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1.0 Introduction

Indian Roads Congress (IRC) has published the new code of

practice IRC:112-2010 Code of Practice for Concrete Road
Bridges, which replaces two earlier codes IRC: 21 for Plain and
Reinforced Concrete Bridges and IRC:18 for Post-Tensioned
Concrete Bridges. The new Code is a unified code for all types of
concrete bridges, using plain concrete, reinforced concrete, and
prestressed concrete and constructed by cast-in-place, pre-cast
and composite construction methods. It also covers concrete
elements of steel concrete composite bridges. The Code covers
mainly the use of normal weight concrete with density in the range
of 20 to 28 kN/m3.
IRC:112 -2010 is in line with the new generation of rationalised
international concrete codes using semi probabilistic Limit State
approach to arrive at the desired targets of safety, serviceability,
durability and economy in a consistent and reliable way. It
incorporates up-to date knowledge of the behaviour of structural
concrete and envisages use of modern construction technology.
The Code takes into account the present State-of-Art of bridge
construction in India, but it targets to upgrade the same by
incorporating new developments that have taken place
It is realised that the Code is to be implemented by the present
generation of practicing engineers, who will have to become
familiar with the new and more advanced methods of the Limit
State code. IRC believes that they will be helped in this effort by
publication of this explanatory handbook. Due to the large scale of
updation of the knowledge base about concrete, steels, and
concrete structures, the Code has to include many new details
within its body, which were not included in the earlier codes.

2.0 Need for New Generation of Codes

The unprecedented and rapid growth of concrete construction both
in developed and developing countries is the driving force behind
the search of stronger, better and cheaper materials,
improvements in the technology and use of mechanised, fast track
construction methods. All these are required to be covered in the
new Code. Some of the significant developments grouped in three
categories are listed bellow to illustrate the point.

2.1 Scientific Developments

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- Unprecedented Growth of Knowledge about concrete and

structural behaviour in last 20 years and development of new
- Development of new structural forms
- Research in durability
= Research and experience of seismic response of structures
- New powerful methods of computer based analysis and design

2.2 Technological developments

- Development of stronger reinforcing steels, prestressing steels
and concretes of high strength and high performance.
- Applications of fast track construction techniques, large scale
mechanisation of construction, use of large sized pre-cast
segments and heavy lifting capabilities, which allow rapid
construction of longer, taller and bigger structures in all kinds of
difficult environments.

2.3 Development of New Design Philosophy and Adoption of

the same by International Community
The Semi-Probabilistic, Limit-State Design Philosophy, which
allows application of uniform and rational safety norms to all types
of structural elements, provides the basis for many national codes
Since the development efforts are continuing at accelerated pace
all over the world, the concrete technology has truly become an
international activity, - especially so for bridges. It is reasonable to
expect that this trend will continue. To meet the changing needs
and concerns of the society, new developments in materials, new
technology and additional or new concerns are bound to emerge in
different parts of the world. The codes of new generation should be
able to accommodate these developments rapidly. It makes sense
to adopt a rational design philosophy, transparent aims,
appropriate strategies and codified simple methods to achieve the
In order to accommodate the new developments the format of
presentation of the code has to be suitably chosen,

3.0 Coverage of Code

Code of practice is written for the use of practicing professionals
who are to be guided in their practice keeping sight of a few
explicitly stated or implied aims. The underlying assumption of the
code, that it is to be used by the qualified and suitably experienced
professionals, allows - or even expects - the code to be brief.
However in practice the experience shows that too much of brevity
leads to un-intended interpretations. The modern codes have,

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therefore, tended to be more descriptive and voluminous. In

addition, an explanatory document is needed to clarify the
recommendations. The code writers also have to take into
consideration the general level of technical competence of its
users. This makes a new generation code to some extent a tool for
education, providing an impetus for continued education of the
practicing professionals.

4.0 Contents of IRC: 112-2011

In light of the considerations presented above, many new features
have been introduced in the Code. These are given below under
the heading of New Features.

4.1 New Features

(1) Non Operative, explanatory Section - 5, Basis of Design
This new section will help users to understand the basis behind
various provisions of the Code and their significance. The
approach taken for achieving the aims, listed in Section 4,General
is described in this section.
This Section includes brief descriptions of the multiple strategies
adopted by the Code using concepts of limit state philosophy,
reliability, limit states considered for design, types of actions and
action combinations, analytical modelling, material properties,
service life, design life (normally 100 years), methods to achieve
durability, design based on full scale testing etc.

(2) Materials are covered in three different Sections.

(a) Section 6: Material Properties and their Design Values
This section covers the main materials, viz. Reinforcing and
Prestressing steels, and Concretes of various grades. The
use of reinforcement has been extended to include grades
up to and including Fe 600. The Concrete grades are
extended from earlier M 60 up to and including M 90.
The simplified design values of properties, which are
sufficiently accurate for normal applications, are given in this
section.. Bi-Linear Stress- Strain diagrams are specified for
Reinforcing and prestressing steels.
(b) Annexure A-2: Additional Information and Data about Properties
of Concrete and Steel
This section gives more accurate values and laws covering the
material properties, which are required for extrapolation of
solutions beyond the normal use and for use in innovative or new
applications. For a normal user of this Code awareness of these
properties will help him to understand the situations in which the

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design ( and construction) should be based on the more exact

values of properties given in this section.
(c) Section 18: Materials, Quality Controls and Workmanship
This Section gives the material properties of manufactured items,
which are controlled by BIS or other International Codes. These
are to be used for the procurement, testing and Quality Assurance

(3) New Section 7: Analysis

The Code covers many types of bridges which are exposed to
different types of actions and combinations of actions, each of
which represents a different design situation. In order to assess the
response of the structure in different situations different types of
analyses are required. Linear elastic analyses are most commonly
used, and are generally adequate. The developments in powerful
Finite Element techniques have allowed analysis of complex
structural forms and loading conditions. The resultant stress fields
from the analysis can be directly converted to detailing of
reinforcing steel.
The advent of computerised analyses and availability of advanced
softwares have put very powerful analytical tools in hands of
designers, and raised the standards of analysis far above the past.
These developments called for the new section on analysis. This
section also gives a number of simplifications which have been
found to be adequate by past practices and experience.
The new trend set-up in fib Model Code 2010 (MC 2010) is for the
codes to indicate different levels of anylses from simplified
methods to be used in normal applications to more and more
complex methods needed when the load effects and behaviour of
the structures (not considered in the normal design situations)
become significant and important for proper understanding, design
and construction.

