension-loaded plate elements using PJP groove
44 x 10 8 welds in butt or T- or corner joints, with reinforcing or contouring
FSR = RPJP (A-3.4) fillets. FSR shall be the smaller of the toe crack or root crack allowable
n SR stress range.
Crack initiating from weld toe.
0.333
14.4 x 1011 Potential Crack Initiation Point: Initiating from geometrical
FSR = RPJP (S.I.) (A-3.4M) discontinuity at toe of weld extending into base metal.
n SR 267 268

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with PJPs PJPs with fillets


Category C Category C'
Condition ii Condition ii

Root Cracks Root Cracks

AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION

(ii) Based upon crack initiation from the root of the weld where
the allowable stress range, FSR, on the tension loaded RPJP, the reduction factor for reinforced or non-reinforced
plate element using transverse PJP groove welds, with or transverse PJP groove welds, is determined as follows:
without reinforcing or contouring fillet welds, the allowable

stress range on the cross section at the toe of the weld shall 0.65 0.59 2a + 0.72 w
be determined by Equation A-3-4 or A-3-4M, for stress t t
= p p 1.0
category C as follows: RPJP 0.167 (A-3.5)
0.333 tp
44 C
x 10 8

FSR = RPJP f
(A-3.4)
nSR Note: no value for FTH 2a w
1.12 1.01 + 1.24
0.333 t t
14.4 p p 1.0 (S.I.) (A-3.5M)
1011
Cf xx329 RPJP =
FSR = RPJP (S.I.) (A-3.4M) tp
0.167

n SR 271 272

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AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION


PJPs with fillets
Category C
If RPJP = 1.0, use stress category C. Condition i

2a = length of the nonwelded root face in the direction of


the thickness of the tension-loaded plate, in. (mm)

w = leg size of the reinforcing or contouring fillet, if any,


in the direction of the thickness of the tension-
loaded plate, in. (mm)

tp = thickness of tension loaded plate, in. (mm) Toe Cracks

273

w 1.0

Domain of practical

Reduction Factor (RPJP)


0.8
solutions
tp
0.6
2a
RPJP increases as w
0.4
2a decreases
tp
(i.e., as E increases)
w
0
.
6
5
0
.
5
9

0
.
7
2

2a
w

0
.
6
5
0
.
5
9

0
.
7
2
2a
0.2 + 2a
+
tp

1
.
0
tp
w increases RPJP = Tp = 1

0
.
1
6
7
t t
1
.
0

tp

p p


RPJP =
0
.
1
6
7

0
tp 0 1/8 1/4 3/8 1/2 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 1-1/8
5/16 Fillet Weld Leg Size (w)

275
Minimum fillet size for 1 steel (AWS)
276
Minimum contouring fillet size (AISC)

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AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION

APPENDIX 3 where
RPJP, the reduction factor for reinforced or non-reinforced
transverse PJP groove welds, is determined as follows:
DESIGN FOR FATIGUE
DK Miller Commentary
3.5. SPECIAL FABRICATION AND ERECTION The term reduction factor may be non-intuitive. A
REQUIREMENTS large reduction factor (a high number) is good in
this case; a small reduction factor is bad.
In transverse complete-joint-penetration T and corner
joints, a reinforcing fillet weld, not less than 1/4 in. (6 mm)
in size shall be added at re-entrant corners.

277 278

AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION

REVIEW APPENDIX 3
(a) For stress categories A, B, B, C, D, E and E the
allowable stress range, FSR, shall be determined by
DESIGN FOR FATIGUE Equation A-3-1 or A-3-1M, as follows:
0.333
3.3. PLAIN MATERIAL AND WELDED JOINTS Cf
FSR = FTH (A-3.1)
In plain material and welded joints the range of stress at n
SR
service loads shall not exceed the allowable stress range
computed as follows: 0.333
C f x 329
Three options follow, labeled a, b, and c.
FSR = FTH (S.I.) (A-3.1M)
n SR
279 280

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AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION

(b) For stress category F, the allowable stress range, FSR, (c) For tension-loaded plate elements connected at their
shall be determined by Equation A-3-2 or A-3-2M, as end by cruciform, T or corner details with complete-joint-
follows: penetration (CJP) groove welds or partial joint-penetration
(PJP) groove welds, fillet welds, or combinations of the
0.167
Cf preceding, transverse to the direction of stress, the
FSR = FTH (A-3.2) allowable stress range on the cross section of the tension-
n
SR
loaded plate element at the toe of the weld shall be
determined as follows:

(
C f 11 x 10 4
FSR =
) 0.167

FTH (S.I.) (A-3.2M)


Three options follow, labeled i, ii, and iii.

nSR

281 282

AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION

(ii) Based upon crack initiation from the root of the weld
the allowable stress range, FSR, on the tension loaded
(i) Based upon crack initiation from the toe of the weld on
plate element using transverse PJP groove welds, with or
the tension loaded plate element the allowable stress
without reinforcing or contouring fillet welds, the allowable
range, FSR, shall be determined by Equation A-3-3 or A-3-
stress range on the cross section at the toe of the weld shall
3M, for stress category C as follows:
be determined by Equation A-3-4 or A-3-4M, for stress
category C as follows:
0.333
44 x 10 8 44 x 10 8
0.333
FSR = 10 (A-3.3)
FSR = RPJP (A-3.4)
n n
SR
SR
0.333 0.333
14.4 x 1011 14.4 x 1011
FSR = 68.9 (S.I.) (A-3.3M) FSR = RPJP (S.I.) (A-3.4M)
n SR 283 n SR 284

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AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION

(iii) Based upon crack initiation from the roots of a pair of where
transverse fillet welds on opposite sides of the tension RFIL is the reduction factor for joints using a pair of
loaded plate element, the allowable stress range, FSR, on transverse fillet welds only.
the cross section at the toe of the welds shall be
determined by Equation A-3-6 or A-3-6M, for stress 0.06 + 0.72 w
t
category C as follows:
= p 1.0
0.333
RFIL 0.167 (A-3.7)
tp
44 x 10 8

FSR = RFIL (A-3.6)




nSR
Note: no value for FTH
0.10 0.72 w
0.333 t
14.4 x 1011 RFIL = p 1.0
(S.I.) (A-3.7M)
FSR = RFIL (S.I.) (A-3.6M) t p
0.167

n SR

285 286
If RFIL = 1.0, use stress category C.

AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION


w
For fillet welds, 2a = tp.
where
RFIL is the reduction factor for joints using a pair of
tp
transverse fillet welds only.
0.06
1

2a
0.06 + 0.72 w
t
0.65 0.59 2a + 0.72 w p 1.0
t RFIL = (A-3.7)
= tp p 1.0 tp
0.167

RPJP 0.167 (A-3.5)
t p

w
0.10 0.72
t
1.12 1.01 2a + 1.24 w p 1.0
t RFIL = (S.I.) (A-3.7M)
= tp p 1.0 tp
0.167

RPJP 0.167 (S.I.) (A-3.5M)
t p

287
If RFIL = 1.0, use stress category C.
288

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AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION Fillets only


1.0
RFIL = 1.0 when w = 1.31

Reduction Factor (RFIL)


(c) For tension-loaded plate elements connected at their 0.8
end by cruciform, T or corner details with complete-joint-
penetration (CJP) groove welds or partial joint-penetration
0.6
(PJP) groove welds, fillet welds, or combinations of the
preceding, transverse to the direction of stress, the w
allowable stress range on the cross section of the tension- 0.4
loaded plate element at the toe of the weld shall be tp

determined as follows:
0.06 + 0.72 w
0.2 t 2a
= p 1.0
Three options follow, labeled i, ii, and iii. RFIL
tp
0.167

Tp = 1


i. CJP groove welds 0
0 1/8 1/4 3/8 1/2 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 1-1/8
ii. PJPs without or with fillet welds 5/16 Fillet Weld Leg Size (w)
iii. Fillet welds Minimum fillet size for 1 steel (AWS)
289 290
Minimum contouring fillet size (AISC)

