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HANDBOOK TO

CONCRETE ROAD BRIDGES

FEBRUARY 2013

315-316, VISHAL CHAMBERS, SECTOR 18, NOIDA 201 301, U.P

TEL : 0120-4570703, TEL/FAX : 0120-4310433, EMAIL : bsecmail@yahoo.com

In JV association with

206, SHIV CENTRE, PLOT No. 72, SECTOR 17, VASHI, NAVI MUMBAI - 400 703

TEL : 022-41115900, FAX : 022-27664661, EMAIL : info@spectrumworld.net SPECTRUM

IRC : SP : ___________

HANDBOOK TO

CONCRETE ROAD BRIDGES

Published by

THE INDIAN ROADS CONGRESS

Kama Koti Marg,

Sector-6, R.K. Puram

New Delhi 110 022

2011

(DRAFT) COMMENTARY & EXPLANATORY HANDBOOK

TO IRC:112-2011 : CODE OF PRACTICE FOR CONCRETE

ROAD BRIDGES

CONTENT

SECTION 4. GENERAL

SECTION 7. ANALYSIS

AND AXIAL FORCES

ELEMENTS FOR OUT-OF-PLANE AND IN-PLANE LOADING

EFFECTS

NORMATIVE ANNEXURES

INFORMATIVE ANNEXURES

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

1.0 Introduction

practice IRC:112-2010 Code of Practice for Concrete Road

Bridges, which replaces two earlier codes IRC: 21 for Plain and

Reinforced Concrete Bridges and IRC:18 for Post-Tensioned

Concrete Bridges. The new Code is a unified code for all types of

concrete bridges, using plain concrete, reinforced concrete, and

prestressed concrete and constructed by cast-in-place, pre-cast

and composite construction methods. It also covers concrete

elements of steel concrete composite bridges. The Code covers

mainly the use of normal weight concrete with density in the range

of 20 to 28 kN/m3.

IRC:112 -2010 is in line with the new generation of rationalised

international concrete codes using semi probabilistic Limit State

approach to arrive at the desired targets of safety, serviceability,

durability and economy in a consistent and reliable way. It

incorporates up-to date knowledge of the behaviour of structural

concrete and envisages use of modern construction technology.

The Code takes into account the present State-of-Art of bridge

construction in India, but it targets to upgrade the same by

incorporating new developments that have taken place

internationally.

It is realised that the Code is to be implemented by the present

generation of practicing engineers, who will have to become

familiar with the new and more advanced methods of the Limit

State code. IRC believes that they will be helped in this effort by

publication of this explanatory handbook. Due to the large scale of

updation of the knowledge base about concrete, steels, and

concrete structures, the Code has to include many new details

within its body, which were not included in the earlier codes.

The unprecedented and rapid growth of concrete construction both

in developed and developing countries is the driving force behind

the search of stronger, better and cheaper materials,

improvements in the technology and use of mechanised, fast track

construction methods. All these are required to be covered in the

new Code. Some of the significant developments grouped in three

categories are listed bellow to illustrate the point.

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

structural behaviour in last 20 years and development of new

materials.

- Development of new structural forms

- Research in durability

= Research and experience of seismic response of structures

- New powerful methods of computer based analysis and design

- Development of stronger reinforcing steels, prestressing steels

and concretes of high strength and high performance.

- Applications of fast track construction techniques, large scale

mechanisation of construction, use of large sized pre-cast

segments and heavy lifting capabilities, which allow rapid

construction of longer, taller and bigger structures in all kinds of

difficult environments.

the same by International Community

The Semi-Probabilistic, Limit-State Design Philosophy, which

allows application of uniform and rational safety norms to all types

of structural elements, provides the basis for many national codes

Since the development efforts are continuing at accelerated pace

all over the world, the concrete technology has truly become an

international activity, - especially so for bridges. It is reasonable to

expect that this trend will continue. To meet the changing needs

and concerns of the society, new developments in materials, new

technology and additional or new concerns are bound to emerge in

different parts of the world. The codes of new generation should be

able to accommodate these developments rapidly. It makes sense

to adopt a rational design philosophy, transparent aims,

appropriate strategies and codified simple methods to achieve the

same.

In order to accommodate the new developments the format of

presentation of the code has to be suitably chosen,

Code of practice is written for the use of practicing professionals

who are to be guided in their practice keeping sight of a few

explicitly stated or implied aims. The underlying assumption of the

code, that it is to be used by the qualified and suitably experienced

professionals, allows - or even expects - the code to be brief.

However in practice the experience shows that too much of brevity

leads to un-intended interpretations. The modern codes have,

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

addition, an explanatory document is needed to clarify the

recommendations. The code writers also have to take into

consideration the general level of technical competence of its

users. This makes a new generation code to some extent a tool for

education, providing an impetus for continued education of the

practicing professionals.

In light of the considerations presented above, many new features

have been introduced in the Code. These are given below under

the heading of New Features.

(1) Non Operative, explanatory Section - 5, Basis of Design

This new section will help users to understand the basis behind

various provisions of the Code and their significance. The

approach taken for achieving the aims, listed in Section 4,General

is described in this section.

This Section includes brief descriptions of the multiple strategies

adopted by the Code using concepts of limit state philosophy,

reliability, limit states considered for design, types of actions and

action combinations, analytical modelling, material properties,

service life, design life (normally 100 years), methods to achieve

durability, design based on full scale testing etc.

(a) Section 6: Material Properties and their Design Values

This section covers the main materials, viz. Reinforcing and

Prestressing steels, and Concretes of various grades. The

use of reinforcement has been extended to include grades

up to and including Fe 600. The Concrete grades are

extended from earlier M 60 up to and including M 90.

The simplified design values of properties, which are

sufficiently accurate for normal applications, are given in this

section.. Bi-Linear Stress- Strain diagrams are specified for

Reinforcing and prestressing steels.

(b) Annexure A-2: Additional Information and Data about Properties

of Concrete and Steel

This section gives more accurate values and laws covering the

material properties, which are required for extrapolation of

solutions beyond the normal use and for use in innovative or new

applications. For a normal user of this Code awareness of these

properties will help him to understand the situations in which the

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

values of properties given in this section.

(c) Section 18: Materials, Quality Controls and Workmanship

This Section gives the material properties of manufactured items,

which are controlled by BIS or other International Codes. These

are to be used for the procurement, testing and Quality Assurance

purposes.

The Code covers many types of bridges which are exposed to

different types of actions and combinations of actions, each of

which represents a different design situation. In order to assess the

response of the structure in different situations different types of

analyses are required. Linear elastic analyses are most commonly

used, and are generally adequate. The developments in powerful

Finite Element techniques have allowed analysis of complex

structural forms and loading conditions. The resultant stress fields

from the analysis can be directly converted to detailing of

reinforcing steel.

The advent of computerised analyses and availability of advanced

softwares have put very powerful analytical tools in hands of

designers, and raised the standards of analysis far above the past.

These developments called for the new section on analysis. This

section also gives a number of simplifications which have been

found to be adequate by past practices and experience.

The new trend set-up in fib Model Code 2010 (MC 2010) is for the

codes to indicate different levels of anylses from simplified

methods to be used in normal applications to more and more

complex methods needed when the load effects and behaviour of

the structures (not considered in the normal design situations)

become significant and important for proper understanding, design

and construction.

limitations on concrete dimensions

These are covered in greater details than heterto and comprise

three sections:

- Sections 15: Detailing: General Requirements

- Section 16: Detailing Requirements of Structural Members

- Section 17: Ductile Detailing for Seismic Resistance

Large numbers of figures explain the requirements.

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

technical information to the attention of the engineers. These

annexures are not parts of the requirements of the code. However,

by using the information or methods given in this category of

annexures the recommendations of the code can be implemented

effectively. Some of the annexures give additional or

supplementary information for creating more awareness and

better understanding of the Code on part of the users.

Three numbers of such annexures are included in IRC: 112

2010.

Tables as well as Equations

The tables are given for ready reference and ease of hand

calculations. The equations repeat the same in formats suitable for

computerising the calculations.

To ensure continuity and smooth transition from old codes to

methods of new Code, use of working load/allowable stresses

method is also permitted for the time being. This is done by

introducing rules for use of this method in Annexure A-4. The

scope and details of this annexure are the same as those of IRC:

18 and IRC:21.

Almost all operative sections have been brought up-to-date. The

Sections and the salient points of the same are described below:

(1) Section 3: Definitions and Notations

In view of relatively new terminology needed for describing the limit

state methods and extensive use of mathematical equations and

notations, an exhaustive coverage has been presented.

(2) Section 4: General

(a) In this section, after describing the applicability to all structural

elements using the normal weight concrete, the Code further

allows use of relevant parts of the Code for other concretes,(e.g.

light weight concretes) and hybrid structures based on the special

knowledge, specialist literature and/or experimental data at the

discretion and responsibility of the owner/designer.

(b) The underlying assumptions bring need of Quality Assurance

and maintenance.

(3) Section 8: Ultimate Limit State of Linear Elements for

Bending and Axial forces

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

For all linear members (including beams, columns, ties, struts etc.)

carrying axial forces arising from external loads or prestressing

effects of bonded or unbonded tendons, and resisting

simultaneously the bending moment, if any, arising from any

source, the distribution of strains at any section is taken as linear.

In other words, plane section before action of forces remains plane

after the action of forces, right up to the failure state.

Under this single assumption, which is reasonably valid for most of

the loadings up to failure stage, the ultimate strength of all types of

linear members is calculated, using stress-strain relationships

given in the Code. Either the simplified diagrams or more accurate

relationship can be used.

(4) Section 9: Ultimate Limit State of two and three

dimensional Elements for Out-of-plane and in-plane Loading

Effects

The generalised or classical solutions for such elements subjected

to combined in-plane and out-of-plane loading conditions are

complex for the regular use. This section gives simplified

approaches for the design of slabs and webs of box sections.

(5) Section 10: Design for Shear, Punching Shear and Torsion

The design verification of shear is carried out at ultimate strength

only. The design of members requiring shear reinforcement is

based on truss model. Shear design of members not requiring

shear reinforcement is based on results of extensive

experimentation.

The design of both reinforced and prestressed members is based

on the same model. This is a deviation from the past. The rules of

torsional resistance have also been changed from the past

practice.

Due to introduction of the new methods, detailed explanatory

portion is included in the Section itself

The slender bridge sub-structures comprising piers of variable

cross-sections with or without piles to support them could not be

checked for buckling of overall height by methods given in earlier

codes. Cumbersome calculations based on advanced elastic

methods were required. The present Code has rather simplified the

work by choosing the criteria of increase of stresses due to second

order deformations. If this increase is less than 10% of the first

order results, the slenderness effects can be disregarded.

For concrete members of uniform cross-section, slenderness is

defined not only in terms of le/i, (le/r in the old notation) but is based

on a factor lim , defined in the Code, which is a more accurate

estimator. The general method of calculating the effective length

depending upon the stiffness of end restraints given in Eurocode is

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

conditions of piers in bridges, simplified and well established

values are given in the tabular form, based on BS 5400.

For calculating the ultimate strength of slender members, if

required, a generalised method is given.

The serviceability checks are restricted to check of stress level in

concrete, check of crack width, and check of deflections. Control of

crack widths by detailing of reinforcement without calculation is

permitted.

Other serviceability states, such as vibration, are not covered in the

present Code.

This section is in line with the international practices. For

anchorages and couplers the Code, for the first time, requires

acceptance testing to be carried out using IS: 1343, which methods

are based on the CEB/FIP recommendations.

The durability requirements are consistent with the requirement of

100 years design life. However, the criteria of aggressiveness are

based on the general environment in which the bridge is located.

Thus the present approach of IRC: 21 and IS: 456 has been

continued in IRC:112: 2010.

..

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

This section is very small in length, about 1and1/3 page long, but is

very significant in its contents. It is useful to understand the un-

stated but implied intents, which justifies somewhat longer

explanatory notes.

4.1 Scope 4.1

Unlike earlier codes, IRC: 112 not only strictly defines its scope

and applicability to Normal Concrete, but also permits partial use of

its recommendations to other types of concretes having different

properties and to different applications in which concrete is one of

the components ,e.g. hybrid structures.

The choice of making use of the appropriately valid provisions of

the Code left to the qualified and experienced personnel and use of

specialist knowledge.

The underlying assumptions stated in this Section bring the role of

the proper construction, supervision and maintenance for realising

structures fulfilling the design intents including the long life of 100

years. It will be useful discuss some of the aspects in detail,

entering in to the unstated but obviously related issues. The range

of validity of the codal recommendations will have to be examined,

and outside of this range the modifications to the same shall be

made staying within overall philosophy and without deviating from

the basic aims.

The term hybrid system is not clarified or defined. However

systems in which load is resisted by combination of two or more

components in such a way that each component supplements its

capacity by the capacity of the other component. Reinforced

concrete and rolled or fabricated structural steel can be used to

make hybrid structure. The consistency of internal strains at the

contact surfaces, arising from bond, is not an essential condition at

ULS, although overall deformations have to be consistent. The

illustrative example is the use of structural steel tubes with concrete

infill made in the offshore structures.

This is a great step forward permitting and encouraging new

materials and methods and innovative uses. With iteration of this

pragmatic principle the Code has projected itself as a document

supporting development and progress and that it is ready for the

rapid developments expected in coming years. It is no longer a

hindrance to development and progress

4.3 Underlying Assumptions 4.3

The Code recognises that the limit state methods have not yet been

established in India for design of bridges and it has declared that it

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DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

foot bridges. It is inferred, though not stated, that the

recommendations are based on the international practices, which

have been examined and modified in light of the Indian experience

of using working load / allowable stress methods. Clearly, one can

expect further modifications of the Code as this experience is

gained.

The code becomes applicable provided certain basic conditions are

met. The intention behind stating these conditions is not to use

them as a disclaimer, but to bring to the attention of users that

following the code faithfully in the design process will not alone

result in the satisfactory long term performance of the bridges. The

role of other agencies in realising the intents of the code, in its long

service life is brought out.

The underlying assumptions are numbered and stated precisely.

Some of them need further clarifications or guidelines about how to

meet these conditions. These are given bellow against each of the

assumption.

Assumption (1): The choice of structural system and the design of

the structure are made by appropriately qualified and experienced

personnel.

The code does not give guidelines about how to make an

appropriate conceptual design which step is the starting point of

any structural design activity. In case of bridges, the present and

future traffic needs, knowledge of river hydraulics, its flood-history,

geotechnical conditions, behaviour and experience of other bridges

on the same river and in the comparable environmental exposure

conditions, available construction technology, time needed for the

construction, cost structure of materials and labour are some of the

issues involved in identifying suitable alternatives at the conceptual

design stage. A quick preliminary design and costing will reduce

the options to one or two alternatives. More detailed design to yield

reasonably accurate quantities and cost may be involved if more

than one viable alternative emerges. This option may be left to the

contractor in case of design and build type of procurement

contract.. IRC Special publication SP:542000 Project Preparation

Manual For Bridges gives guidelines about how to prepare

project report for bridges. Reference should be made to the same

for assistance at this stage of working. Only a properly conceived

solution will lead to a robust, and optimum bridge solution. In short,

the conceptual design as well as proper application of the code can

be satisfactorily done only by the appropriately qualified and

experienced personnel, working individually or a team.

Assumption (2): Execution is carried out by personnel having the

appropriate qualification, skill and experience.

This assumption is self evident, but it is the case of easier said

than done. In practice, at all stages of detail design and execution

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DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

experience. They need to be properly trained, guided and

supervised in order to fulfil this condition. How to achieve this and

the other assumptions numbered (3), (4) and (5) in Clause 4.2 in

the Code is the subject matter of the Quality System to be set up

for controlling the entire activities of project preparation, design and

construction. It should be realised that in expounding all the

strategies the Code implicitly depends upon the human skill for their

successful and reliable application. Management of the involved

personnel is subject matter of the Quality Systems. The IRC has

published Special Publication SP:47-1998 Guidelines for Quality

Systems for Road Bridges which should be referred for setting up

and operating management of all these activities.

Assumption (3): Adequate supervision and quality control are

provided during all stages of design and construction.

This is needed even if the Assumption (2) is otherwise satisfied. It is

based on a sound principle that the systems and human beings are

fallible, and the resulting errors from non-application of efforts,

un-intended oversights or downright mistakes can be controlled by

introducing at least one more agency supervising the activity. In

important projects, more than two levels of quality controls are

used. Referance is made to IRC: SP 47 for details of Quality

Systems.

Assumption (4): The construction materials and products are

provided and used as specified by relevant national standards.

This is another self-evident statement. However it will be a sobering

thought to keep in mind that the national standards specify the

minimum acceptable properties. Doing better than the minimum will

normally improve the quality of the end product

Assumption (5): The intended levels of properties of material

adopted in the design are available.

This is obvious for ensuring the validity and adequacy of the codal

design.

Assumption (6): The structure will be used as intended and is

maintained adequately.

This stipulation has come out of the aim of achieving the specified

design life using methods stated in the code. These provisions of

the Code in themselves are not adequate to do so. Timely and

proper maintenance and repair of the structures are needed.

However IRC has published a number of guidelines, listed below,

which needs to be implemented by the owner using its own set up

by appointing the experts or its own in-house staff for this activity.

(a) SP:18 Manual for Highway Bridge Maintenance Inspection.

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DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

Rehabilitation of Bridges.

Life of Concrete Bridges.

Remedial Measures for Concrete Bridge Structures.

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DRAFTCOMMENTARYOFIRC:112 February2013

5.0 Introduction

General

previous IRC codes. This aspect has been explained in the introductory

chapter 0, BACKGROUND AND OVERVIE OF THE CODE.The Code

contains non-operative and explanatory clauseswhich are spread over

various sections.Section 5 is a fully non-operative section which describes

the overall basis of the Codalrecommendations. It indicates the design

philosophy, aims of design, methods of design and other strategies

adopted by the Code to achieve the stated and unstated aims of design.

Various basic choices and strategies adopted in the Code are described

under appropriate headings. Taken collectively, they provide assurance of

achieving the aim of designing functionallysatisfactory, safe and durable

bridges.

the basis of the approach outlined in this section, the Codal

recommendations can be used with full understanding of their context,

applicability and limitations. Where extra information, available from

literature or other international codes is considered in the design, it can be

critically evaluated for its applicability andconsistency for combining the

same with the Codal approach as outlined in this Section. Even the future

modifications and revisions of the Code itself, made to include new

knowledge and technological developments, can be presented in a way

which is consistent with the overall philosophy and basis of design of the

present Code.

and is sufficient to that extent.

The Code also presumes that the exact meanings of the scientific

concepts and methods stated as forming the basis of the

recommendations aregenerally known. However, for practicing

engineers, some of the recently developed concepts need further

explanation. This Chapter provides the same where they can be briefly

clarified. Where an elaborate introduction is called for, specialist literature

should be referred.

DRAFTPREPDBY:SGJ Chapter5/1OF8

DRAFTCOMMENTARYOFIRC:112 February2013

fraction of number 1are widely understood. The same have been used in

this explanatory section. However, the mathematical treatment of risk in

reliability engineering uses an index , which is a factor related to

probability expressed as a decimal fraction by a simple relation. This is a

more convenient number to handle.

not achieving a certain aim, and keeping the risk within acceptable

limitsby choosing appropriate partial factors for loads and strengths is the

fundamental method adopted by the Code. The code has not defined the

values of acceptable limits used in the Code. However from the literature

regarding the basis of Eurocodes the targeted values can be known.

(Also refer Section 5.3.1bellow.)In cases where values cannot be

assessed with any degree of certainty, the prevailingdesign practices are

re-examined and adopted with modifications,and retrofitting the

requirement in the probability format of partial factor method as is done for

other requirements (provisions) for sake of consistency. As and when

further research makes it possible to re-assess them on probability based

approach,the current provisions can be easily modified using new partial

factors.

The Code does not use the direct evaluation of risk using methods of

mathematical probability. It uses semi-probabilistic methods in the design

format based upon statistical concepts of Characteristic values of loads

and material properties, and multipliers to modify them, which are termed

as partial factors. The Codeitself has clarified this point stating that:

only in limited load cases for simple structures. The Code, therefore,

strives to achieve the desirable degree of reliability by approximate

methods based upon a combination of the following:

actions.

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(3) The international practices and past experience of

acceptable/unacceptable performance of structures.

calibration and rationalisation of existing international practices.

the design and construction of bridges. The safety and serviceability are

targeted by stipulating certain set of requirements about the materials,

structural models, methods of analysis, design approach and detailing

apart from the controlled quality of construction for realising the design

aims.

probability, which are finding wide international accepted are as

follows:The level of the probability of structural failure under action of the

working loads (i.e.safety) is kept less than 10-6 (one in a million) and less

than 10-4 (one in 10,000) of exceeding the specified performance levels at

service loads (i.e. serviceability), in period of one year. The Codal

methods of doing so, namely the use of partial factors on loads and

material properties, reasonably assured that the targeted levels of

probability are met. This assessment does not cover risks arising out of

human error or accidents of non-structural nature. Based on these basic

risk levels, the risks of failure within the design life are approximately

given by the annual risk multiplied by the design life in years. (This is true

for low values of annual probabilities.)

behaviour of structures located in various climatic environments in India.

The international experience and current practices of achieving durability

have been taken into account. However, the methods are prescriptive and

of deemed to satisfy nature. These methods are covered in Codal

Section 14, and further discussed in detail in Chapter 14 of this

handbook.For the methods of calculation of the concrete cover to the

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the type of deteriorating mechanisms for targeting a minimumstipulated

service life,the designers can refer to special literature such as fib

bulletins.

Clause 5.1.3, (1) and (2).

unified approach to the structural design of various facilities like

residential and commercial buildings, public utility buildings, water

retaining and conveying structures, bridges for roads, railways and

pedestrians, and various infrastructuralfacilities. This covers use of all

types of materials. Adoption of such common philosophy has obvious

advantages, including ability to learn, adopt and improve from experience

and developments in different fields of civil engineering.

The basic approaches of Limit State Methods have been stated in Section

5.2 (1) to (6) as bellow:

external actions or indirect actions resulting from environmental and geo-

technical phenomenon during its service life, which defines its loading

history. It experiences different physical situations having exposed to

different combinations of actions, termed as Design situations.

actions and loading history lies in different states (domains).Limit States

are defined as limits of domains beyond which the structure does not

meet specified performance criteria to serve its function.

performance are defined together with the circumstances in which such

performances are expected.

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by induced deformations (ULS) and serviceability limit state (SLS) are

mainly considered. As mentioned in Article 5.2 semi-probabilistic methods

are used to verify that the limits are not exceeded. The serviceability limit

states presently include checks to control overstress in concrete, crack-

widths and deflection of the structure. The deflection limits specified are

such as to achieve indirectly the rigidity and robustness, rather than so

achieve any functional need of the road traffic.

The Code indicates that for some structures the vibration control may

become an important consideration (e.g. for foot bridges and foot paths of

road bridges) although it is not considered in the Code. Limit state of

fatigue has also not been included.

properties, time dependent changes in the same, uncertainties and

limitations of structural models and methods of analysis, quality of

construction and finally the deterioration and maintenance, a margin

called factor of safety against risk of failure in meeting the performance

has to be provided in the design. However overdesign has to be kept

within limits for sake economy, considering either initial cost or life-cycle

cost.

Use of partial factors, which are different for the same load in verification

of different limit states, is made together with appropriate material factors

describing the minimum strength properties of the materials is made to

achieve the targeted level of reliability (safety). Appropriate experience

based methods are used to achieve the same where statistical methods

have not developed sufficiently.

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A1 Combination of Actions for Bridge Design

distinction has been made in the Code between simplified design

properties of material to be used in normal design together with the use of

appropriate analytical model, more exact values to be used in special

cases and the properties for the purpose of procurement.

distribution of the values, using characteristic property. However, in actual

practice this is possible for limited cases. For tensile strength of steels,

the manufacture is controlled by a minimum specified value defined by

BIS standards and this nominal minimum strength is assumed to

represent the characteristic strength, which assumption is on the

conservative side.

parameters. The other properties needed for the design are given by co-

relation equations, which have been established in laboratories. They are

not directly tested and used in the design, although the Code does not

prohibit it.

compressive strength of cylinders of 150mm diameter and 300 mm long.

However, the Indian standard method of defining and controlling concrete

in the field is based on the strength of cubes of 150 mm size. The designs

are also based on the same. The Code has, therefore, used a

standardized transformation of replacing cylinder strength in the formulae

by 0.8xcube strength, and given the correlations and all other equations

corrected this way. This relation is not always strictly valid even for

ordinary concretes having strength less than 60 MPa (cube), and

introduces certain approximation in the estimates of these properties

which can be on plus or minus side. This difference is not significant for

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the design. For high strength concretes the value is higher than 0.8, in

which case the use of this transformation introduces bias (although it is on

the conservative side) in the estimates of other properties of high strength

concretes.

other methods (Codal Clause 5.5.3), which can be used in one of the two

ways. One way is to use established expression of the property in terms

of the larger number of factors which have effect on the property than the

one used by the Code for the design properties in Codal Section 6. The

other method is to use the experimentally established values, which are

arrived at by using proper statistical methods, and sufficient number of

test samples to enable estimates to have 95% confidence level.

The use of Global and Local analyses is required by the Code using the

appropriate methods. For details refer Chapter 7.

established use of materials, structural configurations and detailing the

examples of such structures are given. Closure examination of these

examples reveals certain common features. These are:

and not on a scale model.

- The methods of analysis required to explain or predict the actually

observed behaviour are far too complex for use in design office, if

they exist at all.

- The failure is taken as reaching the ultimate load capacity, or

deformations which are large enough to make the element or

structure unsuitable for use. Example of initial pile load testing

done to verify the geo- technical design of piles as per IRC: 78

Foundation and Substructure illustrates this approach.

- No mention has been made about the factor of safety to be used

on the load capacity or deflections, nor of the number of tests

required to establish the design, or statistical methods to be used

as has been done in case of material properties established

experimentally in Codal Clause 5.5.3. This may be because of the

expenses and time involved in full scale testing.

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agreement between the testing agency and user, except in the

case of acceptance testing of prestressing anchorages and

devicesfor which the methods of testing as well the acceptance

criteria are defined by the applicable national standards.

The overall approach of the Code for achieving the aim of durability has been

discussed in Article 5.1.3. For full explanatory discussion refer Chapter: 14.

DRAFTPREPDBY:SGJ Chapter5/8OF8

(3RD DRAFT)

are two aspects. The first is the manufacturing specifications

and other is the design specifications or the design models.

concerned, there is no change in IRC 112 as compared to the

earlier codes (IRC 18 & IRC 21). For the specification of the

materials used viz. reinforcement, prestressing steel & cement,

the reference is made to the relevant Indian Standards, which

are listed in section 18 and Annexure A3 of the code. However,

substantial modifications are made in the design models of the

material which are based on the large amount of the data

gathered in past few years. This vast pool of knowledge

available today is now incorporated in this limit state code,

which will help designers to get more rational designs.

Section 6.0 of the code describes these models in simplified

form and more elaborate models are given in Annexure A-2 of

the code.

being utilised in structures in other parts of the world. Also,

higher grades of steel which have more ductility are being

manufactured in our country, and are now covered in the latest

version of IS1786. To get benefited by these developments,

IRC has introduced few changes in this code. One among them

is permitting the use of reinforcing steel of grades up to Fe600.

This change will help in reducing amount of steel. It has also

introduced the galvanized and stainless steel, having improved

corrosion resistance, which will help in achieving longer service

life of the bridges in aggressive environments.

ductility Cl. 6.2.2

term characteristic strength, fyk is introduced for steel in this

code. It is the same as the yield stress, as defined in IS 1786

which is,

fyk = yield strength in case of mild steel or

= 0.2% proof strength in case of HYSD steel

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Typical stress-strain diagram for mild steel and HYSD (both Hot

rolled/ heat treated and cold worked) are shown in Fig 6.1of the

code and reproduced below.

bilinear or simplified bilinear stress-strain curves, both after

reduction using material safety factor s as shown in Fig 6.2.

grade of Fe500 with s= 1.15 in following figure. Here fyk= 500

MPa, hence, fyd = fyk/s = 500/1.15 = 435 MPa. The value of

strain at this point is 435 MPa/ 200 GPa = 0.002174. For

design purpose, the tensile strength, ft shall be considered as

minimum value given in Table 18.1 of the code ( reproduced

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from IS 1786 ) which is 108% of fyk (i.e. 540 MPa) for Fe 500 or

110% of fyk (i.e. 550 MPa) for Fe 500D (note that the minimum

value of 545 MPa & 565 MPa specified in IS 1786 for grade Fe

500 & Fe500 D is a manufacturing requirement). Thus ft / ys =

469.5 MPa for Fe 500 and 478.2 MPa for Fe 500D. In absence

of data from manufacturer, the value of uk can be assumed

as 5% as given in table 18.1& IS 1786. Hence, the strain limit

for sloping arm of the curve shall be 0.9uk= 4.5%.

constructed. It shall be noted that there is no limit on strain if

the horizontal branch of the curve is used.

For purpose of analysis & design, code has allowed to use the

representative stress-strain curve as shown in Fig 6.3 of the

code, which is reproduced from IS 1343-1980, for wire, strands

and bars and it has also specified two stress-strain diagrams,

the first is the bilinear and other is simplified bilinear given in fig

6.4 of the code which is reproduced below:

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strain for horizontal branch of simplified bilinear design

diagram.

In Fig 6.4, the yield point is defined at 0.1% proof stress (fp0.1k).

This value can be taken as 0.87 times of fpk as per Fig. 6.3 of

the code. As per IS 14268, for strand of dia. 15.2, fpk = 260.2

kN / 140 mm2 = 1862 MPa. Hence, fp0.1k= 0.87 * 1862 = 1620

MPa and fpd = 1620/1.15 = 1409 MPa with strain of 1409MPa /

195 GPa = 0.007224. The value of udcan be taken as 0.02.

Thus, the stress strain diagram for 15.2 mm, 7 ply, class II

stress relived strand to be used for design is shown below:

relaxation of prestressing steel given is almost similar to the

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expression for estimation of the loss due to relaxation at any

time after tensioning up to 30 years in annexure A2. It has also

introduced the method for estimating the effect of temperature

curing on relaxation of steel.

provided up to grade M60. In this code, these properties such

as stress strain relationship, models for predication of creep &

shrinkage strains, multi axial state of stress and the variation of

these properties w.r.t. time, etc. are given for the grades up to

M90. Thus it is now possible to use concrete up to grade of

M90 for the design of bridges.

mineral admixture (to improve any specific performance

parameters), three groups of concrete are specified in Table

6.4 as ordinary concrete, standard concrete and high

performance concrete.

weight of its main ingredients are termed as Ordinary Concrete.

M15 and M20 are covered under this group. Grades M15 to

M50 are covered under Standard Concrete which is produced

using chemical admixtures to achieve certain properties in

fresh condition and when mineral admixtures are used to

achieve certain performance of the concrete like porosity the

concrete is termed as High Performance Concrete.

term of the characteristic strength (5% fractile) at 28 days on

cube size of 150mm. However, the code has also allowed

using the term characteristic strength at other than 28 days

strength for concrete, which is produced using high content of

those ingredients which slow down the setting process of

concrete in its initial days, but gain the full target strength at

say 56, 72 or 84 days. Hence, now it is possible to take

advantage of realistic strength of concrete, for design at service

stage. However, it is necessary to check to design for the loads

which may act during initial period of low strength.

Ecm , are given directly in Table 6.5 of the code for grade of

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concrete M15 to M90 and their correlation with fck are given in

Annexure A2.

Depending on the purpose of analysis, it is necessary to use

appropriate probabilistic value of these properties, i.e. either

their mean value or 5% fractile or 95% fractile. For example,

for a section design, concrete strength shall be taken as lower

5% fractile i.e. fck, whereas, the mean value of the modules of

elasticity (Ecm) shall be used for calculating the deflection of the

members; because a small local patch of bad concrete (lays in

5% sample size of concrete) in the member decides the

ultimate strength carrying capacity of the entire member,

whereas the value of Ec at every section of the member

influences the deflection of the member.

C6.4.2.2 Compressive strength and strength development with time Cl. 6.4.2.2

compressive strength with time. It can be noted that for normal

Portland cement, 34%, 60%, 78% 90% and 120% strength is

expected on 1st, 3rd, 7th, 14th day and one year after casting of

concrete. This data is useful for taking number of decisions

during construction such as, the time for applying initial

prestress, striking of formwork etc. It should be noted that the

gain in strength after 28 days is not allowed by cls. 6.4.2.2 (4)

for new designs.

Concrete compressive strength also depends on the duration

during which it is subjected to a constant stress. A sustained

stress in the range of working stress may lead to a slight

increase in compressive strength. However, high sustained

stresses accelerate the process of micro-cracking and may

eventually lead to failure. As mentioned in clause 6.4.2.2 (2),

this effect of reduction of strength due to sustained loading is

considered in factor 0.67 in ultimate strength calculations.

In cls. 6.4.2.2 (3), code gives the principles for acceptance of

concrete strength obtained at site with limited number of cubes.

Though the title of this clause is `the verification of early age

strength by testing`, the principles given here are equally

applicable for the results of the cube test other than the early

strength i.e. say at 28 days. e.g. if the average of test results of

three cubes in one sample on 28th day is say 56 MPa for M45

grade design strength with standard deviation of 6 MPa, the

characteristic strength of concrete of this sample will be 56

1.645 x 6 = 46.13 MPa.

C6.4.2.3 Tensile strength and its development with time Cl. 6.4.2.3

in reinforced and prestressed concrete structure. It is

expressed either as direct or axial tensile strength (which is

difficult to measure in laboratory), flexural tensile strength or

split cylindrical tensile strength. The mean, 5% fractile & 95%

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concrete are given in Table 6.5 of the code and the co-relations

between the three are given in equation 6.4 & 6.5. In this code,

the tensile strength of concrete is required to be used for

calculation of shear resistance of section (Eq 10.4), for

deciding the minimum reinforcement (Eq 12.1), for calculations

of crack width (Eq. 12.6), to control of shear cracks within webs

(Eq 12.14), to find out anchorage length of pre-tensioned

tendons (cls. 15.3.2.2). It is influenced significantly by the

fracture mechanics of the concrete which in turn is a function of

type, size and shape of the aggregates used. Hence for

important projects it is necessary to verify the tensile strength

of the concrete using split cylinder or flexural beam test.

stresses is higher than uniaxial compressive strength and

generally presented in form of failure surface. CEB-FIB Model

Code 20101 may be referred for further details.

strength & higher critical strains of concrete confined by

adequately closed links or cross ties which reach the plastic

condition due to lateral extension of the concrete at ULS.

equations 2 can be estimated as explained in following

example.

500 are provided at spacing of 200mm c/c with clear cover of

50 mm, 2, i.e. the radial pressure exerted by the links at ULS

2 = 2 x As x (fy/s) (dia. of link x spacing)

= 2 x 201 x (500/1.15) / ((1500-2x50-16) x 200)

= 0.6317 MPa

For unconfined concrete, code has allowed the use of

parabolic-rectangular (Fig 6.5) as well as simplified equivalent

stress blocks such as rectangle or bi-linear for the design

purposes (Annexure A2). Here it should be noted that the

shape of parabolic rectangular stress-strain diagram is not the

same for all grades of the concrete (as given in IS456) but

varies with the value of exponent , which is different for

different grades of concrete.