(4) Detailing of reinforcement, prestressing tendons, and

limitations on concrete dimensions
These are covered in greater details than heterto and comprise
three sections:
- Sections 15: Detailing: General Requirements
- Section 16: Detailing Requirements of Structural Members
- Section 17: Ductile Detailing for Seismic Resistance
Large numbers of figures explain the requirements.

(5) Informative Annexures:

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This is a new concept, adopted to bring some of the pertinent

technical information to the attention of the engineers. These
annexures are not parts of the requirements of the code. However,
by using the information or methods given in this category of
annexures the recommendations of the code can be implemented
effectively. Some of the annexures give additional or
supplementary information for creating more awareness and
better understanding of the Code on part of the users.
Three numbers of such annexures are included in IRC: 112

(6) Repeating technical Information/requirements in format of

Tables as well as Equations
The tables are given for ready reference and ease of hand
calculations. The equations repeat the same in formats suitable for
computerising the calculations.

(7) Optional Use of Working Load/Allowable Stress Method

To ensure continuity and smooth transition from old codes to
methods of new Code, use of working load/allowable stresses
method is also permitted for the time being. This is done by
introducing rules for use of this method in Annexure A-4. The
scope and details of this annexure are the same as those of IRC:
18 and IRC:21.

4.2 Other Improvements

Almost all operative sections have been brought up-to-date. The
Sections and the salient points of the same are described below:
(1) Section 3: Definitions and Notations
In view of relatively new terminology needed for describing the limit
state methods and extensive use of mathematical equations and
notations, an exhaustive coverage has been presented.
(2) Section 4: General
(a) In this section, after describing the applicability to all structural
elements using the normal weight concrete, the Code further
allows use of relevant parts of the Code for other concretes,(e.g.
light weight concretes) and hybrid structures based on the special
knowledge, specialist literature and/or experimental data at the
discretion and responsibility of the owner/designer.
(b) The underlying assumptions bring need of Quality Assurance
and maintenance.
(3) Section 8: Ultimate Limit State of Linear Elements for
Bending and Axial forces

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For all linear members (including beams, columns, ties, struts etc.)
carrying axial forces arising from external loads or prestressing
effects of bonded or unbonded tendons, and resisting
simultaneously the bending moment, if any, arising from any
source, the distribution of strains at any section is taken as linear.
In other words, plane section before action of forces remains plane
after the action of forces, right up to the failure state.
Under this single assumption, which is reasonably valid for most of
the loadings up to failure stage, the ultimate strength of all types of
linear members is calculated, using stress-strain relationships
given in the Code. Either the simplified diagrams or more accurate
relationship can be used.
(4) Section 9: Ultimate Limit State of two and three
dimensional Elements for Out-of-plane and in-plane Loading
The generalised or classical solutions for such elements subjected
to combined in-plane and out-of-plane loading conditions are
complex for the regular use. This section gives simplified
approaches for the design of slabs and webs of box sections.
(5) Section 10: Design for Shear, Punching Shear and Torsion
The design verification of shear is carried out at ultimate strength
only. The design of members requiring shear reinforcement is
based on truss model. Shear design of members not requiring
shear reinforcement is based on results of extensive
The design of both reinforced and prestressed members is based
on the same model. This is a deviation from the past. The rules of
torsional resistance have also been changed from the past
Due to introduction of the new methods, detailed explanatory
portion is included in the Section itself

(6) Section 11: Ultimate Limit Stare of Induced Deformation

The slender bridge sub-structures comprising piers of variable
cross-sections with or without piles to support them could not be
checked for buckling of overall height by methods given in earlier
codes. Cumbersome calculations based on advanced elastic
methods were required. The present Code has rather simplified the
work by choosing the criteria of increase of stresses due to second
order deformations. If this increase is less than 10% of the first
order results, the slenderness effects can be disregarded.
For concrete members of uniform cross-section, slenderness is
defined not only in terms of le/i, (le/r in the old notation) but is based
on a factor lim , defined in the Code, which is a more accurate
estimator. The general method of calculating the effective length
depending upon the stiffness of end restraints given in Eurocode is

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followed. However, to simplify the calculations in normally met

conditions of piers in bridges, simplified and well established
values are given in the tabular form, based on BS 5400.
For calculating the ultimate strength of slender members, if
required, a generalised method is given.

(7) Section 12: Serviceability Limit State

The serviceability checks are restricted to check of stress level in
concrete, check of crack width, and check of deflections. Control of
crack widths by detailing of reinforcement without calculation is
Other serviceability states, such as vibration, are not covered in the
present Code.

8) Section 13: Prestressing

This section is in line with the international practices. For
anchorages and couplers the Code, for the first time, requires
acceptance testing to be carried out using IS: 1343, which methods
are based on the CEB/FIP recommendations.

(9) Section 14: Durability

The durability requirements are consistent with the requirement of
100 years design life. However, the criteria of aggressiveness are
based on the general environment in which the bridge is located.
Thus the present approach of IRC: 21 and IS: 456 has been
continued in IRC:112: 2010.

