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AISC Live Webinar Buckling-Restrained Braced Frames

November 8, 2012

AISC Live Webinars AISC Live Webinars


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AISC Live Webinars Buckling-Restrained


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Todays audio will be broadcast through the internet. Rafael Sabelli, S.E., Director of Seismic Design
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Copyright 2012
American Institute of Steel Construction 1
AISC Live Webinar Buckling-Restrained Braced Frames
November 8, 2012

Buckling Restrained Braced Frames

Ductility and Seismic Design of Steel


Introduction to BRBF System
Buckling-Restrained AISC Seismic Requirements
Design Example
Braced Frames

5 6

Ductility=Reduced Forces
As required elastic strength goes down (i.e. larger R
factor) required inelastic deformation increases Design for Ductile Behavior
C om pletely elastic
As elastic design load
response
decreases,required inelastic Material Ductility
Velastic
deform ation increases

0.75Velastic
Earthquake Load, V

0. 5Velastic V
0.25Velastic

yield max

Deformation,
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Copyright 2012
American Institute of Steel Construction 2
AISC Live Webinar Buckling-Restrained Braced Frames
November 8, 2012

Design for Ductile Behavior Design for Ductile Behavior


Material Ductility Material Ductility
Member Ductility Member Ductility
System Ductility

H H
What is a Buckling-restrained Brace?
Two Definitions

Stress
resisted by
steel core
Required Strength Buckling
resisted by
sleeve
Required Ductility

De-Coupled Stress and Buckling Balanced Hysteresis


(Mechanics Definition) (Performance Definition)

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Copyright 2012
American Institute of Steel Construction 3
AISC Live Webinar Buckling-Restrained Braced Frames
November 8, 2012

BRB Definitions Explained: BRB Definitions Explained:


Sleeved Column Conventional Bracing
2
EI
Steel core achieves Fy 2

Compression Strength
(KL)
kl/
r ~0 Tension
Brace behavior is asymmetric
Tension Ry Ag Fy
Ductile
Ag Fy
Sleeve achieves 2EI/L2 Compression
Stress is zero Strength degradation
Stiffness degradation
No material stress limit Pcr
Compression

Slenderness

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Advantages of BRBF Inelastic Response of BRBFs


Performance of Braces under Earthquake Loading

Balanced Hysteresis
Slightly Stronger in
Ag Fy
Compression
Hysteretic Energy Dissipation
Hysteretic Stability
Strength
Stiffness
Long Fracture Life
- Ag Fy

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American Institute of Steel Construction 4
AISC Live Webinar Buckling-Restrained Braced Frames
November 8, 2012

Inelastic Response of BRBFs Inelastic Response of BRBFs


under Earthquake Loading under Earthquake Loading

Tension Brace: Compression Brace: Compression Brace: Tension Brace:


Yields Yields Yields Yields
Columns and beams: remain Columns and beams: remain
essentially elastic essentially elastic

Advantages of BRBF
Buckling-Restrained Brace Types
Design of Frames
Buckling
Restrained
Brace
Force Distribution
No Penalty for Single
Diagonals

Unbonded Brace
PowerCat
Design of Chevron Frames Brace
Moderate Beam
Requirements ACME
Bracing
Company

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American Institute of Steel Construction 5
AISC Live Webinar Buckling-Restrained Braced Frames
November 8, 2012

Design process Design process


Initial phase Consultation with manufacturer(s).
EOR determines base shear, frame layout, etc. EOR consults with manufacturer for:
EOR sizes core area Sufficient applicable testing
EOR assumes brace stiffness, overstrength Verify brace stiffness
EOR sizes beams and columns, checks drift, etc. Overstrength (beta & omega)
EOR estimates brace deformation.