It shall also be noted that the code has suggested different

values of Youngs modulus E, depending on purpose of

analysis. For example, for static & quasi-static loads acting for

short duration, and dynamic loads such as Earthquake & wind

loads, secant modulus of elasticity, Ecm (shown below) is

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modulus of elasticity to be used which can taken as 1.25 times

of Ecm. For analysis for seasonal variation of temparature 0.5

Ecm shall be used.

Relationship

shrinkage strain, cdand autogenous shrinkage, ca . Drying

shrinkage is time dependent strain or volume changes,

primarily caused by loss of water when ordinary hardened

concrete is exposed to air with relative humidity of less than

100 percent. Hence, for a given humidity and temperature, the

total shrinkage of concrete is most influenced by the total

amount of water present in the concrete at the time of mixing

and to a lesser extent, by the cement content. Autogenous

shrinkage, also known as basic shrinkage, self-desiccation

shrinkage or chemical shrinkage is associated with the ongoing

hydration reaction of the cement. It occurs irrespective of the

ambient medium due to chemical volume changes and internal

drying.

diffusion process of moisture loss. Within a short period of

time, the surface near region of the concrete section reaches

the state of moisture equilibrium with the surrounding

environment, but due to the slow diffusion process of moisture

loss, the relative humidity in the pore system of the concrete

region away from the surface remains high. Thus the moisture

distribution in the concrete section is non-uniform, increases

from surface towards the center and leads to the development

of internal stresses, tensile in the surface near regions and

compressive in the interior regions, which often lead to the

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stresses do not develop as this deformation develops nearly

uniform throughout the section of the member.

are substantially reduced by the creep. Also it is influenced by

mechanical properties, especially the modules of elasticity of

the aggregates. For high performance concrete drying

shrinkage is substantially reduced as the capillary porosity low

and restricts the loss of water.

Prediction of shrinkage:

Table 6.6 & 6.8 of the code gives the final values of

autogenous & drying shrinkage strains directly for different

grades of the concrete and to predict these strains at any time

after the casting of concrete, the multiplying coefficient as and

ds are given equations 6.13 and 6.15.

The values of final autogenious shrinkage, ca() given in

Table 6.6 are obtained from following equation

ca() = 2.5 (0.8 fck- 10) 10-6

Table 6.8 are derived from the basic equation given in clause

A2.6 of annexure 2 of the code, which is reproduced below:

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notional size of the member in mm, which is expressed as h0=

2 Ac/u, where Ac is the cross-sectional area (mm2), u is the

perimeter of the member in contact with the atmosphere (mm).

h0 is approximately the distance travelled by water molecule

from the center point of the cross section to the surface of the

concrete. The concept is more clear from the following

example:

section: Assuming both inner and

outer surface is exposed to

atmosphere, water loss from both

the surfaces,

300

3600 Ac = 36002 30002

= 3960000 mm2

h = 2 Ac/u

= 150 mm

i.e. the maximum distance the water molecule can travel, i.e.

from center of the wall to the outer surface of the concrete.

The concept is also true for other regularly used concrete

sections like solid square, solid rectangle, solid circular or

hollow circular section. It shall be noted that autogenous

shrinkage is not dependent on the RH or member size.

as creep. Other related phenomenon with creep is relaxation

which is time dependent reduction of stress due to a constant

imposed strain.

The concrete may be considered as an aging linear visco-

elastic material, if the stress in concrete does not exceed 0.36

fck (t), thus the creep remains proportional to the stress. Also, it

shall be noted that the creep is partially reversible. The ratio of

creep strain and elastic strain is called the creep coefficient .

Similar to shrinkage, IRC 112 has specified final creep

coefficient for design i.e. at end of year 70 years in Table 6.9.

After 70 years, These values are given for two values of RH i.e.

at 50% and 80% and for notional size of 50mm, 150 & 600 mm

and at different age of loading. For other notional sizes and

RH, the basic equations given in annexure A2 i.e. equation A2-

14 to A2-25 may be used.

References:

2. fib bulletin 51- Structural Concrete: Textbook on behaviour,

design and performance, Volume 1, Second edition 2009.

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7.1 Introduction

7.2 Classical Methods of Analysis

7.2.1 General

7.2.2 Historical period

7.2.3 Use of mathematical analysis

7.2.4 Saint-Venants principle

7.2.5 Importance of sign convention

7.2.6 Further developments in methods of analysis

7.2.7 Simplifications introduced in methods of analysis

7.2.8 Use of design aids

7.3 Modern Methods of Analysis

7.3.1 General

7.3.2 Types of analyses

7.3.3 Application of non-linear and plastic methods in

bridges

7.3.4 Applicability of theory of plasticity to concrete

structures

7.3.5 Shear design by truss analogy

7.3.6 Punching shear

7.3.7 Strut and tie models

7.4 Other Special Methods of Analysis

7.4.1 Torsion

7.4.2 Methods of seismic analysis

7.4.3 Global and local effects

7.5 Computerised Analysis and Computerisation of

Design Process

7.5.1 General Observations

7.5.2 Use of Matrix Algebra, Numerical simulations

7.5.3 Use of Finite Element Methods

7.5.4 Computer Aided Designs

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and their Applicability for Bridge Structures

7.6.1 Theories of small and large deflection

7.6.2 Applicability for Bridge Structures

7.7 Prestressed Members and Structures

7.7.1 Prestressing as a load

7.7.2 Time dependent losses

7.7.3 Local effect at anchorages

7.7.4 Punching out of curved tendons

7.8 Bibliography

7.1 Introduction

This chapter giving explanatory notes and guidelines for the

application of Codal Section 7: Analysis is arranged differently from

the discussion of other sections. This arises from the fact that the

clauses of Section 7 assume substantial knowledge of the analytical

methods on part of the designer. As a result, stipulations of the Code

appear to be an unconnected set of requirements and

recommendations, lacking continuity in presentation, which is

unavoidable in the codal format in interest of brevity. However, In

order to explain the requirements of the codal clauses it is useful to

have general background of the classical as well as the modern

methods of analysis. A brief review of these methods is, therefore,

presented at the beginning in Section 7.2 and 7.3. Other special

methods of analysis used for bridges are briefly presented in Section

7.4. This recapitulation of the fundamentals will help in achieving

effective implementation of the Code.

This overview is necessary for another important reason. The users

of the Code and the Guidelines comprise practicing engineers

belonging to different age groups. They have received their basic

education at different times in last 45 years or so; in which period,

many new developments in the methods of analysis have taken

place. An element of continued education for engineers of senior

and middle level of experience is thus unavoidable.

Thirdly, the present period is a period of transition in which many

design offices and individual designers are switching over to

automated, computerised analytical and design tools. These tools

allow use of more realistic models representing the behaviour of

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structures and materials than the models suitable for hand analysis.

The analyses of bridge components require application of the

appropriate classical, modern or computerised analytical methods for

calculating response of the components, when subjected to different

loading conditions. The methods for doing so have been covered in

the Code. These methods are further explained in an introductory

manner in this Chapter. For the full treatment of any of these

methods refer text books, advanced literature and instruction

manuals of the computer programmes performing such analyses.

The distinction made in this Chapter between Classical methods,

Modern methods and computerised methods, is not definitive but is

used for convenience of presentation.

7.2 Classical Methods of Analysis

7.2.1 Period before development of classical methods

The methods of design followed by the Master Builders of the early

civilisations as well as those of the medieval period right up to about

the second half of 19th century were based on the accumulated

experience of successes and failures, which were passed down in

the generations of tradesmen in form of practices and thumb rules.

These were extrapolated to larger and still larger structures and to

new materials by trial and error. Existing rules were modified taking

into account the differences of behaviour between the familiar and

new materials. New methods were sometimes based on full scale

experiments, but more often arose in the process of correcting

defects and failures. Many outstanding structures built in this way are

still surviving standing as a testimony to the creativity and inventive

spirit of these generations of builders.

The classical methods are developed in last 150 years. Hallmarks of

the classical methods are:

Simple and idealised representation of structural elements,

support conditions and loads,

Equilibrium of external loads and support reactions as well as

equilibrium of external load effects with internal forces developed

in the structural elements due to elastic deformation of the

material, (i.e. satisfying the requirement of equilibrium condition)

Use of linear elastic constitutive laws describing the response of

materials,(i.e. providing constitutive laws of materials describing

stress-strain characteristics).

Assumption of consistent deformations of elements constituting

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of geometry in deformed shape).

Use of continuum mechanics under these conditions to formulate

general equations describing the response of the structure

subjected to loads,

Finding exact or approximate mathematical solutions of these

general equations, which in turn allow computation of reactions,

deformed shape and internal stresses and strains.

Many of the real life materials and structures do not fully comply with

the simplified assumptions made in the classical solutions. However,

till recently the limitations of the hand calculations hampered use of

more realistic structural models.

7.2.3 Use of Mathematical Analysis

The application of mathematical methods to solve engineering

problems developed in the last 180 years. Some of the basic laws,

such as the Hooks laws of linear elasticity, (AD 1660), were

established earlier. However, the beam theory of Euler-Bernoulli,

developed in AD 1750, can be considered as the beginning of the

present day mathematical analysis of structures. Methods of the

science of Strength of Materials, and Applied Mechanics,

developed based on the growing knowledge about the laws of

equilibrium of forces acting on bodies as a whole (rigid bodies) and

elastic behaviour of linear members like columns and beams

subjected to axial, bending and torsional forces, together with the

laws describing behaviour of structural materials These simple

mathematical methods, whose physical interpretation could be easily

grasped, became the normal tools of designers. These methods

were suitable for hand analysis. Many of these are still being

regularly used by bridge engineers, as exemplified by the techniques

of equilibrium of joints and method-of-section used in design of

trusses.

elastic beam having small deflection. Fig.7.1 shows a rather simple

mathematical representation (model) of the real life beam by its

geometrical central axis, assuming that its deflected shape under

action of transverse load is described by a continuous curve, shape

of which is determined by the deformation of the cross section of

beam itself. It is further assumed that the cross section deforms in

such a way that the sections originally at right angle to the central

axis remain at right angle to the deflected curve at all points. The

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set of resisting forces, which provide equal and opposite internal

couple to resist the bending moment generated by the external load.

The internal stress-strain relationship is assumed to be linearly

elastic following Hooks law. Fig.7.1 shows this basic mathematical

approach, which uses the method of equilibrating external forces and

internal resistance forces acting on part of the beam taken as a free

body. Use of free body diagram is another classical technique still

being commonly used for local analysis (Refer Article 7.4.3). The

deformations induced in the cross section by shear forces are

disregarded in this analysis, resulting in acceptably small

underestimation of deflections. The solution of the differential

equations describing the deflected shape using mathematical

methods provide the deflected shape, strains and stresses induced in

the beam. Thus, the use of mathematical tools to solve engineering

problem came into practice. This approach is described in some

details here since it contains in essence all the elements of

mathematical methods of analysis. Euler Bernoullis beam theory is

still the most commonly used method by engineers, even when more

rigorous methods have been developed.

Advanced theories for linear members like beams / columns and for

two and three dimensional structures like plates and shells, using

principles of continuum mechanics and using simple constitutive laws

for materials were developed by Timoshenko and others.

Timoshemkos general beam theory is shown in Fig.7.2 for

comparison.

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X, u

A B

V V+dv

M M+dv

Deflection Theory).

dV = q.dx and dM = V .d x

dV dM

d hence =q and =V

dx dx

For small , tan ; dx ds = Rd

R

ds=dx NEUTRAL AXIS dw 1 d d 2 w

= ; = =

dx R dx dx 2

dz From constitutive law of linear elasticity, Fig.7.1(b)

(Assumption: Plane section before bending remains

dz Z b (BOTTOM) Plane after bending)

Length of N.A. (without strain) = Rd

Length of element at distance z for N.A. = R + z d ( )

(b) Geometory of Deformed Segment zd z

Strain z of element at z = =

Rd R

Compression

Top zt zt

z 2 .Edz EI d 2w

M = z. z dz = z.E. z dz = = = EI

R R dx 2

zb zb

d 2 dw 2

Neutral Axis The full beam is described by EI =q

dx 2 dx 2

d 4v

For Beam of Constant Section= EI >q

Bottom dx 4

Tension

(c) Linear Strain / Stress of Cross Section

These general methods also account for the effects of shear strains,

and are also applicable to short beams, in which the shear

mechanism play significant role in load transfer. The generalised

equations of the theory are valid for members exhibiting large

deflections of the mid surface (Article 7.6.1). These methods

assume homogenous material characteristics having linear

relationship linking various types of stress and strains in the three

directions which are described by different modulii of elasticity and

Poissons ratio. For details reference is made to the text books on

this subject.

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w

x

x

CENTERLINE

AFTER LOADING

Z uz w CENTERLINE

BEFORE LOADING

X

ux

Y

uy

For a point, ( x, y, z ) on the centreline of beam, u x , u y , u z are the

components of the displacement vector in the three co-ordinate

directions, is the angle of rotation of the normal to the mid-surface of

the beam, and w is the displacement of mix-surface in the z-direction and

L is the length of the beam.

The governing equations are the following uncoupled differential

equations:

2 d

EI = q (x, t )

x 2 dx

w 1 d

= EI

x kAG dx dx

EI

when the last term above is negligible. This is valid when << 1

kL2 AG

Combining the two equations gives, for a homogeneous beam of constant

d 4w EI d 2 q

cross-section, EI = q (x )

dx 4 kAG dx 2

One of the most significant finding known as St. Venants principle

made it possible to apply the methods of continuum mechanics to

practical structures. The assumptions about the distribution of

internal strains and resulting stresses in the general portion of the

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three dimensional body where no local external forces act, are not

valid in the near vicinity of the load, where they are affected by the

way in which the loads are applied to the structure. However the

Saint-Venants Principle states that: (Quoted from Timoshenko and

Goodier from book Theory of Elasticity).

If the forces acting on a small surface of an elastic body are

replaced by another statically equivalent system of forces acting on

the same portion of the surface, this redistribution of loading

produces substantial changes in the stresses locally but has

negligible effect on stresses at distances which are large in

comparison with the linear dimension of the surface on which the

forces are changed.

This knowledge makes it possible to apply the overall general

solutions of structures which include portions of locally applied loads

without vitiating the overall analysis of the structure, except in the

local zones in the near vicinity of the loads or supports. In other

words, the overall evaluation of the internal stresses is substantially

reliable and can be used in practical designs. However, the

knowledge of the internal strain and stress distribution in the near

vicinity of external forces is essential for the proper design of these

local portions. This requirement is met by the methods of Local

Analysis.

7.2.5.1 Sign Convention Guided by Understanding of Physical effects

Following consistent sign conversion for describing physical

quantities in various stages of analysis and interpreting results using

the same signs is useful, but not vitally important as long as the

direction and sense of the physical effect could be directly

understood. The use of rigorous sign convention can even be

avoided, as illustrated by different practices of assigning signs to

bending moments. Treating bending moments as sagging or hogging

for beams under gravity loads or treating moments causing sagging

of members inwards of the closed section as positive for elements

forming closed sections or the practice of plotting the bending

moment on the tension side of the member are the methods based

on the physical understanding and variously used in the same design

without causing confusion or miss interpretation. Mathematically

rigorous sign conventions are not essential in any of the above three

practices.

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However, as soon as the mathematical methods of analysis are

involved, a consistent sign convention becomes unavoidable, even

for the methods suitable for hand calculation. Association of

positive/negative signs before the numbers representing opposite

physical effects, such as directions of opposite forces or

compressive/tensile strains etc becomes necessary. One of the

most commonly used sign convention, which has been used by

Timoshenko in his work on theory of elasticity is shown in Fig.7.3.

Z Z

z

M xy zy

zx

Fz;w yz

y

Myz; yz xz

Mzx; zx yx

(x) Y dz x

(y) xy 0 Y

Fy;v Mzx

Fx;u Mxy dx

X Myz, yz X

(x) dy

(a) Positive Direction of Forces and Distances dx, dy & dz ,together with all Stresses

increased by infinitesimal component denoted by

Stresses Displacements `' are not shown for clarity

(b) Stress Components

Right Hand Rule

plates and shells

The Plates and Shells are three dimensional structures. In the theory

of elasticity, some of the commonly met shapes like domes (surfaces

of revolution) have exact solutions available for some simple loading

conditions. Many other shapes, like cylindrical shells, have

approximate solutions which can be accepted and safe structures

can be designed using engineering judgement and experience. Such

shell structures are rarely used in bridge engineering. For

applications where such structures are required (e.g. fish belly type

cross section for superstructure) the Code has suggested a general

method in the Informative Annexure B1: Concrete Shell Structures.

For such applications this or other specialised text books or literature

may be referred to. Strict adherence to the sign convention is vitally

important in such analyses.

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Mathematical methods require use of internally consistent sign

conventions within the analysis, but these conventions are not

necessarily the same in different methods of analysis. The designer

must be wary of what these signs represent in the analysis in relation

to the signs being followed in his design process. The best

precaution to avoid blunders is to try and understand the overall

deformations of the structure and the deflected shapes of the

members obtained in the analysis and compare the same with

ones own perceptions.

7.2.6 Further Developments in Methods of analysis

Classical methods of static and dynamic analysis have developed

over large number of years. The exact closed form solutions of the

differential equations of the theory of elasticity are available only for a

limited number of simplified structural elements and loading patterns.

Therefore, many simplified, but sufficiently accurate methods for

engineering applications have been developed. A review of these

methods is outside the limited scope of this Chapter. Numerical

techniques such as finite differences have general applicability in

such cases, but these are fairly cumbersome to use.

Many other solution techniques suitable for hand analysis having

special applications have been developed. Moment Distribution

method of Hardy Cross and its further generalisations using step-by-

step relaxation method are suitable for indeterminate frame

structures with and without sway. A number of Strain energy

methods were developed. Method of Three Moments, Conjugate

Beam Method and Column Analogy are some of the other normally

used methods. The powerful Slope Deflection method developed in

this era could be fully exploited only after advent of computers with

application of Matrix Algebra to deal with the large number of

unknowns and equations.

Simplification of mathematical models is of great help to designers.

Some of the simplifications commonly used in the analysis of bridges

are mentioned bellow:

7.2.7.1Two Dimensional representation in longitudinal and transverse

directions

Analysis of structures idealised as if they are lying in one plane

simplifies the understanding of behaviour, the sign conventions, as

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structures have three dimensional geometry, and the effects in the

out-of-plane direction (such as buckling) should not be lost sight of

while using the two dimensional approximations.

7.2.7.2 Simplified Analysis of Plates for deck-slabs, webs of deep

beams and box sections

Plates, which are tow dimensional elements but are subjected to

three dimensional loading, are very commonly used in bridge

engineering. Many simplified methods of analysis involving

acceptable loss of accuracy have been developed. Such methods

are covered in the Code in Section 7 and Section 9.

7.2.7.3 Simplification of loading

Most of the real life loads are complex in nature. The Codes use

simplified loads which produce more or less equivalent effects on the

structure to that of complex loads. The use of uniformly distributed

load in combination of single point load to represent actual effects of

vehicular live loads was used earlier by the British Codes. In

comparison, the currently used hypothetical train of axle loads are

more difficult to use. The train of loads given in Appendix of IRC:6

have been developed by NATO countries for the military use. The

present live loads used by Eurocodes are developed based on the

number surveys carried out in Europe using statistical methods of

stochastic analysis.

7.2.7.4 Simplification of dynamic effects

Use of Impact Factor to increase the static value of traffic load to

produce equivalent dynamic loading of vehicles travelling at high

speed is the well known example. Also use of static wind pressure

steadily applied on the structure in place of real life dynamically

applied time-varying wind pressures for bridges which are not

dynamically sensitive to wind loading is also common. For structures

of intermediate sensitivity amplification factors have been used by

the earlier French Code. For the sensitive structures, proper dynamic

analysis is required.

7.2.7.5 Seismic Effects

The Indian Standards are using simplified static inertial loads to

calculate dynamic effects of Design Basis Earthquake, (DBE). Static

Equivalent Forces based on ground acceleration and natural period

of vibration of the structure are used together with static linear elastic

analysis in place dynamic non linear analysis by reducing inertial

forces by response reduction factor (called as behavioural factors in

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Eurocode).

7.2.8 Use of Design Aids

Many design aids in form of nomograms, Interaction diagrams,

tabulated values of resistances of typical members depending on the

reinforcement percentage etc. have been published for use in the

design offices to reduce the design efforts. While using such ready-

made solutions it is necessary to ascertain that the assumptions

used in deriving the solutions are consistent with the requirements of

the code which is being followed.

7.3.1 General

It was known for a long time that the theory of elasticity does not

properly predict the behaviour of reinforced concrete structures near

their ultimate state of strength. This is due to the prominent non

linear behaviour of concrete in compression, effects of cracking and

plasticity of steel. The time dependency of the properties of concrete

changes the load-deformation characteristics of structural elements

even without change in load. The classical methods alone are not

adequate to include these effects into the design strategy of concrete

structures.

New methods have developed in the last 60 years or so, based on

the knowledge about the plastic behaviour of materials and resulting

ductility of structural elements. These methods require more complex

mathematical methods of analysis. However, their application in

practice is simplified by tools like design charts and computerised

algorithms.

However, not all of these methods, which depend upon mobilising

the plastic deformation of materials and associated large cracking of

concrete, are considered suitable for the design of bridges, where

large deformations and extensive cracking cannot be permitted in

service conditions. Hence, use of these methods had to be made

with caution, staying within certain restrictions. The Code specifies

such methods and the cautions. The basic principles and limitations

of the permissible methods used in bridge design are covered in the

following discussion.

The different types of analyses are classified as per the constitutive

laws of materials used in the analysis and whether the equilibrium of

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structure (first order analysis.) or based on the deformed geometry

(second order analysis). Variously used idealised constitutive laws

for stress-strain and moment curvature relations for uniaxial

relationships are shown in Fig 7.4. This usage has led to the

following self-descriptive definitions:

(1) First order linear-elastic analysis without redistribution

Elastic structural analysis based on linear stress/strain or

moment/curvature laws and performed on the initial geometry of the

structure.

(2) First order linear-elastic analysis with redistribution

Linear elastic analysis, in which the internal moments and forces and

external reactions are modified, but which remain consistent with the

given external actions, if this is done within limits (for structural

design), more explicit calculation of the rotation capacity, required for

validity of the re-distribution, is not carried out.

(3) Second order linear-elastic analysis

Elastic structural analysis, using linear stress/strain laws, applied to

the geometry of the deformed structure.

(4) First order non-linear analysis

Structural analysis, performed on the initial geometry, that takes

account of the non-linear deformation properties of materials

This type includes different types of non-linearity such as a

continuously varying stress-strain relation, bi-linear stress-strain

relation with elastic branch followed by second linear branch with

strain hardening or having perfect plasticity (e.g. reinforcing and

prestressing steels). These are shown in Fig.7.4.

(5) Second order non-linear analysis

Structural analysis, performed on the geometry of the deformed

structure that takes account of the non-linear deformation properties

of materials as listed in type (4) above.

In the ultimate state of some of the materials (e.g. steel) the

contribution of elastic phase to the total deformations is small and

can be neglected for simplifying the calculated response in the

analysis as shown in Fig.7.4. This method is not applicable for

concrete structures.

7.3.3 Applicability of modern non-linear and plastic methods in

bridges

The present trend in bridge design is to use different types of

analysis for calculating different types of responses for different

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elements. For example, while overall analysis of an element is

elastic, the sectional design is based on elasto-plastic methods. The

use of various methods is described in Table 7.1 Design Situation

and Type of Analysis.

Table 7.1 Design Situation and Type of Analysis

No. Type of Analysis Design situation

1 First order linear-elastic Global analysis for stability of

analysis without bridge structure and its

redistribution components.

2 First order linear-elastic Calculation of load effects to be

analysis with considered in ULS and SLS

redistribution analysis of bridge as a whole for

integral bridges and for

superstructure only for continuous

bridges, with limitation of 10% on

redistribution.

3 Second order linear- Analysis for imposed

elastic analysis deformations (e.g. buckling) to

verify satisfaction of the limit of

10% on second order

deformation.

4 First order non-linear - Design of sections under ULS

analysis using bi-linear stress-strain

relationship with sloping upper

arm.

- Design of sections under ULS

using bi-linear stress-strain

relationship with simplified

(horizontal) upper arm.

- Shear and torsion design by

truss analogy.

5 Second order non-linear Analysis for imposed

analysis deformations (e.g. buckling) for

design of slender elements.

6 Rigid, fully plastic Not used for concrete bridges

analysis, first or second

order

Theory of plasticity was developed for analysis of steel structures

since steel exhibits large plastic deformations before failure both in

tension and compression. This theory can be applied to reinforced

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side are large enough to permit formation of plastic hinges/yield lines,

which allows redistribution of internal resisting forces while satisfying

the new static and/or kinematical equilibrium conditions. The

concrete section also needs to be not-over-reinforced to the extent

of not allowing steel to enter the plastic zone on tension side.

The IRC:112 code does not specify check for ductility of concrete

since it does not permit any members of superstructure to be

designed by plastic methods. This is true despite the fact that the

ULS of sectional design is based on the plasticity of concrete. The

ductility is relied upon in seismic resistant design. This is achieved by

ductile detailing of reinforcement and confinement of concrete in the

regions of hinge-formation. The code does not make distinction

between limited ductility, ductility and detailing requirements where

specified correspond to full ductility.

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(i) General

non-linear all over

(m) (m)

(ii) Initial linear elastic

portion followed by

plastic portion

() ()

(m - ) relationship

(ii) Simplified linear elastic - plastic

(i) With strain hardening relationship

(m) (m)

() ()

steel relationship for concrete compression

(i) with strain hardening

(ii) without strain hardening

c (m)

f cm

0.33 f cm ()

tan = E cm

c1 cu1 c

analysis for concrete. (refer annexure A2-9 (m - ) steel sections

of IRC:112)

Experiments had shown that when the reinforced concrete beam is

continued to be loaded after cracking, the cracks concentrate more

and more at the location of maximum bending moment within a short

distance. The compressive strains in concrete also concentrate in

this region, resulting in deviation from linear moment-curvature

relationship of the elastic beam to a non linearity over a small

localised length. Fig.7.5 shows a simply supported beam loaded at

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BENDING MOMENT

2 2

2 2

d

CURVATURE 1 = dx

R

d

dx

dx =

non- linear (m - ) relation as per

fig.no. 7.3 (b) (ii)

Fig.7.5 : Formation of Hinge Over Short Distance l

sharp local change of angle, which is analogous to formation of a

hinge. After reaching a peak stress in concrete the stress-strain

curve of concrete follows a falling branch, leading to the failure.

However, till the maximum stress point is reached, the beam can

support load and absorb much more energy in rotation of the hinge

than it does in the elastic range. In statically indeterminate frame

structures this energy absorption in number of such hinges formed

earlier before formation of the last hinge, (which converts the

structure in to a mechanism leading to collapse), is the source of

damping in the increased earthquake resistance of a structure

beyond elastic stage and collapse. In earthquake resistant design of

bridges this phenomena is made use of for achieving the target of

No - collapse but permitting local repairable damage at pre-

determined locations. This upper limit of moment resisting capacity

at the hinge located in piers is controlled by the designer and used

for limiting forces transferred to the foundations. This technique is

termed as Capacity protection method.

The shear design methods of IRC:112 is a curious mixture of the

classical beam theory, which is used to obtain the requirements of

shear resistance, and the plastic design method, which assumes that

the shear is resisted by equivalent truss (determinate or

indeterminate), set up internally by bands of concrete providing

compression members and the steel providing tension members.

This representation is justified under the Static limit theorem of

plasticity, which states that:

A system of loads acting on a structure in an allowed stress state

which does not violate the yield-condition is always a lower bound for

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fulfil the equilibrium and static boundary conditions.

Thus, in truss analogy, the safety under ultimate shear is achieved by

assuming a truss with allowed stress state, which is either

determinate or indeterminate. For achieving allowed stress state the

compression elements of the truss are provided by adequate

dimensioning of concrete and the tensile elements by required

amount of steel. The indeterminate truss is made determinate by

assuming known distribution of the vertical tensile members of the

truss, which is possible due to yielding of reinforcement. Similarly,

yielding of vertical stirrups and inclined bars allow strength of stirrups

and bent-up bars to be added in resisting shear. This arrangement,

of course, makes it mandatory that the steel elements are fully

anchored at the nodes of the truss.

Although, in theory, any system satisfying the limit theorem is

admissible and therefore possible to adopt, the requirement of

ductility of concrete also has to be satisfied. In order to minimise the

re-distribution of concrete strains and limit the ensuing cracks, the

resistant plastic model should closely follow the locations and

orientations of the tension fields obtained from the elastic distribution

of tensile stresses. For this reason IRC:112 has put limits on the

angle of inclination of the compression struts. One must note here

that this method of shear design has been established on the basis

of extensive experimentation, and it rather confirms the plastic limit

theorem than having been derived from it. On the other hand the

generalised Strut and Tie Models are derived from the theory of

plasticity.

Design for punching shear is another method relaying on plasticity for

developing models for distribution of local action effects of

concentrated loads on slabs, foundation pads and rafts. The

generalised punching resistance can be developed with the help of

special punching shear reinforcement where the point loads occur in

a fixed location, e.g. columns supporting flat slabs. In case of bridge

decks, the moving vehicular loads make it necessary to have

sufficient thickness of concrete to resist punching action by local

compressive strut formed directly under the load acting together with

tension in the bending steel, without requiring special punching shear

reinforcement. In case of foundation design the Code prefers to

minimise dependency on plastic redistribution and ensuing cracking

in the reinforced elements which are embedded in soil and are

susceptible to corrosion. These elements are also difficult to inspect

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and repair. Hence IRC:112 does not permit use of local punching

shear reinforcement.

The code permits use of strut and tie models for local analyses.

However, in any situations of loading the possible number of

solutions being very large, it is difficult to predict the most likely

solution that will evolve in practice. It is advisable to develop model

which is a logical development of the elastic phase into plastic stage

as land increases. It should also be kept in mend that the idealised

elasto-plastic diagram [Fig.5.3(b)] is not a true representative of the

real behaviour. In reality the diagram exhibits a declining arm after

reaching peak, and this behaviour puts practical limits on exploiting

the plasticity fully, if the redistribution calls for mobilising strains

beyond this peak.

It is relevant to mention here that in case of concrete corbel highly

non-linear strain distribution exists at re-entrant corners where effect

of the declining arm may seriously reduce the capacity of plastic

solutions. Such corners should be avoided in practice, thus

minimising the stress concentrations, unless more rigorous analysis

or testing of the experimental corbels is carried out.

7.4.1 Torsion

7.4.1.1 Nature of torsional resistance of linear members

The classical theory of torsion classifies effect of torsion on

structures in two categories depending on the way in which the

structure deforms in resisting torsion; (1) Saint Venant torsion or

(Plain torsion) and (2) Warping torsion which mobilise other

mechanisms in addition to the plain torsion.

(1) Saint Venant torsion

Saint Venant torsion is the one in which a member fixed at one end

and subjected to torsional moment is such that:

(a) The member is not restrained in the longitudinal (i.e. axial)

direction, and the longitudinal fibres are free to deform,

(b) The member freely wraps causing the originally plain

sections to warp out of plane in longitudinal direction under

torsional moment,

(c) Has constant cross section, and

(d) Torsional moment is not varying much along its length.

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resistance MTP is Plain torsional resistance, G is the shear modulus, J

is the moment of inertia and is the angle of twist for the unit length.

Note: Saint Venant torsion is sometimes called as circulatory torsion

when applied to hollow closed sections.

(2) Warping torsion

When the above conditions are not met and the member together its

longitudinal fibres are partially of fully restrained , longitudinal

stresses/ forces develop in addition to the stresses and strains

caused by Saint Venant torsion. In such cases,

MT = MTP + MTW where MTW is resistance developed due to restraint

to free warping, i.e. constraints to longitudinal free movement, which

is governed by the stiffness of the restraint and the angle of twist .

In the elastic or non linear analysis the internal strains and resulting

stresses determine the internal forces, shears, bending moments and

torsional moments. Except in case of free cantilevers of more or less

constant section warping torsion generally exists in structures. This is

obtained from the results of the analysis. However in case of

reinforced concrete and prestressed concrete members special

considerations are required.

from that of metallic members. The outermost near-surface regions

of concrete members crack on all sides under the tensile stresses at

a relatively small value of torsion. This leads to a large reduction in

the effective area of the sound section in the core. This reduces the

torsional stiffness which is substantial as compared to the similar

reduction in bending stiffness. This reduced stiffness is

experimentally found to be of the order of 20-30 percent of the

stiffness of uncracked section. As a result a reduced G value (25%)

is recommended by codes in the analysis, In case of two way grids,

the reduced torsional stiffness increases the share of the load carried

in bending.

In case of prestressed members, similar reduction is applicable at the

ultimate state. However, at service loads, the amount of pre

compression may preclude cracking and the reduction in the stiffness

is not justified.

Taking into account the redistribution of the share of load carried by

torsional resistance and bending resistance, and in view of the

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process in two major ways.

The code distinguishes between equilibrium torsion and compatibility

torsion. The former is the torsional resistance essential for the

stability and satisfying equilibrium conditions of the structure. It is

mandatory to consider this torsion in the analysis and design the

members to resist the same. The other type of torsion is the one

which arises in the structure from the internal compatibility of the

members at connections, but otherwise, are of no consequence and

the structural safety is not compromised if the load carried by

compatibility torsional resistance is transferred to other mechanisms.

The Code permits to neglect such torsional effects provided they are

also neglected in the analysis. This condition is important; otherwise

the load transferred to alternative mechanisms will be under

estimated.

The other simplification introduced by the Code is to treat solid

sections as equivalent hollow sections (which is a conservative

approach), and adding torsional capacities of sub-portions of T, L

and I sections irrespective of the obvious violation of compatibility of

deformations, (which is possible by the first theorem of plasticity.

solid section, closed hollow sections and open sections, and

combining shear and torsion are covered in text books on the

subject, which may be referred for details.

Specialised methods are used for calculating the response of bridges

in seismic situation. These methods range from simplified equivalent

linear statical analysis to complex non- linear dynamic analysis which

involves dissipation of energy in plastic hysteresis cycles. For details

of the mathematical techniques, their applicability and validity

specialist literature may be referred.

7.4.3 Analyses for evaluating Global and Local Effects

7.4.3.1 Global Analysis

This method is used for the overall analysis of the bridge structure. It

consists of determining, in a structure, a consistent set of either

internal forces and moments or stresses that are in equilibrium with a

particular defined set of actions on the structure. The internal set of

forces depend on geometrical, structural and material properties.