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Chapter 4: GENERAL (2nd Draft)

This section is very small in length, about 1and1/3 page long, but is
very significant in its contents. It is useful to understand the un-
stated but implied intents, which justifies somewhat longer
explanatory notes.
4.1 Scope 4.1
Unlike earlier codes, IRC: 112 not only strictly defines its scope
and applicability to Normal Concrete, but also permits partial use of
its recommendations to other types of concretes having different
properties and to different applications in which concrete is one of
the components ,e.g. hybrid structures.
The choice of making use of the appropriately valid provisions of
the Code left to the qualified and experienced personnel and use of
specialist knowledge.
The underlying assumptions stated in this Section bring the role of
the proper construction, supervision and maintenance for realising
structures fulfilling the design intents including the long life of 100
years. It will be useful discuss some of the aspects in detail,
entering in to the unstated but obviously related issues. The range
of validity of the codal recommendations will have to be examined,
and outside of this range the modifications to the same shall be
made staying within overall philosophy and without deviating from
the basic aims.
The term hybrid system is not clarified or defined. However
systems in which load is resisted by combination of two or more
components in such a way that each component supplements its
capacity by the capacity of the other component. Reinforced
concrete and rolled or fabricated structural steel can be used to
make hybrid structure. The consistency of internal strains at the
contact surfaces, arising from bond, is not an essential condition at
ULS, although overall deformations have to be consistent. The
illustrative example is the use of structural steel tubes with concrete
infill made in the offshore structures.
This is a great step forward permitting and encouraging new
materials and methods and innovative uses. With iteration of this
pragmatic principle the Code has projected itself as a document
supporting development and progress and that it is ready for the
rapid developments expected in coming years. It is no longer a
hindrance to development and progress
4.3 Underlying Assumptions 4.3
The Code recognises that the limit state methods have not yet been
established in India for design of bridges and it has declared that it


strives to establish common procedures for the Road bridges and

foot bridges. It is inferred, though not stated, that the
recommendations are based on the international practices, which
have been examined and modified in light of the Indian experience
of using working load / allowable stress methods. Clearly, one can
expect further modifications of the Code as this experience is
The code becomes applicable provided certain basic conditions are
met. The intention behind stating these conditions is not to use
them as a disclaimer, but to bring to the attention of users that
following the code faithfully in the design process will not alone
result in the satisfactory long term performance of the bridges. The
role of other agencies in realising the intents of the code, in its long
service life is brought out.
The underlying assumptions are numbered and stated precisely.
Some of them need further clarifications or guidelines about how to
meet these conditions. These are given bellow against each of the
Assumption (1): The choice of structural system and the design of
the structure are made by appropriately qualified and experienced
The code does not give guidelines about how to make an
appropriate conceptual design which step is the starting point of
any structural design activity. In case of bridges, the present and
future traffic needs, knowledge of river hydraulics, its flood-history,
geotechnical conditions, behaviour and experience of other bridges
on the same river and in the comparable environmental exposure
conditions, available construction technology, time needed for the
construction, cost structure of materials and labour are some of the
issues involved in identifying suitable alternatives at the conceptual
design stage. A quick preliminary design and costing will reduce
the options to one or two alternatives. More detailed design to yield
reasonably accurate quantities and cost may be involved if more
than one viable alternative emerges. This option may be left to the
contractor in case of design and build type of procurement
contract.. IRC Special publication SP:542000 Project Preparation
Manual For Bridges gives guidelines about how to prepare
project report for bridges. Reference should be made to the same
for assistance at this stage of working. Only a properly conceived
solution will lead to a robust, and optimum bridge solution. In short,
the conceptual design as well as proper application of the code can
be satisfactorily done only by the appropriately qualified and
experienced personnel, working individually or a team.
Assumption (2): Execution is carried out by personnel having the
appropriate qualification, skill and experience.
This assumption is self evident, but it is the case of easier said
than done. In practice, at all stages of detail design and execution


some of the personnel are in the stage of gaining hands on

experience. They need to be properly trained, guided and
supervised in order to fulfil this condition. How to achieve this and
the other assumptions numbered (3), (4) and (5) in Clause 4.2 in
the Code is the subject matter of the Quality System to be set up
for controlling the entire activities of project preparation, design and
construction. It should be realised that in expounding all the
strategies the Code implicitly depends upon the human skill for their
successful and reliable application. Management of the involved
personnel is subject matter of the Quality Systems. The IRC has
published Special Publication SP:47-1998 Guidelines for Quality
Systems for Road Bridges which should be referred for setting up
and operating management of all these activities.
Assumption (3): Adequate supervision and quality control are
provided during all stages of design and construction.
This is needed even if the Assumption (2) is otherwise satisfied. It is
based on a sound principle that the systems and human beings are
fallible, and the resulting errors from non-application of efforts,
un-intended oversights or downright mistakes can be controlled by
introducing at least one more agency supervising the activity. In
important projects, more than two levels of quality controls are
used. Referance is made to IRC: SP 47 for details of Quality
Assumption (4): The construction materials and products are
provided and used as specified by relevant national standards.
This is another self-evident statement. However it will be a sobering
thought to keep in mind that the national standards specify the
minimum acceptable properties. Doing better than the minimum will
normally improve the quality of the end product
Assumption (5): The intended levels of properties of material
adopted in the design are available.
This is obvious for ensuring the validity and adequacy of the codal
Assumption (6): The structure will be used as intended and is
maintained adequately.
This stipulation has come out of the aim of achieving the specified
design life using methods stated in the code. These provisions of
the Code in themselves are not adequate to do so. Timely and
proper maintenance and repair of the structures are needed.
However IRC has published a number of guidelines, listed below,
which needs to be implemented by the owner using its own set up
by appointing the experts or its own in-house staff for this activity.
(a) SP:18 Manual for Highway Bridge Maintenance Inspection.

(b) SP: 35 Guidelines for Inspection and Maintenance of Bridges.

(c) SP: 37 Guidelines for Load Carrying Capacity of Bridges.