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Design process Buckling-Restrained Brace Assembly

Design iteration. EOR Finalizes: Core

Brace size
Beam and column size
Sleeve
Brace stiffness
Brace deformation
Specification
Verify test data. Buckling-Restrained Brace Assembly

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AISC Live Webinar Buckling-Restrained Braced Frames
November 8, 2012

Buckling-Restrained Brace Mechanics Buckling-Restrained Brace Types


Unbonded Encasing mortar Courtesy of
STAR Seismic
Brace Type

Yielding steel core

Buckling
Decoupling Debonding material
between steel core and Restraint
mortar
Courtesy of
K.C. Tsai
Steel tube

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Alternative Connections Use of Proprietary Braces


Direct bolting of core Direct welding of core
Engineer Specifies:
Brace Strength
Brace Core Area (or stiffness)
Maximum and Minimum Fy (based on coupon test)
Manufacturer Provides:
Braces that meet the specification
Courtesy of Test data that qualifies the braces
STAR Seismic

Courtesy of
CoreBrace

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AISC Live Webinar Buckling-Restrained Braced Frames
November 8, 2012

Design Procedure Brace Stiffness


Base Shear
Kbr = P/
Using Applicable Building Code (ABC)
Force-Based Design ~ PLy/AyE
Truss analysis to determine required Ly = 0.5-0.8 L
strength of braces
(depending on brace type
Elastic analysis with assumed brace
stiffness and configuration)
Kbr = 1.3-2.0 AyE /L

Ly L Ly
Flexibility
E . A sc E . A nonyielding

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Effect of Configuration Design Procedure


Courtesy of
Short Brace Ian Aiken

Short Yield Length Determine required brace strength


Yield Length Determine brace stiffness
Smaller Fraction Check drift
of Overall Length Determine brace displacements at design story drift ()
Brace Effectively Compare required displacements and strength to existing tests
Stiffer Plan and conduct new tests?
Determine brace overstrengths at design story drift ()
Requires test data
Calculate required strength of columns, beams, and
connections based on brace capacity

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November 8, 2012

Brace Capacity Design Procedure


Option I: Project-Specific Option II: Specification of
Adjusted for Various Factors Testing Tested Braces (preferred)
Determine required number of Consult manufacturers about
Strain-Hardening tests brace strengths required and
Compression Overstrength Different strengths to be tested assumed stiffness
Ry Material Overstrength Test braces Specify required brace
If Fy is used as core yield strength Fysc, Ry is taken from Section 6 Determine system design strength and minimum core
(2005) or Chapter A (2010). factors area
Ry Fy need not exceed the maximum permitted yield strength. Alternative: assume system Obtain system design factors
Specifications typically limit Fy to 38-46 ksi. design factors prior to testing from manufacturers test data
46/38 = 1.2
If core yield strength Fysc is taken from material coupon test, Ry = 1.0.

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ASCE 7 ASCE 7 2005 (with Supplement 1)


R Values
ASCE7-05 distinguishes 7 for Basic BRBF System
Defines 3 Systems ASCE7-10 combines 8 for BRBF System with Rigid Beam-Column Connections
Basic BRBF System 8 for BRBF/SMF Dual System
BRBF System with Rigid Beam-Column Connections o Values
BRBF/SMF Dual System 2 for Basic BRBF System
Gives R, o and Cd Values 21/2 for BRBF System with Rigid Beam-Column Connections
Gives Height Limits 21/2 for BRBF/SMF Dual System

Gives Coefficients for Determination of Approximate Period Cd Values


51/2 for Basic BRBF System
5 for BRBF System with Rigid Beam-Column Connections
5 for BRBF/SMF Dual System

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American Institute of Steel Construction 9
AISC Live Webinar Buckling-Restrained Braced Frames
November 8, 2012

ASCE 7 2010 ASCE 7 2005 (with Supplement 1)


R Values
8 for BRBF System with or without Rigid Beam-Column Connections
Height Limits
Separated by Seismic Design Category:
8 for BRBF/SMF Dual System
B&C D E F
o Values
NL 160 160 100 for Basic BRBF System
21/2 for System with or without Rigid Beam-Column Connections
(NL = Not Limited)
21/2 for BRBF/SMF Dual System
NL 160 160 100 for BRBF System with Rigid Beam-
Cd Values Column Connections
5 for System with or without Rigid Beam-Column Connections NL NL NL NL for BRBF/SMF Dual System
5 for BRBF/SMF Dual System Coefficients for Determination of Approximate Period
Cr = 0.03
x = 0.75
(Similar to EBF)

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AISC Seismic Provisions:


AISC Seismic Provisions
Section 16 (2005) F.4 (2010)
Brace Requirements
Scope Construction
Brace Requirements Steel Core
Buckling-Restraining System
Bracing Connection Requirements
Core
Special Requirements Related to Configurations Resists 100% of Axial Force from Building-Code Forces
Framing Members Strength
Pysc = 0.9 Fysc Asc
Protected Zone
(Fysc = Specified Minimum or Measured Fy)
Must meet specific notch toughness requirements
No Splices Permitted

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AISC Live Webinar Buckling-Restrained Braced Frames
November 8, 2012

AISC Seismic Provisions Possible Subassemblages


Brace Requirements
Buckling-Restraining Mechanism
Casing
Beams, Columns, Gussets Loading of Brace with
Eccentric Loading of Brace Constant Imposed Rotation
Restrain Core at Drifts up to 2.0 times design story drift (
(2010: minimum 2%)
Testing
Testing per AISC 341
Two Types Required to Qualify Use of Brace Designs
Axial
Subassemblage with Rotations
Test Can Qualify as Both Types Loading of Brace and Column Loading of Braced Frame
(Subassemblage Test Always is also Brace Test)

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AISC Seismic Provisions AISC Seismic Provisions


Testing
Testing Used to Establish Brace Expected Strength
Bracing Connections
Adjusted Brace Strengths
Compression Required Strength
C = RyPysc 110% of the Adjusted Brace Strength in Compression
Tension 1.1 Ry Pysc
T = RyPysc Stability
Ry = 1.0 If Fy Is Based on Coupon Tests Based on Tested Conditions
Factors Design Conditions Must Match Tests
Factors Taken from Test Results within 2.0 Bracing of BRB
(2010: minimum 2%) Gusset-Plate Design
Compression Strength Adjustment Factor = Cmax/Tmax Gusset-Plate Stiffeners
Strain-Hardening Adjustment Factor = Tmax/FyA

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American Institute of Steel Construction 11
AISC Live Webinar Buckling-Restrained Braced Frames
November 8, 2012

AISC Seismic Provisions AISC Seismic Provisions


Special Requirements Related to Configurations
Braced Frames
Special Requirements Related to Configurations
K-Bracing is Not Permitted
Braced Frames
Design Beam (and its Connections and Supporting Members) for
Adjusted Brace Strengths
Qb = sin()(RyAscFy - RyAscFy)
Provide Beam Stability Bracing Corresponding to Plastic Design of
Beam
(= Angle from Horizontal)
Consider Beam Deflection in Determining Brace Ductility Demands for
Testing = 1.1 (for some types of BRBs)

Qb = QbL3/48EI

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AISC Seismic Provisions AISC Seismic Provisions


Beam Vertical Displacement Gravity Forces in Braces
Neglect

Gravity load applied Lateral load applied Lateral load released


Brace Elongation:
Braces compress Braces yield Beam pulls up and gravity
b = v sin Compression 1st? load pushes down
Tension brace Braces compressed
pulls down (-1) RyAscFy

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American Institute of Steel Construction 12
AISC Live Webinar Buckling-Restrained Braced Frames
November 8, 2012

AISC Seismic Provisions AISC Seismic Provisions


Gravity Forces in Braces RyAscFy
RyAscFy
Neglect
Beams and Columns
Use Seismically Compact Shapes RyAscFy
RyAscFy
Design for Adjusted Brace Strengths

Gravity load applied Lateral load applied Lateral load released


Braces compress Braces yield Beam and gravity load
Tension 1st? push down
Compression Braces compressed
brace pushes up (-1) RyAscFy

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AISC Seismic Provisions AISC Seismic Provisions

Beams and Columns Column Splices


Use Seismically Compact Shapes RyAscFy Shear from Mp at top and bottom of column
Design for Adjusted Brace Strengths 50% of Mp of Smaller Section

RyAscFy
Protected Zone
Steel Core Vu
Gussets Mp
RyAscFy
RyAscFy
Mp
Vu

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American Institute of Steel Construction 13
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November 8, 2012

AISC Seismic Provisions:


Types of Testing
Appendix T (2005) Section K3 (2010)
Project-Specific
Verify Adequate Performance Suite of Tests Designed to Satisfy AISC 341Requirements
Stability From Other Sources
Ductility Public Domain
Achieve Full Tension Strength Published Studies
No Excessive Compression Overstrength Sufficient Number and Range to Satisfy AISC 341 Requirements
Establish Design Coefficients Sufficiently Documented to Satisfy AISC 341 Requirements
= Cmax / Tmax Brace Manufacturer
= Tmax / FyA Existing Test Data
Sufficient Number and Range to Satisfy AISC 341 Requirements
Sufficiently Documented to Satisfy AISC 341 Requirements