7.4.3.2 Local analyses

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local zones such as points of application of concentrated loads

including support reactions, areas of discontinuity like openings in

structural members and joints/connections of members at locations

other than geometrically smooth transitions, where sharp changes in

the flow of stresses are involved. The Saint-Venants Principle

described earlier, assures that the effect of these disturbances in the

structure are strictly local and limited in their extent. The stresses at

some distance away from these disturbances get back to the original

state without vitiating the global analysis.

This principle allows considering equilibrium of a small part of the

structure considering the equilibrium of a free body containing the

disturbance, but having its boundaries sufficiently away at locations

where the original stress distribution is as given by the global

analysis. In hand analysis this distance is taken as the depth of the

element. A generalised method of analysis for such cases is to use

the computerised analysis. Alternatively, other types of local

analyses based on non-elastic methods, or those using theorems of

plastic analysis like strut-and tie method are used where the normal

elastic methods become unusable.

In global FEM analysis the local disturbances can be included as a

part of global geometry with refined finite element mesh surrounding

the disturbance to yield distribution of rapidly changing local stresses

as a part of global analysis.

7.5 Computerised Analysis and Computerisation of Design

Process

7.5.1 Development of digital computers and use of numerical

solutions, Matrix Algebra and applications to Dynamics

The availability of large capacity computers, small enough to be put

on table tops in hands of designers, has revolutionised the computing

capacity in design offices.

The slope-deflection method was developed by classical theorist. It

involved setting up a number of linear equations connecting

deformations of members at its end with the set of forces acting at its

end by the members stiffness of flexibility. The full rigidity (or full

flexibility) of connections of such members enforce common

deformations on members (or the individually separate deformation

of fully flexible members). In case of partial fixity, the members can

be connected by springs with required spring constant. Solution of

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number of unknowns, provide a unique solution to the structural

deformations and forces. This method had limited application in

practice due to the fact that the number of unknown increase very

rapidly as the number of members and connections increase, and the

solution for each loading case has to be separately obtained. This

was inspite of the availability of the mathematical tool of Matrix

Algebra.

However, with the advent of digital computers the situation changed

dramatically.

It became, not only possible but even simpler to solve the large sized

frames, once the computer programmes for use of Matrix methods

were developed. Many other types of indeterminate structures such

as members of varying dimensions, two and three dimensional

elements such as plates and shells etc. could be solved using

various numerical techniques. Most significant development of Finite

elements took place based on the ability to solve the mathematical

equations.

Even the non linearity of the material properties, and geometric non-

linearity of structural response (i.e. second order effects) could be

analysed using numerical techniques.

The otherwise un-solvable equations involved in the field of

Dynamics could be solved using step-by-step static solutions by

small time steps and integration of the same to represent dynamic

process. The meaningful earthquake analysis of structural response

became possible.

However, this development has increased the need for designers to

be more knowledgeable about the basic mathematical methods, and

to become proficient in its use, while using commercially available

softwares. It is even more important to be aware of their strengths

and limitations.

The large size of memories of present day computers are capable of

dealing with very large number of unknowns arising from the large

number of compatibility requirements, thus increasing the ability to

find mathematical solutions for arbitrarily defined shapes, support

conditions and loadings. However no solution can be more accurate

than the accuracy of the data and the extent to which the

assumptions made in the solution techniques are valid. It is,

therefore, important to understand the basic theory and assumptions

underlying the methods used by the computer programme.

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

an addition to analysing the structure. However, indiscriminate use of

automated procedures both for analysis and design has a few major

flaws, including amongst others;

(1) Creation of false sense of accuracy: Since the computer can

calculate with equal accuracy solutions based on correct models as

well as those based on the unrealistic models, the accuracy of

solution depends on the use of correct model.

(2) It is not possible to improve the characteristics and behaviour of

basic element (liner or multi dimensional) to take into account more

refined properties of the same, than the constitutive relations built-in

in the programme.

(3) The mechanical use of software to obtain Black-Box solutions is

not conducive for imbibing in the designers a physical feel of the

behaviour of structures and structural materials, unless special

efforts are taken to understand the same.

(4) In the computerised analysis large amount of data is required to

be prepared as input data, and the mistakes are difficult to detect.

(5) The process of carrying analysis is totally programme-driven and

mechanical. The results are arrived at without the computer having

any intelligent understanding of what it is doing and why. Whether

the results look reliable or appear to be not- so- right in an

engineering sense is to be judged by the user.

All this is known, but in spite of the difficulties and risks,

computerised analysis is a very useful tool, if properly deployed and

properly interpreted. The most important care to be taken in the

analysis is the totally correct use of the signs in input data and the

correct interpretation of the output. Since these sign conventions are

programme - specific it is essential for the user to become fully

familiar with the same before starting its use. This is specially

required for using programmes, originally developed for primary use

in mechanical engineering applicants, for the civil engineering

applications. Usually these are very advanced programmes and

through familiarity with the methods, limitations as well as sign

conventions is a pre requisite.

7.5.3 Use of Finite Element Methods

The above discussion is especially true for using techniques of Finite

Element Methods, (FEM). The assembly of finite elements should be

examined visually, or plotted as a hard copy for all structures to

insure correct assembly of the elements. However, it should be

remembered that the apparently identical looking twin- image shown

by the assembly of Finite Elements does not correctly represent all

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model it represents. The validity and accuracy of any output is

decided by the properties of the finite element (i.e. Shape functions)

used and its suitability to represent the primary and secondary

structural behaviour. For example, a 3-D solid element using

compatibility of translational (u, v, w) deformations only at nodes

cannot represent, at the element level, the effects of angular

rotations and bending moments. For full understanding of the

capabilities and limitations of various elements used in a specific

programme reference shall be made to the specialist literature.

7.5.4 Computer Aided Designs

While using commercially available software as design aid it is

necessary to be aware of the requirements of the basic code for

which the programmes supplying design aids are written. If the same

are different from the IRC codes being used (either old versions or

the current version), these design aids cannot be used for the

purpose of verification (i.e. to demonstrate the acceptability of the

design).

7.6 Theories of Small Deflection, Large Deflection and their

Applicability for Bridge Structures

7.6.1 Theories of small and large deflection

For many types of structures only limited deflections are acceptable

in order to meet the functional and serviceability requirements. In

other words, the complete structure and its structural elements

should be sufficiently stiff, i.e. non-flexible. It is found that for such

structural elements the equilibrium of external forces and internal

resisting forces need not be calculated on the basis of the deflected

shape after loading by 2nd order analytical methods, but can be

established with acceptable level of accuracy based on its geometry

before loading (i.e. first order analysis). On the other hand, some of

the structures may meet the requirement of stiffness of the structure

as a whole, but some of its elements /members are more flexible and

their stabilised deflected shape (i.e. their deformed shape) under

action of load has to be taken in to account for calculating the overall

equilibrium of the structure and load shared by the flexible

elements/members.

The theory in which sufficiently accurate equilibrium between the

load and resistance is established based on the original unloaded

geometry is termed as a theory of small deflections. This definition

appears subjective and not mathematically precise but is enough to

make a judgement about applicability and use of one or other type of

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analysis.

The theory of small deflections provides the basis for most of the

analytical work needed in bridge engineering with notable exceptions

of second order analysis needed for analysis and design of slender

members, which may be required in normal types of bridges having

tall piers. This analysis is covered in the Code in Section 11:

Ultimate Limit State of Induced deformations.

The analysis based on the theory of large deflections is needed for

special types of bridges. The suspension and cable stayed bridges

and large span arch bridges belong to this type. Suspension cable of

the suspension bridges can only be analysed based on its deflected

shape. The stiffening girders carrying road may be designed on the

basis of the theory of small deflections, but the overall stability under

localised live loads also has to be based on the large deflections.

The cables of cable-stayed bridges and the cables of extra-dosed

bridge belong to an intermediate category depending on their

geometry and length. However, at least for the construction stage

analysis they have to be treated as highly flexible elements.

The IRC:112 on its own do not cover all design requirements of such

elements. However, the Code can be used for such designs in

combination with the help from specialised literature and/or

international codes.

IRC:112 has covered prestressing in six sections. The global effects

of prestressing on structures including its time dependent variations

are covered in Section:7 Analysis; the design properties are covered

in Section:6 Material Properties and their Design Values; the local

effects, such as spalling and bursting behind anchorages and the

technological aspects are covered in Section:13 Prestressing

Systems; Sections:15 and 16 cover detailing and Section:18 covers

Materials, Quality Controls and Workmanship.

Although various methods of considering prestressing in the analysis

and design have been used in the past, the Code requires in Clause

7.9.2 that:

General

(1) Prestressing is considered as an action and its effect should be

included in the forces / moments and applied to the structure.

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

from the intended value due to technological reasons. Both the

effects should be considered in selection of design prestressing

force.

(3) The contribution of prestressing tendons to the resistance

developed by the member shall be limited to the additional forces

mobilised by their further deformation, consistent with the ultimate

deformation of the member.

In view of the above, discussion in this Chapter is restricted to the

evaluation of Prestressing Action, as a load due to prestressing. The

appropriate methods of analysis are to be used for obtaining the

action effects.

Historically, prestressing has developed in era of the Working

load/allowable stress philosophy of design. Its target was to increase

the capacity of concrete members to carry tensile loads without

cracking, allowing the optimum use of materials, in which the

stiffness from cracked concrete need not be neglected. The

prestressing of a structural member in this way may be defined as

the creation of an initial stress, of opposite sign to the stress

produced by the working load, in order to increase the working load

without increasing the actual stress in the member. The most logical

way to achieve this is to apply opposite force as a pre-load, which is

created by prestressing. For prestressing to be most advantageous,

it is therefore necessary that the working load should act mainly in

one direction, and the creation of initial stress of opposite sign is

achieved by prestressing. In theory, it is not essential that pre-

loading is achieved by stressed steel tendons anchored to the

structural member, although it turns out to be the most convenient

method, especially after steels of high strength having adequate

residual force after accounting for relaxation loss were developed.

It should be remembered, however, that achievement of enhanced

working load capacity does not automatically ensure sufficient safety

margin under ultimate limit state. For instance, in case of unbonded

tendons, which do not undergo large increase of force under factored

ultimate load, the required margin of safety cannot be provided by

prestressing tendons and it needs to be achieved by other means.

The force in the tendons is transferred to the structure at all points of

contact between the two. At all locations the force on the structure is

equal and opposite to the force acting on the tendon. At location of

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

the tendon. A curved tendon pressing against the structure transfers

pressure equal to T/R where T is the local tensile force in tendon and

R is the radius of curvature at that location. For a circular profile it

represents a constant radial pressure along the tendon profile. For a

parabolic profile it is equivalent to uniformly distributed load, since

1/R=constant for the parabola. For moderately flat profiles It is easily

calculated by dividing the change in vertical component between two

points of the tendon by the length of the horizontal portion in

between.

The frictional force P (x) between tendon and the duct, acting on

the structure in direction of decreasing force in the tendon is given by

the expression

(

P (x) = P0 1 e ( + kx ) ) Eq. 7.1

Where

Is the sum of the angular displacements over a distance x

(irrespective of direction or sign)

Is the coefficient of friction between the tendon and its duct.

k Is a coefficient for wobble effect (representing angular

displacement per unit length of duct multiplied by ).

x Is the distance along the tendon from the point where the

prestressing force is equal to Po .

Po Force at the side of lower force in the tendon.

The value of depends on the surface characteristics of the

tendons and the duct, on configuration on the tendon profile,

and on the presence of rust, if any.

The value k for wobble ( times angular displacement per

unit length) depends on the quality of workmanship, the

distance between tendon supports, the type of duct or sheath

employed and the degree of vibration used while compacting

the concrete.

Time dependent losses in stress of prestressing tendon at any point

along the tendon partly depend on shortening strain in the structure

due shrinkage and creep of concrete. It depends on the local creep

and shrinkage of concrete for bonded tendons. For unbonded

tendons it depends on the overall (average) shortening strain

between the anchorage points due to creep and shrinkage. The loss

due to relaxation of steel which in other part of the time dependent

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losses is the function of the local initial stress level in steel for the

bonded tendon after grouting, and on the overall initial stress for the

unbonded tendon. Since the effect of shrinkage is to reduce the force

in tendon, and resulting stress in concrete, and creep is proportional

to the stress level in concrete, the actual loss due to combined effect

of creep and shrinkage is less than the sum of the two loses

calculated separately and added. This is further modified by the loss

of force in steel by relaxation. For obtaining theoretically more

accurate estimate of net effect, method of numerical integration

involving small time step will be required, in which each of the effect

will follow its own time dependent function. However in practice such

elaboration is hardly justified, especially as the laws also involve

environmental factors like temperature and humidity time histories,

which cannot be predicted. In fact, even the behaviour of creep,

shrinkage and relaxation are not independently predictable exactly.

Hence the Code has prescribed that these are estimated

independently to be on safe side and added.

These are discussed in Chapter 13.

7.7.4 Punching out of curved tendons

Prestressing tendons embedded in curved thin sections (slabs or

shells) of single or double curvature follow the overall curvature of

the member, and are anchored at the ends. Thus at any point along

the length, it exerts inward, out of plane, pressure along the length,

which has tendency to punch out of the plane of the section under

effect of local punching. This local effect is easy to understand. Its

tendons also produces overall tensile stresses within the thickness of

the member acting at right angle to the surface. This action is

explained by example shown in Fig.7.6.

Fig. 7.6 shows a part of a long cylinder with inner radius R-Ti, outer

radius R+To and thickness T=(Ti+To ), having tendons spaced

uniformly along its length. The tendon form a full ring around the

cylinder and are located at radius R. A typical segment of unit length

stressed with force F is considered. For simplicity the tendon force

is considered as uniformly distributed along the full length and width.

Such tendon puts an inward pressure P along the surface at radius

R, where P= F/R. Fig. 7.6(a). It is clear that in such a cylinder the wall

thickness is under uniform compression with stress of F/T=F/(Ti+To),

i.e. effective prestress is uniformly distributed along the thickness

due to hyperstatic effects, irrespective of the location of the tendon

within the thickness. The net radial forces at right angles to the inner

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and outer surfaces of cylinder are zero, since they are free surfaces,

as shown in Fig.7.6(b).

r p

F

max Po = .T

RT o

Radial Tension

To

Uniform Prestress

Part of Long Cylinder

p F .T

mx Pi = i

RT

r

Ti

F = pr pr =F Radial Compression

R

(a) Half Section Showing (e)

Equilibrium of Prestressing

force & Equivalent Pressure

T = To + T i

To di

do

Ti

F

F F

T R+T R T

Pi

(R - d i )

F

(T - d i )

T i

F F(Ti - d i )

(T - d ) = P i (R+d i ) ; Pi = 1

T i i (R - d i )

Po

F (R+do)

(T - d )

T o o

F F(To- d o)

(T - d ) = Po (R+d o) ; Po = 2

T o o (R + do)

Considering equilibrium of any general slice taken bellow the tendon

surface at distance di from the tendons, Fig.7.6(c), having thickness

Ti di from the inner surface it is clear that the arch forces equal to

F(Ti-di)/T can be balanced only if the radial compressive pressure

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slice taken above the tendon surface (Fig.7.6(d), at distance do from

the tendon surface, the arch force F(to-do)/T can be balanced only if

the radial tensile pressure Po= F(to-do)/T(R=do) acts on the outer

ring at lower surface. The variation of these radial forces within the

thickness of the cylinders wall are plotted in Fig.7.6(e), which vary

from nil to maximum compressive pressure bellow the tendon

surface and maximum tensile pressure just above the tendon surface

to nil at the outer surface. It can be seen that if the tendon surface is

at the outermost surface, the full wall thickness is having

compressive stresses varying from nil on inner surface to F/R on

outer surface. If the tendons are somehow fully glued to the inner

surface the full thickness is under tensile stresses varying from nil on

outermost surface to F/R on the inner surface.

Note that these forces are global, and additive to local punching due

to transverse spreading of the line force of tendon over the width

equal to the spacing of tendons, as shown in Fig.7.7 reproduced from

the code.

When the tendons were of small unit capacity and curvatures were

large the effect of the tensile forces within the thickness was small

and bellows the tensile strength of concrete. With increase of tendon

unit forces to about 500T UTS, and use of box section bridges having

sharp radius of curvature in plan, number of failures took place by

punching out of tendons, which resulted from the combined effect of

global and local tensile stresses as shown above, during or after

stressing. Similar local failures were also noticed in prestressed

domes containing tendons placed within the thickness. It was

realised that this effect needs to be calculated and if necessary,

provided for by tensile reinforcement placed across the thickness of

the walls in form of stirrups. This steel also binds the concrete on two

sides of the plane of tendons, thereby preventing de-lamination of the

thickness.

The method of checking for the punching effect and achieving safe

design given in IRC:112 is based on the recommendations published

by Prof. Breen in Proceedings of FIB Congress in Washington in

1994. Fig.7.7 is reproduced from the code which is self-explanatory.

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L (unit length)

Fr

R

Tj Tj

Vc

(a) Curvature in Plan Notations:

b = Thickness of web

design L = Unit length

force R = Radius of tendon

Fu

= Dia of duct

bending

Tj = Combined initial tension

(at stressing) for group of

tendons under consideration

b Fr = TJ / R = Radial force

shear per unit length

Fu = 1.35 Fr

d min Vc

1

(d) Global bending & shear

of web (slab) due to

radial pressure

S

d eff

2 INSIDE FACE Design requirement :

S

d min

Fu 2Vc

INSIDE FACE

Where Vc = 0.17..b.d eff f ck (in SI units)

S

b b

d eff = lesser of

d eff = d min +

1 d eff = b 4

2

2 d eff = d min + + S

4 2

Greater than one duct diameter one duct diameter

(centers of ducts may be or Touching ducts

aligned or staggered)

Global Bending in Shear in Webs (Slab)

7.8 Bibliography

(1) Theory of Structures by Timoshenko and Goodier

(2) Bulletin 51: Structural Concrete, Textbook on behaviour,

design, and performance (Second edition) by FIB 2009

(3) CEB-FIP Model Code 1990

(4) Eurocode Basis of Design: 1990:2002

(5) Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures: 1992-1-1:2004

(6) Prestressed Concrete, Theory and design by R.H.Evans and

E.W.Bennett

(7) Proceedings of FIP Congress-1994 Article by Prof Breen.

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SECTION 8

AND AXIAL FORCES (2ND DRAFT)

elements which are subjected to the bending with or without

axial force. The rules for ULS design for shear, torsion,

punching, and membrane elements are given in section 9 & 10.

The method given here is applicable for the members like piers,

slabs, I girders, longitudinal design of box girders, etc. The

additional checks for buckling of slender columns are given in

section 11.

based on stress limit), in ultimate limit state, in general, the

design checks are based on limits on strain. The strain limits

c1, c2 & c3 and cu1, cu2 & cu3 for various grades of concrete

are given in Table 6.5 of the code. The values c1 & cu1 are

used in generalized stress-strain distribution of concrete which

is shown in fig. A2-1 of Annexure A-2 of the code. The values

c2& cu2 are used in defining the parabola rectangle stress-

strain diagram as shown in fig 6.5. Whereas the values c3 &

cu3 are used in defining the bilinear stress-strain relationship

as shown in Fig. A2-3and rectangular stress distribution as

shown in Fig.A2-4of the code.c1, c2 & c3 are the strain limits

when the cross section is subjected to the pure compression

(without bending), whereas, cu1, cu2 & cu3 are limits when the

section is subjected to bending moment. The limiting strain

c2c & cu2c for confined concrete are given in clause A2-8 of

Annexure A-2 of the code.

strain diagrams discussed above are shown in Fig. 8.2. These

diagrams are based on Bernoullis hypothesis. The strain limits

of the stress-strain diagram for concrete and steel result in five

different zones for the design of cross-section. With the

assumption of the perfect bond, the strain diagrams in the Fig.

8.2 govern not only the concrete compressive stresses but also

the stresses in reinforcement (reinforcing steel or prestressing

steel including pre-strain p(O) at any place in the cross

section). The compressive strain of reinforcing steel caused by

creep and shrinkage of concrete are normally negligible in

ultimate limit state and hence not considered.

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

strain whereas in zone5, it is subjected to uniform compressive

strain. In both the zones, the location of neutral axis is outside

the section. The location of neutral axis changes from top fibre

to bottom fibre of section in zone 2, 3 & 4. Similarly, the

location of point C (which is characterized by the compressive

strain in concrete c = c2 also shifts from top to bottom in

zones 2 to 5 following the movement of neutral axis.

capacity can be checked for uniform strain of c2 if the applied

force is pure compressive, and for 0.9 uk, if the applied axial

force is pure tensile. The ultimate axial force carrying capacity

of the section for given bending moment shall always be

between these two limits. The position of neutral axis, k for

which the ultimate force carrying capacity of the section

matches with the factored axial force acting on the section is

obtained by solving the following equilibrium condition.

Where N is the factored axial force applied

Pus (k) and Puc (k) are the contributions from steel and

concrete respectively in the ultimate resistance of the section

and can be express as

Pus (k) = s(k) As

and Puc (k) = dAc

and non-prestressed steel.

ultimate bending moment carrying capacity of the section about

it is worked out and compared with the factored bending

moment acting on the section.

Finding out the roots of Eq.C 8.1 involve solution of non-linear

equation. The equation is solved using numerical method such

as Regula-falsi method. In this method, the initial assumptions

of two values of k, one each on either side of solution are

required. It is necessary to satisfy condition, i.e. (ki) *

(kl+l)<0at each of iterations.

SECTIONS

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and its location is obtained from concrete stress block in

compression. The ultimate failure of concrete is caused by

crushing of concrete which requires the limiting strain on

extreme compressed fiber of concrete. Following two cases

are discussed here:

2) Neutral axis outside the section.

1a) Parabola Rectangular stress block

When neutral axis is within the section, strain in extreme

compressed fiber is limited to and corresponding stress fcd.

For rectangular section of width b and depth x, the resultant

force Cu is expressed by

defined by . The expression for , in function of

strain , are:

cube strength ( in Table C 8.1.

2

fck(N/mm ) up to 60 70 75 90 100 115

1 0.80952 0.74194 0.69496 0.63719 0.59936 0.58333

2 0.41597 0.39191 0.37723 0.36201 0.35482 0.35294

Other than parabola rectangular stress block more simplified

rectangular stress block can be used for evaluating

compressive force and its line of action. With reference of

Appendix A2.9 of IRC 112, the expression for are

simplified to,

/2

block

up

2

fck(N/mm ) to 70 75 90 100 115

60

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2 0.4 0.39375 0.3875 0.375 0.3625 0.35

leads to the range of possible strain diagrams at ultimate limit

states subjected to different forces. Condition of neutral axis

outside the section arises between two cases of strain

distribution, one with uniform over section for uniform

compression and other is for extreme compressed edge

and 0 at other edge. For this condition strain diagram is defined

by assuming that compressive strain is at level 1

/ h, with notation

t

c2

(1- cu ) h

2

c2

As

b

section

formulae,

1

1

1

and by nd are the similar quantities for (x-h) part, the

resultant and its position compared to the most

compressed edge and relation with depth h are given by:

1

1 1 1

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C 8.3.

fck= 60 fck = 70 fck= 75 fck = 90 fck= 100 fck = 115

x/ N/mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2

h

3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4

0.80 0.41 0.74 0.39 0.69 0.37 0.63 0.362 0.599 0.35 0.58 0.35

1

952 597 194 191 496 723 719 01 36 482 333 294

1. 0.89 0.45 0.83 0.43 0.78 0.42 0.72 0.410 0.692 0.40 0.67 0.40

2 549 832 288 765 714 436 968 22 49 355 72 186

1. 0.93 0.47 0.88 0.45 0.84 0.44 0.78 0.434 0.753 0.42 0.73 0.42

4 409 48 197 841 129 724 831 92 81 907 986 761

1. 0.95 0.48 0.91 0.46 0.87 0.46 0.82 0.449 0.796 0.44 0.78 0.44

6 468 304 168 99 615 046 826 75 79 461 422 335

1. 0.96 0.48 0.93 0.47 0.90 0.46 0.85 0.459 0.828 0.45 0.81 0.45

8 693 779 113 702 007 895 695 54 34 499 702 389

0.97 0.49 0.94 0.48 0.91 0.47 0.87 0.466 0.852 0.46 0.84 0.46

2

481 077 46 178 73 478 838 44 34 237 211 14

2. 0.98 0.49 0.96 0.48 0.94 0.48 0.91 0.477 0.892 0.47 0.88 0.47

5 55 475 464 861 42 347 348 05 55 385 448 311

0.99 0.49 0.99 0.49 0.98 0.49 0.96 0.492 0.959 0.49 0.95 0.49

5

702 893 06 705 285 512 937 34 72 089 622 057

rectangular stress block for (x>h) case, it is possible to write

formula that gives the equivalent depth h* in relation to x as,

when . It results in

1

2

Putting value of k in in first expression gives,

fck(N/mm2) k

60 0.80000 1.00000 0.75000

70.0 0.78750 0.97500 0.73016

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90 0.75000 0.90000 0.66667

100.0 0.72500 0.85000 0.62069

115.0 0.70000 0.80000 0.57143

developed for case 2a) and presented in Table C8.5.

fck= 60 fck = 70 fck= 75 fck = 90 fck= 100 fck = 115

x/ N/mm 2

N/mm 2

N/mm 2

N/mm2 N/mm 2

N/mm2

h

3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4

0.80 0.40 0.76 0.39 0.73 0.38 0.67 0.37 0.61 0.36 0.56 0.35

1

000 000 781 375 625 750 500 500 625 250 000 000

1. 0.88 0.44 0.85 0.43 0.82 0.43 0.75 0.42 0.69 0.40 0.63 0.39

2 889 444 601 898 344 339 938 188 695 997 636 773

1. 0.92 0.46 0.89 0.45 0.86 0.45 0.79 0.44 0.73 0.43 0.67 0.42

4 308 154 154 720 011 269 773 318 623 308 586 241

1. 0.94 0.47 0.91 0.46 0.88 0.46 0.81 0.45 0.75 0.44 0.70 0.43

6 118 059 073 704 030 332 964 536 946 674 000 750

1. 0.95 0.47 0.92 0.47 0.89 0.47 0.83 0.46 0.77 0.45 0.71 0.44

8 238 619 274 320 308 004 382 324 482 577 628 767

0.96 0.48 0.93 0.47 0.90 0.47 0.84 0.46 0.78 0.46 0.72 0.45

2

000 000 097 742 191 469 375 875 572 219 800 500

2. 0.97 0.48 0.94 0.48 0.91 0.48 0.85 0.47 0.80 0.47 0.74 0.46

5 143 571 341 380 534 176 909 727 282 255 667 667

0.98 0.49 0.96 0.49 0.93 0.49 0.88 0.49 0.82 0.48 0.74 0.48

5

824 412 191 329 554 239 269 038 975 809 677 548

SECTION

To illustrate the principles, only one case is considered with

neutral axis within the section for rectangular section.

Consider a rectangular section with breath b, total depth h.

strain at extreme compressed fiber of concrete is . Strain

distribution at ultimate limit state across transvers section and

corresponding stresses is illustrated in figure C 8.2. As is steel

in compression and whereas As is steel in tension.

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

cu2

N's Nc

A's

's

As s Ns

and design of reinforced concrete beams and columns:

member must correspond to the strain at that point. A strain

over the depth of the member is assumed to be linear.

effects, as illustrated in Eq. C8.1 and rewritten as:

For equilibrium,

Nrd= Nc+ Ns + Ns

Where Nc is the resultant of compressive force in concrete, Ns

is resultant of stress applied to compressed reinforced bar As

and Ns is resultant of steel in tension.

where

1

Similarly,

Where

1

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

distribution is found by summing the moments of all the internal

forces about the centroid of the column. The moments are

summed about the centroid of the section, because this is the

axis about which moments are computed in a conventional

structural analysis.

2 2 2

In case both the reinforcing bar yielded ( ,

2 2 2

and are factor given in table 1 and 2.

WITHOUT AXIAL FORCE

bending moment MEd

In order to determine is section is sufficient using tensioned

steel (As) alone, the limiting bending moment Mur,limis calculated

and compared with design moment on section.

,

Where is resultant of compression

stresses and

strain in steel of tensioned reinforcement must be greater than

that of strain corresponding to the limit of elasticity, which is

/ . This implies that neutral axis does not

exceed depth, with as limiting strain in concrete,

actual neutral axis depth corresponding to , it results

0

2 2

Finally with ,

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

some compressive reinforcement in compression is

needed. To calculate it

1 ,

compressive stress. Values of these factors are given in Table

4.

Compressive force, ,

Liver arm

2

Rearranging:

2

2 0

2

1 1

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SECTION 9

OUT OF PLANE AND INPLANE LOADING EFFECTS (2ND DRAFT)

This section deals with the design of two & three dimensional

elements subjected to out-of-plane as well as in-plane forces.

using Finite element method using membrane, plate or shell

elements.

Membrane elements model solids of a specified thickness which exhibit no

stress normal to the thickness. The constitutive relations are modified to

make the stress normal to the thickness zero. The membrane

elements, which have only translation degrees of freedom, give

stress resultants in-plane only i.e., Edx, Edy & Edxy as shown

in Fig C 9.1. Membrane elements are used to idealise the

shear walls etc. which are subjected to in plane forces and not

out-of-plane forces.

Plate bending elements are used to model plate type structures (such as

deck slab), where the thickness is very small compared to the other

dimensions and when the plate structure is subjected to loads which are

normal to its surface. As a consequence of this, flexural effects dominate.

The plate bending elements do not produce any in-plane forces

and have three degrees of freedom per node i.e. one out-of

plane translation and two rotation about two axes perpendicular

to the out of plane (normal to surface) axis. It gives bending

moments about x, y axis i.e.mEdx, mEdy & twisting moment

mEdxy, and out of plane shear forces vEdx and vEdy as shown in

Fig. C9.2.

plate bending element having six degrees of freedom at a node

(three translations and three rotations) and gives all the eight

force resultants i.e. Edx, Edy, Edxy, mEdx, mEdy, mEdxy, vEdx and

vEdy.

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

these elements using Ultimate Limit State.

C9.2 One Way and Two Way Slabs and Walls Cl. 9.2

One way, two way slabs and the retaining walls are the typical

example which are subjected to the out-of-plane forces,

generates the bending moments, out-of-plane shear forces and

not significant membrane forces. Hence Plate bending

element is appropriate element for modeling of these

structures. As stated in the code, the ultimate strength

methods based on local yielding (e.g. yield line method) are not

permitted in bridges, except for calculating resistance to

accidental impact loads.

girders, a linear element i.e. beam element can be used,

which gives overall longitudinal bending moment and

shear forces for the section design.

girder at desired location can be modeled using beam

element with pinned support at bottom-most nodes of

webs, to represent the stiffness of webs of remaining

girders. The design of these beam elements shall be

done using ULS method for linear element as discussed

in section 8.0.

as fish-belly-shaped or box-girders having curvature in

plan with significant torsion & distortional effects, the

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

design method for the same using sandwich model is

given in Annexure B-1.

Cl. 9.4 General Solutions for Two way Slabs, Walls and shell

Elements

In this section the code has given simplified design method for

calculating tensile reinforcement for orthogonal in plane effects.

In this method:

positive.

X and Y are the direction along which the reinforcement is

provided and Edx shall be greater than Edy

No reinforcement is required if both Edx & Edy are

compressive (i.e. positive) and in-plane shear stress Edxy is

small. To determine whether Edxysmall or not, code has

given the criteria as Edx . Edy>Edxy.

If Edxy is significally high or either Edx or Edy is tensile then

the reinforcement needs to be provided in that direction.

Two worked examples are given to demonstrate the

procedure of the design.

slab subjected to orthogonal bending by using two half plates,

representing compression & tensile zones. However, for such

elements, design method given in section 8 for one

dimensional element can be used independently in x and y

direction. In this case, the effect of mEdxy can be considered in

design by enhancing of mEdx & mEdy by value of mEdxy.

Plane Bending and Shear

three layers of plate, each having 1/3rd thickness; top & bottom

resist the in plane forces & bending moments and the central

one resists the out-of-plane shear forces. The detail procedure

is given in Annexure B-1 and has been explained with worked

examples in the commentary of this annexure.

Following are the results at the center of membrane element

used for analysis of diaphragm of bridge deck having thickness

of 500 mm with M40 concrete and reinforcement Fe500

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DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

SEdxy = 1500 kN/m

Edx = 6.0 MPa

Edy = 4.0 MPa

Edxy = 3.0MPa

Since Edx x Edy > 2Edxy and both Edx & Edy are compressive,

no reinforcement in both direction is required (provide the

minimum reinforcement is given in section). Also both Edx and

Edy are less than fcd, the section is safe.

Keeping the other details same in example C-9.1, by changing

the forces to following,

fEdx = 2600kN/m;

fEdy = 2000kN/m

Edxy = 2500kN/m;

Edy = 4.0 MPa;

Edxy = 5.0 MPa

Now, though both Edx and Edy are compressive, Edx.Edy (i.e.

20.8) < Edxy(i.e. 25) ; Hence it is necessary to provide the

reinforcement.

Since Edx>|tEdxy|

ftdx = 0

ftdy = Edy

.

= 4

.

= 0.81MPa

cd = Edx (1 + ( ) )

= 5.2 ( 1 +( ) )

.

= 10.01 MPa

= 9.33677MPa

< 10.01 MPa

Here it is necessary to revise the thickness. After increasing

from 500mm to 600 mm, ftdy =0.67 MPa and cd = 8.34Mpa <

10.01 MPa.

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

SECTION 10.

DESIGN FOR SHEAR, PUNCHING SHEAR AND TORSION (2nd Draft)

C10.1 SCOPE

members including arriving at the shear reinforcements. The

shear can arise out of flexure, or Interface shear due to concrete

cast at different times or shear between web and flange in flanged

sections or due to punching or due to torsion. Different type of

shear arising in flexural members can be represented in the

following diagram:

The shear design has to be carried out under ultimate limit state

only. When the member has to be provided with shear

reinforcement, the reinforcement has to be calculated based on a

truss model. For members without shear reinforcement the

capacity of the section is estimated using empirical formula.

The sub clauses given in the code is quit elaborate and the same

can be followed by the designers without any difficulty.

Cl.10.2.

C 10.2.2 Shear design model of members with shear reinforcement

2.1

C10.2.2.1 Zones of Shear design.

with shear reinforcement to resist the full shear force. Members

subjected to bending and shear force have four distinct zones.

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The zone adjacent to the support does not develop any crack.

Hence this zone is called uncracked zone (Zone A). The adjacent

zone (Zone B) develops shear cracks but does not develop any

flexural crack. In the next zone (Zone C) both flexural and shear

cracks appear. This zone is further subdivided into two zones as

zone C1 and zone C2. In the zone C1 cracks are parallel, and in

the zone C2 the cracks converge. In zone D only flexural cracks

appear. The appearance cracks in different zones in shear is

shown in Fig 10.1 (a) of the code.

fig 10.1. In zone A the type of support affects the compression

fields. In case of direct supports, a fan like compression field

develops. In the area confined by the beam end and the steepest

inclination of compression field ie = 450. no shear reinforcement

is required in this zone. However the shear reinforcement required

at section d away from support shall be extended in this region.