(d) SP: 40 Guidelines on Techniques for Strengthening and

Rehabilitation of Bridges.

(e) SP: 51 Guidelines for Load Testing of Bridges.

(f) SP: 52 Bridge Inspectors Reference Manual.

(g) SP: 60 An Approach Document for Assessment of Remaining

Life of Concrete Bridges.

(h) SP:80 Guidelines for Corrosion Prevention, Monitoring and

Remedial Measures for Concrete Bridge Structures.



5.0 Introduction


IRC: 112 Code is presented following different approach from the

previous IRC codes. This aspect has been explained in the introductory
contains non-operative and explanatory clauseswhich are spread over
various sections.Section 5 is a fully non-operative section which describes
the overall basis of the Codalrecommendations. It indicates the design
philosophy, aims of design, methods of design and other strategies
adopted by the Code to achieve the stated and unstated aims of design.
Various basic choices and strategies adopted in the Code are described
under appropriate headings. Taken collectively, they provide assurance of
achieving the aim of designing functionallysatisfactory, safe and durable

Codal section 5 adds a strong element of transparency to the Code. On

the basis of the approach outlined in this section, the Codal
recommendations can be used with full understanding of their context,
applicability and limitations. Where extra information, available from
literature or other international codes is considered in the design, it can be
critically evaluated for its applicability andconsistency for combining the
same with the Codal approach as outlined in this Section. Even the future
modifications and revisions of the Code itself, made to include new
knowledge and technological developments, can be presented in a way
which is consistent with the overall philosophy and basis of design of the
present Code.

Limitations of codal Section 5

Information given in the Codal Section 5 is mostly conceptual in nature

and is sufficient to that extent.

The Code also presumes that the exact meanings of the scientific
concepts and methods stated as forming the basis of the
recommendations aregenerally known. However, for practicing
engineers, some of the recently developed concepts need further
explanation. This Chapter provides the same where they can be briefly
clarified. Where an elaborate introduction is called for, specialist literature
should be referred.

5.1 Aims of Design



5.1.2 Reliability aspects and codal approach

The concept of probability and its numerical measure expressed as a

fraction of number 1are widely understood. The same have been used in
this explanatory section. However, the mathematical treatment of risk in
reliability engineering uses an index , which is a factor related to
probability expressed as a decimal fraction by a simple relation. This is a
more convenient number to handle.

The probability and reliability based evaluation of the risk of achieving or

not achieving a certain aim, and keeping the risk within acceptable
limitsby choosing appropriate partial factors for loads and strengths is the
fundamental method adopted by the Code. The code has not defined the
values of acceptable limits used in the Code. However from the literature
regarding the basis of Eurocodes the targeted values can be known.
(Also refer Section 5.3.1bellow.)In cases where values cannot be
assessed with any degree of certainty, the prevailingdesign practices are
re-examined and adopted with modifications,and retrofitting the
requirement in the probability format of partial factor method as is done for
other requirements (provisions) for sake of consistency. As and when
further research makes it possible to re-assess them on probability based
approach,the current provisions can be easily modified using new partial

The Code does not use the direct evaluation of risk using methods of
mathematical probability. It uses semi-probabilistic methods in the design
format based upon statistical concepts of Characteristic values of loads
and material properties, and multipliers to modify them, which are termed
as partial factors. The Codeitself has clarified this point stating that:

At the present state of knowledge, determination of reliability is possible

only in limited load cases for simple structures. The Code, therefore,
strives to achieve the desirable degree of reliability by approximate
methods based upon a combination of the following:

(1) Known statistical parameters describing properties of materials and




(2) Deterministic models of structural behaviour.

(3) The international practices and past experience of
acceptable/unacceptable performance of structures.

(4) Partial factors for actions and resistance models based on

calibration and rationalisation of existing international practices.

5.1.3 Safety, Serviceability, Durability and Economy

The Code aims to achieve safety, serviceability, durability and economy in

the design and construction of bridges. The safety and serviceability are
targeted by stipulating certain set of requirements about the materials,
structural models, methods of analysis, design approach and detailing
apart from the controlled quality of construction for realising the design

The acceptable limits of safety and serviceabilitymeasured in terms of

probability, which are finding wide international accepted are as
follows:The level of the probability of structural failure under action of the
working loads ( is kept less than 10-6 (one in a million) and less
than 10-4 (one in 10,000) of exceeding the specified performance levels at
service loads (i.e. serviceability), in period of one year. The Codal
methods of doing so, namely the use of partial factors on loads and
material properties, reasonably assured that the targeted levels of
probability are met. This assessment does not cover risks arising out of
human error or accidents of non-structural nature. Based on these basic
risk levels, the risks of failure within the design life are approximately
given by the annual risk multiplied by the design life in years. (This is true
for low values of annual probabilities.)

The aim of achieving durability is based on the past experience of the

behaviour of structures located in various climatic environments in India.
The international experience and current practices of achieving durability
have been taken into account. However, the methods are prescriptive and
of deemed to satisfy nature. These methods are covered in Codal
Section 14, and further discussed in detail in Chapter 14 of this
handbook.For the methods of calculation of the concrete cover to the



reinforcement based on the rate of penetration of the attacking agent or

the type of deteriorating mechanisms for targeting a minimumstipulated
service life,the designers can refer to special literature such as fib

The aim of Economy is to be achieved indirectly as specified in Codal

Clause 5.1.3, (1) and (2).

5. 2 Limit State Philosophy of Design

The concepts of Limit State Philosophy provide generalised basis and

unified approach to the structural design of various facilities like
residential and commercial buildings, public utility buildings, water
retaining and conveying structures, bridges for roads, railways and
pedestrians, and various infrastructuralfacilities. This covers use of all
types of materials. Adoption of such common philosophy has obvious
advantages, including ability to learn, adopt and improve from experience
and developments in different fields of civil engineering.