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Testing: Verify Adequate Performance Testing: Verify Adequate Performance


Loading Sequence Cumulative Ductility
2@by 2@bm 2@bm 2@1bm 2@2bm 2@1bm 2@by 2@bm 2@bm 2@1bm 2@2bm 2@1bm
2.5 240
220 Cumulative Inelastic Strain
2
200
1.5
180 Most Significant Fracture Index
1 160
0.5 140 200 Times Yield Strain
0 120
-0.5 100
Maximum Deformation 80
-1
Relates to Undesirable Local and Global Buckling Modes 60
-1.5 2.0 Times Design Story Drift 40
-2 Relates Expected Drift to Traditional Cd Value Range 20
-2.5 Design Story Drift 1% 0

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American Institute of Steel Construction 14
AISC Live Webinar Buckling-Restrained Braced Frames
November 8, 2012

Testing: Verify Adequate Performance Design Example

5 x 30 = 150
Acceptance Criteria Note:
Positive Incremental Stiffness 2 braced frames
No Fracture or Instability per side (vs. 3
Pmax Pysc ( = A Fy ) for SCBF)
Pmax 1.3 Tmax

= 150
5 x 30
R=8

ASCE 7 2005
AISC Seismic 2005

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Base Shear Load Combinations


Basic Special (Amplified Seismic Load)
Hazard 1.2D + f1L + E 1.2D + f1L + Em
V Sds = 1.00 0.9D E 0.9D Em
Sd1 = 0.635
f1 = 0.5
Ta = 0.726 sec. E = QE + 0.2SDS D Em = o QE + 0.2SDS D
V = 0.109 W
1.40D + 0.5L + QE 1.40D + 0.5L + oQE
Ta T
0.7D QE 0.7D oQE

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American Institute of Steel Construction 15
AISC Live Webinar Buckling-Restrained Braced Frames
November 8, 2012

Vertical Distribution of Forces Preliminary Design of Braces


F

Diaphragm Story Force Brace Level Story Shear % of F Assume braces resist
Level Total Pu = 100% of story shear
kip kip Base
Shear
2 cos

Roof 459 5 459 36%
5 320 4 779 61%
4 240 3 1018 80%
Pu
Asc =
Design braces precisely
3 162 2 1181 93%
to calculated capacity
2 90 1 1271 100% Fy (Pu = Pn = FyAsc)

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Preliminary Design of Braces Consult Brace Manufacturer

Brace Brace Brace Force Core Area


Level Angle Pu Asc
Does the manufacturers suite of tests cover the brace
forces and deformations in the design?
deg. kip in.2
What are the appropriate brace overstrength factors to
5 40.9 79.8 2.33
be used in the design of beams and columns?
4 40.9 135.4 3.96
What are the appropriate stiffness values for braces to
3 40.9 177.1 5.18
be used in the analytical model?
2 40.9 205.3 6.00
1 50.2 260.9 7.63

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American Institute of Steel Construction 16
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November 8, 2012

Test Extrapolation Required Tests

From designers perspective: Brace Brace Force Applicable Test


Level Pu Range
Axial:
50% Prototype Strength Specimen Strength 150% Prototype Strength kip kip
Subassemblage:
Specimen Strength Prototype Strength 5 79.8 40 120

Manufacturers perspective: 4 135.4 68 203


Axial: 3 177.1 89 266
67% Specimen Strength Prototype Strength 200% Specimen Strength
Subassemblage: 2 205.3 103 308
Prototype Strength Specimen Strength 1 260.9 130 391

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Example of a Manufacturers Brace Example of a Manufacturers Brace


Axial Test Range Axial Test Range
Brace Axial Tests
Nominal Measured Qualification Maximum Cumul- Overstrength
Strength Yield Range Dis- ative at Maximum bm=3.51
Stress placement Ductility Displacement
Test kip ksi kip in. bm=3.81
b/by
ID
BT1 125 43.1 83 250 3.51 616 1.10 1.36 Use bm=3.37
largest
BT2 229 42.7 153 458 3.81 601 1.12 1.41 values
BT3 332 44.0 221 664 3.37 595 1.09 1.27 of and bm=4.23
for
ST2 469 42.3 312 937 4.23 520 1.14 1.35 design