Between 450 and 21.80 no shear reinforcement is required for

loads acting within this area, as the loads are carried to supports

directly by the compression strut. As bridges are subjected to

moving loads, this provision may not be useful. The horizontal

component of the compression strut will give raise to tension. To

cater for this tension, additional tensile steel provided over and

above the tensile steel provided for the bending effect.

In case of indirect support, a fan like compressive field does not

exist. In the common intersection zone of supporting and

supported beam, additional suspension reinforcements are

required in addition to shear reinforcement. Preferably this

reinforcement shall be provided in the supporting beam to resist

the reaction transferred by the supported beam to the supporting

beam.

C10.2.2.2 Shear Transfer Mechanism of Truss model

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model. The Truss model can be described as shown in the sketch

Fig: 10.2 Truss Model and Notation for Members with Shear Reinforcement

diagonals. The web consists of compression strut diagonals in

concrete, and tension diagonal in the form of steel stirrup. is

angle of compression strut and is the inclination of steel stirrups.

Angles are measured with respect of axis of element.

The angle of compression strut shall be limited to minimum of

21.80 and maximum of 450. Similarly the angle of shear stirrups

shall be limited to minimum of 450 and maximum of 900. As the

angle of truss is varied the method is called Variable Truss angle

Method.

The truss model shown in fig 10.3 of code or any other truss Cl.10.2.2.2.(2)

model can be used for carrying out shear design for varying depth

beams having both chords inclined. While designing local zone of

short length of beams having inclined chords, the zone can be

designed as a beam having parallel chords, provided the

components of chord force parallel to the shear force is taken into

consideration as the components of inclined chord forces

contribute towards shear.

indirectly. In case of direct support the net shear force acting at a

section d effective depth away form the support shall be used for

design of shear reinforcement for the section and the same

reinforcement shall be extended towards the support. However for

checking the capacity of strut against crushing, the net shear force

acting at the face of support shall be considered.

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be used for arriving at the reinforcement as well as for checking

the capacity of strut.

tension chord or both chords may be inclined. The inclination of

these chords generate chord forces. The components of these (3)

chord forces reduce the shear force acting on the section if they

act favorably ie if the depth of section is increasing in the same

direction as the bending moment increases. However in case

where the depth is decreasing, in the direction of increasing

bending moment, the components of chord forces will add to the

shear force. Depending upon the direction of the prestressing

force it can offer relief or add to the shear force. The direction

shown in fig 10.4 of the code for the chord forces and prestressing

force reduces the externally acting shear at the section.

In addition to the above forces, in case of indeterminate

structures, the shear due to hyper static effect shall also be

considered.

calculation is as follows. The code allows the designer to use the

full capacity of cable. If the prestressing force is already

accounted for while arriving at the net shear force after accounting

for all losses in the cable, then the increase in prestressing force

due to cracking of concrete [Force at full capacity of cable if the

corresponding strain could be achieved minus the force in the

cable accounted in the computation of shear force] only to be

taken as an additional force. Component of this increase in force

in the vertical direction can be taken as additional resistance force

as if contributed by shear reinforcement.

In case if the strain in the cable not attaining the 0.87 of yield

strain, then the force in cable shall be assumed corresponding to

the strain attained and the full capacity of the cable shall not be

used.

Conservatively one can ignore this increase in stress in the Cl.10.2.3

prestressing cable and use only the prestress force available after

(4)

accounting all losses. This method of design will lead to slightly

increase in shear steel but it will avoid all complications of

calculating the increase in prestressing force.

For unbonded cable, at the ultimate limit state stage the force in

the cable shall be assumed to be the initial prestressing force less

the losses. Increase in cable force may not be taken. This will lead

to slightly a conservative assumption.

Cl.10.2.3

gradually in case of pretensioned girders. Hence the

corresponding force shall be assumed by taking a linear variation. (5)

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calculated by ignoring, the relief offered due to inclination of

chords for justifying the no requirement of shear reinforcement.

However the relief due to prestressing force shall be considered.

(1) The shear capacity of concrete VRDC should be greater than Cl.10.3.2

VED which is the design shear force in the section considered

(1)

resulting from external loading and prestressing. No relief due

to inclined chord force shall be considered in beams having

variable depth while arriving at VED. For sections having shear

capacity VRDC more than VED. no designed shear

reinforcement need to be provided. However minimum shear

reinforcement need to be provided as per clause 16.5.2. This

minimum reinforcement can be omitted in case of slab

structures.

(2) The formula given for calculating the shear capacity of section Cl.10.3.2

in the code is empirical only. The shear strength depends

(2)

upon the tensile strength of concrete which in turn depends

upon the compressive strength of concrete to the power 1/3 ,

longitudinal reinforcement ratio and depth of section. The

longitudinal reinforcement contributes to the shear resistance

in two ways viz by dowel action and controlling the crack

width which will influence the amount of shear that can be

transferred across the cracks by aggregate interlock. Shear

strength increases with increase in reinforcement ratio but the

rate of such increase reduces, as the reinforcement ratio

increases. Sectional depth also plays significant role which is

called as size effect, on the shear strength particularly for

shallow depth members such as slabs.

(3) The clause places a restriction that the formula given (Eq. Cl.10.3.2

10.4) is applicable only to single span bridges. Reasons are (3)

not clear why this restriction has been placed. For other two

type of construction viz, prestressed continuous and integral

bridges this formula, shall not used and all sections shall be

treated as, cracked sections and shear reinforcement shall be

designed according to codal Eq. 10.7 after verifying the

concrete capacity according to Eq. 10.8.

longitudinal reinforcement. Hence the capacity of section to resist

the shear without shear reinforcement as per codal Eq. 10.1 will

be very negligible. Hence the designer can straightway use the

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

codal Eq. 10.7 and 10.8 for design of prestressed concrete section

in shear both in continuous and integral bridges.

In case of continuous bridges, sections near the intermediate

support, the bending moment will be very high and the section

would automatically crack. Hence this formula can not be used.

The other sections in these structures are the contra flexure

sections and sections where the reversal of bending moment

takes place. The code drafters might have had reservation with

regard to applicability of this formula, to these regions. Hence

without giving reasons, why this formula can not be applied to the

continuous structures the restriction has been straightway placed.

By the same argument for the single span integral bridge also this

formula is not applicable as these the sections (contra flexure and

reversal) are also present. However the formula can be used in

single span integral bridges.

The other possibility is this formula is applicable only for one way

spanning members because it does not take into account, the

traverse stresses which occurs in the two way spanning members.

to be checked whether cracked or uncracked. If the flexural tensile

.

stresses is less than under maximum bending moment, then

the section is deemed to have uncracked and the equation 10.4 of

code shall be used to estimate the capacity of the section. This is

generally applicable to zone B. In case if the section turns out to

be cracked, then equation 10.7 and 10.8 of code shall be used for

calculating the capacity of section. In case of cracked sections

and sections having inadequate capacity the designed shear

reinforcement need to be provided. In prestressed beams the

longitudinal tensile reinforcement may be absent or very minimal.

Hence the capacity of section to carry the shear without shear

reinforcement will be virtually nil. This is because VRDC in case of

beam, having no shear reinforcement is directly depended upon

the ASL the longitudinal reinforcement which will be either absent

or negligible amount.

codal equation 10.7 and 10.8 without checking the capacity of

section to carry shear using equation 10.1.

expected to occur when the principle tensile stress anywhere in 10.4

the section, exceeds the tensile strength of concrete fctdwhich

shall be taken as fctk.05/ m. Taking tensile stress as negative, the

minor principal stress.

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2 2

prestressing force (after all loss, including partial safety factor)

taken as positive.

considered in MPa taking compressive stress as positive. This

includes, the bending stress due to prestress and all other design

loads. The section is subjected to normal stress and shear stress.

is the applied shear stress =

VRDC is the shear Resistance of the concrete in the web from the

shear force required to cause web cracking.

I is the second moment of area of section

is the first moment of area of the concrete above/below the

plane of consideration about the cross section centroid. This has

been taken as S in the code.

Substitute

(fctd + x)2 = x2 + 2

+ (fctd)2 + x2 + 2 fctd x = x2 + 2

+ (fctd)2+ 2 fctdx = 2

f 2f

f f

Substituting for

construction a constant of k1 is introduced.

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

due to duct diameter as per clause 10.3.3.2 (5) of the code.

At the centroidal axis bending = 0

section away from centroid and not at centroid. For any other

section other than centroidal axis the shear capacity shall be

calculated using the expression which includes the term bending.

The web width shall be substituted accordingly as applicable for

that section.

supporting the deck slab.

Cl.10.5.2

has to be worked out by liming the principal tensile stress to fctd. If

the loads Vc1 acting on the precast beam alone produces the (4)

shear stress of s the additional shear force Vc2 which can

generate a shear stress of 'sthe principle tension under the

combined shear and bending stress shall not exceed fctd. Hence

the total shear capacity of section will be Vc1 + Vc2. Shear stress

distribution will be as shown below.

centroid. In a given problem the other sections also could be

critical which should also be examined.

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The shear stress due to loads applied on precast section = s

The additional shear stress that can withstand after the section

becomes composite = 's

Substituting for 1s

xi is the first moment of area of the concrete above/ below the plane of consideration

about the composite section centroid taken as S in the cede.

I is the moment of Inertia of composite section

b is the breadth of web

x is the first moment area of the concrete above/ below the plane of consideration

in theprecast section about the composite centroid.

The shear capacity of uncracked section = Vc1 + Vc2

uncracked section is not required for cross section between the

support section and the section which contains the Cl.10.3.2

intersectionpoint on the elastic centroidal axis and a line inclined

from the inner edge of the support at anangle of 450. as shown (4)

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

be continued in this region covering upto the end of the beam.

When the loads are closer to the supports, the loads will be

directly transmitted by strut action and not via normal action of

shear and bending. Therefore the clause exempts the section

closer to the support for checking the shear capacity of section.

distance v where v is within 0.5d to 2d from the edge of

support (or center of bearing when flexible bearings are used) Cl.10.3.2

the question comes, how much of this load will contribute

towards shear as most of the loads will be directly transmitted (5)

to the support by strut action without involving bending and

shear. Hence the code suggests to reduce the contribution of

this load towards shear by multiplying the load by a factor

v/2d. For a section where v is less than 0.5d, a distance of

0.5d shall be assumed. This reduction in shear force is only

applicable for checking the capacity of section without shear

reinforcement as per equation 10.1provided longitudinal

reinforcement is anchored at the support. This reduction is

permitted only for beams cracked in flexure and it shall not be

used while checking with equation 10.4.(While checking the

uncracked section of prestressed concrete) However for

checking the adequacy of shear capacity of section as per

codal equation 10.5 this reduction factor shall not also be

used and it shall be assumed that the entire load to be

contributing towards the shear.

in flexure the MED line shall be shifted over a distance of d in Cl.10.3.2

the unfavorable direction or the tensile reinforcement can be (6)

increased due to additional chord force as explained later.

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Fig: 10.5 Load Transfer Direct to the support when loads are Placed near the support

Elements not requiring shear reinforcement.

Estimate the shear capacity of RCC slab in which no shear reinforcement is provided.

The particulars of slab are as follows:

Thickness of slab 750mm, cover 50mm concrete grade M30.

Reinforcement 25dia 125mm.

Area of reinforcement = 39.27 cm2/m

Effective depth = 750 50 = 687.5mm.

Asl = 39.27 cm2

.

l = .0057 .02

.

k =1 1.53

.

Axial Load = 0 cp = 0.

.

VRDC = 0.12 x 1.53 80 x .0057 x 30 1000 x 687.5 x10

= 302 kN/m

VRDCmin =. 031 x 1.53 x 30 x 1000 x 687.5 x 10 221.0kN/m

The slab can with stand a shear of 302 kN/m without providing any shear reinforcement.

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

C10.3.3.2

C10.3.3.3 Members with Vertical and Inclined Shear Reinforcements

When the shear resistance of the members work out to be less Cl.10.3.3.2

than the shear to be resisted, then the members have to be and

provided with designed shear reinforcement. The required shear

reinforcement shall be worked out using the truss model. 10.3.3.3

Fig: 10.7 Truss Model One Panel Length for Shear Resistance

Spacing of inclined stirrup at an angle = S

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

Eq:10.11)

Asw f yd

For vertical stirrups = 900 , cot = 0, sin = 1 so VRDS = Z cot (Codal

S

Eq:10.7)

Fig: 10.8 Compression Strut of Fig. 10.7 Distributed over Panel Length L

It c is the allowable compressive stress

Total compressive force perpendicular to plane x x = cbw L sin

= cbw Z (cot + cot ) sin

Total compressive force in vertical direction = cbw Z (cot + cot ) sin x sin

= cbw Z (cot + cot ) sin2

1 1 1

sin

1 cot 1

c = cwv1fcd

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VRD max

The maximum effective cross sectional area of shear reinforcement for vertical stirrups can be

found out by substituting = 450 as the capacity due to reinforcement can not be exceed the

capacity of concrete.

.

For Vertical Stirrups

.

= (Codal Eq:10.10 )

As can not be assumed more than 450,the shear steel area can not exceed the above shown

value in a section. In case if it exceeds, it means, the section has failed in compression and

hence need to redesigned

For = 450 cot = 1

For Inclined stirrups

.

VRDS = cot 1 sin

VRDma=

VRDS VRDmax

.

sin

.

( Eq: 10.13 of code)

A sw f yd

At any situation if the provided shear reinforcement bw s works out to be grater

than it can be safely concluded the web has failed in shear and requires redesign.

In case full stress of 0.87 fy is used in the shear reinforcement the 0.6 1 . If the

stress in shear reinforcement is reduced to 0.8fyk then 0.6 for fck less then 80 MPa and

f ck

0.9

250 for fck grater then 80 MPa.

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The applied shear force will be resisted both by concrete strut and

steel stirrups. As the Plane A-A is parallel to concrete strut there

will not be any vertical component of strut force on Plane A-A.

Fig: Partial Smeared Truss Model for the use of Inclined Shear Reinforcement

Only vertical component will be available from stirrup legs crossing the plane A-A to resist the

shear force.

(1) Length of plane A-A =

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DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

x is the spacing along plane AA

sin

sin

No of stirrups =

V = vRDS= sin

This is the equation 10.11 given in the code for the Resistance Capacity with Inclined Stirrups

Substituting = 900for vertical stirrups cot = 00and sin = 1

vRDS= cot This is the same codal equation 10.7

Length of the Plane B-B =

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

S is the spacing of stirrup in horizontal plane and X is the distance along plane BB

Force from the stirrups

sin 90 sin

sin

cos

No stirrups =

Total force =

Vertical component of this force

= sin

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

V= tan

sin

cot cot

Substituting for sin in the above equation.

V= cot tan tan

tan

cot cot

cot tan

cot

tan

cot

1 cot

tan

1 cot cot

cot

1

cot cot

1

10.12)

When vertical stirrups are provided = 900 cot = 00

vRDS max =

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

= =

At = 450 when maximum concrete compressive strut force can be obtained: substituting in

equation 10.11 and 10.12and equating the same.

If the reinforcement exceeds the above limitation it means the section has failed in

compression requiring redesign.

In case full stress of 0.87 fy is used in the shear reinforcement the 1 . If

the stress in shear reinforcement is reduced to 0.8fyk then 0.6 for fck less then 80 MPa and

f ck

0.9

250 for fck grater then 80 MPa.

Additional force in tension and compression chord due to shear VED may be worked out as

shown below.

Fig: Truss Model for Arriving at the Additional Tensile Force in Chords

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

This force has been shown in the sketch. Distributing this force between tension and

compression chord equally the additional force = cot cot . This tensile

force shall be added to the tensile force generated due to flexure and the reinforcement to be

provided accordingly. The total tensile force at a section where MEDmax is

The angle of compression strut shall be limited to minimum of1 21.80 and maximum of 450.

similarly the angle of shear stirrups shall be limited to minimum of 450 and maximum of 900.

Alternatively shift rule can be applied as per clause 10.3.2 (6)

In a design problem is to be assumed between 450 and 21.80. The assumed strut angle will

have to satisfy the the shear capacity as per codal equation 10.8. (ie) The strut capacity should

be equal to or more than the applied shear. If the concrete strut capacity is satisfied then, the

assumed angle will be substituted in equation 10.7 and the stirrup requirement will be

evaluated. If the maximum angle ( = 450) is not able to resist the applied shear, then the

section need to be revised. At lower value, the capacity of strut will be low and the stirrup

requirement will also be low. At the higher end of , the strut capacity will be high and, the

shear stirrup requirement also will be high. For a given problem the strut angle can be

worked as follows:

Take cw = 1.concrete less than 80 MPa.

0.67 0.67

0.6, 0.45

1.5

. .

At = 450 Maximum permissible shear stress =

0.135 - (1)

. .

At = 21.80 Maximum permissible shear stress = 0.093 - (2)

. .

Applied shear stress should be less than maximum allowable shear stress

. . .

vED = - (4)

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.

1

(cot + tan ) = 0.5 sin2

vED= 0.27 fck x 0.5 sin2 = 0.135 fck sin2

Sin 2 = [ v ED

0.135 f ck ]

If vED = 0.135 fck then = 450

1

[

v ED

]

= 0.5 sin 0.135 f = 0.5 sin

ck

[

1 Applied shear stress

0.135 f ck ]

is the angle of strut for the given problem

The design procedure can be presented in the form of a flowchart for carrying out the shear

design which is given bellow.

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

Estimate the maximum allowable shear stress for concrete grade less than 80 Mpa and

strut corresponding to = 450 which is 0.135

310

0.6 0.9 / 250 0.8

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In case of increase in prestressing force is taken into account then the shear reinforcement can

be reduced accordingly.

When the loads are placed closer to the support the portion of the load will be carried through

to the support directly by the strut and not via the normal actions of shear and bending. Closer

the load to the support, the greater the portion of the load which will be transmitted to the Cl.

10.3.3.3

support directly. Hence a reduction factor is suggested for the reduction of this load towards

(7)

the contribution to the shear while designing the shear reinforcement. In case of bridge

superstructures, as the loads are moving loads, this provision may not be much useful.

However this reduction is not be applicable for the verifying the concrete capacity.

While verifying the reinforcement requirement for resisting shear only the shear reinforcement

Cl.10.3

within central 0.75 av shall be considered. This limitation is made because tests carried out

.3.3(8)

indicated that the links adjacent to both load and support do not fully yield. The procedure of

considering only the links between the load and the support works only for single loads. Where

the structure is subjected to series of loads beyond 2d and contribute to the shear then the shear

design for these loads should be carried out as outlined in earlier clauses for loads beyond 2d.

The link requirement from both the analysis should be added and provided. Similarly shear

should be added from both the systems for checking the crushing. As pointed out earlier this

reduction factor is not applicable while checking the capacity of strut (concrete crushing). For

avless than 0.5d, then av shall be taken as 0.5d as minimum.

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

Elements Requiring shear reinforcement:

Determine the shear reinforcement in RCC Beam at Various sections. The particulars of the

beams are as follows:

RCC girder M35 Grade concrete Span = 21.0M: Girder cross section as

shown.

Summary of Ultimate Shear Force (Value in kN)

Section 1M 2M 5M 6.71M 10.0M

Distance

from

Support

Force in

kN

Web in

MM

Now Proceed to Flow Chart

Shear

stress in

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

z=

1570mm

As the shear stress at the various section are less than 4.72 N/mm2 no redesign is required

Allowable shear stress corresponding = 21.80 = .093 fck = .093 x 35 = 3.25N/mm2

As the shear stress at various sections are less than 3.25 N/mm2

to be taken as 21.8 and Cot = 2.50

Working out of shear reinforcement:

1M 2M 5M 6.71M 10M

cot

fywd = 0.8 fyk

m2/m /m /m 3

/m m3/m

12 @ 12 12 @ 10 @ 10 @

Providing 200 @220 250 220 300

reinforcement 1.13m 1.13mm 0.90mm2 0.71mm 0.52m

Reinforcement m2/m 2

/m /m 2

/m m2/m

mm2/m

. 072

. 072

1.026 10

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

Suppose at section 2M the shear force is made one and half times of the shear force worked out

there shear stress works out to 4.54 N/mm2> 3.25 N/m2 but less than 4.72 N/mm2

Hence no redesign of section is required:

As the shear stress is more then 3.25 N/mm2 the value has to be worked out.

.

. 0.5 37.06

.

. . . .

4.54 = 4.54

. . .

LHS = RHS

Hence the formula shown for estimating the angle can be used.

.

2.646 /

. .

The addition longitudinal tensile steel required at various sections for the original calculation.

Using the codal expression

0.5 cot cot 21.8 90

1.25

0.5 2.5 0 1.25 3.46 10

415/1.15

Section 1M 2M 5M 6.71M 10M

Addition 4.269 3.709 2.961 2.626 1.882

steel mm2

Additional longitudinal steel over and above that required to resist the moment has to be

provided. It is to be noted that becomes shallower, the longitudinal steel will increase. But the

shear steel will reduce.

If increases the additional longitudinal steel will reduce and shear steel will increase.

Alternatively following shift rule the additional longitudinal steel requirement can be provided.

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

Example of Prestressed Box Design for Shear:

Span of box 31.00M, Grade of Concrete M40, Loading class 70R or Two lane of class A.

Prestressing 10 cable of 19 T 13 and 2 cable of 12 T 13 cross section of box shown below.

Box Section

f ctk.05 2.1

f ctd = = = 1.4MPa

The following are the Design Parameters 1.5 1.5

f ctd.052.1

Allowable tensile stress f ctd = 1.5 = 1.5 = 1.4MPa

Section Sup 9D L/8 L/4 3L/8 L/2

port

Distance in mm 0 1.8 3.88 7.75 11.63 15.5

from support

Cross sectional 6.90 6.90 6.90 5.38 5.14 5.14

area of box m2

CG of Section 1.09 1.09 1.09 1.2 1.22 1.22

form bottom in

m

Cable force 2078 2104 2140 21838 2213 2219

after all losses 4 0 0 6 2

in kN

Vertical 1825 1472 898 365 0 0

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

Component

of prestressing

force in kN

Cable 0.32 0.5 0.62 0.83 0.9 0.91

eccentricity

from CG of

section in m

Average 3012 3049 3101 4059 4307 4318

compressive

stress P/A in

kn/m2

Zt m3 4.16 4.16 4.16 3.99 3.96 3.96

Zb m3 3.5 3.5 3.5 2.68 2.52 2.52

P Pe 1.41 0.52 -0.09 -0.48 -0.72 -

0.78

A Zt

Top fiber stress

due to prestress

in MPa

3

Bottom fiber

stress due to

prestress in

MPa

Inertia in m4

Ultimate shear 5640 5000 4100 3150 1750 620

force in kN

component of

prestress force

in kN

Net shear force 3815 3528 3202 2785 1750 620

in kN

Ultimate 0 9400 1860 31720 3870 4114

moment in kN 6 0 7

due to moment 7 8

kN/m2

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prestresseffect

and applied

moment in MPa

Comparing with uncr Uncr Uncr Uncracke Crac Crac

allowable acke acke acked d ked ked

tensile stress of d d

S= = 2.41 2.415 2.415 1.95 1.88 1.88

moment of the 5

area above CG

about CG in m3

Breadth of web 2(60 1110 1110 2(338-0.5 600 600

bwin mm 0-0.5 x 90) 586

x 90)

=

1110

I bw 2 1.74 1.746 1.746 0.964 0.983 0.98

=m

S 6 3

inkN/m2 .

Note: cpaxial

stress due to

prestress at CG

Shear capacity 4338 4356 4382 2664

in kN Formula not

applicable

section is

cracked.

reinforcement requi requi requir

red red ed

Min Min Min

to be to be to be

Prov Provi Provi

ided ded ded

In case of section not cracked but shear capacity is less than the applied shear adequate shear

reinforcement to be provided. Which is to be based on codal equation 10.28.

If the section is cracked also shear reinforcement need to be provided as the capacity of section

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to resist the shear without shear reinforcement will be virtually negligible due to absence of

sizable amount of tensile reinforcement.

To calculate the shear reinforcement the most important parameter required is lever arm Z

which is obtained form bending analysis.

Analyzing Section 4 4

Assuming the stress in the cable corresponding to the yield strain (Assumption steel yields)

Force in 10 cables of 19T13 = 0.87 x 3492 x 10 = 30380 kN

02 cables of 12T13 = 0.87 x 2205 x 2 = 3837 kN

Total Tensile force = 34217 kN

To balance this tensile force, the NA axis will occur at 0.18M for top

Lever arm = 0.91 + 0.78 - .09 = 1.6M. Note: all cables are provided in one row.

Moment this force can resist = 34217 x 1.6 54747 kNm> 31720M.

For the actual moment the Lever arm will be slightly low. But ignoring this take Z = 1.6 M.

Mean compressive stress at section 4 4 4059 kN/m2. Max allowable compression

.

17866 / 1 1.227 1.23 At = 45

.

= 21.8 = 4290 kN. Actual shear force at section 4-4 is 2785 kN

Shear stress = 2970 / : Taking cot = 21.8 min

. .

As w 2.97 x 293

= = 1.048 mm 2 /mm 10 @ 150 will give = 1.048mm2/mm

s 0.8 x 415 x 2.5

For section 5.5 mean compressive stress = 4307 kN/m2

.

Allowable compressive stress = fcd= 17866 kN/m2 40000

.

0.25

, 1 0.24 1.25

Max allowable shear force = 1.25 x 0.135 x 40000 x 2 x 0.30 x 1.6 = 6480 kN if = 450

It = 21.8 = 1.25 x 0.093 x 40000 x 2 x 0.3 x 1.6 = 4464 kN

Shear force at the section = 1750 kN

1750 2

Shear stress = 2 x 0.3 x 1.6 = 1823 kN / m

As w 1.823 x 300 2

Area of shear reinforcement = = = .0 .66 mm /mm

s 0.87 x 415 x 2.5

Adopting 2L10 @ 200 mm 2L reinforcement provided is =

0.7854 x 2 x 100 2

= 0.785mm / mm

200

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

Hence adopt 10 @ 200: in each web and provide same reinforcement in the next section 6 6

also.

other sections provide minimum reinforcement

. .

Minimum reinforcement = 0.329 /

By examining the capacity at a point 350mm below deck slab. 350 form top (below cantilever)

Prestress effect and Moment effect are shown below.

prestress in 8 3 4

N/mm2 at the

above point

Moment effect 0 +1. +2. +4.4 5.4 5.75

at the above 38 74 4 0

point

Total effect at 2.02 2.8 2.8 5.93 6.9 7.86

the above point 6 7 4

are a of Deck 1 1 0

and Hench

about CG

I bw 2.20 2.2 2.2 1.08 1.0 1.08

s 0 0 6 87 7

= 2188 42 6 7

72 5

The section has more shear resisting capacity than at CG of section. Hence the designer has to

check at other location on the cross section if required in case if there is a doubt that capacity

may work out less than the capacity at the CG of section.

In case of precast segmental construction where there is no bonded prestressing cable in the

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tension chord, the joints will open up after the decompression moment is reached at that

section. The depth of opening will depend upon the depth of flexural compression block. The

prestressing force should be assumed constant after the joint opening.

Clause:

10.3.3.

4

Fig: 10.11 Diagonal Stress Fields across the joint in the Web of Segmental Construction

Shear has to be balanced by the reduced depth. In order to avoid crushing of concrete it shall be

ensured that, the compressive stress should be within allowable limit.

Taking equation 10.8 and substituting z = h reduced and cw = 1.0

(Eq: 10.18)

h reduced arrived form bending analysis shall be substituted and shall be evaluated. If

works out grater than 450, then h reduced shall be increased by applying additional prestress. In

case if works out to be lesser than 450, then the shear reinforcement can be worked out by

substituting the angle.

To avoid local failure adjacent to the joint, the reinforcement should be provided within the

reduced length of h red cot adjacent to the joint.

Taking equation 10.7

VNS = VRDS = cot

cot

This reinforcement shall be provided with a distance h reduced cot but not greater than

segment length. It shall be provided from both the edges of the joint. The opening up of joint

shall be limited to 50% of the depth under the ultimate limit state check for flexure and shear.

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

In case if the section opens up by more than 50% of the depth, the prestressing force shall be

increased.

when concrete elements are cast at different times, shear stresses exist across the construction

joint which is called as interface shear.

This shear stress has to be checked in order to ensure that act fully together. Cl.10.3.4

M + M

M

Cross Section

Fig: 10.12 Inter Face Shear between Web and Deck Slab N. A axisin Flange

The additional force F has to be resisted by shear stress between the section across the

construction joint:

V ED

Shear stress v ED= Z b

i

This is true in case of NA axis lies within the flange assuming the construction joint is at the

top of web. In case if the NA axis lies in the web the force diagram will be as follows.

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

X=

If the force in the flange is F1 and force in the web in F2 the reduction factor X = (ie) the

proportionate shear carried by the flange (matching with the construction joint) with respect

total shear. The corresponding shear stress X VED/ Z bi If F2 = 0 then X = 1. Generally the force

contribution by the web in case of T beams or box girder is small and can be neglected. With

the result X can be taken as 1.0. The shear force taken for checking the interface shear is the

net shear at the section multiplied by ratio of longitudinal flexural force above construction

joint to the total compressive or tensile longitudinal flexural force.

The leaver arm to be considered is to be arrived from the actual stress block for the loading

considered. However the lever arm used to compute the sectional resistance may be used to

simplify the computation.

The first term of the codal equation 10.21 represents the frictional force across the inter face

under the action of normal compressive force which is generally 0 except in case of vertically

prestressed sections and the second term corresponds to the mechanical resistance of

Cl.10.3.5

reinforcement crossing the interface . The shear reinforcement provided in the section and

continued across the interface having the adequate anchorage shall be considered for working

out the reinforcement ratio . In case if the additional reinforcement is required over and above

the shear reinforcement, same shall be provided. The minimum reinforcement required to be

provided across the horizontal interface shear will be 0.15% of interface area.

C 10.3.5Shear in the Flange Portion of Flanged Beam and Box Section

Reference shall be made to fig 10.9 of the code. The longitudinal inplane force generated in the

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flange induces shear stress between at the flange and web junction.

x is the length under consideration and Fd unbalanced inplane shear force between the

section.

The maximum value of X shall be assumed as the half the distance between the zero bending

moment point and maximum bending moment section. When the structure to subjected to

concentrated loads, the length shall not exceed the distance between concentrated loads.

Alternatively shear stress can be calculated using the formula from the previous section

replacing bi by hf. The shear will be carried by web and also by flanges or either side of web.

As we are interested in the shear transmitted by flange alone the following formula can be used

V ED beff of flange on one side

for calculating the shear stress: v ED= Z h x b totaleffectivewidth flange including web

f

hf is the thickness of deck slab. In case if the deck slab is subjected to transverse bending as it

happens in case of beam bridges and box girder bridge then the deck slab thickness shall be

reduced by the depth of concrete in bending zone compression. Though the effects are

occurring in two mutually perpendicular planes, in order to make the analysis simpler, the

above simplification has been suggested.

The maximum compressive stress in the strut shall be checked in order to avoid the crushing of

the compression struts.

vED vfcdsin fcosf

for compression flanges 1.0 cotf 2.0 or 450 f 26.50

for tension flanges 1.0 cotf 1.25 or 450 f 38.600

DRAFT PREPD BY : TV Chapter 10 / 36 OF 62

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Longitudinal shear force at the interface = F

x = L cot F = vED x hf

F = vED L cot hf where vED is the shear stress:

The diagonal compressive strut represents the compressive force in one panel as shown.

Length of the plane Y Y over which the compressive force acting = x cos (90 )

Force the plane can support

= v fcd x cos (90 - ) hf

Substituting for x

= v1fcd L cot cos (90-) hf = v fcdL coshf - (2)

Equating (1) and (2)

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

cos

sin

vED = v fcdcos sin

Assuming the reinforcement is spaced at a spacing of Sf Resolving the longitudinal shear along

the reinforcement.

The force along the reinforcement is Ftan

Incase of combined shear between the flange and the web and transverse bending the area of

steel should be greater of the following.

(1)

(2) Half the above steel plus the steel required for transverse bending.

The flow chart for the design check is presented below.

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

START

D

Calculate, the Longitudinal shear stress vED=Fd/hfxor xRatioeffectivewidthofflanges

Is No

Redesign the section

vRDmax>vED

Yes

Is

The length of flange No Min strut capacity f = 38.6

under consideration is in VRDmin = 0.130 fck (1 fck/ 310)

compression 0.6 x 0.67 x 0.67 x 0.782 x 0.624= 0.130

Yes Yes

Is VRDmin> VED

Min strut capacity

f = 26.50

VRDmin = 0.107 fck (1 fck/ 310)

`

0.6 x 0.67 x 0.67 x 0.895 x 0.446= 0.107 No

No f = 0.5 sin-1vED/0.135 fck

(1 fck/ 310) Yes take

f = 38.6

or cot

Yes Take f = 26.50 or Cot f = 2 Take f f = 1.25

As f hf

Calculate Transverse Reinforcement s = v ED x f

f yd cot f

Fig 10.17 Flow Diagram for the design of flange of T beam and Box

girders

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

C 10.4.1 General

When a slab is subjected to localized concentrated force which acts over a small area the

punchingshear failure can occur. Common examples are, wheel load acting on deck slab, pile Cl.10.4.1

caps over piles open foundations supporting pier and well cap supporting the pier. Punching

shear is resisted by the shear resistance of concrete through the depth of element over a

perimeter. The section covers action of concentrated force over a small area on two

dimensioned elements.

a) At the face of the loaded area.

b) At basic control perimeter.

c) At any other perimeter.

(2) The basic control perimeter U1 to be chosen at a distance of 2d form the face of the

loaded area provided that the applied concentrated load is not opposed by any other

upward pressure offering relief within this distance. d is the average of effective depth

Cl.10.4.2

in both thedirection (ie)

(3) When the loaded area is situated near an edge, or on the edge or at Corner, the control

perimeter shall be calculated based on the Fig 10.11 of code.

(4) The control perimeter should be chosen at a distance less than 2d when the

concentrated force on the loaded area is opposed by high pressure from soil (such as

foundation) or by the effects of a load or reaction with in distance of 2d. The code

suggests that the relief offered by the opposing force should be minimized.

a) At the face of the loaded area b) Along the control perimeter.

The Reason for calculating at the face of the load area is to ensure that concrete strut does not

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DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

get crushed. Incase if the section is unable to salsify the shear capacity then one of the

following actions is to be taken.

i. Increase the depth of slab.

ii. Increase the perimeter of the loaded area.

iii. Increase the grade of concrete

The reason for checking at the control perimeter is to check whether the section can

carry the load without of punching shear reinforcement.

(1) General

The punching shear stress generated on any control perimeter can be calculated using the

following expression

vED =

Cl.10.4.3(1)

VED = Applied shear force

ui = Control Perimeter

d = depth of element

= Factor for Accounting Bending Moment

= 1 For axial load with no bending moment

MEd is the moment and VED is the ultimate shear force on the perimeter.