The basic approaches of Limit State Methods have been stated in Section
5.2 (1) to (6) as bellow:

(1) A structure designed serve its function is subjected to various direct

external actions or indirect actions resulting from environmental and geo-
technical phenomenon during its service life, which defines its loading
history. It experiences different physical situations having exposed to
different combinations of actions, termed as Design situations.

Theresponse of the structure when subjected to different magnitudes of

actions and loading history lies in different states (domains).Limit States
are defined as limits of domains beyond which the structure does not
meet specified performance criteria to serve its function.

For different limit states the boundaries of acceptable/ unacceptable

performance are defined together with the circumstances in which such
performances are expected.



(2) In field of road bridges, ultimate strength including strength controlled

by induced deformations (ULS) and serviceability limit state (SLS) are
mainly considered. As mentioned in Article 5.2 semi-probabilistic methods
are used to verify that the limits are not exceeded. The serviceability limit
states presently include checks to control overstress in concrete, crack-
widths and deflection of the structure. The deflection limits specified are
such as to achieve indirectly the rigidity and robustness, rather than so
achieve any functional need of the road traffic.

The Code indicates that for some structures the vibration control may
become an important consideration (e.g. for foot bridges and foot paths of
road bridges) although it is not considered in the Code. Limit state of
fatigue has also not been included.

(3) Considering the statistical nature of variation of loads and material

properties, time dependent changes in the same, uncertainties and
limitations of structural models and methods of analysis, quality of
construction and finally the deterioration and maintenance, a margin
called factor of safety against risk of failure in meeting the performance
has to be provided in the design. However overdesign has to be kept
within limits for sake economy, considering either initial cost or life-cycle

Use of partial factors, which are different for the same load in verification
of different limit states, is made together with appropriate material factors
describing the minimum strength properties of the materials is made to
achieve the targeted level of reliability (safety). Appropriate experience
based methods are used to achieve the same where statistical methods
have not developed sufficiently.

(4), (5) and (6) are self explanatory.

5.4 Actions and their Combinations



For comprehensive description of this section refer Chapter 19, Annexure

A1 Combination of Actions for Bridge Design

5.5 Representative Values of the Properties of Materials

As explained in Chapter 0 Background and Overview of the Code,

distinction has been made in the Code between simplified design
properties of material to be used in normal design together with the use of
appropriate analytical model, more exact values to be used in special
cases and the properties for the purpose of procurement.

The material properties are, in principle, based on the statistical

distribution of the values, using characteristic property. However, in actual
practice this is possible for limited cases. For tensile strength of steels,
the manufacture is controlled by a minimum specified value defined by
BIS standards and this nominal minimum strength is assumed to
represent the characteristic strength, which assumption is on the
conservative side.

The compressive strength of concrete is based on the statistical

parameters. The other properties needed for the design are given by co-
relation equations, which have been established in laboratories. They are
not directly tested and used in the design, although the Code does not
prohibit it.

It should be noted that the laboratory co-relations are based on the

compressive strength of cylinders of 150mm diameter and 300 mm long.
However, the Indian standard method of defining and controlling concrete
in the field is based on the strength of cubes of 150 mm size. The designs
are also based on the same. The Code has, therefore, used a
standardized transformation of replacing cylinder strength in the formulae
by 0.8xcube strength, and given the correlations and all other equations
corrected this way. This relation is not always strictly valid even for
ordinary concretes having strength less than 60 MPa (cube), and
introduces certain approximation in the estimates of these properties
which can be on plus or minus side. This difference is not significant for



the design. For high strength concretes the value is higher than 0.8, in
which case the use of this transformation introduces bias (although it is on
the conservative side) in the estimates of other properties of high strength

Where higher levels of accuracy is desired, the Code recommends use of

other methods (Codal Clause 5.5.3), which can be used in one of the two
ways. One way is to use established expression of the property in terms
of the larger number of factors which have effect on the property than the
one used by the Code for the design properties in Codal Section 6. The
other method is to use the experimentally established values, which are
arrived at by using proper statistical methods, and sufficient number of
test samples to enable estimates to have 95% confidence level.

5.6 Analytical Methods to Evaluate Behaviour of Structure

The use of Global and Local analyses is required by the Code using the
appropriate methods. For details refer Chapter 7.

5.7 Design Based on Full Scale Testing

While allowing the designs which are based on the experimentally

established use of materials, structural configurations and detailing the
examples of such structures are given. Closure examination of these
examples reveals certain common features. These are:

- Testing is carried out on full scale structural element (prototype)

and not on a scale model.
- The methods of analysis required to explain or predict the actually
observed behaviour are far too complex for use in design office, if
they exist at all.
- The failure is taken as reaching the ultimate load capacity, or
deformations which are large enough to make the element or
structure unsuitable for use. Example of initial pile load testing
done to verify the geo- technical design of piles as per IRC: 78
Foundation and Substructure illustrates this approach.
- No mention has been made about the factor of safety to be used
on the load capacity or deflections, nor of the number of tests
required to establish the design, or statistical methods to be used
as has been done in case of material properties established
experimentally in Codal Clause 5.5.3. This may be because of the
expenses and time involved in full scale testing.



- The choice of the acceptance criteria is left to the mutual

agreement between the testing agency and user, except in the
case of acceptance testing of prestressing anchorages and
devicesfor which the methods of testing as well the acceptance
criteria are defined by the applicable national standards.

5.8 Durability Aspects

The overall approach of the Code for achieving the aim of durability has been
discussed in Article 5.1.3. For full explanatory discussion refer Chapter: 14.





C6.1 General Cl. 6.1

As regards to the provisions for the materials in the code, there

are two aspects. The first is the manufacturing specifications
and other is the design specifications or the design models.