Courtesy of ACME Bracing Courtesy of


ACME Bracing

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American Institute of Steel Construction 17
AISC Live Webinar Buckling-Restrained Braced Frames
November 8, 2012

Example of a Manufacturers Example of a Manufacturers


Subassemblage Brace Test Range Subassemblage Brace Test Range
Subassemblage Tests
Nominal Measured Qualification Maximum Cumul- Overstrength Max-
Strength Yield Range Dis- ative at Maximum imum
Stress placement Ductility Displacement Rotation bm=4.31

bm=2.46%

Test kip ksi kip in. b/by


ID %
bm=4.23
ST1 619 43.5 0 619 4.31 573 1.11 1.39 2.46
bm=2.28%
ST2 469 42.3 0 469 4.23 520 1.14 1.35 2.28

Courtesy of ACME Bracing Courtesy of


ACME Bracing

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Brace Stiffness Overdesign of Braces


Typically included in design documents Manufacturers input required

Brace Core Area Required Ratio


Brace Level Asc Core Area CTol
Pu Asc Any Lbr Ly Lny Kbr CK
Level
(Brace in.2 in.2
stiffness
kip in.2 in.2 in. in. in. kip/ ratio) 5 2.50 2.33 1.07
in
5 80 2.50 5.00 238 143 95 381 125% 4 4.00 3.96 1.01
4 135 4.00 9.00 238 131 107 650 133% 3 5.25 5.18 1.01
3 177 5.25 12.00 238 119 119 890 139%
2 6.00 6.00 1.01
2 205 6.00 15.00 238 107 131 1092 149%
1 7.75 7.63 1.02
1 261 7.75 20.00 281 112 169 1266 158%

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American Institute of Steel Construction 18
AISC Live Webinar Buckling-Restrained Braced Frames
November 8, 2012

Design Frame Sources of Overstrength

Source of Overstrength Symbol Typical Range


Perform elastic analysis to determine distribution of
forces between frame and braces Compression 1.03 1.20

Strain-Hardening 1.20 1.50


Compute overstrength factor in order to size columns
Material Ry 1.00 1.20
and beams
Fabrication
CTol 1.00 1.10
Tolerance/Roundup
Design FyAsc/Pu 1.11 ?

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Overstrength of Manufacturers Braces Project-Specific Overstrength Factor


If = 1.0
Source of Overstrength Symbol ACME Value P u = QE Ry Fy Asc CTol
o
Compression 1.14 Pu
Strain-Hardening 1.41
If braces are designed precisely to their demand:
42ksi/38ksi =
Material Ry Ry CTol 1.14 1 .41 1 .11 1.02
1.11
o 2.02
Fabrication Tolerance CTol 1.02 0 .900
(If Pu = Pn = FyAsc)

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Copyright 2012
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AISC Live Webinar Buckling-Restrained Braced Frames
November 8, 2012

Project-Specific Overstrength Factor Design Frame


If 1.0
Iterate on 3 sets of load combinations:
Pu = QE Ry Fy Asc CTol Basic Seismic Load
QE = Pu/ o 1.2D+f1L+E
Pu 0.9D-E
Modify brace areas for Demand/Capacity = 1.0
Amplified Seismic Load (with Project-Specific o)
1.2D+f1L+oE
Ry CTol 0.9D-oE
o
Modify beams and columns for Demand/Capacity 1.0
Drift
CdE
Modify brace areas if drift is excessive

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Design Frame Beam Design

Three options if Pu < FyAsc Compute unbalanced forces on beams


Design for uniform brace demand/capacity ratio Apply forces to beams in model
May lead to braces, beams, and columns significantly larger than required
Compute o based on lowest brace demand/capacity ratio
May lead to beams and columns significantly larger than required
RyFyAsc RyFyAsc
Do a separate analysis of each beam and column with actual
overstrength of each connected brace Fhor = (RyFyAsc+ RyFyAsc)cos = ( + 1) RyFyAsccos
Most work
Pu = FyAsc in the Design Example Fver = (RyFyAsc - RyFyAsc)sin = ( - 1) RyFyAscsin plus 1.2D+f1L