W1 is the property which corresponds to a distribution of shear as shown in Fig 10.12 of

code andis a function of basic control perimeter u1and axis about which the moment

acts. If the control perimeter change, or the axis about whichthe moment is acting

changes, then the value of W1 will be different.

ui

W1 is defended as W1 = | e | dl

0

e is the distance of dl from the axis about which the moment MED acts.

k is the constant depending the value of C1 and C2. C1 is the dimension of the cross section

perpendicular to the axis of bending and C2 is the dimension parallel to the axis of bending.

is a factor to take care of additional shear generated by moment. The magnitude of the

additional

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

Shear force is dependent on the moment transferred and the distance of the perimeter from

the

loaded area and the shape of the loaded area: The enhancement of shear due to moment

around

the perimeter can be expressed as :

1 1

2 2

4 2 2

2 4 2 2 2 2

= 4 16 2

Substituting in 1

(2) Derivation of W1 for Internal Rectangular Column.

The shear will be distributed along the periphery due to moment.

The control perimeter is 2d away from columns face.

Cl.10.4.3

(2)

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

Cl.10.4.3

(2)

The moment contribution due to shear distributed on the length 1

C 1 C 1 C 12

= 4x x = for length C1

2 4 2

The moment concentrate due to shear distributed on the length 2 for C2

= 2 x C2 2 4 4

/

2d

/

d

/

= / / 2d

= CG from axis =

Length =

=4 4

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

= 2 16

1 1.8

by and bzis the dimension of control parameter fig 10.10 of code.

It is to be understood that ey results moment about Z axis and ez moment about y axis

(3) For internal circular column: the value of can be dived as follows

M ED

As C1 = C2 C1/C2 = 1.0 Hence k = 0.6 V = e

ED

1 0.6

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

Cl.10.4.3

D 2d D

(3)

2d

2d 2d

Control Perimeter

Fig 10.20 Control Perimeter for Circular Column

2 | |

2 /2 sin

2 /2 cos 2 /2 1 1

2 2 /2

4 2 2

2 2 4 2

2 2

4

2 4 2 /2 2 2 /2 4

1 0.6 1 0.6

4 4

(4) For edge columns, when there is no eccentricity the basic control perimeter as shown

shall be used.

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

Cl.10.4.3

(4)

(a) When there is no moment the punching shear stress

were u1 = 2C C 2 .

(b) When the edge column is subjected to a moment with respect to an axis parallel the slab

edge (eccentricity perpendicular to slab edge)and is towards the interior and there is no

eccentricity parallel to the edge.

V ED

The punching shear stress can be estimate using v ED= u d where

2

3 2 2

(c) When the edge column is subjected to moment about both axis and the eccentricity

perpendicular to the slab edge towards interior. shall be determined

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

k may be determined from table with C1/C2 replaced by C1/2C2

W1 is the calculated for the basic control perimeter u1

epar= eccentricity parallel to slab edge causing moment about on axis per perpendicular

to the slab edge. For rectangular columns

W1 can be calculated as follows.

Derivation of W1 for Edge Column

The shear will be distributed along the periphery due to moment and control perimeter

is 2d away from column face.

The moment contributed due to shear distributed on the length 1

C 2 C 2 C 22

= 2x x =

2 4 4

The moment contributed due to shear distributed on the length 2

=2 2 4

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

(d) If the eccentricity is towards exterior then the expression for Eq. 10.25 of code is

valid. However the value of W1 has to be worked out using the eccentricity e measured

from the centroid of the control perimeter.

(5) For rectangular corner column, when there is no eccentricity

V ED

v ED=

u1 d

For rectangular corner column, where the eccentricity is toward of the interior of the Cl.10.4.3

slab, it is assumed that the punching shear stress is uniformly distributed along the (5)

reduced control perimeter.

V ED

v ED=

u 2 d Where u2 = Min of (0.5 C1 + 0.5 C2 + d) or (3d + d)

In the above case if the eccentricity is towards exterior, than the expression for Eq. 10.25

of code is valid

However the value of W1 will have to be worked out. The eccentricity should be measured

from the centroid of the control perimeter.

Slabs without punching shear reinforcement, have to resist the punching shear stress purely by

the tensile strength of concrete which is given by the following expression

0.18

80 0.1 0.1

VRDC is in MPa.

fck is in MPa.

200

1 2.0

/ /

.02 .031

ly, lz relate to the bonded tension steel in y and z directions. Taking a slab width of 3d beyond

the column face on each side the mean value of ly and lzshall be calculated.

2

cy and cz are the axial concrete stress taking compression as positive.

. .

.

NEdy, NEdy are the longitudinal forces. The force may be either due to prestressing or axial

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force.

Acy, Acz are the corresponding cross section area resisting the axial forces.

The punching resistance of column bases for open foundation and pile caps shall be verified at

control perimeters with in 2d from the peipharphy of columns.

This is because the angle of punching cone will be steeper due to the favorable reaction from

the soil. Checking the punching shear on the basic control perimeter ignoring the favorable

reaction from the soil will lead to conservative assumption. when the foundation is subjected

vertical loads only, the net shear force causing punching is calculated by subtracting the net

relief offered by soil.

. .

VED is the applied shear force

VEd is the net upward force with in the control perimeter considered (ie) upward pressure

from soil which shall be reduced by self weight of foundation.

The allowable shear stress in concrete vRD without any punching shear reinforcement

/

2 2

0.12 80

1 2.0 .

a is the distance from the periphery of column to the control perimeter considered.

The shear stress at the control perimeter

V Edred

v ED=

ud

For eccentric loading or subjected to moment

.

1

.

Where k is defined in Eq. 10.25 or 10.30 of code as appropriate and W is similar to W1 for the

control perimeter u.

C 10.4.6 Design of Section for Punching Shear

(1) As it is difficult to provide punching shear reinforcement it is better to avoid this

reinforcement. Hence the capacity of the slab in punching shear should be greater the

applied shear. This can be achieved by ensuring.

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

Cl.10.4.6

Shear stress connected with punching shear are defined as below: (1)

vED: Punching shear stress along the control perimeter.

vRdc: Shear resistance of slab against punching without punching shear reinforcement.

vRdmax : maximum punching shear resistance of slab.

(2) Checking of punching shear stress around loaded area / column perimeters.

Cl.10.4.6

Punching shear stress vED= (2)

For central column =2

For edge column = 3 2

For corner column =3

d = depth of slab

C1 and C2 are dimensions of the loaded area as shown in Fig 10.12 and 10.13 of code.

is the correction factor for application of moment.

= 1 for purely axial load case without bending moment. For column with bending

moment the value to to be calculated as given earlier.

Punching shear stress should be less than the allowable shear stress VRdMax.

The allowable shear stress = vRdmax = 0.5 vfcd.

v = 0.6 1

.

vRdmax = 0.5 x 0.6 1

.

=0.132 1

This provision makes sure that the concrete strut does not crush in punching.

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

START

vRD.max 0.135fck 1

Is vRD.max> vED.max

Yes

Determine

/

2 2

0.12 80

Is vED<vRD * Increasing the thickness of slab

* Increase grade of concrete

* Increase reinforcement

Yes

No shear reinforcement requirement

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

Punching shear worked Examples:

Following are the details

1. Open Foundation : Size 4m x 4m

2. Column : Size 1m x 1m

3. Load on Column : 2000 kN

4. Moment on Column : 1000 kNm

5. Material Properties : fck = 35 MPa fyk = 500 MPa

6. Footing thickness : 0.7 M

2000 6 x 1000

Base pressure on foundation 4 x 4 4

3

2 2

= 125 93.75= 219 kN /m 31 kN/ m

To Resist the bending moment reinforcement provided is : 25 MM @ 200 c/c in both direction.

Reinforcement provided is 24.5cm2/m in each direction:

Effective depth dy = 700 50 25/2 = 637.5 mm

Effective depth for other direct dz = 637.5 25 = 612.5 mm

The effective depth for punching shear calculation

. .

d= 625

2d

= 2 (C1 +C2) + 4 x x 2

= 2 (C1 +C2) + 4 d

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= 11.85m

Area within perimeter = 4 0.625 4 0.625 2 1.00 1.00 1.0 10.908

Relieving Pressure from this area:

on the conservative side

Base Pressure

. .

Average pressure 115.2 /

Net shear force = VED.red = VED VED

VED.red= 2000 1255 = .745kN

2450

% Steel in longitudinal direction = 637.5 x 1000 = 0.00384

2450

% Steel in Transverse direction = 612.5 x 1000 = 0.004

200

1 1.562

625

0.18 /

1.565 80 0.00392 35 0.417

0.5

V min= 0.031 x 1.5653 /2 x 351/ 2= 0.359 MPa

For an Internal columns subject to moment

4 16 2

2

= 1 4 1 0.625 16 0.625 2 0.625 1.0

DRAFT PREPD BY : TV Chapter 10 / 53 OF 62

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.

1

.

11.85 1000 625 745 10 13.17

= 0.100 1 0.724 0.172

As per clause 10.4.2 (4) and 10.4.5 (1) the punching shear should also be verified at a distance

less than 2d. Checking at a section a d distance away from the column face.

Perimeter length u = 2 x 0.625 + 2 (1.0 +1.0) = 7.925m

Area with in this perimeter ( x 0.6252 + 4 x 0.625 x 1.0 + 1.02) = 4.7m2

Relieving Average Pressure: 125 kN/m2

Total upward face = 125 x 4.7 = 587 kN

Net shear force= 2000 587 = 1413 kN

2d

Shear resistance of concrete = 0.417 x a = 0.417 x 2= 0.834 MPa

The value of Wwhat was estimated earlier can not hold good.

as the plane has come closer: the W applicable for this plane is

1. 0 0.625 0.625 0.625

1 1 4 1.0 16 2 1.0

2 2 2 2

= 0.5 1 1.25 3.125 1.963 6.838

.

= 1

.

. .

= 1

. .

Checking the punching shear stress at face of column as per clause 10.4.6.(2)

Wo = 4 x 1.0 = 4.0m

.

Wo = 1.0 1.0 1.5

1 1

. 4000 625 2000 10 1.5 10

= 0.8[1+0.8] = 1.44 MPa

.

Allowable shear stress0.3 1 4.16

.

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C 10.5 Torsion

C 10.5.1 General

When a concrete element is subjected to Torsion the longitudinal fibers are free to undergo

deformation. Torsion can be of classified into Equilibrium Torsion and Compatibility Torsion.

Equilibrium Torsion is that torsional resistance which is required to keep the structure in

equilibrium and is essential for the basic stability of the element or structure. A few example

are canopy cantilevering off an edge beam, Beams/ Box girders curved in plan Element Cl.10.5.1

subjected to Equilibrium Torsion has to be designed for full torsional resistance in the ultimate

limit state.

Compatibility torsion arises out of compatibility of displacement/ rotations to be maintained in

the connected element. Generally it occurs in monolithic construction. Compatibility torsion

can be released without causing collapse. It is not necessary to consider this torsion at ultimate

limit state. At serviceability cracks may occur in the absence of sufficient reinforcement. The

cracked torsional stiffness of elements subjected to torsion is only about 25% of the uncracked

value. Low torsional stiffness significantly reduce torque resisting ability of the beams. Hence

if one ignores the torsional rigidity in the analysis it would not make much difference. To limit

the crack width under limit state of serviceability, check under clause 12.3.5 of code shall be

carried out and suitable reinforcement as per clause 16.5.3 shall be provided.

When the longitudinal fibers are restrained deformation by an external element warping torsion

arises.

The torsional resistance of a closed section may be calculated on the basis of a thin walled

closed section. The equilibrium is satisfied by closed shear flow. Solid sections can be modeled

by equivalent thin walled sections.

In case of complex shapes such as T section the section shall be divided into series of

subsections. The acting torsional moments over subsections can be distributed in proportion to

the uncrackedtorsional stiffness. Each of the subsections can be modeled as thin walled section

and the torsional resistance can be computed.

When hollow sections are modeled as thin walled section, the thickness of section shall be

Cl.10.5.1

taken as A/U which will be neither less than twice the axis distance of longitudinal bars from

the outer surface nor greater than the actual thickness. For conversion of solid section to

equivalent hollow section fig. 10.25 shall be referred to.

In the analysis the torsional stiffness may be based on uncracked sectional stiffness for

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

equilibrium torsion and 25% the uncracked sectional stiffness for compatibility torsion to allow

for torsional cracking.

C 10.5.2 Design Procedures:

The shear stress in a wall of section subjected to pure torsional moment can be divide as

follows:

Shear Flow = q

Cl.10.5.2

Total Torsion Moment that can be resisted is q x b x h + q x h x b = 2qhb

If applied torsion at moment is TED

Then TED = 2qhb

T ED

Shear flow q = 2 hb

T ED

Ak= hb q = 2 Area of core

q T ED

Shear stress = t = 2 A t

efi k efi

T

ED

Shear force in a wall = 2 Area of core x Lengthof wall

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

Ak is the area enclosed by the centre-lines of the connection walls, including inner hollow

areas.

t,i is the torsional shear stress in wall i

tef,i is the effective wall thickness. It may be taken as A/u, but should not be taken as less

than twice the distance between edge and centre of the longitudinal reinforcement. For

hollow sections the real thickness is an upper limit.

A is the total area of the cross-section within the outer circumference, including inner

hollow areas

u is then outer circumference of the cross-section

zi is the side length of wall I defined by the distance between the intersection points with

the adjacent walls

The shear force generated due to torsion shall be calculated using the following formula

angle shall be same as what has been assumed in shear analysis. Cl.10.5.2

T ED (4)

V Torsion= z cot (codal equation 10.7 to get the

2 Ak i Which can be equated to

transverse reinforcement)

whereAst is area of transverse reinforcement in thickness tefi with a spacing

of st.

The transverse reinforcement required shall be arrived based on clause 10.3.3.2 when vertical

strips are provided. It shall be kept in mind that each wall has to be designed separately. The

concrete capacity shall also be checked using the follows equation.

1.0

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TRDMax = 2 vcwfcdAktefisincos.

v is the strength reduction factor cw is the coefficient. Both the factors are as defined in earlier

sections.

shall be taken the same value as assumed in shear design.

In the addition Longitudinal steel also need to be provided for resisting torsion. The

reinforcement can be calculated using the expression.

Cl.10.5.2

fydis the yield strength of longitudinal reinforcement

TED = Torsion applied on the section

= is the angle of compression strut.

The Longitudinal reinforcement generally has to be distributed uniformly along each wall.

However in case of small sections the reinforcement can be concentrated at corners. Designers

can calculate the requirement of this longitudinal reinforcement in a wall and the above

equation can be modified as follows.

cot

2

Where Asl is the total area of longitudinal reinforcement requirement in a wall within the

spacing S of the reinforcement.

The above reinforcement shall be in addition to flexural and shear reinforcement in tensile

zones. In the case of compression zones this longitudinal reinforcement can be reduced in

proportion to the compressive force available in the compression zone. The compression zone

shall be taken as twice cover to the torsional links.

In case of precast segmental construction where there is no continuity of longitudinal

reinforcement, and Tension due torsion and bending exceeds the compression due to prestress

and bending additional tendons to counter the tension need to be provided. The additional

tendons shall be distributed around the precompressed tensile zone inside the closed stirrups.

At lest one tendon shall be placed at each corner .

Warping Torsion

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For closed thin walled sections and solid section warping torsion may be ignored since warping Cl.10.5.

torsion is not necessary for equilibrium. Hence in these sections the torsion is equated to 2.2

St.Venant torsion or circularity torsion. For opens sections having very slender cross section

the warping torsional effects can be evaluated using the reference Roarks Formula for stresses

and strain by W.C Young.

The box girder shown inexample 10.3.3 is subjected to a torsion of 5000 kNm at support.

Design the shear and longitudinal reinforcement.

Ak = (2 0.25) x (5.5 0.6) = 8.57 m2

Codal Equation 10.46

ti =

VEdi=ti x tefi x Zi

Substituting for ti in the above equation

T ED T ED

Vedi= 2 A t x t efi x Z i= 2 A Z i

k efi k

But cot

= 21.80 fyk = 0.8 x 415 = 332 N/mm2

As t 5000 x 10

6

2

= = 0.35mm /m

st 2 x 8.57 x 106 x 332 x 2.5

78.5 x 2

Adopting 2L 10 MM @400 c/c will give a reinforcement of = 0.39mm 2 / m .

400

Longitudinal Reinforcement

5000 10

2.5 2.19 /

2 8.57 10 332

2.19

2 2

on each face 2 = 1.1 mm /mm 12 @ 100 mm c/c will give 1.13 mm /mm

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2 sin cos

40 40 8.575 10 600 0.371 0.928

2 0.6 1 1.0 0.67 33077

310 1.5 10

5000 .

0.150

V ED

15% of allowable torsion the section is carrying. Hence V will workout to 0.85. Hence,

RDC

Similar exercise has to be done for other sections.

I beam is subjected To Torsion of 50 kNm. Design the section for torsion. Concrete is M40

grade. The Reinforcement fykis 415 N/mm2

I idealized section is show below.

Cross Section

As a first step torsional inertia of each rectangular is to be evaluated. The torsional constant can

be obtain from any standard reference books.

Torsional Inertia of Deck Slab.

b

b = 1500mm t = 200mm t = 7.5 k (torsional construct) = 0.305

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1

I x y = 2 x 0.305 x 1500 x 2003 = 18.3 x 108 mm4

As the deck slab is acting in two directions the torsional inertia has been halved.

Torsional Inertia of Top flange:

b

b = 400mm t = 250mm t = 1.6 k = 0.203

Torsional Inertia of web

b

b = 900mm t = 300mm t = 3.0 k = 0.263

Torsional Inertia of Bottom flange

b

b = 600mm t = 350mm t = 1.714 k = 0.207

Total Torsional Inertia of Section = 18.3 x 108 + 12.68 x 108 + 63.9 x 108 +53.25 x 108 =

148.13 x108

The torsion will be shared in preparation to the torsional stiffness.

18.3

Deck slab TED 148.13 x 50 = 6.2 kNm

12.68

Top flange TED 148.13 x 50 = 4.28 kNm

63.9

Web TED 148.13 x 50 = 21.57 kNm

53.25

Bottom Flange TED 148.13 x 50 = 17.97 kNm

Deck slab torsion should be combined with Deck slab design.

Effective thickness of the members can be found as follows.

For top flange

76.9 .

But this thickness should not be taken less than 2 twice the distance of longitudinal bar from

the surface [effective cover].

Taking cover as 40mm dia for longitudinal and transverse bars of 10mm.

Effective cover 40 + 10 + 5 = 55m.Twice the 110mm.

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Ak = (400 110) (250 110) = 40600mm2

The value of will be same as what has been worked out in shear analysis. However for

simplicity assume = 450

4.28 10

0.1587 /

2 cot 2 40600 332 1

Adopt 8M @ 300 two legged stirrup = Reinforcement provided

= 50/300 = 0.166mm2/mm

Longitudinal reinforcement = cot . Since = 450 reinforcement will be same.

The can be provided at corner of links instead of distributing it throughout the section.

40 40 1 1 1

2 0.6 1 1.0 0.67 40600 110 41.67

310 1.5 2 2 10

4.28

.

0.102 (ie) 10% has been stressed against crushing strength against torsion.

.

Design of Web:

Thickness 112.5

300 112.5 900 112.5 147656

21.57 10

0.22 / 45

cot 2 147656 352 1

The reinforcement in each vertical leg is to be combined with shear reinforcement and

provided. The same amount of longitudinal steel to be provided as has been taken as 450

Torsion Resisting Capacity

2 sin cos

. .

= 2 0.6 1 155

.

=155 21.57

Similarly bottom flange can be analyzed.

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

SECTION 11.

ULTIMATE LIMIT STATE OF INDUCED DEFORMATION (3rd DRAFT)

11.1 GENERAL

(1). This Section deals with structural members and structures whose load deformation

behaviour and ultimate capacity is significantly affected by second order effects.

Second order effects are additional action effects caused by the interaction of axial

forces and deflections under load (Refer Fig. 11-0). First order deflections cause

additional moments which in turns lead to further deflections. Some times these effects

are also called P- effects as they are the products of axial forces and deflections of

the elements or system. Normally second order effects are calculated by second order

analysis.

Second order analysis is not commonly used by engineers due to complexities involved

in the analysis. A significant disadvantage of second order analysis is:

a) The principle of superposition is not valid in second order analysis and all actions

must be applied to the bridge together with all their respective load and combination

factors.

b) The flexural rigidity (EI) of the reinforced concrete structure is not constant. EI

reduces with increasing moment due to cracking

The code has given relaxation in cases where second order effects are less than 10%

of the first order effects. In such cases, second order analysis can be done away with,

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to the extent possible by following the alternative methods and provisions as given

below under para (4) & (5) and clause 11.2.1 (in case of isolated members of uniform

cross section).

Second order effects are more pronounced in slender compressive elements. The well

known elastic buckling theory by Euler determines the extent of slenderness and

quantum of second order effects. The elastic buckling itself has little relevance in the

design, however the same gives good indication about the susceptibility to second order

effects and can be used as a parameter in determining second order effects from the

results of first order analysis as explained in section 11.3.2

Majority of commercially available structural softwares has the capability to carry out

second order analysis. In the second order analysis, in addition to the invalidity of the

principle of superposition the flexural rigidity of reinforced concrete structures, EI is not

constant. As the moment increases for the same load, EI reduces due to cracking of

concrete and inherent non-linearity in the concrete stress-strain response also

increases. Thus it involves both geometry and material non-linearity for RC elements

and has to be taken in to account while choosing the method for 2nd order analysis.

The slender piers of the bridges are commonly affected by 2nd order analysis while the

provisions related to same are also applicable to other slender members with significant

axial loads like pylons and decks of cable supported bridges.

(3) Where there are significant second order effects, these must be taken in to account

in the analysis by linear elastic method in conjunction with further maginification of

moments and reduced stiffness properties accounting for cracking and creep.

However, as per the clause 7.3 and 7.2 at the ultimate limit states, section properties

are used similar to that of serviceability limit states. It is interesting to observe that

second order analysis based on nominal stiffness which are considered in Euro and

other codes are not considered in this standard as they are not conservative since they

include cracked section properties for the load cases where there are applied

deformations from temperature, settlement and shrinkage. (Explanation in this para

not clear Needs further elaboration)

Since a fully un-cracked elastic analysis is generally conservative (as it does not lead to

redistribution of moment away from the most highly stressed, and therefore cracked,

areas), an uncracked elastic global analysis is adequate to comply with the serviceability

limit state as per this standard. This also avoids the need to consider tension stiffening.

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

11.2.1 Slenderness Criteria for Isolated Members (Columns) of Uniform Cross-Section

While determining the second order effects by simplified methods instead of non-

linear second order computer analysis, the effective length concept can be used to

determine slenderness. On determination of slenderness, the requirement of second

order analysis itself may be deduced. According to clause 11.2.1 (1), the

slenderness ratio is defined as = le/i where le is effective length and i is the

radius of gyration of the uncracked concrete section.

The clause 11.2.1 (2) provides a simplified criteria when second order analysis is

not required by limitation of slenderness value as follows:

n= N Ed / ( Ac f cd ) is the relative normal force. As the axial force n becomes greater,

the section becomes more susceptible to development of second order effects and,

consequently limiting slenderness value become lower. Higher limiting slenderness

can be achieved where:

there is low creep ( because the stiffness of the concrete part of the member

in compression is then higher)

there is a high percentage of reinforcement( because total member stiffness

is then less affected by the cracking of the concrete)

the location of the peak first order is not the same as the location of peak

second order moment.

11.2.2 Effective Length (height) and Slenderness Ratio of Columns and Piers with

Bearings

This clause gives methods for calculating effective lengths for isolated members. On the

basis of end conditions multiplication factors for calculating effective lengths are given

in Table 11.1 of the code. The cases from (2) to (7) assume that the foundations

providing the rotational stiffness at the bottom are infinitely stiff. In reality, the same is

not the case as such the effective lengths for the rigid restraints will always be

somewhat greater. Thus the clause 11.2.2 (1) gives methods of accounting for rotational

flexibility by equation 11.2 and 11.3 in the code which are reproduced here below.

For compression members in regular frames, the effective length le is determined

in the following way:

Braced Members:

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

k1 k2

le = 0.5lo 1 + * 1 +

0.45 + k1 0.45 + k 2

Unbraced members:

k .k k k

le = lo * max of 1 + 10. 1 2 ; 1 + 1 * 1 + 2

k1 + k 2 1 + k1 1 + k 2

Where

k1, k2 are the relative flexibilities of rotational restraints at ends 1 and 2 respectively.

k=

( ) . EI

M lo

/ M = is the rotation of restraining members at a joint for unit bending moment M

EI = is the bending stiffness of compression member

Io = is the clear height of compression member between end restraints.

For the unbraced members with rotational restraint at both ends, the second equation

above can be used. Quick inspection of this equation shows that the theoretical case of

a member with ends built in rigidity for moment (k1 = k2 = 0), but free to sway in the

absence of positional restraint at one end, gives the effective length l0 = l

It is the relative rigidity of restraint to flexural stiffness of the compression member i.e.

important in determining effective length. Consequently, using the uncracked value of

stiffness for the pier will be conservative as the restraint will have to be relatively stiffer

to reduce the buckling length to a given value. This also is in line with the definition of

radius of gyration, i, given in the clause 11.2.1 (1) which is based on the uncracked

section. However the note 1 under the clause 11.1.1 (1) requires that the cracking

needs to be considered in determining the stiffness of a restraint, such as reinforced

concrete pier base, if it significantly affects the overall stiffness of restraint offered to the

pier. It is seen that quite often the overall stiffness is governed by the soil stiffness

rather than Reinforced Cement Concrete element.

The second note under the same clause recommends that minimum value of the k

should be taken as 0.1, even if the joint is fully restrained, since fully rigid restraint is

rare in practice. Example of such application is integral bridges, where the top of the pier

is connected to deck. The value of the end stiffness to use for piers in integral

construction can be determined from a plane frame model by deflecting the pier to give

the deflection relevant to the mode of buckling and determining the moment and rotation

produced in the deck at the connection to the pier. The clause 11.2.2 (2) also provides

for the elastic buckling method described below which could be used to determine the

effective length more directly.

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The cases shown in the illustration above do not permit any rigidity of positional restraint

in sway cases. If significant lateral restraint is available, as might be the case in an

integral bridge where one pier is very much stiffer than the other ignoring this restraint

will be very conservative as the most flexible piers may actually be braced by the stiffer

one. In such cases elastic critical buckling analysis carried out by computers give

reduced value of effective length.

Effective lengths can also be arrived at for piers in integral bridges having varying

stiffness. In such cases the buckling load as well as effective length of any of the piers

depends upon the load and the geometry of the other piers too. All piers may sway in

symphony and may act as unbraced or single pier or abutment may prevent the sway

and give braced behavior for other piers (refer Fig 11-1.). The analytical method could

also be carried out for such situations to deduce accurate effective lengths by applying

coexisting loads to all columns and increasing all loads proportionately until a buckling

mode involving the pier of interest is found, then the buckling load is the axial load in the

member of interest at buckling.

11.3.1 General

(1). For the reasons explained in the clause 11.1 (1) above, it is essential that 2nd

order analysis with axial load for RCC sections realistically models material non-

linearity as well as geometric. This clause provides a general method based on non-

linear analysis, which allows for both these sources of non-linearity.

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

example of cantilevering pier depicted by Fig 11-2. The moment-curvature

relationship for a section under a specific axial load, P, can be determined and used

to produce a moment-deflection curve for the member by relating curvature directly

to displacement. For a cantilevering pier, an approximate relationship can be

obtained by assuming the maximum moment at the base of the pier acting over the

full member height. This leads to a deflection = kL2 /2 where k is the curvature at

the base of the pier. From equilibrium, the total applied moment = M0 + P where M0

is the first order moment including moment from imperfections. This can be plotted

on pier resistance moment deflection curve as shown in Fig 11-3 and used to find

the equilibrium and compatibility. Equilibrium is achieved at the stable equilibrium

position, as shown in the figure. Structural analysis packages perform a similar

process to the above within the lengths of the members, so approximate

relationships between moments and deflections as above are not required.

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

(2). For the isolated members, the code recognises the method based on nominal

curvature which is explained in detail in the clause 11.3.2. However, the elastic

theory based analysis i.e. nominal stiffness method which has elaborated in other

international standards is done away with in this code.

(3). While the earlier clauses illustrate the structural behaviour in general, it does not

give guidance regarding the material properties to be used in the analysis. This

clause states that only stress-strain curves for concrete and steel should be suitable

for overall analysis and should take creep in to account. The resistance of local

sections are governed by design values of the material strengths while, arguably,

the overall behavior will be most similar to that produced with mean material

strengths. It is normally required that realistic stiff nesses are to be used in the

analysis, as described in clause 11.3, and this leads to the lengthy verification

format described therein, which can be used for second-order analysis. An

alternative allowed by clause 11.3.1 (3) is to use design values of material properties

(as given in Annexure A 2.7) throughout the analysis so that, if equilibrium and

compatibility are attained in the analysis, no further local design checks are required.

This is conservative where all applied actions are external forces as the resulting

deflections (and hence P - effects) will be greater because of the uniformly

reduced stiff nesses implicit in the method. In this case, it will also be conservative to

neglect the effects of tension stiffening. However, the clause is silent on the effects

of tension stiffening.

(4). If design properties are used, the stress-strain relationships given in 6.4.3.5(4)

for concrete and 6.2.2 for reinforcing steel can be used. Creep may be accounted

for by multiplying all strain values in the above concrete stress-strain diagram by a

factor (1 + ef), where ef is the effective creep ratio. The analysis would be

performed using the design combination of actions relevant to the ultimate limit

state. When this procedure is followed, no further checks of local sections are

required, as strength and stability are verified directly by the analysis. Care is

needed, however, where there are indirect actions (imposed displacements) as a

stiffer overall system may attract more load to the critical design section, despite the

reduction in P - effects. A sensitivity analysis could be tried in such cases.

11.3.2.1 General

The method of clause 11.3.2 is based on similar theory to the slender column method in

BS 5400 Part 4 in that an estimate of the maximum possible curvature is used to

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calculate the second-order moment. 11.3.2.1 notes that the method is primarily intended

for use with members that can be isolated from the rest of the bridge, whose boundary

conditions can be represented by an effective length applied to the member. The first-

order moment, including that from initial imperfections, is added to the moment from the

additional maximum deflection according to the expression in 11.3.2.2 (1). (This differs

from the method in BS 5400 where initial imperfections are not considered.)

Where:

M0Ed is the first-order moment, including the effect of imperfections

M2 is the estimated (nominal) second-order moment

The additional second-order moment is given as follows:

The additional second-order moment is given as follows:

M2 = NEde2

M2 is determined by calculating e2 from the estimated curvature at failure, 1/r, according

to the formula, e2 = (1/r)l20 / c. c depends on the distribution of curvature in the column.

The definition of c differs from c0 used in nominal stiffness method (which is not covered

in this code) as it depends on the shape of the total curvature, not just the curvature

from first-order moment. For sinusoidal curvature, c = 2 and for constant curvature, c =

8.

with rigid foundations and hence l0 = 2L. For constant curvature, 1/r, the deflection is

obtained by integration of the curvature as follows:

= L0 x0 (1/r) dx dx = (1/r) L2 / 2

From the above formula for e2, with c = 8 and lo = 2L, the deflection is:

which is the same result as that in the earlier equation, = L0 x0 (1/r) dx dx = (1/r) L2 / 2

The value of c = 2 is recommended in 11.3.2.2 (4) but care should again be taken when

reinforcement is curtailed continuously to match the moment capacity envelope. In that

situation, it will be more appropriate to use c = 8

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

11.3.2.3 Curvature

The value of curvature 1 / r depends on creep and the magnitude of the applied axial

load. For members with constant symmetrical cross-section (including reinforcement) it

can be determined according to 11.3.2.3 (1)

1/r = KrK 1/r0

where:

1/r0 is the basic value of curvature, discussed below

Kr is a correction factor depending on axial load, discussed below

K is a factor for taking account of creep, discussed below

sections with symmetric reinforcement. The latter implies that the reinforcement in

compression is considered in the stiffness calculation. No criteria are given for the

detailing of reinforcement in compression to enable its contribution to stiffness to be

considered. Criteria for the detailing of compression bars to enable their use in the

cross-section resistance calculation are, however, given in the following clauses:

Beams (Refer clause 16.5.1.1 (2) )

Columns (Refer clause 16.2.3 (8) )

Walls (Refer clause 16.3.2 (1) )

These requirements are discussed under the relevant clauses. The rules for columns,

in particular, require compression bars in an outer layer to be held by links if they are to

be included in the resistance check. It is, however, not considered necessary here to

provide such links in order to consider the contribution of reinforcement in compression

to the stiffness calculation. This apparent incompatibility is justified by the conservative

nature of the methods of clause 11.3.2 compared to a general non-linear analysis and

the similar approach taken in other codes for composite columns. If there is specific

concern over the adequacy of the restraint to compression bars, the suggested

curvature 1/r0 = (yd + c) / h discussed later below could be used as a more

conservative value.

The curvature 1/r0 is based on a rectangular beam with symmetrical reinforcement and

strains of yield in reinforcement at each fibre separated by a lever arm z = 0.9d, where d

is the effective depth (the compression and tension reinforcement thus being considered

to reach yield). Hence the curvature is given by:

1/r0 = yd

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0.45d

This differs from the method in BS 5400 Part 4, where curvature was based on steel

yield strain in tension and concrete crushing strain at the other fibre. Despite the

apparent reliance on compression reinforcement to reduce the final concrete strain, the

results produced will still be similar to those from BS 5400 Part 4 because:

(1) The moment from imperfections has to be added in this code.

(2) The strain difference across the section is less in BS 5400 Part 4, but it occurs

over a smaller depth (not the whole cross-section depth) thus producing

proportionally more curvature.

For situations where the reinforcement is not just in opposite faces of the section, d is

taken as h/2 + is in accordance with 11.3.2.3 (2) where is is the radius of gyration of the

total reinforcement area. This expression is again only applicable to uniform symmetric

sections with symmetric reinforcement.

No rule is given where the reinforcement is not symmetrical. One possibility would be to

determine the curvature from similar assumptions to those used in BS 5400 part 4.

These are that the tension steel yields at yd and the extreme fibre in compression

reaches its failure strain c, so the curvature 1/r0 would be given approximately by:

1/r0 = (yd + c) /h

Where h is the depth of the section in the direction of bending (used as an

approximation to the depth to the outer reinforcement layer). The concrete strain can

conservatively be taken as c= cu2. If the above expression is used, the factor Kr below

should be taken as 1.0.

Kr is a factor which accounts for the reduction in curvature with increasing axial load and

is given as (nu n) / (nu nbal) <1.0.nu is the ultimate capacity of the section under

axial load only, Nu, divided by Acfcd. Nu implicitly includes all the reinforcement area, As,

in calculating the compression resistance such that Nu = Acfcd + Asfyd so that

Acfcd Acfcd

As given in clause 11.3.2.3 (3) nbal is the value of design axial load, divided by Acfcd,

which would maximize the moment resistance of the section see Fig 11-4

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

The clause allows a value of 0.4 to be used for nbal for all symmetric sections. In other

cases, the value can be obtained from a section analysis. Kr may always be

conservatively taken as 1.0 (even though for n < nbal it is calculated to be greater than

1.0), and this approximation will usually not result in any great loss of economy for

bridge piers unless the compressive load is unusually high.