Fillets Fillets
w = (3/4) tp (2a = tp) Select w to obtain RFIL = 1
w w
RFIL > 0.50 for tp < 3 Divide w by tp to obtain multiplier
tp tp
Results in very large fillets
2a 2a
0.8 2
Reduction Factor RFIL

Fillet Weld Multiplier


0.7
0.6 1.5
0.5
0.4 1
0.3
0.2 0.5
0.1
0 0
0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5
Steel Thickness (in.) 291 Steel Thickness (in.) 292

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AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION PJPs with contouring fillets


Let E = w and 2tw = tp, i.e. Full Strength for static

(c) For tension-loaded plate elements connected at their


end by cruciform, T or corner details with complete-joint-
penetration (CJP) groove welds or partial joint-penetration
(PJP) groove welds, fillet welds, or combinations of the
preceding, transverse to the direction of stress, the
allowable stress range on the cross section of the tension-
loaded plate element at the toe of the weld shall be
determined as follows:
Three options follow, labeled i, ii, and iii.
i. CJP groove welds
ii. PJPs without or with fillet welds
iii. Fillet welds 293 294

PJPs with contouring fillets PJPs with contouring fillets


Let E = w and 2tw = tp, i.e. Full Strength for static
W = 0.35 tp
RPJP > 0.5 for tw up to 4 W = 0.35 tp

1 t

tp 0.9 2
p

Reduction Factor RPJP


E = 0.35 tp
0.8 a

2a 0.7
E = 0.35 tp 0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
PJP effective throat (E) = fillet weld leg size (w)
0.2
2a = tp 2E = 0.3 tp w = E =0.35 tp 0.1
0
tw = effective throat of combined PJP/fillet
0 1 2 3 4 5
2tw = tp 295 Steel Thickness (in.) 296

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SECTION 5WELDED JOINTS TRANSVERSE TO DIRECTION OF STRESS SECTION 5WELDED JOINTS TRANSVERSE TO DIRECTION OF STRESS

5.5a C 5.5a mod C

Description: Base metal and weld metal at transverse end Description: Base metal and weld metal at transverse end
connections of tension-loaded plate elements using PJP groove connections of tension-loaded plate elements using PJP groove
welds in butt or T- or corner joints, with reinforcing or contouring welds in butt or T- or corner joints, with reinforcing or contouring
fillets. FSR shall be the smaller of the toe crack or root crack allowable fillets. FSR shall be the smaller of the toe crack or root crack allowable
stress range. stress range.
Crack initiating from weld toe. Crack initiating from weld toe.

Potential Crack Initiation Point: Initiating from geometrical Potential Crack Initiation Point: Initiating from geometrical
discontinuity at toe of weld extending into base metal. discontinuity at toe of weld extending into base metal.
297 298

SECTION 5WELDED JOINTS TRANSVERSE TO DIRECTION OF STRESS SECTION 5WELDED JOINTS TRANSVERSE TO DIRECTION OF STRESS

5.5b mod C 5.6a C

Description: Base metal and weld metal at transverse end Description: Base metal and weld metal at transverse end
connections of tension-loaded plate elements using PJP groove connections of tension loaded plate elements using a pair of fillet
welds in butt or T- or corner joints, with reinforcing or contouring welds on opposite sides of the plate. FSR shall be the smaller of the
fillets. FSR shall be the smaller of the toe crack or root crack allowable toe crack or root crack allowable stress range.
stress range.
Crack initiating from weld root. Crack initiating from weld toe.

Potential Crack Initiation Point: Initiating at weld root subject to Potential Crack Initiation Point: Initiating from geometrical
tension extending into and through weld. discontinuity at toe of weld extending into base metal.
299 300

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SECTION 5WELDED JOINTS TRANSVERSE TO DIRECTION OF STRESS SECTION 5WELDED JOINTS TRANSVERSE TO DIRECTION OF STRESS

5.6b C 5.7 C

Description: Base metal and weld metal at transverse end Description: Base metal of tension loaded plate elements and on
connections of tension loaded plate elements using a pair of fillet girders and rolled beam webs or flanges at toe of transverse fillet
welds on opposite sides of the plate. FSR shall be the smaller of the welds adjacent to welded transverse stiffeners.
toe crack or root crack allowable stress range.