As far as the manufacturing specifications of materials are

concerned, there is no change in IRC 112 as compared to the
earlier codes (IRC 18 & IRC 21). For the specification of the
materials used viz. reinforcement, prestressing steel & cement,
the reference is made to the relevant Indian Standards, which
are listed in section 18 and Annexure A3 of the code. However,
substantial modifications are made in the design models of the
material which are based on the large amount of the data
gathered in past few years. This vast pool of knowledge
available today is now incorporated in this limit state code,
which will help designers to get more rational designs.
Section 6.0 of the code describes these models in simplified
form and more elaborate models are given in Annexure A-2 of
the code.

Cl. 6.2 Untensioned Steel Reinforcement

C6.2.1 Specifications and grades Cl. 6.2.1

Over past few years, better varieties of reinforcing steels are

being utilised in structures in other parts of the world. Also,
higher grades of steel which have more ductility are being
manufactured in our country, and are now covered in the latest
version of IS1786. To get benefited by these developments,
IRC has introduced few changes in this code. One among them
is permitting the use of reinforcing steel of grades up to Fe600.
This change will help in reducing amount of steel. It has also
introduced the galvanized and stainless steel, having improved
corrosion resistance, which will help in achieving longer service
life of the bridges in aggressive environments.

C6.2.2 Strength, Stress-Strain diagrams, modulus of elasticity and

ductility Cl. 6.2.2

To have consistent approach with the limit state philosophy, the

term characteristic strength, fyk is introduced for steel in this
code. It is the same as the yield stress, as defined in IS 1786
which is,
fyk = yield strength in case of mild steel or
= 0.2% proof strength in case of HYSD steel

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Typical stress-strain diagram for mild steel and HYSD (both Hot
rolled/ heat treated and cold worked) are shown in Fig 6.1of the
code and reproduced below.

For design purpose, code has suggested two alternate models,

bilinear or simplified bilinear stress-strain curves, both after
reduction using material safety factor s as shown in Fig 6.2.

To explain the use this diagram, a typical curve is generated for

grade of Fe500 with s= 1.15 in following figure. Here fyk= 500
MPa, hence, fyd = fyk/s = 500/1.15 = 435 MPa. The value of
strain at this point is 435 MPa/ 200 GPa = 0.002174. For
design purpose, the tensile strength, ft shall be considered as
minimum value given in Table 18.1 of the code ( reproduced
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from IS 1786 ) which is 108% of fyk (i.e. 540 MPa) for Fe 500 or
110% of fyk (i.e. 550 MPa) for Fe 500D (note that the minimum
value of 545 MPa & 565 MPa specified in IS 1786 for grade Fe
500 & Fe500 D is a manufacturing requirement). Thus ft / ys =
469.5 MPa for Fe 500 and 478.2 MPa for Fe 500D. In absence
of data from manufacturer, the value of uk can be assumed
as 5% as given in table 18.1& IS 1786. Hence, the strain limit
for sloping arm of the curve shall be 0.9uk= 4.5%.

Similar diagrams for other grades of steel can also be

constructed. It shall be noted that there is no limit on strain if
the horizontal branch of the curve is used.

C6.3 Prestressing Steel

C 6.3.5 Stress-strain properties for design Cl. 6.3.5

For purpose of analysis & design, code has allowed to use the
representative stress-strain curve as shown in Fig 6.3 of the
code, which is reproduced from IS 1343-1980, for wire, strands
and bars and it has also specified two stress-strain diagrams,
the first is the bilinear and other is simplified bilinear given in fig
6.4 of the code which is reproduced below:

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It is to be noted that like reinforcing steel, there is no limit on

strain for horizontal branch of simplified bilinear design

In Fig 6.4, the yield point is defined at 0.1% proof stress (fp0.1k).
This value can be taken as 0.87 times of fpk as per Fig. 6.3 of
the code. As per IS 14268, for strand of dia. 15.2, fpk = 260.2
kN / 140 mm2 = 1862 MPa. Hence, fp0.1k= 0.87 * 1862 = 1620
MPa and fpd = 1620/1.15 = 1409 MPa with strain of 1409MPa /
195 GPa = 0.007224. The value of udcan be taken as 0.02.
Thus, the stress strain diagram for 15.2 mm, 7 ply, class II
stress relived strand to be used for design is shown below:

C6.3.6 Relaxation loss for design Cl. 6.3.6

In IRC 112, the method of calculations of loss in force due to

relaxation of prestressing steel given is almost similar to the
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one given in old IRC 18. However, it has introduced the

expression for estimation of the loss due to relaxation at any
time after tensioning up to 30 years in annexure A2. It has also
introduced the method for estimating the effect of temperature
curing on relaxation of steel.

C6.4 Concrete Cl. 6.4

In old code (IRC18 & 21), design properties of concrete were

provided up to grade M60. In this code, these properties such
as stress strain relationship, models for predication of creep &
shrinkage strains, multi axial state of stress and the variation of
these properties w.r.t. time, etc. are given for the grades up to
M90. Thus it is now possible to use concrete up to grade of
M90 for the design of bridges.

C6.4.1 Grade Designation Cl. 6.4.1

Based on method of proportioning the concrete and use of

mineral admixture (to improve any specific performance
parameters), three groups of concrete are specified in Table
6.4 as ordinary concrete, standard concrete and high
performance concrete.

Grades which are produced using nominal mix proportions by

weight of its main ingredients are termed as Ordinary Concrete.
M15 and M20 are covered under this group. Grades M15 to
M50 are covered under Standard Concrete which is produced
using chemical admixtures to achieve certain properties in
fresh condition and when mineral admixtures are used to
achieve certain performance of the concrete like porosity the
concrete is termed as High Performance Concrete.

As standard practice, the grades of the concrete are defined in

term of the characteristic strength (5% fractile) at 28 days on
cube size of 150mm. However, the code has also allowed
using the term characteristic strength at other than 28 days
strength for concrete, which is produced using high content of
those ingredients which slow down the setting process of
concrete in its initial days, but gain the full target strength at
say 56, 72 or 84 days. Hence, now it is possible to take
advantage of realistic strength of concrete, for design at service
stage. However, it is necessary to check to design for the loads
which may act during initial period of low strength.