K is a factor which allows for creep and is given by 11.3.2.3 (4) as follows:

K = 1 + ef > 1.0

where:

ef is the effective creep ratio.

= 0.35 + fck / 200 / 150 and is the slenderness ratio.

For braced members (held in position at both ends) which do not have transverse

loading, an equivalent first-order moment for the linearly varying part of the moment may

be used according to 11.3.3.2 (2). The final first-order moment M0Ed should comprise the

reduced equivalent moment from M0e=0.6 M02 +0.4M01 0.4 M02 (Eq 11.15 in the code)

added to the full first-order moment from imperfections.

The effects of slenderness for columns bent biaxially are most accurately determined

using non-linear analysis, as discussed in section 11.3 of this explanatory note. The

provisions of this clause apply when simplified methods have been used.

The approximate methods described in clauses 11.3.2 can also be used for the case of

biaxial bending. The second-order moment is first determined separately in each

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

necessary to consider imperfections in one direction, but the direction should be chosen

to determine the most unfavourable overall effect.

For details of the use of simplified methods for biaxial moment taking second order

deformation into account, reference is made to clause 8.3.2. This allows the interaction

between the moments to be neglected (i.e. consider bending in each direction

separately) if the slenderness ratios in the two principle directions do not differ by more

than a factor of 2 and the relative eccentricities satisfy one of the criteria in 8.3.2 (3)

(Eq 8.1 in the code, not reproduced here). Where this is not satisfied, the moments in

the two directions (including second-order effects) must be combined, but imperfections

only need to be considered in one direction such as to produce the most unfavourable

conditions overall. Section design under the biaxial moments and axial force may be

done either by a rigorous cross-section analysis using the strain compatibility method by

simple interaction provided in 8.3.2 (4) (Eq 8.3 in the code not reproduced here).

Where the method of nominal curvature is used (Clause 11.3.2) is used, it is not

explicitly stated whether a nominal second-order moment, M2, should be considered in

both orthogonal directions simultaneously, given that the section can only fail in one

plane of bending. M2, however, can be significant in both directions.

From above, a case could be made for considering M2 only in the direction that gives

the most unfavourable verification. For circular columns, it is possible to take the vector

resultant of moments in two orthogonal directions, thus transforming the problem into a

uniaxial bending problem with M2 considered only in the direction of the resultant

moment. In general, however, it is recommended here that M2 conservatively be

calculated for both directions, as was practice in BS 5400 Part 4. Bending should then

be checked in each direction independently, and then biaxial bending should be

considered (with M2 applied in both directions together unless second-order effects can

be neglected in one or both directions in accordance with 11.1 (5) or 11.2, if 8.3.2 (3)

(Eq 8.1 of the code) is not fulfilled. Imperfections should only be considered in one

direction. In many cases, M2 will not be very significant for bending about the major

axis, as the curvature from equation 1/r0 = yd / 0.45d and hence nominal second-order

moment, is smaller for a wider section.

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

11.4.1 General

The clause 11.4.1 (1) requires the designer to consider lateral instability of slender

concrete beams. The instability referred to involves both lateral and torsional

displacement of the beam when subjected to bending about the major axis. Such

instability needs to be considered for both erection and finished conditions, but is only

likely to be a potential problem for concrete bridge beams during transportation or

erection before they are sufficiently braced (by deck slab and diaphragms, for example)

within the final structure.

The clause 11.4.1 (3) defines geometric conditions to be satisfied so that second-order

effects from the above mode of buckling can be ignored. These limits are not applicable

where there is axial force (such as due to external prestressing), as the axial force leads

to additional second-order effects as discussed in section 11.1 (1). It is recommended

that sections are generally designed to be within these limits to avoid the complexity of

verifying the beam through second-order analysis. The limits should be met for most

practical beam geometries used in bridge design with the possible exception of edge

beams with continuous integral concrete parapets. Where such up stands are outside

the geometric limits but have been ignored in the ultimate limit state checks of the edge

beam, engineering judgement may often be used to conclude that the up stand is

adequate. (Some care would still be required in the verification of cracking in the up

stand.)

If the simple requirements of clause 11.4.1 (3) are not met, then second-order analysis

needs to be carried out to determine the additional transverse bending and torsional

moments developed. Geometric imperfections must be taken into account and clause

11.4.1 (2) requires a lateral deflection of l/300 to be assumed as a geometric

imperfection, where l is the total length of the beam. It is not necessary to include an

additional torsional imperfection as well. Any bracing, whether continuous from a deck

slab or discrete from diaphragms, should be included in the model. Such analysis is

complex as it must allow for both the non-linear behavior of the materials and the

geometric non-linearity of the instability type, for which finite element modeling (with

shell elements) would be required.

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

Regardless of the method used, the supporting structures and restraints must be

designed for the resulting torsion as per clause 11.4.1 (4)

proportioned that the clear distance between lateral restraints does not exceed 60 be or

2

be

250 , whichever is the lesser,

d

where

d is the effective depth to tension reinforcement.

be is the breadth of the compression face of the beam midway between

restraints.

(b) For cantilevers with lateral restraint provided only at the support, the clear distance

from the free end of the cantilever to face of the support should not exceed 25bc

2

100bc

or , whichever is the lesser.

d

The above two simple criteria are chosen from IRC :21 and IS: 456. These two criteria

alone do not necessarily ensure the lateral stability of slender beams, especially for

Prestressed Concrete Slender beams. The lateral stability aspects of PSC slender

beams has been discussed in detail in the IRC paper no.524 Design and Construction

of Pre tensioned Sutlej Bridge in Punjab. The paper gives guidelines for calculating

Factor of Safeties for lateral stability of slender beams as such the reference may be

made to the paper for ensuring the lateral stability of the slender beams.

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

A bridge pier with free-sliding bearing at the top is 27.03m tall and has cross-section

dimensions, as shown in Fig :11-5. The pier base has a foundation flexibility (representing the

rotational flexibility of the pile group and pile cap) of 6.976 x 10-9 rad / kNm. The short term E

for the concrete is Ecm = 35 x 103 MPa. Calculate the effective length about the minor axis.

The inertia of the cross-section about the minor axis = 3.1774 m4 so:

I 27.03

At the base of the pier, k1 = ( / ) . ( / l) = 6.976 x 10-9 x 4.114 x 106 = 28.7 x 10-3. This is

less than lowest recommended value of 0.1 given in 11.2.2 However, as the stiffness above

was derived using lower-bound soil properties and pile cap stiffness, the stiffer calculated value

of k will be used.

0.0287 + 1 + 0.0287 1+

= I x max (1.13;2.06)

= 2.06I

The effective length is therefore close to the value of 2l for a completely rigid support.

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

The bridge pier in Worked example 1 has concrete with cylinder strength 40 MPa and carries

an axial load of 31 867 kN. Calculate the slenderness about the minor axis and determine

whether second-order effects may be ignored. Take the effective length as 2.1 times the

height.

The inertia of the cross-section about the minor axis = 3.1774 m4. The area of the cross-

section = 4.47 m2. The limiting slenderness is determined from 11.2.1 (2)/Eq. 11.1 as follows:

Since the split of axial load into short-term and long-term is not given, the recommended value

of A = 0.7 will be conservatively used as discussed in the main text. The reinforcement ratio is

also not known at this stage, so the recommended value of B = 1.1. Since the pier is free to

sway, this is an unbraced member and benefit cannot be taken from the moment ratio at each

end of the pier. Hence C = 0.7 (which also corresponds to equal moments at each end of a pier

that is held in position at both ends).

4.47 x 106 x 22.67

Hence from 11.2.1 (2)/Eq. 11.1, lim = 20 x 0.7 x 1.1 x 0.7 / 0.31 = 19.4. The radius of gyration

of the pier cross-section i = 0.84m and the effective length l0 = 2.1 x 27.03 = 56.763m so the

slenderness = 56 763 / 843 = 67.3 >> 19.4.

Second-order effects cannot therefore be ignored for this pier.

The pier of Worked example 1 & 2 is subjected to a 31 867 kN axial load and a 1366 kN lateral

load about the minor axis at the ultimate limit state. The main vertical reinforcement is 136 no.

32mm diameter bars with yield strength 460 MPa (less than the standard 500 MPa). The

effective creep ratio ef for this particular load case is 1.0 and Ecm = 35 x 103 MPa. Calculate

the final moment at the base of pier.

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

Since the section is symmetrical (with respect to cross-section and reinforcement), the method

of 11.3.2 can be used without modification. The radius of gyration, is, of the reinforcement was

found to be 845 mm so the effective depth, d, is found from 11.3.2.3 (2)/Eq 11.18:

reinforcement in section 11.3.2 above.)

The curvature 1/r0 is then calculated from 11.3.2.3 (1)/Eq 11.17:

0.45d 0.45 X 2095

Since the relative axial force n = 0.314 (from Worked example 2), which is less than nbal which

may be taken as 0.4, Kr will be greater than 1.0 according to the formula 11.3.2.3 (3)/Eq

11.19and should therefore be taken equal to 1.0.

In order to calculate K , the parameter must first be calculated taking the slenderness

200 150 200 150

The nominal curvature according to 11.3.2.3 (1)/Eq 11.17 is then:

The effective length for buckling l0 = 2.1 x 27.03 = 56.763m and c = 2 for a sinusoidal

distribution of curvature. From 11.3.2.2 (3)/Eq 11.16

e2 = (1/r)l2o/c = 2.33 x 10-6 x 56 7632 / 2 = 761 mm

The initial imperfection displacement at the pier top is obtained from as l . i = l . 0 . h, where

recommended value is 1/200. In this example, the lower limit of h > 2 / 3 was applied to allow

greater tolerance on site, Therefore:

l . I = 27030 . 1 . 2 = 90mm

200 3

The first-order moment at the base M0Ed = 136 X 27.030 + 31 867 X 0.09 = 39 791 kNm.

The final moment including second-order effects is given by 11.3.2.2 (1)/Eq 11.4

Med = M0Ed + M2 = 39 791 + 24 251 = 64 042 kNm

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

The pier should also be checked about the major axis for the moments arising from initial

imperfections and the nominal second-order moment. The check of biaxial bending should be

carried out as discussed in section 11.3.4, but imperfections should only be considered in one

direction.

Bibliography

(1) C R Hendy and D A Smith, Designers Guide to EN 1992-2, Thomas telford, 2006

(2) CEB-FIP Model code 1990 : Design Code (For concrete structures)

(3) Eurocode 2 : Design of Concrete structures : 1992-1-1:2004

(4) V N Heggade, R K Mehta & R Prakash, Design & Construction of Pre tensioned Sutlej

bridge Punjab, Paper no.524, volume 67-2, July-September 2006, Journal of the Indian

Roads Congress.

(5) British Standards Institution (1990), steel, concrete and composite Bridges Part 4 : code

of practice for the Design of Concrete Bridges, London, BSI 5400.

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

SECTION 12

conditions. The probability of failure under this condition is

high.

durability of structure, its appearance, its tightness etc but may

lead to limited retrofittable damages. Excessive deflections may

cause damage to non structural elements and walls resulting in

ugly appearance and inefficient use. Vibrations can cause

discomfort, alarm or loss of functionality, however the same is

not covered under this section.

be assumed for stress and deflection calculation provided that

the flexural tensile stress under the relevant combination of

actions considered does not exceed ct,eff. ct,eff may be taken

as either ctm or ctm,fl but should be consistent with the value

used in the calculation of minimum tension reinforcement.

stiffening effects, ctm should be used. Where the maximum

tensile stress in the concrete calculated on the basis of

uncracked section exceeds fctm or fctm. fl, the crack state should

be assumed. Where the section is assumed to be uncracked,

whole concrete section is considered to be active and both

concrete and steel are assumed to be elastic, both in tension

and compression.

Cl. 12.2

Stress

limitation

avoiding excessive compression, producing irreversible strains

and longitudinal cracks (parallel to the compressive strains).

This clause addresses longitudinal cracking by requiring the

stress level under the rare combination of actions to not exceed

a limiting value of 0.48 fck..

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

quasipermanent combination, if the compressive stress in

concrete exceeds 0.36 fck non-linear model should be used for

the assessment of creep which is given in Annexure A2 of the

standard. Creep effects in cracked cross section may be taken

in to account by assuming modular ratio as 15 for situations

where more than 50% of stress arises out of quasi-permanent

actions. Otherwise they may be ignored.

combination of loads, the tensile stress in the reinforcement

does not exceed 0.8 fyk. Where the stress is only due to

imposed deformations, a stress of 1.0 fyk shall be acceptable.

prescribed in clause 7.9.2 after allowance for losses. Stress

verification should be carried out for partially prestressed

members as there could be fatigue issues.

12.3

Limit state

of cracking

not impair the serviceability and durability of the structure.

due to tension, bending, shear and torsion which is a result of

either direct loading or restraint of imposed deformations. This

may not necessarily impair serviceability or durability.

chemical reactions accompanied by expansion of hardened

concrete. The avoidance and control of width of such cracks

are covered in section 14.

Design crack widths can be specified to satisfy requirements of

functionality, durability and appearance.

chosen such that cracking does not impair the functioning of

the structure. Cracking normally impairs the function of the

structure by either helping to initiate reinforcement corrosion or

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

influence on the time to initiation of reinforcement corrosion.

Noticeable cracking in structures causes concern to the public

and it is therefore prudent to limit crack widths to a size that is

not readily noticeable. The above considerations have led to

the crack width limitations specified in Table 12.1.

recommended to be performed under the quasi-permanent

load combination. This effectively excludes traffic for highway

bridges when the recommended value of 2 = 0 is used. The

quasi-permanent combination does, however, include

temperature. In checking crack widths in reinforced concrete

members, only the secondary effects of temperature difference

need to be considered as discussed in section 12.2 above. For

bonded prestressed members, however, the self-equilibriating

stresses should also be included in decompression checks.

cracking or re opening of cracks have to be avoided for a given

combination.The margin between zero stress and tensile

strength may also be reserved for self equilibrating stresses not

quantified in the analysis. In flexure of a beam the state of

decompression is reached when the section under

consideration is compressed and extreme fibre concrete stress

is equal to zero.

stresses occur in any concrete within a certain distance,

recommended to be 100mm, of the tendon or its duct. This

ensures that there is no direct crack path to the tendon for

contaminants. The 100 mm requirement is not a cover

requirement. It simply means that if the cover is less than 100

mm, it must all be in compression. Tensile stresses are

permitted in the cover as long as the concrete within 100 mm of

the tendons or ducts is in compression. If, in checking

decompression, the extreme fibre is found to be cracked, the

check of decompression at the specified distance from the

tendons becomes iterative.

involved, gross properties have to be taken in to consideration

for calculating crack width and self equilibrating stress. For

cracked sections, the analysis to determine self-equilibriating

stresses is complicated and highly iterative. However, since

cracking results in a reduction in stiffness of section, cracking

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

induced by temperature. It is therefore generally satisfactory to

ignore temperature-induced self-equilibriating stresses in

cracked sections and to consider only the secondary effects.

treated like RCC member as in the clause above for crack

width calculations. However, for prestressed members where

decompression is being checked (and therefore sections are

expected to be substantially un cracked), like in bonded

tendons, both primary and secondary effects should, however,

be included in the calculation of stresses

in the clause 12.3.4 below. If the bar spacings and sizes are

adopted in accordance with the clause 12.3.5 below, it is not

necessary to calculate the crack widths as crack control criteria

is deemed to be satisfied by adopting this clause.

required to control cracking in areas where tension due to

external loadings is expected. The amount of such

reinforcement may be estimated from equilibrium between the

tensile force in concrete just before cracking and tensile force

in steel at yielding.

are that the reinforcement remains elastic.If the steel yields

excessive deformation will occur at the location of the crack as

such formulae used in the calculation would get rendered

invalid.

for the member to crack is Ncr = Acctm, where Ncr is the

cracking load, Ac, is the area of concrete in tension and ctm is

the mean tensile strength of the concrete. The strength of the

reinforcement is Asyk. To ensure that distributed cracking

develops, the steel must not yield when the first crack forms

hence:

Asyk > Acctm

(2) The above equation needs to be modified for the stresses

other than uniform tension. When the section is subjected

flexure for example, the stresses vary across the depth

reducing tension consequently the requirement of

reinforcement. Thus a value of Kc is introduced in the above

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

account for self equilibrating stresses arising out of variation in

strain along the depth of the member. The shrinkage and

temperature difference are the common cause of non-linear

strain variation. For instance surface shrinkage occurs faster

than interior and similarly the surface which gets heated up

faster also cools faster than interiors. As the self equilibrating

stresses causes tension at extreme fibres requiring lower

cracking load. Thus reduces the reinforcement requirement for

lower cracking load and enables distribution of cracks. The

factor k therefore reduces the reinforcement necessary where

self-equilibriating stresses can occur. These stresses are more

pronounced for deeper members and thus k is smaller for

deeper members.

minimum reinforcement requirement. However, the clause

recommends to neglect the same in crack control. The other

international codes particularly euro codes allow any bonded

tendons located within the effective tension area to contribute

to the area of minimum reinforcement required to control

cracking, provided they are within 150 mm of the surface to be

checked

(4) This clause allows minimum reinforcement to be omitted

where, in prestressed concrete members, the stress at the

most tensile fibre is limited to compression, recommended to

be ct,eff, under the characteristic combination of actions and

the characteristic value of prestress. This does not remove the

need to consider the provision of reinforcement to control early

thermal and shrinkage cracking prior to application of the

prestressing.

(1) The crack width calculations are based on the basic case of

a prismatic reinforced concrete bar, subjected to axial tension.

With regard to the behaviour under increasing tensile strain

four stages are distinguished (as shown in the Fig 12-1) :

the uncracked stage,

the crack formation stage,

the stabilized cracking stage,

the steel yielding stage.

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

deformation behaviour of a centrally reinforced member

subjected to tension or imposed deformation. According to the

simplification, in the crack formation stage (2) the axial tensile

force does not increase. When enough cracks have been

formed to ensure that no undisturbed areas are left, the tensile

strength of the concrete cannot be reached anymore between

the cracks, so that no new cracks can appear. This is the start

of the stabilized cracking stage (3). In this stage no new cracks

are formed but existing cracks widen. Finally the steel will start

yielding at stage (5)

(3) This clause elaborates the crack spacing S r .max for various

situations as enumerated below are self explanatory in the

code as such is not reproduced here :

reasonably close.

Case of deformed bars associated with pure bending.

Spacing of the bonded reinforcement is more or where there

is no bonded reinforcement within the tension zone.

directions are expected to form at an angle which differs

substantially (> 15) from the direction of the reinforcement, the

approximation by equation 12.13 may be used to calculate

Sr,max and Wk.

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

where shear cracking has to be checked, the code specfies the

criteria for deciding reinforcement requirement for crack control.

The concrete tensile strength f ctb in th webs is

determined by :

f ctb = 1 0.8 3 f ctk ;0.05

f ck

Where:

f ctb is the concrete tensile strength prior to cracking

in a biaxial state of stress in webs.

3 is the larger compressive principal stress,

taken as positive.

3 < 0.6 f ck

This tensile strenth f ctb depends upon the

directions.

If the maximum principle tensile stress 1 is less than

the above tensile strength f ctb calculated, then the minimum

reinforcement as caculated under the clause 12.3.3 should be

provided in the longiuinal direction.

However, if 1 f ctb , the crack width should be

controlled in accordance with 12.3.6 or alternatively calculated

and verified in accordance with 12.3.4 taking into account the

angle of deviation between the principal stress and

reinforcement directions

with the reduction in steel stresses and spacings of the

specified bar diameters can be tabulated for simplification as

shown in the Tables 12.2 and 12.3 below.

determined from a cracked section analysis under the relevant

combination of actions. The relevant effective concrete

modulus for long-term and short-term loading should are used.

It is assumed that minimum reinforcement clauses in the code

are satisfied. An advantage of this simplified approach is that

many of the difficulties of interpretation of parameter definition

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

cross-sections (such as for circular sections) can be avoided.

and moments), cracks may be controlled by limiting

reinforcement stresses to the values in either Table 12.2 or

Table 12.3. It is not necessary to satisfy both. The first table

sets limits on reinforcement stress based on bar diameter and

the second table based on bar spacing. For cracks caused

mainly by restraint (for example, due to shrinkage or

temperature), only Table 12.2 can be used; cracks have to be

controlled by limiting the bar size to match the calculated

reinforcement stress immediately after cracking.

carried out using the crack width calculation formulae in clause

12.3.4. They are based on reinforced concrete rectangular

sections (hcr = 0.5h) in pure bending ( kc = 0.4, k2 = 0.5, kt =

0.5) with high bond bars (k1 = 0.8) and (ct,eff = 2.8 MPa). The

cover to the centroid of the main reinforcement was assumed

to be 0.1h (h d = 0.1h).

The clauses 12.3.6 (5) and (6) address the treatment for

combination of prestressing steel and un-tensioned

reinforcement. The prestress can conservatively be treated as

an external force applied to the cross-section (ignoring the

stress increase in the tendons after cracking) and the stress is

determined in the reinforcement, ignoring concrete in tension

as usual. The reinforcement stress derived can then be

compared against the tabulated limits. For pre-tensioned

beams with relatively little untensioned reinforcement, where

crack control is to be provided mainly by the bonded tendons

themselves, the clause permits Tables 12.2 and 12.3 to be

used with the steel stress taken as the total stress in the

tendons after cracking, minus the initial prestress after losses.

This is approximately equal to the stress increase in the

tendons after decompression at the level of the tendons.

sections where there are sudden changes of stress such as at

changes of section, near concentrated loads, where bars are

curtailed or at areas of high bond stresses such as at the end

of laps. The sudden changes of sections should generally be

avoided (by tapers). However, when the same can not be

avoided, the codal compliance with reinforcement detailing

clauses and crack control measures is deemed to give

satisfactory performance.

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

stress wk = 0.3 mm wk = 0.2 mm

[MPa]

160 32 25

200 25 16

240 16 12

280 12 -

320 10 -

[MPa] [mm]

wk = 0.3 mm wk = 0.2 mm

160 300 200

200 250 150

240 200 100

280 150 50

320 100 -

Cl. 12.4

Limit state of

deflection

elements such as partitions, glazing, claddings, services or

finishes. In some cases a limitation may be required to ensure

the proper functioning of machinery or apparatus supported by

the structure, or to avoid ponding on flat roofs.

generally be overcome by precambering and dynamic

considerations are to be given for live load and wind-induced

oscillations respectively. Resonance of bridges can become

an ultimate limit state if sufficient fatigue damage occurs or if

divergent-amplitude wind-induced motion, such as galloping

and flutter, occur. However, these effects are more

pronounced in cable supported bridges and the are not in

purview of this code.

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

be established in agreement with the client or his

representative. In the absence of other criteria, the following

deflection limits under Live Load may be considered for

concrete bridges

- Vehicular : Span/800,

- Vehicular and pedestrian or pedestrian alone :

Span/1000,

Vehicular on cantilever :Cantilever Span/300,

- Vehicular & pedestrian and pedestrian only

on cantilever arms : Cantilever Span/375

limit state, deformations should be calculated as follows:

permanent load combinations,

the instantaneous deformations should be calculated for the

rare load combinations.

combinations are considered. In order to calculate camber, the

mean values of the material properties may be used.

The actual deformations may differ considerably from the

calculated values; in particular if the values of the applied

moments are close to the cracking moment. The difference will

depend on the dispersion of the material properties, the

ambient conditions, the loading conditions, the previous loading

conditions, the restraints at the supports, etc.

Attention must be paid to cases where the basic assumptions

of plane sections and uniformly distributed stresses across the

section may not be adequate, such as in the case of shear lag

effects in large prestressed structure

For prestressed concrete members it may be necessary to

control deflections assuming unfavourable deviations of the

prestressing force and the dead load.

should be used. If the accurate determination of MI is not

possible, 70 % of uncracked MI should be used. For

Prestressed Concrete members, always uncracked MI should

be used as the section is always under compression.

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

in the stresses, strains and position of the neutral axis occur

due to creep and shrinkage as shown in Fig 12-2.

deflections are proportional to the instantaneous deflections

due to permanent loads, unless a large amount of

reinforcement exists. For loads with a long duration causing

creep, the total deformation including creep may be calculated

by using an effective modulus of elasticity for concrete Ec,eff as

below

Fig 12-2 Creep effect stresses & strains with time variation

E cm

Ec , eff =

1 + (, t0 )

Where:

(,t0) is the creep coefficient relevant for the load and time

interval (as per Clause 6.4.2.7).

environmental and curing conditions, the age at time of loading,

amount of compression reinforcement, magnitude of the

stresses due to sustained loading and prestressing as well as

strength gain of concrete after release of prestress. In

particular, camber is especially sensitive to the concrete

properties at the age of release of prestress, level of stresses,

storage method, time of erection, placement of superimposed

loads and environmental conditions. The clause 12.4.2 (3)

gives guidane on shrinkage coefficient to be used in a form of

curvature as below:

1 S

= cs e

rcs I

Where

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

cs is the free shrinkage strain (as per Clause

6.4.2.6)

S is the first moment of area of the reinforcement

about the centroid of the section

I is the second moment of area of the section

e is the effective modular ratio = Es / Ec,eff

RCC deck slab, 350mm thick and with M50 grade concrete, is

subjected to a transverse hogging moment of 144 kNm/m

under the characteristic combination of actions at SLS. This

moment comprises 22.5% from self-weight and super-imposed

dead load and 77.5% Live Load from traffic. The ultimate

design(ULS) requires a reinforcement area of 2513 mm2/m

(20mm diameter bars at 125mm c/c) at an effective depth of

290mm. Carry out the serviceability limit state checks.

Solutions:

Depth to neutral axis h / 2 = 350/2 = 175mm

Second moment of area, I = bh3 / 12 = 1000 x 3503 / 12 =

3.573x 109 mm4 / m.

If the section is un-cracked, should give following compressive

and tensile stress at the top and bottom of the section

respectively:

top = bot = My / I = 144 X 106x 175 / 3.573x 109 = 7.05 MPa

From Table 6.5 for M50 grade of concrete, ctm = 3.5MPa< bot;

Therefore the section is cracked. Stresses therefore will be

calculated ignoring concrete in tension. The relevant modular

ratio, eff, depends on the proportion of long-term and short-

term loading.

(a) Check for stresses assuming short term creep and

elastic modulus:

Es = 200 GPa, and from Table 6.5, Ecm= 35 GPa

Thus

Ec,eff = Ecm= 35 GPa

The depth of concrete in compression from the following

equation is:

AsEs + ( AsEs ) 2 + 2bAsEsEc, effd

dc =

bE c, eff

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

=

1000 35 10 9

= 78.02mm

The cracked second moment of area in steel units from

following equation is:

1 Ec, eff 3

= As ( d dc ) 2 + bd c

3 Es

1 35

= 2513 ( 290 78.02) 2 + 1000 78.02 3 = 140.63 10 6 mm 4

3 200

equation is:

MEd Ec, eff 144 10 6 35

c = = = 13.98MPa

zc Es 140.63 10 / 78.02 200

6

0.36 x 50 = 18 MPa

>13.98 MPa, hence OK.

The reinforcement stress from following equation is:

s =

MEd

= 144 10 6 ( 290 78.02) /(140.63 10 6 ) = 217.06MPa

zs

From clause 12.2.2, the tensile limit = k3yk = 0.8 x 500 = 400

MPa

>217.06 MPa, hence OK.

(b) Stress checks after, all creep effect has taken place :

The creep factor is determined for the long-term loading using

Table 6.9 and is found to be = 2.2. This is used to calculate

an effective modulus of elasticity for the concrete under the

specific proportion of long-term and short-term actions defined

using equation

( Mqp + Mst ) E cm (0.225 + 0.775) 35

Ec, eff = = = 23.41GPa

Mst + (1 + ) Mqp 0.775 + (1 + 2.2) 0.225

Repeating the calculation process in (a) above, the depth of

concrete in compression is 92.17 mm and the cracked second

moment of area in steel units is 128.9 x 106 mm4.

This concrete stress at the top of the section from following

equation is:

c= = = 12.05MPa

zc Es 128 .9 10 / 92.17 200

6

The reinforcement stress from following equation is:

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MEd

s = = 144 10 6 (290 92.17) /(128.9 10 6 ) = 221.0MPa

zs

< 400 MPa, hence OK

The effect of creep here is to reduce the concrete stress and

slightly increase the reinforcement stress.

calculation method & minimum reinforcement in

RCC deck:

Worked example above is again considered, assuming the

same reinforcement (20mm diameter bars at 125mm centres

with 50mm cover) and concrete grade M50. The exposure

class is moderate. The method of Cl. 12.3.6 (without direct

calculation) is used to check crack control and minimum

reinforcement is checked in accordance with clause 12.3.3.

the quasi-permanent load combination for an exposure class of

moderate. If LL is considered, the action is quasi permanent

combination as as such 2 = 0 and so is not considered in

crack checks. Thermal actions have 2 = 0.5 and so should be

considered. Only the secondary effects of temperature

difference, however, need to be considered; the primary self-

equilibriating stresses may be ignored.

example 1of 144 kNm/m, comprising 22.5% (DL+SDL) and

77.55% LL actions will be taken. The make-up would,

however, be very different as discussed above; it is unlikely

that temperature difference would produce effects anywhere

near as severe as those from characteristic traffic actions.

reinforcement has already been calculated as 220.35 MPa. To

comply with clause 12.3.6, either:

(1) The maximum bar size must be limited to 12mm (from

Table 12.2);

or

(2)The maximum bar spacing must be limited to 225mm

(interpolating within Table 12.3).

The provision of 20mm diameter bars at 125mm centres

complies with the limit on bar spacing in (2) above (which

permits a reinforcement stress of 300 MPa for bars at 125mm

centres) and the design is therefore acceptable. It does not

matter that it does not comply with the limit in (1) as well.

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

complies with the minimum reinforcement area required in

accordance with clause 12.3.3. This will rarely govern at peak

moment positions, but may do so near points of contra flexure

if reinforcement is curtailed:

Act is the area of concrete within the tensile zone just before the

first crack forms. The section behaves elastically until the

tensile fibre stress reaches ctm, therefore, for a rectangular

section, the area in tension is half the slab depth, thus:

Act = 350 / 2 X 1000 = 175 X 103 mm2

ct,eff = ctm but not less than 2.8 MPa clause 12.3.3. From

Table 6.5 for M50 concrete, ctm = 3.5 MPa so ct,eff= 3.5 MPa.

For rectangular sections of less than 300mm depth, k should

be taken as 1.0 and can in general be taken as 1.0

conservatively. For sections with no axial load, i.e. c = 0 MPa,

reduces to kc = 0.4 x (1 0) = 0.4.

s may in general be based on the maximum allowable value

from either Table 12.2 (222MPa for 20mm diameter bars) or

Table 12.3 (300 MPa for 125mm bar centres). However, for

minimum reinforcement calculation, it is possible that cracking

may arise mainly from restraint, rather than load and, therefore,

the value from Table 12.2 is used here in accordance with the

Note to clause 12.3.2. Therefore s = 220 MPa assuming

20mm bars and so:

As,min = 0.4 x 1.0 x 3.5x 175 x 103 / 220 = 1280.7 mm2 / m

The 20mm bars at 125mm centres provide As = 2513 mm2 / m,

which exceeds this minimum value, so the design is adequate.

From minimum reinforcement considerations alone, the bar

centres could be increased or the bar diameter reduced in

zones of low moment, but further crack control and ultimate

limit state checks would then be required at these curtailment

locations.

calculation of the crack width:

By Cl 12.3.4(3)/Eq. (12.11): sr,max = k3c + k1k2k4 / p,eff = 3.4c

+ 0.425k1k2 / p,eff

c = 50mm and = 20mm; therefore d = 250 50 20 / 2 =

290mm and the depth to the neutral axis, x = 92.17mm (from

worked example above). By clause 12.3.4(3), this equation is

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

valid provided the actual bar spacing is less than 5(c +/2) = 5

x (50 + 20/2) = 300mm, which is OK.

As + 12 Ap

By Cl 12.3.4 (2)/Eq (12.7): p, eff =

Ac, eff

where As = area of reinforcement = x 102 / 0.125 = 2513mm2

/ m. Ap = 0 since no prestress.

Ac,eff = effective tension area = bhc,ef with hc,ef taken as the

lesser of:

2.5(h d) = 2.5 x (350 290) = 150mm

or

(h x) / 3 = (350 92.17) / 3 = 85.9mm

or

h / 2 = 350 / 2 = 175mm

Thus hc,ef = 85.9mm and Ac,eff = 1000 x 85.9 = 85.9 x 103 mm2 /

m

2513

Therefore p,eff = = 0.029

85.9 103

k1 = 0.8 for high bond bars and k2 = 0.5 for bending, therefore:

sr,max = 3.4 x 50 + 0.425 x 0.8 x 0.5 x 20 / 0.029 = 287.2mm

(It should be noted that the concrete cover term, 3.4c,

contributes 170mm of the total 287mm crack spacing here, so

is very significant.)

By Cl 12.3.4 (2)/Eq. (12.6):

fct, eff

s kt (1 + ep, eff )

p, eff s

sm cm= 0.6

Es Es

From Worked example above, the reinforcement stress

assuming a fully cracked section is 221.0 MPa, so the minimum

s

value of 0.6 is 0.6 x 221.0 / (200 x 103) = 0.663 x 10-3

Es

kt = 0.6 for short-term loading or 0.4 for long-term loading, thus,

interpolating for 77.5% transient loading, kt = 0.56. From Table

6.5 for M50 concrete, ct,eff = ctm = 3.5 MPa. e = 200 / 35 =

5.714.

Therefore:

smcm=

3.5

221.0 0.56 (1 + 5.714 0.029)

0.029 221.0 78.78

= = 0.711103

200 10 3

200 103

Therefore, maximum crack width, wk = 287.2 x 0.711 x 10-3 =

0.20mm < 0.3mm limit, hence OK.

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

could be increased to 288MPa until a crack width of 0.3mm is

reached, assuming the same ratio of short-term and long-term

moments as used in this example. This compares with an

allowable stress of 300 MPa from Table 12.3 for bars at

125mm centres as used in Worked 2nd example above. The

method without direct calculation therefore gives a more

economic answer here.

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Codal Clauses

for application in post tensioned construction & provision of

bursting reinforcement for pre-tensioning system.

covered in this sub-clause. Partially or fully embedded

anchorages transfer the prestressing force to the members by

combination of bearing, friction and wedge action while the

externally mounted anchorages transfer prestressing force of

the tendons to concrete through an externally mounted bearing

plate.

Fig. 13.2.1 & Fig.13.2.2 shows the typical detail of two types of

anchorages.