Crack initiating from weld root.

Potential Crack Initiation Point: Initiating at weld root subject to Potential Crack Initiation Point: From geometrical discontinuity at
tension extending into and through weld. toe of fillet extending into base metal.
301 302

AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION

Fatigue of Welded Connections: A Primer


APPENDIX 3
2. Design Model--SUMMARY DESIGN FOR FATIGUE

3.3. PLAIN MATERIAL AND WELDED JOINTS

In plain material and welded joints the range of stress at


service loads shall not exceed the allowable stress range
computed as follows:

304

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AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION

(a) For stress categories A, B, B, C, D, E and E the (b) For stress category F, the allowable stress range, FSR,
allowable stress range, FSR, shall be determined by shall be determined by Equation A-3-2 or A-3-2M, as
Equation A-3-1 or A-3-1M, as follows: follows:
0.333 0.167
Cf Cf
FSR = FTH (A-3.1) FSR = FTH (A-3.2)
n
SR n
SR

C f x 329
0.333
(
C f 11 x 10 4
FSR =
) 0.167

FSR = FTH (S.I.) (A-3.1M)



FTH (S.I.) (A-3.2M)
n SR nSR
305 306

AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION

(c) For tension-loaded plate elements connected at their (i) Based upon crack initiation from the toe of the weld on
end by cruciform, T or corner details with complete-joint- the tension loaded plate element the allowable stress
penetration (CJP) groove welds or partial joint-penetration range, FSR, shall be determined by Equation A-3-3 or A-3-
(PJP) groove welds, fillet welds, or combinations of the 3M, for stress category C as follows:
preceding, transverse to the direction of stress, the
allowable stress range on the cross section of the tension- 0.333
loaded plate element at the toe of the weld shall be 44 x 10 8
determined as follows: FSR = 10 (A-3.3)
n SR
0.333
14.4 x 1011
FSR = 68.9 (S.I.) (A-3.3M)
307 n SR 308

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AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION

(ii) Based upon crack initiation from the root of the weld (iii) Based upon crack initiation from the roots of a pair of
the allowable stress range, FSR, on the tension loaded transverse fillet welds on opposite sides of the tension
plate element using transverse PJP groove welds, with or loaded plate element, the allowable stress range, FSR, on
without reinforcing or contouring fillet welds, the allowable the cross section at the toe of the welds shall be
stress range on the cross section at the toe of the weld shall determined by Equation A-3-6 or A-3-6M, for stress
be determined by Equation A-3-4 or A-3-4M, for stress category C as follows:
category C as follows: 0.333
0.333 44 x 10 8
44 x 10 8 FSR = RFIL (A-3.6)
FSR = RPJP (A-3.4)
n SR
n SR Note: no value for FTH
0.333
14.4 x 1011
14.4 x 10 11

0.333
FSR = RFIL (S.I.) (A-3.6M)
FSR = RPJP (S.I.) (A-3.4M) n SR
nSR 309 310

AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION

Log Stress Range (SR, ksi)


100
APPENDIX 3

DESIGN FOR FATIGUE Category A


Category B
Category B
10
Category F Category C
3.1. GENERAL PROVISIONS (contd)
Category D
No evaluation of fatigue resistance is required if the live
Category E
load stress range is less than the threshold allowable
stress range, FTH. See Table A-3.1. Category E

1
20x103 105 106 107 108

Log Number of Cycles (N)


311 312

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Stress Coefficient Threshold


Category Cf FTH
A 250 x 108 24 Fatigue of Welded Connections:
B 120 x 108 16
A Primer
B 61 x 108 12
C 44 x 108 10
D 22 x 108 7 Thank You!
E 11 x 108 4.5
E 3.9 x 108 2.6
F 150 x 1010 8
G 3.9 x 108 7
313
For Imperial Units (ksi)

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