Cl. 6.4.2 Design properties of concrete

C6.4.2.1 General Cl.

Design properties of concrete, such as fcm, fctm, fctk,0.05, fctk,0.95 ,

Ecm , are given directly in Table 6.5 of the code for grade of

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concrete M15 to M90 and their correlation with fck are given in
Annexure A2.
Depending on the purpose of analysis, it is necessary to use
appropriate probabilistic value of these properties, i.e. either
their mean value or 5% fractile or 95% fractile. For example,
for a section design, concrete strength shall be taken as lower
5% fractile i.e. fck, whereas, the mean value of the modules of
elasticity (Ecm) shall be used for calculating the deflection of the
members; because a small local patch of bad concrete (lays in
5% sample size of concrete) in the member decides the
ultimate strength carrying capacity of the entire member,
whereas the value of Ec at every section of the member
influences the deflection of the member.

C6.4.2.2 Compressive strength and strength development with time Cl.

This clause gives the expression for development of

compressive strength with time. It can be noted that for normal
Portland cement, 34%, 60%, 78% 90% and 120% strength is
expected on 1st, 3rd, 7th, 14th day and one year after casting of
concrete. This data is useful for taking number of decisions
during construction such as, the time for applying initial
prestress, striking of formwork etc. It should be noted that the
gain in strength after 28 days is not allowed by cls. (4)
for new designs.
Concrete compressive strength also depends on the duration
during which it is subjected to a constant stress. A sustained
stress in the range of working stress may lead to a slight
increase in compressive strength. However, high sustained
stresses accelerate the process of micro-cracking and may
eventually lead to failure. As mentioned in clause (2),
this effect of reduction of strength due to sustained loading is
considered in factor 0.67 in ultimate strength calculations.
In cls. (3), code gives the principles for acceptance of
concrete strength obtained at site with limited number of cubes.
Though the title of this clause is `the verification of early age
strength by testing`, the principles given here are equally
applicable for the results of the cube test other than the early
strength i.e. say at 28 days. e.g. if the average of test results of
three cubes in one sample on 28th day is say 56 MPa for M45
grade design strength with standard deviation of 6 MPa, the
characteristic strength of concrete of this sample will be 56
1.645 x 6 = 46.13 MPa.

C6.4.2.3 Tensile strength and its development with time Cl.

Tensile strength of concrete is one of the important parameter

in reinforced and prestressed concrete structure. It is
expressed either as direct or axial tensile strength (which is
difficult to measure in laboratory), flexural tensile strength or
split cylindrical tensile strength. The mean, 5% fractile & 95%

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fractile values of direct tensile strength for different grades of

concrete are given in Table 6.5 of the code and the co-relations
between the three are given in equation 6.4 & 6.5. In this code,
the tensile strength of concrete is required to be used for
calculation of shear resistance of section (Eq 10.4), for
deciding the minimum reinforcement (Eq 12.1), for calculations
of crack width (Eq. 12.6), to control of shear cracks within webs
(Eq 12.14), to find out anchorage length of pre-tensioned
tendons (cls. It is influenced significantly by the
fracture mechanics of the concrete which in turn is a function of
type, size and shape of the aggregates used. Hence for
important projects it is necessary to verify the tensile strength
of the concrete using split cylinder or flexural beam test.

C6.4.2.4 Multi-axial state of stresses Cl.

The compressive strength of concrete under multi-axial state of

stresses is higher than uniaxial compressive strength and
generally presented in form of failure surface. CEB-FIB Model
Code 20101 may be referred for further details.

In IRC 112, this effect is considered in specifying the higher

strength & higher critical strains of concrete confined by
adequately closed links or cross ties which reach the plastic
condition due to lateral extension of the concrete at ULS.

The expressions are given in Annexure A-2. In these

equations 2 can be estimated as explained in following

For circular pier of diameter 1.5m, the closed links of 16 of Fe

500 are provided at spacing of 200mm c/c with clear cover of
50 mm, 2, i.e. the radial pressure exerted by the links at ULS
2 = 2 x As x (fy/s) (dia. of link x spacing)
= 2 x 201 x (500/1.15) / ((1500-2x50-16) x 200)
= 0.6317 MPa

C6.4.2.5 Stress-Strain relationship and modulus of elasticity Cl.

For unconfined concrete, code has allowed the use of
parabolic-rectangular (Fig 6.5) as well as simplified equivalent
stress blocks such as rectangle or bi-linear for the design
purposes (Annexure A2). Here it should be noted that the
shape of parabolic rectangular stress-strain diagram is not the
same for all grades of the concrete (as given in IS456) but
varies with the value of exponent , which is different for
different grades of concrete.
It shall also be noted that the code has suggested different
values of Youngs modulus E, depending on purpose of
analysis. For example, for static & quasi-static loads acting for
short duration, and dynamic loads such as Earthquake & wind
loads, secant modulus of elasticity, Ecm (shown below) is
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recommended. For analyzing impact / shock loading, dynamic

modulus of elasticity to be used which can taken as 1.25 times
of Ecm. For analysis for seasonal variation of temparature 0.5
Ecm shall be used.

Figure showing Schematic Representation of Stress-Strain


C6.4.2.6 Shrinkage Cl.