GroutConnection

(ifrequired)

BearingPlate

ThreadedPTBar SphericalBearingNut

Figure C13.2.2

Figure C13.2.1 Showing Externally

Showing Partially or Mounted Anchorages

Fully Embedded

Anchorages

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that the anchorage and coupler assemblies have sufficient

strength, elongation and fatigue characteristics to meet the

design and durability requirements.

region which is subjected to high stress from the bearing plate

next to the anchorage block.

tensioning takes place depends mainly on the design of

anchorage, the provided anchorage zone reinforcement, the

edge distance of the anchorage and the spacing between

adjacent anchorages. Strictly a check of crack width is required

as per this clause. To avoid such a check, Eurocode EC2

suggests that the reinforcement stress shall be limited to

250Mpa, which may be followed.

called the Anchorage-Tendon-Assembly. The three tests

recommended in the FIP document define the performance,

testing procedures, & quality assurance requirements

necessary to make the post tensioning system safe and

acceptable.

tendon-anchorage assembly and to determine any decrease of

the breaking load of the prestressing steel due to influence of

the anchorages.

tendon-anchorage assembly under load fluctuation as an

indication of the reliability and durability of the assembly.

transfer of the prestressing forces from the mechanical

anchorage and its components to the concrete do not pose any

problem.

several phases by extending tendons which have been already

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details of Fixed & Moveable coupler is shown below in Fig.

C13.3.1A & Fig. C13.3.1B respectively.

concrete compression in the immediate vicinity of the

anchorages; bursting stresses generated in the localized area

of the anchorage and transverse tensile force arising from any

further spread of load outside the localized area.

responsibility between the supplier of post tensioning system &

the design consultant. The local anchorage zone

reinforcement, which may be split between spiral and

orthogonal reinforcement, shall be specified by the prestressing

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recommendations of the prestressing supplier shall be taken as

the minimum values. This may be modified for a specific project

design by the design consultant, if required, in accordance with

the design criteria specified in this section.

bearing stress and internal stresses. The stress is

compressive for a distance 0.2Y0 from the end. Beyond that it

is tensile upto 0.2Y0. The resultant of the tensile stress in a

transverse direction is known as the bursting force (Fbst).

mounted anchorage with individual square end block or

rectangular end block is given in clause 13.5.1.1. It can be

observed that with the increase in size of the bearing plate the

bursting force (Fbst) reduces.

use manufacturers recommendation instead of complex

detailed design.

anchorages in a group be divided as defined therein and dealt

as for individual anchorage in 13.5.1.1 and 13.5.1.2.

induced cracking. This sub-clause of the code provides

specification for check of the section as a whole containing the

anchorages. Proportioning of spalling reinforcement in the

dead zones may be done with strut-and-tie models

Alternatively, the spalling zone reinforcement may be designed

for a force equal to 0.02 * PK.

the end of this chapter.

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DesignExample:

This example is provided to understand the design process by which reinforcement of an end block is

calculatedwithfollowingdata.

NosofStrandsperTendon=12

AreaofStrands=140Sqmm

BreakingstrengthofStrands=1860Mpa

DimensionofAnchorage,Ypo=240mm

Tendon 3

Tendon 2

Tendon 1

CalculationofDesignForces:

AsperClause13.2.3ofcode,thedesignofendblockshallbedonewith1.10*UTS.

HencePk=1.1*12*140*1860/1000=3437KN

Calculation of bursting reinforcement: The bursting reinforcement is to be provided around each

anchorage. The magnitude of these reinforcement depends on the size of the anchorage and the

dimensionsofthetheoreticalprismsurroundingtheanchorage,astabulatedbelow:

Cable PrismDimensions(2Yo) Ypo/Yo Fbst / Pk

Vertically Laterally Vertically Laterally Vertically Laterally

1 400 600 0.60 0.40 0.14 0.20

2 500 600 0.48 0.40 0.176 0.20

3 500 600 0.48 0.40 0.176 0.20

Consider Fy=500MPa reinforcement and clear cover of 50mm, the allowable stress in reinforcement =

0.87*500=435Mpa.Asexplainedalready,ifwedesigntheendblockusingstress435Mpa,thenacheckof

crackwidthisneeded.Asperclause13.2.3ofcode,thecrackwidthshallberestrictedupto0.25%under

loadof0.85UTS.Toavoidsuchcrackwidthcheck,thereinforcementstressshouldbelimitedto300Mpa.

Inthisdesignexample,reinforcementstressisrestrictedto300Mpa.

Areasofsteelrequiredvertically:

Tendon1:0.14*3437*10^3/300=1604mm2

Tendon2&3:0.176*3437*10^3/300=2016mm2

Areasofsteelrequiredlaterally:

AllTendons:0.2*3437*10^3/300=2291mm2

Using16mmdiameterbar,provideasixtumspiralroundeachanchorageoveradistance2Yoi.e.600mm

fromtheloadedface.Areaprovided=2413mm2

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Calculation of Equilibrium reinforcement: As well as providing primary reinforcement in the immediate

vicinity of the anchorages, it is necessary to consider the overall equilibrium of the anchor block and to

determine any outofbalance forces and moments that may be set up by the anchorages acting

individuallyortogether.Possiblestressingsequenceisconsideredasbelow:

Case Stressed tendons

1 1

2 2

3 3

ThepointofapplicationofforcesareshowninthefollowingfigureforCase1.

C/sareaofEndblock=1.26sqm p2

DistanceofCgfrombottom=1.014m

MOI=0.3909m4

Zt=0.4973m3

Zb=0.3855m3

M

p1=3437/1.26+3437*(1.0140.2)/0.3855=9985KN/sqm V

p2=3437/1.263437*(1.0140.2)/0.4973=2898KN/sqm

Distributedforceat700mmfrombottom,

p700=9985(9985+2898)/1.8*0.7=4975KN/sqm

Pk

HenceV=0.5*(9985+4975)*0.6*0.7=3142KN

M=3142*((2*9985+4975)/(9985+4975)*0.7/3)

=1222KN.m p1

Theoutofbalancemomentsaretabulatedbelow:

Case Dimension MomentinKN.m

fromBottom DuetoDistribution DuetoAnchor Net

1 700 1222 3437*(0.70.2)=1719 497

1200 3077 3437*(1.20.2)=3437 360

1400 3908 3437*(1.40.2)=4124 216

1600 4737 3437*(1.60.2)=4812 75

2 700 718 0 718

1200 1911 1719 192

1400 2493 2406 87

1600 3114 3094 20

3 700 213 0 213

1200 745 0 745

1400 1078 687 391

1600 1491 1375 116

Maximumclockwisemoment=745Knm.Leverarm=blocklength=1.8/2m=0.9m.Steelforce=828kN.

Requiredareaofsteel=2758mm2.

Usingfiveclosedlinksof20mmdiasteel,areaprovided=3114mm2.Thisreinforcementshallbeprovided

atadistance1.8/2=0.9mfromthefarend.

Maximumanticlockwisemoment=497kNm.

Requiredareaofsteel=497*1000/0.9/250=1838mm2,tobeprovidedoverthefirst1.8/4=0.45mmfrom

theloadedend.Thisisinthesamezoneastheburstingreinforcement.

Provide3Nosclosedlinksof20Dia,area=1885mm2

CheckforHorizontalShearCapacity:

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Valuesofshearatdifferentstagesaretabulatedbelow.

Sheardue

Dimensionfrom Sheardueto

Case toAnchor NetShear(KN)

Bottom(mm) Distribution(KN)

(KN)

200 1112 0 1112

1112 3437 2325

700 3142 3437 295

1

3142 3437 295

1200 4097 3437 660

4097 3437 660

200 630 0 630

630 0 630

700 1916 0 1916

2

1916 3437 1521

1200 2787 3437 650

2787 3437 650

200 148 0 148

148 0 148

700 690 0 690

3

690 0 690

1200 1477 0 1477

1477 3437 1960

Maximumdevelopedshear=2325KN

The ultimate shear resistance shall be calculated based on equation 10.8 of code. The developed shear

shallbelessthanshearresistance.

FlowofStressesinFlange:

Inaflangedmemberinwhichtheanchoragesareintheweb,thereisaflowofstressintotheflange.This

setsuplateraltensileforceswhichhavetobecarriedbylateralreinforcement.Asasimpleapproach,itis

assumedfordesignpurposesthatalltheforceflowingintotheflangeisinfactappliedattheloadedendof

thememberoverawidthequaltothatoftheweb.

Theloadinflangeiscalculatedasbelow.

Dimension patdesired Loadon

Case fromBottom section Flange,Pf

(mm) (KN/Sqm) (KN)

1600 1466

1 655

1800 2898

1600 1110

2 250

1800 558

1600 3686

3 1155

1800 4013

Loadonflange=1155KN

Widthofweb=0.6m

Widthofflange=1.5m

Ypo/Yo=0.4;Fbst/Pk=0.2

Fbst=231KN

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Requiredareaofsteel=231*1000/300=770mm2.

Thisreinforcementshallbeprovidedinbothfaceofflange.

ReinforcementtoresistSpalling:

Thespallingreinforcementmaybeprovidedtowithstandaforceequalto0.04Pkineitherdirection.

Hencerequiredsteelforceforspalling=0.04*3437=138Kn.

Requiredreinforcement=138*1000/300=458mm2

Provide2Nos20diaasbothvertical&horizontalreinforcemnt,areaofsteelprovided=628mm2

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withstand various design combinations of ultimate loads and

combinations of serviceability design actions, concrete

structures are required to have adequate durability so as to

provide satisfactory service life.

agencies that may reside inside the concrete itself, or be

present in the service environment to which the concrete

structure is exposed. In so far as deteriorating agencies

residing inside the concrete are concerned, these originate

from the ingredients of concrete e.g. water, aggregate, and

cement, mineral and chemical admixtures. Section 18 of this

Code requires that all the ingredients used should conform to

the requirements of the respective IS specifications;

requirements of quality of water are given in cl. 18.4.5.

can be mechanical, physical or chemical. Impact, abrasion,

erosion and cavitations are examples of the mechanical

causes. Physical causes of deterioration include high

temperature effects; effects of thermal gradients inside

concrete, especially in mass concrete; alternate freezing and

thawing; and incompatibility between coefficients of thermal

expansion of the aggregate and the matrix. However, it is the

attack by chemical agencies like chloride, sulphate, CO2, and

chemical causes of alkali-silica and alkali-carbonate reactions,

that are more prominent. Deteriorating agencies present in the

service environment include gases like oxygen, carbon dioxide

and liquids like water, or chloride and/or sulphate ions in

solutions and other potentially deleterious substances.

water or moisture is required. For example;

the presence of moisture, which attacks hydrated cement

paste; this is called carbonation. Carbonation lowers the pH

value of concrete and reduces the protection to steel by the

alkalinity of the surrounding medium.

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chloride ions. It requires the presence of oxygen and water

and is aided by carbonation.

Sulphate attack depends on the penetration of sulphate ions

into the concrete. The reaction takes place in the presence

of moisture.

For frost attack, concrete has to be above a critical range of

water saturation for the damage due to freezing and thawing

to take place.

For alkali silica reaction (ASR) water is required to produce

the expansive gel and therefore, depend upon the rate of

water penetration into the concrete.

gases into concrete is important consideration. The various

processes can be summarised as follows;

characterised by water permeability coefficient.

Water absorption and uptake of water resulting from capillary

forces, characterised by a sorptivity coefficient.

Ion diffusion: movement of ions as a result of concentration

gradient, characterised by ion diffusion coefficient.

Other variants are possible; like gas diffusion, water vapour

diffusion, pressure induced gas flow etc.

concerned with a notion of collective penetrability of fluids ;

nevertheless, the commonly accepted term is permeability,

which is mostly adopted to describe transport of fluids through

concrete (Neville, 2000).

cement paste. The microstructure that forms upon hydration of

cement consist of solids having pores of various sizes in

addition to the spaces originally occupied by the water. The

porosity depends upon the age, the degree of hydration, the

water/ cement ratio and the type of binders. The primary

influence is of water /cement ratio, as depicted in Figure C14.1.

ratio of about 0.4 or below is quite less; on the other hand,

permeability increases asymptotically above water/cement ratio

of 0.6 or more. For a given water/cement ratio, the permeability

is lower when blended cements or mineral admixtures are used

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to formation of secondary hydration products, e.g. pozzolanic

reactions of fly ash or silica fume with calcium hydroxide

formed due to hydration of cement, or hydration of granulated

slag activated and promoted by the calcium hydroxide.

Figure C14.1.

Dependence of permeability on the water cement ratio

concrete mix. Ingress of harmful agencies is also facilitated by

the cracking that may be caused by load effects or internal

deformations like shrinkage or temperature effects. Table 12.1

under cl. 12.3.2 limits the crack width permissible for different

exposure conditions.

this clause. Workmanship to obtain full compaction and

efficient curing are important parameters. A suitably low

permeability is achieved by ensuring thorough compaction of

concrete, and by adequate curing. The shape or design details

of exposed structures should be such as to promote good

drainage of water. Member profiles and their intersection with

other members should facilitate easy flow of concrete and

proper compaction. Chamfering the corners or using circular

cross sections reduces the ingress of fluids. Regular

maintenance provides the opportunity to intervene if

deterioration is taking place at a rate greater than expected.

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Structures Cl. 14.2

4. The basic mechanism of corrosion of steel, as an electro-

chemical phenomenon, can be summarised in terms of an

anode process and a cathode process;

Anode: Fe 2 e- + Fe2+

(Metallic iron)

Cathode: O2 + H2O + 2 e- 2(OH)-

combination of iron and (OH-) ions;

Fe + O2 + H2O Fe2+ + 2(OH) iron hydroxide

(rust).

shows that ingress of chloride ions is facilitated by presence of

cracks.

of the reinforcing steel;

2. Oxygen and moisture must be available for the cathode

process; and

3. The electrical resistivity of concrete must be low to facilitate

the electron flow in the metal from anodic to cathodic areas.

Figure C14.2.1.

Mechanism of corrosion of steel in concrete schematic

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necessary to be considered. The steel reinforcement, being

well protected in the alkaline medium in concrete, can

withstand a certain amount of chloride ion to be present before

corrosion can take place. On the other hand, if the passivity is

destroyed because of one reason or the other, and the pH of

concrete is below a certain threshold value, only oxygen and

water are needed for corrosion to take place. Presence of

chlorides is not necessary.

that the limiting amount of chloride ions is not exceeded in

concrete and neither the pH value of concrete is lowered below

the threshold value. Practical limits of tolerable chloride ion

concentration and limiting pH value are best arrived at by in-

service record of concrete. The interaction shown in Figure

C14.2.2 is based on data of a large number of concrete

structures in India, which have undergone distress due to

corrosion of steel (Mullick, 2000).

corrosion-damaged concrete structures in India

against corrosion of steel. Provisions for other mechanisms are

either in terms of choice of the binder system (cements and

mineral admixtures) or others measures described in Clause

14.4.

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environment (exposure conditions). In deciding the appropriate

class of service environment, the following factors should be

taken into account (fib, 2009);

the structure is situated,

The specific location and orientation of the concrete surface

being considered and its exposure to prevailing winds,

rainfall etc.,

Localised conditions such as surface ponding, exposure to

surface runoff and spray, aggressive agents, regular wetting,

condensation etc. These aspects include factors such as

cladding to structure dry, or ponding due to poor detailing

etc.

saturated, because of slow rate of diffusion of CO2 in water

compared to that in air. On the other hand, if there is

insufficient water in the pores, CO2 remains in gaseous form

and does not react with the hydrated cement. The highest rate

of carbonation occurs at a relative humidity of 50 to 70 percent

(Neville, 2000).

carbonation are insignificant because the pores of concrete are

either saturated or dry. No ingress of chloride from external

sources is anticipated. Inadequate workmanship can lead to

corrosion of steel. Provision is also made against attack by

other deleterious chemical agents, which are facilitated by the

presence of moisture.

(wet, rarely dry) and some carbonation under humid conditions

can lead to corrosion of steel. Wet, rarely dry includes concrete

surfaces subject to long term water contact and many

foundations. Concrete exposed to coastal environment can

have access to chloride ions increasing the risk of chloride-

induced corrosion. Concrete components exposed to industrial

waters containing chloride will be included in this category. In

spite of presence of significant amount of chloride ions in sea

water, risk of corrosion in concrete completely submerged in

sea water below mid-tide level is comparatively less because of

paucity of oxygen.

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borne chloride ions in marine environment add significantly to

the risk of chloride-induced corrosion. Saturated concrete

subjected to cyclic freezing and thawing is prone to effects of

expansion due to formation of ice, leading to spalling.

of steel and sulphate attack are the highest in concrete

exposed to tidal, splash and spray zones in sea, because of

accumulation of salts in the pores and accompanied by

damage due to wave action. Concrete in direct contact with

aggressive sub-soil/ground water can lead to severe attack to

concrete in foundations, without being accessible to periodic

inspection and maintenance. If harmful effluents from nearby

chemical industries are discharged into the water body, where

the bridge is situated, it poses serious threat to the durability of

concrete. Cyclic wet and dry conditions allow accumulation and

build up of deleterious agencies.

chloride ions inside concrete in the early ages is due to

sorption, and due to diffusion in the longer term. Models for

prediction of service life of concrete adopt the concept of age-

dependent effective diffusion coefficient. Its value is initially

high, reflecting the sorptive component, and reduces with time.

The effective diffusion coefficient depends upon the type of

cement, use of mineral admixtures and the water binder ratio,

and the degree of hydration of cement. Using values of

effective diffusion coefficient, error function solution of Ficks

second law of diffusion has been adopted to predict rate of

chloride ingress (Buenfeld, 1997). The following solution to

Ficks second law of diffusion can express permeation of

chloride ion into concrete, in terms of cover and concrete

quality;

DRAFTPREPDBY:DrAKMULLICK Chapter14/7OF14

DRAFTCO

OMMENTARY

Y OFIRC:112 Februarry2013

Figure C 14.3.2.1

CX = CS

S [1 erf --------------]

2 (D.t)

Figure C.

C 14.3.2.1. Applicatio on of Ficks law to chlo

oride ingresss

in concrrete.

Where,

CS = suurface chlorride level,

X = deppth from surrface,

CX = chhloride level at depth, X,

X

t = expo

osure time,

D = chlooride diffusion coefficie

ent, and

erf = errror function.

above. From

F the Figure,

F it is clear

c that th

he value off the build-u

up

of chloriide ions insside concrete (CX) deccreases, as the distancce

from the e surface (X) increasses. At a particular

p d

depth X, thhe

amount of chloride ions (CX) increases with w passag ge of time, t.

The stra

ategy to gu uard againsst onset off corrosion is to ensure

that the

e amount of o chloride penetrated d (CX) after the desig gn

service life, t, yearrs is less th

han the threshold leveel of chlorid

de

permitte

ed, at the de epth X, which is the coover thickne

ess.

DRAFTPR

REPDBY:DrA

AKMULLICK Ch

hapter14/8OF14

DRAFTCOMMENTARYOFIRC:112 February2013

diffusion coefficient (D) and the surface chloride level (CS), the

defense against corrosion of steel in a particular service

environment, as adopted in the Code, is integral of cover depth

and water/cement ratio, the latter governing the chloride

diffusion coefficient (D).

Acceptance Criteria for concrete in Clause 18.6.7 prescribes

Rapid Chloride Ion Permeability test (ASTM C1202). In this

test, the total electrical charge in Coulombs (ampere-seconds)

passed during a specified time interval (6 hours) through a

concrete disc specimen placed between solutions of sodium

chloride (NaCl) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is measured,

when a potential difference of 60 V d.c. is maintained. The

charge passed is related to the penetrability of concrete to

chloride ions, being greater, the larger the amount of chloride

ion penetrated. Guidelines relating chloride permeability of

concrete to the charge passed (Coulombs) during the test is

given in ASTM C1202.

suggested for different exposure conditions;

Severe 1500 Coulombs,

Very severe 1200 Coulombs, and

Extreme 800 Coulombs.

Apart from water / cement ratio and cover, Table 14.2 also lists

two other parameters minimum cement content and minimum

grade of concrete. Minimum cement content specified is to

ensure adequate workability of concrete. For a given water-

cement ratio, a given cement content corresponds to a

particular water content, which may result in high, medium or

low workability. An appropriate value has to be chosen keeping

in view the placing conditions, cover thickness, and

concentration of reinforcement. For the values of water-cement

ratio and cement content shown in the Table 14.2, the water

content in the concrete mix works out to 140 to 160 litres /m3,

which will generally result in low workability (0 50 mm slump).

For higher workability, higher cement content (and higher water

content, maintaining the water-cement ratio) will have to be

adopted or chemical admixtures used. Minimum cement

content, along with the water-cement ratio, is also required to

result in sufficient volume of cement paste to overfill the voids

in compacted aggregates. For crushed aggregate of 20 mm

size, on which the Table 14.2 is based, the voids content is

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cement content specified correspond to paste volume of about

27 28 percent, equaling the voids content of the aggregate. A

fuller description is available in IS: SP-23.

content should include all cementitious materials inclusive of

additions mentioned in Cl. 18.4, as all these binders comprise

the paste volume with the water. Similarly, the water-cement

ratio is water-binder ratio when mineral admixtures are added,

which control the chloride diffusion coefficient.

design considerations. Concrete mix design should be based

on that strength grade (see Cl.18.5.3). Water-cement ratio and

cement content arrived at the mix design for that grade should

be checked with the provisions of Table 14.2. Lower water-

cement ratio and higher cement content between the two

should be adopted. Compressive strength of concrete alone

does not guarantee durability under service conditions. The

values of minimum strength grade in Table 14.2 are those

which can be generally expected with the corresponding water

cement ratio and with the cements or binders available in India.

So, the minimum strength grade specified is an indirect control

on the durability parameters.

practice in some countries for concrete structures exposed to

very severe service conditions. Since there is no Indian

Standard (IS) specification for stainless steel as concrete

reinforcement, provisions of British Standard BS: 6744: 2001

shall apply (see Cl. 18.2.3.3).

impermeable and traps the entrapped air and water that

migrate towards the formwork during compaction. As a result,

water/cement ratio in the cover zone is higher than in the bulk,

and forms a weak link; having lower resistance to the ingress of

air, water and CO2 etc. In comparison, controlled permeability

formwork (CPF) liners acts as a filter through which air and

bleed water can pass and cement is retained. The passage of

water and entrapped air from the concrete through the

permeable formwork lining fabric results in a local reduction in

water/cement ratio at the formed concrete surface. This is

schematically explained in Figure C.14.3.2.2.

DRAFTPREPDBY:DrAKMULLICK Chapter14/10OF14

DRAFTCOMMENTARYOFIRC:112 February2013

Vibrator

Impermeable

Formwork

Rebar

Air

Direction of

water/air

movements

Water

Water collection /

Blowhole formation

Depth of

Effect design w/c ratio +

Figure C.14.3.2.2.

How CPF liners help in improving cover concrete

concrete can be reduced up to 50 percent and service life

prolonged with use of controlled permeability formwork (Mullick,

2008).

corrosion of steel are not significant, and as such the maximum

water-cement ratio can be exceeded by 0.05 for each category

and concomitantly, the strength grade lowered by 5 MPa.

requirement of water in the mix for a particular workability is

reduced; so the cement content can also be reduced (to

maintain the water-cement ratio).

C14.3.2.3 Chloride Content Cl. 14.3.2.3

that the amount of chloride at the level of reinforcement after

the design service life is less than the threshold level of

chloride permitted.

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associated with different amounts of chloride ions present in

the structures. The following risk classification has been

proposed (Browne, 1982) and commonly accepted,

(% by wt of cement)

0.4 Negligible

0.4 to 1.0 Possible

1.0 to 2.0 Probable

> 2.0 Certain

damaged concrete structures in India are of similar magnitude.

Since the bridges will be designed for a service life of 100

years and at present, there are no concrete bridges which are

100 years old, a conservative value of 0.30 percent for RCC in

moderate exposure condition is specified as against 0.40

percent in many other Codes. For RCC in other exposure

conditions which are more stringent and for prestressed

concrete, still lower values are specified. It may be noted that

the amount of chloride ion specified is on acid soluble basis,

indicating the total chloride ion content in the concrete. Part of

the chloride ions get bound in the cement hydration products;

this is called chloride binding. Only the reminder is the free

chloride, which is available for causing corrosion. This is

expressed as water soluble chloride and, as a very general

guide, can be half of the total chloride content. Total acid

soluble chloride is specified for ease of measurement.

sulphate ions may come from soil, sub-soil water and ground

water, sea water and effluents from industrial sources.

Excessive sulphate ions will lead to sulphate attack in concrete.

considerations of heat of hydration and thermal cracks.

Deterioration Cl. 14.4

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sulphates with the calcium aluminate (C3A) phase of cement,

and

Formation of calcium sulphate with reaction of sulphates with

the calcium hydroxide released on hydration of cement.

the volume of the reactants, for which there is no space in

the hardened concrete. They result in expansion and

spalling.

hydration product calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) phase,

leading to its decalcification i.e. substitution of Mg+ for Ca+

and formation of magnesium silicate hydrates in place of C-

S-H, and other expansive salts identified above. Magnesium

sulphate is, thus, more dangerous than sodium or calcium

salts.

content as in sulphate resistant Portland cement (IS: 12330).

Use of blended cements (PPC or PSC) or mineral admixtures

reduces the OPC component and thereby the amount of C3A

available. Consumption of calcium hydroxide by pozzolanic

reaction also helps.

accompanied by 9 percent increase in volume (ice has specific

gravity of 0.91). Repeated cycles of freezing and thawing have

a cumulative effect. In hardened concrete, there has to be

space to accommodate this increase in volume, otherwise

cracking will occur. Air entraining admixtures create a system

of small, discrete, nearly spherical air bubbles inside concrete,

DRAFTPREPDBY:DrAKMULLICK Chapter14/13OF14

DRAFTCOMMENTARYOFIRC:112 February2013

accidentally entrapped air due to inadequate compaction.

These air bubbles provide the extra space needed. Obviously,

if concrete is relatively dry, the problem of freezing of water is

minimized; therefore, concrete is required to be protected from

saturation. Lower water-cement ratio minimizes the volume of

capillary pores inside concrete and ensures strength of

concrete such that it can better resist the damaging forces

induced by freezing (Neville, 2000). In case of severe freezing,

restriction of water-cement ratio to about 0.45 and minimum

strength of 45 MPa is recommended.

REFERENCES

Education Asia.

2. Mullick, A. K., Corrosion of reinforcement in concrete an

interactive durability problem, Indian Concrete Journal, Vol.

74, No. 4, April 2000, pp. 168 176.

3. fib (CEB FIP),Structural Concrete, Textbook on behaviour,

design and performance, Second Edition, Volume 3,

December 2009.

4. Buenfeld, N. R., Measuring and modeling transport

phenomena in concrete for life prediction of structures, in

Prediction of Concrete Durability, Proc., STATS 21st

Anniversary Conference, E&FN SPON, London, 1997, pp.

76 90.

5. Indian Standards Institution (Now BIS), Handbook on

Concrete Mixes, SP : 23 (S&T) 1982.

6. Mullick, A. K., Durability advantage of concrete cast against

controlled permeability formwork (CPF) liner, Civil

Engineering & Construction Review, January 2008, pp. 34

46.

7. Browne, R. D., Design prediction of the life of reinforced

concrete in marine and other chloride environments,

Durability of Building Materials, Vol. 3, 1982, Elsevier,

Amsterdam.

--------

DRAFTPREPDBY:DrAKMULLICK Chapter14/14OF14

DRAFTCOMMENTARYOFIRC:112 February2013

Codal Clause

prestressing bars and coated steel. These rules are not

complete in itself and reference shall be made to section 16

and section 17 also, which covers detailing for specific

structural members and for bridges under seismic zone III, IV &

V, respectively.

readily into the spaces between bars and between bars and

forms, without honeycomb and enabling adequate bond

strength to be developed along the full length of the bar.

15.1 and 15.2 based on avoidance of bending cracks and

avoidance of crushing the concrete inside the bend.

bending are given in Table 15.1 & 15.2.These values are

higher for smaller values of concrete cover and higher grade of

reinforcing bars.

unfavourable depending upon the depth of the member &

inclination of the reinforcement with respect to direction of

concreting. For unfavourable bond condition, the allowable

bond stress is taken as 70% of allowable stress under

favourable condition. The bond condition is to be always

considered as favorable for bars having an inclination of 45 to

90 to the horizontal. For bars which are horizontal or have

inclination up to 45 to the horizontal, the bond condition

depends upon depth of the member as given in the Fig 15.1.b,

Fig 15.1.c and Fig 15.1.d.

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DRAFTCOMMENTARYOFIRC:112 February2013

concrete, bond condition and bar size. The design value is to

be taken as per Table 15.3 of the code for favourable bond

condition. The bond stress increases sharply with the increase

in concrete grade. The design value of bond stress is however

restricted beyond M60 concrete to account for the increased

brittleness.

an average bond stress, equal to the ultimate bond stress,

which acts over the full perimeter of the bar and uniformly

along its length. The multiplication factor, k for the anchorage

length are given for various concrete grades and for various

grades of HYSD bars, up to Fe 600. (Table 15.4).The basic

anchorage length is given based on the principle that it must

avoid longitudinal cracking or spalling of the concrete.

than by a straight length of bar. The anchorage of bar shall be

done in such a way that :

concrete without causing longitudinal cracks or spalling.

anchorage zone to resist secondary forces induced locally.

Special attention is required where mechanical devices are

used, to check their capacity to transmit the concentrated force

by test.

anchor plain bars of more than 8mm. The code also does not

recommend the use of bends or hooks for anchorages of bar in

compression.

DRAFTPREPDBY:DrAKMITTAL/AB Chapter15/2OF4

DRAFTCOMMENTARYOFIRC:112 February2013

anchorage length to allow for the beneficial effects of additional

cover, confinement by transverse reinforcement, transverse

clamping pressure & bar shape for bent up bars.

likely to be less than the length of the structure, lapping (or

splicing) of bars will be necessary in most structural elements.

At laps, forces are transmitted from one bar to another. This

can be achieved through the concrete surrounding the lapping

bars or by welding of the bar or by mechanical couplers.

cases, when other alternative methods of splicing are not

feasible. Bars of diameter greater than or equal to 20mm must

be butt welded.

develop at least 125% of the characteristic strength,fy. This

has been regarded as a minimum necessary for safety to

prevent brittle failures. Reduced cover to concrete at the

location of mechanical splice is permitted subject to a minimum

cover of 30mm.

C 15.2.6 Additional rules for HYSD Bars Exceeding 32mm in Diameter 15.2.6

32mm which are complementary to those given in clause

15.2.3. Such bars should only be used in elements where the

member thickness is not less than 15. They should be

anchored either as straight bars with links provided as

confining reinforcements or using mechanical devices.

strength deformed bars. The code allows bundling of a

DRAFTPREPDBY:DrAKMITTAL/AB Chapter15/3OF4

DRAFTCOMMENTARYOFIRC:112 February2013

and three bars in all other cases. All bars in a bundle must be

of the same diameter and of the same type and grade.

be staggered at the anchorage point in case the bar is in

tension. For compression bars, staggering is not required.

Bars in a bundle shall generally be lapped one by one with a

stagger, unless the number of bars in a bundle is restricted to

two with equivalent diameter of less than 32mm.

(over which the prestressing force is fully transmitted to the

concrete), the dispersion length (over which the concrete stress

gradually disperse to a distribution which is compatible with

plane sections remaining plane); & the anchorage length (over

which the tendon force at the ultimate limit state is fully

transmitted to the concrete).

bond stress shall be considered as 80% of the value given in

the code for uncoated bars. This reduction is not applicable for

galvanized bars or stainless steel bars.

DRAFTPREPDBY:DrAKMITTAL/AB Chapter15/4OF4

(3rd DRAFT)

Codal Clause

including beams, slabs, columns, walls & foundation. Provision

of minimum reinforcement in this section for various elements

ensures that when the moment of resistance of the un-cracked

section is exceeded, the reinforcement provided is at least able

to provide a minimum moment of resistance which is at least as

large as that of the gross concrete, so that sudden (brittle)

failure is not initiated on cracking.

kept for various elements of bridge from practical

considerations of constructability and workmanship.

times the smaller dimension, h is classified as Columns or

Piers. If the cross section is solid, it is termed as Solid Column

/ Piers. In case the cross section is hollow, it is termed as

Hollow Column / Pier. The columns are further classified as

Pedestal Column and Other column depending upon the l/r

ratio. Other Columns include long as well as short columns

Walls. For hollow columns with b > 4h, no guideline on

classification is given in the code.

specified for columns is to cater for un-intended eccentricities

and to control creep deformations. Under sustained loads, the

load is transferred from concrete to the reinforcement because

the concrete creeps and shrinks. In case the area of

reinforcement in a column is lesser than minimum specified

percentage, the reinforcement may yield. The minimum

percentage reinforcement therefore depends upon gross area

of concrete and the design axial compressive force in column.

DRAFT PREPD BY : Dr AK MITTAL / AB Chapter 16 / 1 OF 9

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

outside lap portion and 8% at laps) is chosen partly from

practical consideration of placing and compacting the concrete

and partly to prevent cracking from excessive internal restraints

to concrete shrinkage caused by the reinforcement.

column is as under :

Minimum Area, As,min = 0.10.NEd / fyd, but 0.002 Ac

Maximum Area, As,max = 0.04 AC (= 0.08 AC at laps)

Minimum number of bars in a circular section is 6.

For regular polygons, at least one bar is to be placed at

each junction of two surfaces.

within lateral ties to hold them in place and avoid its buckling.

No longitudinal bar in a compression zone should be further

than 150mm from a restrained bar. Transverse reinforcement

is also required in columns to provide adequate shear

resistance. Combination of various forms of ties / links, loops or

spiral is allowed, as per choice of designer. Salient detailing

features of Transverse reinforcement in column is as under :

Minimum Diameter, min max [8mm ; long /4]

Maximum Spacing, Scl,max = min [12.long,min; h ; 200mm]

bending (e,g. solid abutment), the provisions for slab is

applicable for walls. In situations where a wall is also subjected

to high concentrated load (e,g. Plate Type Pier), the design and

detailing may be determined based on strut-and-tie model or

an appropriate FEM model.

Minimum Area, As,vmin = 0.0024 AC (Half at each face)

Maximum Area, As,vmax = 0.04 AC (More permitted at Laps)

Maximum Spacing, Sv,max = 200mm

DRAFT PREPD BY : Dr AK MITTAL / AB Chapter 16 / 2 OF 9

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

vertical reinforcement and the face of wall.

Minimum Diameter, min max [8mm ; long /4]

Minimum Area, As,hmin = max [0.25 x As,v ; 0.001AC]

Maximum Spacing, Sh,max = 300mm

required as for columns.

be satisfied :

Ratio of effective length / radius of gyration 12

Wall Thickness 300 mm

Two ends of the hollow section are capped by thick solid

RCC slab having thickness 1/3rd the clear inside

dimension of hollow section in the direction of spanning of

slab.