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Copyright 2012
American Institute of Steel Construction 20
AISC Live Webinar Buckling-Restrained Braced Frames
November 8, 2012

Column Design Vertical Unbalanced Forces


Adjusted Adjusted Net
Brace Brace Core Vertical Diaphragm
( 1)RyFyAscsin Level Angle Area
Compression Tension
Force Level
Vertical
Strength Strength Force
RyFyAsc sin()
Asc RyFyAsc RyFyAsc
RyFyAsc sin()
( 1)RyFyAscsin ( + 1)RyFyAscsin deg. in.2 kip kip kip kip

( 1)RyFyAscsin 5 40.9 2.5 170 149 14 Roof 14


RyFyAscsin()
4 40.9 4.00 271 238 22 5 0
RyFyAsc sin()
( 1)RyFyAscsin 3 40.9 5.25 357 312 29 4 7

( 1)RyFyAscsin ( 1)RyFyAscsin 2 40.9 6.00 407 357 33 3 0

1 50.2 7.75 525 461 50 2 17


plus 1.2D+f1L

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Final Frame Design Beam Vertical Displacement


W18x50
Brace Core Diaphragm Net Beam Vertical
Level Area Level Vertical Flexibility Displacement
W12x96
W12x96

W18x50 Force Fbm


Asc v
W18 2 in
in. kip /kip in.

x50 5 2.5 Roof 14 0.034 0.48


4 4.00 5 0
W18x50
W12x152

W12x152

W18 3 5.25 4 7 0.034 0.24


2 6.00 3 0
x50
1 7.75 2 17 0.034 0.58

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Copyright 2012
American Institute of Steel Construction 21
AISC Live Webinar Buckling-Restrained Braced Frames
November 8, 2012

Beam Vertical Displacement Brace Axial Deformation


Brace Elongation:

Based on calculated drift

bm Cd be
(If Pu = Pn = FyAsc)
v Pu
bm Cd by Cd by
Fy Asc
Brace Elongation:
b = v sin Based on 2% drift (required for qualifying tests)

bm m cos( )

85 86

Brace Deformations Brace Deformations


Based on Calculated Forces Based on 2% Drift
Brace Story Elastic Maximum Rotation Brace Level Story Height Rotation Angle Maximum
Level Height Deformation Deformation Angle Deformation
H be 2bm 2m H 2bm
/H in. in.
in. in. in.
5 156 0.22 2.18 1.85% 5 156 2.00% 2.36
4 156 0.21 2.10 1.78% 4 156 2.00% 2.36
3 156 0.20 2.02 1.71% 3 156 2.00% 2.36
2 156 0.19 1.95 1.65% 2 156 2.00% 2.36
1 216 0.22 2.21 1.59% 1 216 2.00% 2.77

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Brace Deformations Final Frame Design


From Beam Displacement W18x50 Brace Required
Brace
Level Core Area Connection
Brace Vertical Brace Total Applicable Applicable Force

W12x96
Level Displacement Deformation Deformation Subassemblage Brace Tests Strength

W12x96
W18x50
Tests Pu Asc 1.1RyFyAsc
W18 2 kip
v b kip in.
in. in. in. x50 5 79.8 2.5 186
5 0.48 0.31 2.67 ST1, ST2 BT1
4 135.4 4.00 298
W18x50

W12x152

W12x152
4 0.24 0.16 2.52 ST1, ST2 BT1 W18
3 177.1 5.25 392
3 0.24 0.16 2.52 ST1, ST2 BT1, BT2
x50 2 205.3 6.00 447
2 0.58 0.38 2.74 ST1, ST2 BT1, BT2
1 0.58 0.45 3.22 ST1, ST2 BT2, BT3 1 260.9 7.75 569

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Completion of Design Conclusion

Design bracing connections for the required strength Buckling Restrained Braced Frames provide high
Check all connection limit states covered for SCBF ductility
No hinge-zone detailing Design provisions are simpler than for SCBF
Design column splice Designs can be optimized for efficiency.
Same as SCBF
Design base anchorage
Same as SCBF
Specify Protected Zone

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