Asl,min = max. [ 0.26 (fctm / fyk) bt.d ; 0.0013 bt.d]

Maximum long. tensile reinforcement :

Asl,max = 0.025 AC other than at Laps

Maximum total long. reinforcement, Ast,max = 0.04 AC

reinforcement Asl of a flanged cross-section (e.g. at

intermediate supports of continuous T beam) need not be

within web but may be spread over the effective flange width of

the beam section.

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

curtailment compared to earlier practice for the length of the

longitudinal tension reinforcement and anchorage in tension.

Salient features of shift rule are as under :

to resist the envelop of the acting tensile force, including the

effect of inclined cracks in webs and flanges.

For members with shear reinforcement, the additional

tensile force, Ftd, should be calculated according to clause

16.5.1.3 (2).

For members without shear reinforcement Ftd, may be

estimated by shifting the moment curve a distance al = d

according to clause 16.5.1.3 (3). This shift rule may also be

applied for members with shear reinforcement, where al = z

(Cot Cot ) / 2 = 0.5 z Cot for vertical shear links.

Depending upon the angle of strut considered in design, the

value of al can vary from 0.45 d (for = 45o) to 1.125 d (for

= 21.8o).

For reinforcement in the flange, placed outside the web, al

should be increased by a distance equal to the distance of

bar from web face.

The curtailed reinforcement should be provided with an

anchorage length lb,net, but not less than d, effective depth

from the point where it is no longer needed. The diagram of

the resisting tensile force should always lie outside the

envelop line of the acting tensile force, displaced as

described above.

the shift rule philosophy.

the span. The code recommends that the bottom

reinforcement should be anchored to resist a force of VEd x

(al / d) + NEd, as defined in clause 16.5.1.4

The anchorage length is required to be measured from the

line of contact of the direct support. Minimum length should

be = 2/3rd lbnet.

For indirect support, it is measured from a distance w/3

from the face of support, beyond which a minimum length of

lbnet should be provided .

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

provided in the span.

Anchorage length, l, 10 for straight bars.

Anchorage length, l, m for hooks and bends

Continuous reinforcement is recommended at intermediate

supports to resist accidental loads. However this does not

mean that the intermediate support must have width greater

than 20, as the bars from each side can be made

continuous or lapped.

member axis. It can be in the form of links or a combination

of links, bent up bars & assembly in the form of cage. At

least 50% of the bars should be in the form of links.

Minimum shear reinforcement, w,min = 0.072 (fck)/fyk

Maximum longitudinal spacing of :

o Links, Sl,max = 0.75d x (1+Cot )

o Bent-up bars, Sb,max = 0.6d x (1+Cot )

Maximum transverse spacing, St,max = 0.75d 600mm

generally sufficient to provide the minimum torsion links

required.

There should be at least one longitudinal bar at each corner

of the torsion link. Others longitudinal bars need to be

distributed uniformly along the inner periphery.

Longitudinal bars spacing minimum of [350mm, u/8],

where u is the outer perimeter of the member.

to control cracking and to ensure adequate resistance to

spalling of the cover in situations where cover to reinforcement

provided is more than the minimum cover required as per

section 14 of the code (e,g. bottom of pile cap). This can also

happen in situations where bundled bars or bars of size greater

than 32mm have been used. In case of deep beams this

reinforcement generally comprises of smaller diameter high

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

bond bars placed in the tension zone outside the links. Other

requirements are :

Minimum area of surface reinforcement, As,surf 0.01Act,ext,

where Act,ext is the area of cover portion outside the stirrups

/ links.

The surface reinforcement may be taken into consideration

as a part of the longitudinal bending steel or as link.

per provisions for beam.

shift rule, al = d may be used.

reinforcement.

[2h, 250mm], where h is the overall depth of slab.

of [3h, 400mm].

Fig. 16.4 should be made in the code instead of Fig. 16.3

(ERRATA).

span. The code recommends that the bottom reinforcement

should be anchored to resist a force of VEd x (al / d) + NEd,

as defined in clause 16.5.1.4 applicable for beams.

the span moment in situations where partial fixity can occur.

DRAFT PREPD BY : Dr AK MITTAL / AB Chapter 16 / 6 OF 9

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

stiffened. The edges are to be detailed with suitable closing

reinforcement comprising of transverse U-bars enclosing the

longitudinal bars, as per Fig.16 of the code for transverse deck

edges (which usually terminate with parapet edge) as well as

longitudinal U-bars at expansion joints enclosing the transverse

bars, extending into joint nibs.

(CODAL CLAUSE IS NOT VERY CLEAR)

least 200 mm in order for the links to contribute to shear

resistance. The general detailing rules for shear reinforcement

are as for beams except :

reinforcement may be provided either by bent-up bars or of

shear assemblies.

increased to Smax = d

is given by : Smax = 0.75d (1+ cot )

increased to 1.5d.

Two cases are covered for design of corbel using strut & tie

method :

a) ac h

corbel (with total area of As,main), closed horizontal or

inclined links (secondary tie bars) to be provided distributed

within the depth of the where :

b) ac > h

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

stirrups are required where the shear force exceeds the

concrete shear.

connection where the construction depth is limited or in case of

suspended spand resting on tip of a cantilever. The treatment

of articulation shall be similar to a corbel or a nib.

overall section depth (SHOULD HAVE BEEN DEFINED IN

CODE). In bridge design, this will most frequently apply to

diaphragms in box girder, cross girders between bridge beams

..etc.

shall be treated the same way as reinforced concrete

members. In case members are with a combination of bonded

and unbonded tendons, requirements of bonded tendons will

apply.

Superstructures as well as Substructures. The eqn. 16.13 is

derived from the confinement provided to the core by the

surrounding concrete & supplementary reinforcement, whose

perimeter is defined by b2 and d2 in Fig. 16.9. The

surrounding area resist transverse expansion of the core by

acting in ring tension prior to spalling. The distribution of load

should be such that adjacent areas do not overlap and the

slope should not exceed 1H:2V.

distributed on the area Aco or if high shear forces exist. Though

no guidance is given in the code, the bearing pressure check

could be based on the peak pressure in case it is not uniform.

Also in case shear force is less than 10% of the vertical load, it

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

adoption of 3D FEM analysis.

area and edge of the section should not be less than 50 mm

or less than 1/6th of the corresponding dimension of the

loaded area.

to avoid edge sliding. The reinforcement to be provided

parallel to the loaded face for a depth as indicated in Fig.

16.10 of the code. The amount of reinforcement is given by

At.fyd FRdu / 2, which must be uniformly distributed over

height h. The provided reinforcement needs to be suitably

anchored, necessitating closed links.

from the primary (supported) beam is transferred to the support

indirectly through the cross (supporting) beam. Such provisions

are required in bridges in situations (e,g. where the bearings

are not provided directly under the girder). In general

suspension reinforcement will add to reinforcement for other

effects.

concentrated forces of post-tensioned anchorages disperse

and spread over the full section of the prestressed structural

element. Usually this zone in length is taken as equal to the

larger depth / width of the section.

DRAFTCOMMENTARYOFIRC:112 February2013

Codal Clause

C17.1 GENERAL 17.1

improved seismic resistance, are based on the current national

and international practices. Seismic design and detailing is still

evolving globally, making its codification a difficult task. The

bridge designers are therefore encouraged to refer to specialist

literatures wherever required to augment thedesign and

detailing practices.

seismic zone III, IV & V are to ensure that the bridge

substructures are provided with adequate ductility to ensure

that the required overall global ductility of the structure is met

and the plastic hinge formation is forced at the substructure

rather than at foundations, which is difficult to inspect and

repair.

concrete and providing increased lateral support to the

longitudinal reinforcement in plastic hinge zone. The main

function of the transverse reinforcement for confinement is to

ensure that the axle load carried by the bridge pier after

spalling of the concrete cover will at least be equal to the load

carried before spalling & to ensure that buckling of the

longitudinal reinforcement is prevented. Thus, the spacing of

the confining reinforcement is also important.

which the confinement of the compression zone is required.

The lightly loaded bridge piers having normalized axial force

less than 0.08 times the capacity of concrete section

(calculated without reinforcement) will not require

confinement reinforcement.

reinforcement, with the intent that spalling of shell concrete

will not result in a loss of axial load strength of the column.

DRAFTPREPDBY:DrAKMITTAL/AB Chapter17/1OF5

DRAFTCOMMENTARYOFIRC:112 February2013

ratio.

confining reinforcement ( wd ) is greater of two values given

in Eq.17.5. The minimum reinforcement condition is to be

satisfied in both directions. For circular sections, the

minimum confining reinforcement provided by hoops/spirals

determined as higher of two values given in Eq. 17.7.

sections do not have lateral ties. In rectangular sections,

there are numbers of lateral ties which are anchored in

central core concrete. Such ties providemuch more effective

confinement than circular hoops/spirals.

Worked Examples:

Width of Pier, B 2m

Depth of the Pier, D 2.5

fck 35 Mpa fcd 15.63 Mpa

ftk 500 Mpa fyd 434.78 Mpa

Long. Reinforcement ratio 0.02

Clear cover 50 mm

Designed axial load, Ned 1600 Tonne

Dia of tie, d 12 mm Asw, B 1356.48 sqmm

No. of legs along width 12 Asw, D 1808.64 sqmm

No. of legs along depth 16

Spacing of tie 150 mm

Gross area of concrete 5 sqm

section Ac

Confined concrete area, Acc 4.56 sqm

Normalized axial force, nk 0.0914 (Confinement is required)

Volumetric ratio, w (B) 0.0045

Volumetric ratio, w (D) 0.0048

wd,B 0.1258 (O.K.)

wd, D 0.1341 (O.K.)

w,req 0.0732

w,min 0.12

Designed wd 0.12

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fck 35 Mpa fcd 15.63 Mpa

ftk 500 mpa fyd 434.78 Mpa

Long. Reinforcement ratio 0.02

Clear cover 50 mm

Designed axial load, Ned 1200 T

dia of hoop/spiral, d 20 mm Asp 314 sqmm

spacing of hoop/spiral 90 mm

section Ac

Confined concrete area, Acc 3.46185 sqm

Diameter of hoop/spiral, Dsp 2.14 m

Volumetric ratio, w 0.0065

wd 0.1814 (O.K.)

w,req 0.0539

w,min 0.18

required Asp 311.64 sqmm

required d 19.92 mm

Designed wd 0.18

one-fifth of the minimum member dimension for rectangular

sections or one-fifth the diameter of concrete core for circular

section, is prescribed to obtain adequate concrete confinement.

five times the smallest longitudinal bar diameter is intended to

prevent buckling of longitudinal reinforcement after spalling.

.

C17.2.1.4 Length of Potential Plastic Hinges 17.2.1.4

hinge zone and minimum length beyond the plastic hinge zone

over which closely-spaced transverse reinforcement is required

to be provided within the member. This is based on normalized

axial force, k.

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Once the cover concrete in the plastic hinge zone spalls due to

several hysterics of the seismic action, the longitudinal bars are

prone to buckling. The transverse reinforcement shall be

adequate to prevent this buckling by providing transverse

reinforcement at spacing not exceeding 5 times the minimum

diameter of the longitudinal bars.

result of spalling, proper anchorage and careful detailing of the

confining steel is required for its effectiveness.

prohibited at the column base, where plastic hinge is likely to

form. This is because the splice occurs at the location where

requirement of bond is critical. Further, lapping at the base is

likely to stiffen the base and shift up the plastic hinge over the

lapping region, thereby increasing the seismic demand.

h

shall not exceed 8 in the plastic hinge region. In case of

hollow circular piers, the ratio di/h shall not exceed 8, where

di is the inner diameter of the hollow pier.

force, k 0.2. However the requirement of controlling

buckling as per clause 17.2.2 is required to be met.

occurs above the foundations, as repairs to foundations can be

extremely difficult and expensive. This is generally ensured by :

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that the weakest link is at the pier base (capacity

protection).

proper detailing and confinement.

at the pier base in any direction (e,g. in case of plate type

piers), it may not be possible to avoid localized hinge formation

in the foundation due to seismic loads. In such cases, ductile

behavior of the piles shall be ensured by following measures :

hinge :

o Top of pile

o Location of maximum bending moment

o Interface of soil layers with marked difference in shear

deformability.

vertical reinforcement equal to 3 times the pile diameter.

equivalent cantilever method as per IS:2911), confinement

reinforcement is also required to be provided for a length of

two times the pile diameter on either side of the point of

maximum moment in pile (other than at pile head).

interaction is adopted for pile foundation design (e,g. Using

soil springs), confinement reinforcement needs to be

provided only at the location where bending moment is

maximum (which is likely to be at the pile heads).

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Codal Clause

for Reinforcement, Prestressing Steel and Concrete.

materials in existing bridges, the standards and specifications

prevailing at the time of construction of the bridge are to be

considered.

The code relies upon BIS codes IS:432 (Part-1)-1982 for Mild

Steel and IS:1786-2000 for HYSD rebars for specification on

reinforcements. Though several grades of Mild Steel and

HYSD bars are specified in Table 18.1 of the code, all the

grades may not be readily available in the market. Availability

of the steel grade shall be ascertained prior to its use.

International Standards other than BIS code, provided the

mechanical and chemical properties & bond properties of the

material is not inferior to the reinforcement corresponding to

BIS standards.

are used. The most well known are:

b) Using stainless steel.

c) Using cathodic protection.

d) Using epoxy-coated re-bars.

code covers only a), b) & d) of the above stated methods in this

section.

DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

types of prestressing steel permitted as per this code. The steel

in prestressed applications has to be of good quality. It requires

the following attributes :

1) High strength

2) Adequate ductility

3) Bendability, which is required at the harping points

and near the anchorage

4) High bond, required for pre-tensioned members

5) Low relaxation to reduce losses

6) Minimum corrosion.

hydrogen embrittlement in aggressive environments. Hence, it

is requires to be adequately protected. For bonded tendons,

the alkaline environment of the grout provides adequate

protection. For unbonded tendons, corrosion protection is

provided by one or more of the following methods.

1) Epoxy coating

2) Mastic wrap (grease impregnated tape)

3) Galvanized bars

4) Encasing in tubes.

concrete in the form of admixture, before or during mixing. The

most used admixtures are air-entraining agents, water

reducers, water-reducing retarders and accelerators.

Admixtures shall be evaluated for compatibility with the

cementitious materials, construction practices, job

specifications and economic benefits before being used.

are added to concrete in relatively large amounts, generally in

the range of 20 to 70 percent by mass of the total cementitious

material. These materials are generally byproducts from other

processes or natural materials. They are also sometimes

referred to as supplementary cementitious material. Though

there are several types of mineral admixtures which are

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DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013

available for use, the code permits use of fly ash (byproduct of

coal fired furnaces), Ground granulated blast furnace slag

(non-metallic manufactured byproduct from a blast furnace)

and silica fume (byproduct from the manufacture of silicon or

ferro silicon metal) only.

aggregates cannot be overemphasized. The fine and coarse

aggregates generally occupy 60% to 75% of the concrete

volume (70% to 85% by mass) and strongly influence the

concretes freshly mixed and hardened properties, mixture

proportions, and economy.

aggregates affects the workability and the hardened properties

of the concrete. There are two main reasons for increasing the

amount of aggregates in concrete. The first is that cement is

more expensive than aggregate, so using more aggregate

reduces the cost of producing concrete. The second is that

most of the durability problems, e.g. shrinkage of hardened

concrete are caused by cement. Generally, concrete shrinkage

increases with increase in cement content; aggregates, on the

other hand, reduce shrinkage and provide more volume

stability. Furthermore, cement production is a key source of

carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, and reducing its usage should

be a goal for concrete production There are several methods of

minimizing cement in concrete; amongst the most common of

those is replacing cement with cementitious and pozzolanic

materials such as fly ash.

by its intended use and strength. It is emphasized that the

average strength of concrete produced must always exceed

the specified value of its characteristic strength, since the

characteristic strength requirement is based on probabilistic

concept with the stated requirement of only 5% results can be

lower than the specified strength.

steps :

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phase, standard deviation of 6 Mpa shall be considered for

normal and uniform conditions. As soon as the results of

samples are available, actual calculated standard deviation

shall be used and the mix designed accordingly. When

adequate past records for a similar grade exist and justify

to the designer a value of standard deviation different from

what is specified in the code, it shall be permissible to use

that value

average strength, keeping in mind the workability, durability

and other requirements.

appreciably higher than the specified strength, fck. The degree

of overdesign depends upon the variability of the test results.

incorrect sampling can adversely affect the results of testing. It

is imperative that the sample of concrete is taken as per

IS:1199 for situations where the batching plant is near the

location of placement of concrete. For ready-mixed concretes,

the sampling and placement shall be conforming to IS:4926.

The representative samples are those which are taken at the

placement location.

reject concrete on the basis of compressive strength. Flexural

strength can be used for design purpose, but the

corresponding compressive strength should be used to accept

the concrete. Any time trial batches are made; both flexural and

compressive tests should be made so that a correlation can be

developed for field control.

concrete is treated mathematically as a random variable. The

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be understood clearly so that the interpretation of test data on

site becomes more rational and scientific.

strength of concrete is not linked with Standard Deviation (SD).

Since the target mean strength requirement is based on SD = 6

Mpa, this means that required mean strength is not linked with

the degree of quality control at site, even though the probability

of the compressive strength value being not reached depends

upon Standard Deviation itself.

Flexural tests are extremely sensitive to specimen preparation,

handling, and curing procedure. The results of the flexural tests

are therefore not as much reliable as the results of

compressive strength

process. It cannot be determined directly in a time frame that

would be useful as a quality control measure. Therefore, in

order to assess the resistance of concrete against chloride

penetration, a test method that accelerates the process is

needed, to allow the determination of diffusion values in a

reasonable time. The rapid chloride permeability test (RCPT),

as it is commonly called, serves this purpose. The test is used

extensively in the concrete industry for assessing concrete

quality and is now being included in the code. Suggested upper

limits of values prescribed in the code are based on tests to be

conducted at 56th day.

of grouts in post tensioned concrete structures are :

ensure complete filling of the tendon duct.

be maintained within a specified range around zero to

completely fill the tendon duct.

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inside the tendon duct, and any bleed water to be

reabsorbed by the grout within a specified time.

indication of the grout quality with respect to its bond and

shear strength.

important for applications in cold climates.

would be resorted to are

or construction.

physical damage.

designer, authorities or other parties to require proof of the

concept used.

Beams etc.), where stress strain relationship is not linear,

the acceptance should preferably be based on analytical

investigation.

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ANNEXURE A1

ACTIONS, DESIGNS, SITUATIONS AND COMBINATIONS OF ACTION (3RD DRAFT)

Codal Clause

their classification and the philosophy adopted for deciding the

design values of actions. Various values of action like

characteristic values, Design values and combinational values

are explained with special reference to design of concrete

bridges, where they differ from other types of bridges.

Clause 5.4.1

Actions are of two types viz direct and indirect actions. The

actions (loads) such as self weight, Superimposed dead load,

Carriageway live load, footpath live load etc. are directly

applied to the structure and hence they are termed as direct

action.

structure due to imposed deformation by, settlement,

temperature, or seismic accelerations. Thus indirect actions are

generated actions.

permanent and variable actions. Direct actions which are

always present in the structure are termed as permanent

action, e,g. self weight, superimposed dead load, Back fill

weight, Earth pressure, Prestress effects etc. Actions, which

vary with respect to time are treated as variable actions e,g.

Carriageway live load, footpath live load, wind, thermal action

etc. Snow load even though it varies with respect to time, has

been treated as direct permanent action. Settlement effect

which fall under the category of indirect action is termed as

permanent action as the settlement effect becomes permanent,

once the settlement takes place. Whereas thermal effects

which also fall under the category of indirect action will be

termed as variable action as it can vary with respect to time.

Thus it can be seen that some indirect actions fall under the

category of permanent action and some under the category of

variable action. Semi permanent (Quasi permanent) actions are

certain fractions of variable action which are likely be present in

the structure at all the time. eg some fraction of thermal effect .

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and seismic action. Accidental actions are those actions, of

which its occurrences itself and its periodicity cannot be

predicted. These are actions which the structure may or may

not be subjected to during its life time, exemplified by barge

impact and vehicle collision with the parts of the bridge.

Accidental actions of man-made explosions are special cases

which are not covered by IRC:6).

can be considered as an accidental action. However, the

method of design and allowable states of the structure being

different from those of the accidental actions, the seismic

action is considered as a separate type of action. This

classification is summarized in Fig.19-A1-1.

the following nomenclature and definitions.

distribution of magnitudes of action. It could be mean value,

upper fractional or lower fractional value or a nominal value.

Upper and lower characteristic values commonly correspond to

95th and 5th percentiles. When statistical distribution is not

adhered to a nominal value is specified which is treated as

characteristic value. For permanent action which varies very

little about their mean value, the characteristic value

corresponds to the mean value which is a single value. In case

where the design is expected to be sensitive with respect to

variations in the density or thickness or time dependent loss in

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and upper case values which are referred as inferior and

superior value. The inferior and superior value of actions are

generally given as a multiplied values of characteristic value.

For variable actions, the characteristic value shall correspond

to :

exceeded or

a lower value with an intended probably of being

achieved during a reference period or

a nominal value

upon by various actions at different times. These actions

which can act simultaneously need to be combined in

order verify the safety of structure. There can be few

combinations, the structure has to with stand. It will be

proved latter on, the combinations given in this code will

give raise to 9 primary combinations.

etc. do not act at their peak values simultaneously at the

same time. Hence, when these actions are to be

combined, a reduction factor to be applied to scale down

their peak values. While combining several variable

actions, one variable action shall be treated as the leading

variable action and all other variable actions shall be

treated as accompanying variable actions. It will be for the

designer to choose the leading variable action. To explain,

if the carriageway live load is taken as leading variable

action in a combination, then, thermal action or wind

action shall be taken as accompanying variable action and

the combination factors shall be taken accordingly. For the

next trial, the thermal action can be taken as leading

variable action and the carriageway live load shall taken

as accompanying variable action. While combining,

various variable actions, the leading action, shall be

assumed to act at it's peak and all other actions are to be

scaled down in all combinations, except in frequent

combination where the combination factor has also to be

applied even to the leading action, in order to convert the

characteristic action to frequently occurring action. The

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values while combining are called combination factors.

The product of combination factor and characteristic value

of action is called combination value of an action (Qk , 0

Qk or 1 Qk or 2 Qk . It is made clearer that combination

factors are to be applied only on variable actions.

of actions (loads) for verifying the ultimate limit state. The

partial factor consists of two factors s and D. s is the partial

factor for taking into account the uncertainty in modeling the

effect of action which is 1.15 for permanent action and 1.1 for

variable action. D is the partial factor for taking in to account

the possibility of unfavorable deviation of action which is 1.17

for permanent action (load) and 1.36 for variable action (load).

Hence the partial factor for permanent action (load) will work

out to 1.15 x 1.17 = 1.35 and for variable action. 1.1 x 1.36 =

1.50

loads to be done only when it causes unfavorable effect

(adding to the effects of variable action). In case if it causes

favorable effects (opposing the effects of variable action) then

the permanent actions shall not be enhanced by partial factor.

This situation will happen in continuous structure.

combination, the partial factor on actions shall be taken as 1.0

only. (i,e.) the action shall not be enhanced. For prestressing

action, the partial factor will vary under different condition, for

which clause no. 7.9.5 of the code shall be referred to. Above

factors have been taken from other International code as there

are no data available for these factors.

actions acting simultaneously are to be combined in to order to

carry out the verification of limit states. When all actions are to

be combined the combination value of variable actions are to

be used in order to reduce the severity of the effects as all the

variable actions do not act as their peak values at the same

time. Combination factors are to be used with variable actions

in order to arrive at the characteristic value or infrequent value

or frequent value or semi permanent value of variable action

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actions.

includes both the combination factor and partial factor for

variable actions. This means that partial factor given in the

code for variable action = Partial factor for variable actions x

Combination factor for variable actions i,e , x (0 or 1 or 2).

Hence, the partial factor as given in the code only needs to be

applied. The philosophy of combination factor is given herein

only for the understanding of the engineers. As the combination

factor is not applicable for permanent actions the partial factor

for permanent action does not include the combination factor.

The use of these partial factors given in the code is explained

in the worked out few examples where they are shown in the

brackets.

Combination of Action

in the form of mathematical equations where are given below

for clarity.

There are two types of limit states which are to be satisfied. i,e

Limit state of Strength (ULS) and Limit State of Serviceability

(SLS).

three limit state combinations (i,e. Basic Combination,

Accidental Combination & Seismic Combination).

load factors are given for different set of load combinations, for

which table 3.1 and 3.2 of Annex B of IRC: 6 shall be used.

controlled. For checking the serviceability limit state 3

combinations will be made use of. 5.4.2.2

in structure and is expected to occur infrequently.

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check crack width in prestressed concrete structure and

deflection of both R.C.C and Prestressed Concrete Structure.

effects, permanent stress in the structure and to check crack

width in reinforced concrete structure. This combination

provides an estimate of sustained loads on the structure.

Annex:

The variable actions are to be combined with permanent A1

Clause:

actions keeping in mind that all variable actions do not attain

A1-4

their peak values simultaneously at the same time and are to

be combined to verify.

Basic, Accidental and Seismic combinations.

(2) The structural strength under ultimate state. For Basic,

Accidental and Seismic combinations

(3) The serviceability limit states. For Rare combination,

frequent combination and Quasi permanent combination

complete the design. There can be several sub combinations.

The necessary checks required to be carried out under ultimate

limit state and serviceability limit states have been detailed

under relevant chapters.

Worked Examples

Partial factors are taken from IRC 6: 2010. The examples will illustrate the

methods to carry out the stability check and to work out the Bending

moment for the various combinations.

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Example 1:

Overhang Beam Stability Check.

Self weight of member g = 15kN/m

Concentrated Dead Load G = 6Kn

Live Load Q1 = 9kN/m

2 2

3 3

Overturning Moment = (1.05) x 15 x 2 + (1.05) x 6 x 3 + (1.50) x 9 x 2

2

15x4.5

Restoring Moment = (0.95) x 2 = 144.28 kNm

Structure overturns and hence unstable. To make it stable either reduce the cantilever

length or, reduce the concentrated load or provide anchoring at A.

Example 2:

Retaining wall

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1) Overturning Check

Overturning moment (for unit length)

1

Earth pressure moment = (1.50) x 2 x 17 x (4.3)3 x 0.33 x 0.42 = 140.50 kNm

2

4.3

Moment of due to surcharge = (1.2) x 10 x 0.33 x 2 = 36.61 kNm

Total overturning moment = 140.50 + 36.61 = 177.11kNm

Raft = 25 x 0.6 x 3.8 x 3.8/2 = 108.3 kNm

Wall = 25 x 3.7 x 0.4 (0.8 + 0.2) = 37 kNm

Fill = 17 x 3.7 x 2.6 = 408.9 kNm

Total Restoring moment = 108.3 + 37 + 408.9 = 554.2 kNm

Reduced moment = (0.95) x 554.2 = 526.49 kNm

526.49 kNm > 177.11kNm

Hence the structure does not overturn.

Sliding check (for unit length)

1

Horizontal force due to Earth pressure = (1.50) x 2 x 0.33 x 17 x 4.32 = 78.00 kN

Total Horizontal force = 78.00 + 17.00= 95.00 kN

Vertical Force:

Self weight = 2.5 x 3.8 x 0.6 + 25 x 3.7 x 0.4 = 94 kN

Soil Load = 17 x 3.7 x 2.6 = 163.4 kN

Total Vertical Load Per Unit Length = 94 + 163.4 = 257.4 kN

Taking friction coefficient as 0.5

Resisting forces = (0.95) x 257.5 x 0.5 = 122.3 kN

As 122.3 kN > 95 kN

Hence the structure will not slide.

Example 1:

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Taking the same example of over hanging beam

(a) Moment due to concentrated Load

6kN

4.5m 3.0m

C

-9 kNm

-18 kNm

A B

Fig: 3 Bending moment due to Concentrated Dead Load

15kN/m

A +4.21kNm B-67.50kNm

9kN/m

-20.25kNm

-40.5kNm

9kN/m

+22.78kNm C

A B

Fig: 6 Moment due to Live Load

i. Max (-) moment at B = -{1.35 (18 + 67.5) + 1.5 x 40.5 }= - 176.2 kNm

ii. Max (+) moment at Mid Point of AB = 1.0 (-9 + 4.21) + 1.5 x 22.78 = 29.38 kNm

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It is to be noted as the dead load effects oppose the live load effect, the partial

safely factor 1.0 has been used for dead load moment

iii. Maximum (-) moment of Mid Point of AB = {1.35 (-9 + 4.21) 1.5 x 20.25} = -

36.84 kNm

As the dead load effects add to effect of live load effect the partial safely factor of

1.35 has been used for dead load moments.

(2) Moments under Serviceability Limit State

(a) Rare Combination

Maximum (-) moment at B = -{1.0 (18 + 67.5) + 1.0 x 40.5} = - 126 kNm

+ Moment at Mid Point span of AB = 1.0 (-9 + 4.2) + 1.0 x 22.78 = 17.98 kNm

Maximum (-) moment at Mid Point of span AB = -{1.0 (-9 + 4.21) 1.0 x 20.25}

= -25.04 kNm

(b) Frequent Combination

Maximum moment at B = -{1.0 (18 + 67.5) + 0.75 x 40.5} = - 115.87 kNm

Max (+) moment at Mid Point of AB = 1.0 (-9 + 4.2) + 0.75 x 22.78 = 12.25 kNm

Max (-) moment at Mid Point of AB = 1.0 (-9 +4.2) 0.75 x 20.25 = -19.98 kNm

(c) Quasi Permanent Combination

Maximum moment at B = -{1.0 (18 + 67.5)} = - 85.5 kNm

Moment of Mid Point of Span AB = 1.0(-9 +4.2) = -4.8 kNm

Thus it can be Seen that at first the bending moment has to be calculated with the

actions and then the partial factors to be chosen to arrive at the moment for the

different combinations.

Example 1:

5m 5m 5m

A B C D

Fig: 7 Continuity Beam

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1) Dead Load moment in Mid span AB = .08 x 52 x 30 = 60 kNm

2

2) Dead Load moment at support B = -{.01 x 5 x 30} = - 75 kNm

3) Dead Load moment at Mid span BC = .025 x 52 x 30 = 18.75 kNm

4) Live Load + moment in Mid span AB = .100 x 52 x 18 = + 45 kNm

5) Live Load moment at Mid span AB = - .025 x 52 x 18 = - 11.25 kNm

6) Live Load moment at support B = - .117 x 52 x 18 = - 52.65 kNm

2

7) Live Load + moment at support B = .015 x 5 x 18 = + 6.75 kNm

2

8) Live Load + moment Mid span BC = .075 x 5 x 18 = 33.75 kNm

9) Live Load moment at Mid span BC = - .052 x 52 x 18 = - 23.4 kNm

The moment have been calculated using coefficients to simplify the calculation.

a) For Mid Span of AB

+ Moment = (1.35) x 60 + (1.5) x 45 = 148.5 kNm Design Moment

- Moment = (1.0) x 60 (1.5) x 11.25 = + 43.125 kNm

Note as Dead load moment is opposing live load moment the partial factor on DL is

1.0 only.

(-) Moment = -(1.35) x 75 (1.5) x 52.65 = - 180.2 kNm Design Moment

+ Moment = -(1.0) x 75 + (1.5) x 6.75 = - 64.875 kNm

+ Moment = (1.35) x 18.75 + (1.5) x 33.75 = 76 kNm

(-) Moment = (1.0) x 18.75 (1.5) x 23.4 = - 16.35 kNm

Note the section is undergoing Reversal.

(a) Rare Combination:

i. Moment in Mid span AB

+ Moment = (1.0) x 60 + (1.0) x 45 = + 105 kNm Design Moment

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(-) Moment = -(1) x 75 1 x 52.65= - 127.65 kNm Design Moment

+ Moment = - (1) x 75 + 1 x 6.75 = - 68.25 kNm

+ Moment = (1.0) x 18.75 + (1.0) x 33.75= + 52.5 kNm

(-) Moment = (1.0) x 18.75 1.0 x 23.4 = - 4.65 kNm

i. Moment at Mid Span AB

+ Moment = 1.0 x 60 + 0.75 x 45 = 94 kNm

Design Moment

(-) Moment = 1.0 x 60 0.75 x 11.25 = + 51.56 kNm

(-) Moment at support = - 1.0 x 75 0.75 x 52.65 = - 114.48 kNm

+ Moment = 1.0 x 18.75 + 0.75 x 33.75 = 44.06 kNm

(-) Moment = 1 x 18.75 0.75 x 23.4 = + 1.2 kNm

Only Dead Load will act

Moment at Mid span of AB (1.0) x 60 = + 60 kNm

Moment at Support B 1.0 x -75 = (-) 75 kNm

Moment at Mid span BC 1.0 x 18.75 = (+) 18.75 kNm

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180.21 180.21

16.35

43.12 43.12

76

64.87 64.87

148.5

8.4 Design Moments for Superstructure and Loads and Moments for Substructure

Example 1:

Another Example of Designs of Bridge Superstructure and substructure will be given

here so that the designers can easily understand the concept of partial factors.

a) BM due to Dead Load of Super Structure 3483.0 kNm

b) BM due to SIDL except surfacing 687.0 kNm

c) BM due to surfacing 190.0 kNm

d) BM due to FPLL and LL 913.0 kNm

(a) Design moments for ultimate strength check

i. Design moment for strength check = 1.35 (3483.0 + 687) + 1.75 x 190 + 1.5 x 913

= 7331.5 kNm

(b) Design moments for serviceability combinations

i. Moment for Rare Combination check = 3483.0 + 687 + 190 +913

= 5273.0 kNm

Moment for Rare combination check, including temperature gradient effect =

5273.0 + 0.6 time the moment due to temperature gradient effect.

ii. Moment for Frequent Combination check = 3483.0 + 687.0 + 190+ 913 x 0.75

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= 5044.7 kNm

Moment for frequent combination check, including temperature gradient effect =

5044.7 + 0.5 time the moment due to temperature gradient effect.

iii. Moment for Quasi permanent combination check = 3483 + 687 + 190

= 4360 kNm

Moment for Quasi permanent combination check, including temperature gradient

effect = 4360 + 0.5 time the moment due to temperature gradient effect

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CONCRETE SHELL ELEMENTS (2ND DRAFT)

C-B-1 Introduction

As explained in Section 9, the shell element is subjected to

eight number of force resultants, This method is generally

applicable when the analysis is performed using finite element

method. The internal actions in a shell element at ULS are

sketched in Fig. C-B-1.1.

method in the past.

cracked using Eqn. B-1-1. If the element is uncracked, the only

verification required is to check that minimum principal stress

(i.e. maximum compressive stress) does not exceed the design

compressive strength fcd. If the element is cracked, the

annexure gives procedure to find out the required reinforced

reinforcement.

and twisting moments into stress resultants acting planes of the

top and bottom layers. The core/middle layer is designed to

carry the out of plane shear force.

the Section-9. Verification at ULS is to be performed adopting

the sandwich model for shell elements. The procedure is

demonstrated with the help of worked example.

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