Total shrinkage strain cs, consists of two parts, drying

shrinkage strain, cdand autogenous shrinkage, ca . Drying
shrinkage is time dependent strain or volume changes,
primarily caused by loss of water when ordinary hardened
concrete is exposed to air with relative humidity of less than
100 percent. Hence, for a given humidity and temperature, the
total shrinkage of concrete is most influenced by the total
amount of water present in the concrete at the time of mixing
and to a lesser extent, by the cement content. Autogenous
shrinkage, also known as basic shrinkage, self-desiccation
shrinkage or chemical shrinkage is associated with the ongoing
hydration reaction of the cement. It occurs irrespective of the
ambient medium due to chemical volume changes and internal

The process of drying shrinkage is slow due to the slow

diffusion process of moisture loss. Within a short period of
time, the surface near region of the concrete section reaches
the state of moisture equilibrium with the surrounding
environment, but due to the slow diffusion process of moisture
loss, the relative humidity in the pore system of the concrete
region away from the surface remains high. Thus the moisture
distribution in the concrete section is non-uniform, increases
from surface towards the center and leads to the development
of internal stresses, tensile in the surface near regions and
compressive in the interior regions, which often lead to the
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surface cracks. In case of autogenous shrinkage, similar

stresses do not develop as this deformation develops nearly
uniform throughout the section of the member.

Since the shrinkage stresses develop gradually with time they

are substantially reduced by the creep. Also it is influenced by
mechanical properties, especially the modules of elasticity of
the aggregates. For high performance concrete drying
shrinkage is substantially reduced as the capillary porosity low
and restricts the loss of water.

Prediction of shrinkage:
Table 6.6 & 6.8 of the code gives the final values of
autogenous & drying shrinkage strains directly for different
grades of the concrete and to predict these strains at any time
after the casting of concrete, the multiplying coefficient as and
ds are given equations 6.13 and 6.15.
The values of final autogenious shrinkage, ca() given in
Table 6.6 are obtained from following equation
ca() = 2.5 (0.8 fck- 10) 10-6

Similarly final values of drying shrinkage values cd() given in

Table 6.8 are derived from the basic equation given in clause
A2.6 of annexure 2 of the code, which is reproduced below:

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In table 6.7 and equation 6.15 of the code, h0 represents the

notional size of the member in mm, which is expressed as h0=
2 Ac/u, where Ac is the cross-sectional area (mm2), u is the
perimeter of the member in contact with the atmosphere (mm).
h0 is approximately the distance travelled by water molecule
from the center point of the cross section to the surface of the
concrete. The concept is more clear from the following

3600 Consider the following box

section: Assuming both inner and
outer surface is exposed to
atmosphere, water loss from both
the surfaces,
3600 Ac = 36002 30002
= 3960000 mm2
h = 2 Ac/u
= 150 mm

i.e. the maximum distance the water molecule can travel, i.e.
from center of the wall to the outer surface of the concrete.
The concept is also true for other regularly used concrete
sections like solid square, solid rectangle, solid circular or
hollow circular section. It shall be noted that autogenous
shrinkage is not dependent on the RH or member size.

C6.4.2.7 Creep Cl.

The time dependent strain due to constant stresses is referred

as creep. Other related phenomenon with creep is relaxation
which is time dependent reduction of stress due to a constant
imposed strain.
The concrete may be considered as an aging linear visco-
elastic material, if the stress in concrete does not exceed 0.36
fck (t), thus the creep remains proportional to the stress. Also, it
shall be noted that the creep is partially reversible. The ratio of
creep strain and elastic strain is called the creep coefficient .
Similar to shrinkage, IRC 112 has specified final creep
coefficient for design i.e. at end of year 70 years in Table 6.9.
After 70 years, These values are given for two values of RH i.e.
at 50% and 80% and for notional size of 50mm, 150 & 600 mm
and at different age of loading. For other notional sizes and
RH, the basic equations given in annexure A2 i.e. equation A2-
14 to A2-25 may be used.


1. CEB-FIP Model Code 2010

2. fib bulletin 51- Structural Concrete: Textbook on behaviour,
design and performance, Volume 1, Second edition 2009.

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Article no. Contents

7.0 Contents of Chapter 7

7.1 Introduction
7.2 Classical Methods of Analysis
7.2.1 General
7.2.2 Historical period
7.2.3 Use of mathematical analysis
7.2.4 Saint-Venants principle
7.2.5 Importance of sign convention
7.2.6 Further developments in methods of analysis
7.2.7 Simplifications introduced in methods of analysis
7.2.8 Use of design aids
7.3 Modern Methods of Analysis
7.3.1 General
7.3.2 Types of analyses
7.3.3 Application of non-linear and plastic methods in
7.3.4 Applicability of theory of plasticity to concrete
7.3.5 Shear design by truss analogy
7.3.6 Punching shear
7.3.7 Strut and tie models
7.4 Other Special Methods of Analysis
7.4.1 Torsion
7.4.2 Methods of seismic analysis
7.4.3 Global and local effects
7.5 Computerised Analysis and Computerisation of
Design Process
7.5.1 General Observations
7.5.2 Use of Matrix Algebra, Numerical simulations
7.5.3 Use of Finite Element Methods
7.5.4 Computer Aided Designs

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7.6 Theories of Small Deflection, Large Deflection

and their Applicability for Bridge Structures
7.6.1 Theories of small and large deflection
7.6.2 Applicability for Bridge Structures
7.7 Prestressed Members and Structures
7.7.1 Prestressing as a load
7.7.2 Time dependent losses
7.7.3 Local effect at anchorages
7.7.4 Punching out of curved tendons
7.8 Bibliography

7.1 Introduction
This chapter giving explanatory notes and guidelines for the
application of Codal Section 7: Analysis is arranged differently from
the discussion of other sections. This arises from the fact that the
clauses of Section 7 assume substantial knowledge of the analytical
methods on part of the designer. As a result, stipulations of the Code
appear to be an unconnected set of requirements and
recommendations, lacking continuity in presentation, which is
unavoidable in the codal format in interest of brevity. However, In
order to explain the requirements of the codal clauses it is useful to
have general background of the classical as well as the modern
methods of analysis. A brief review of these methods is, therefore,
presented at the beginning in Section 7.2 and 7.3. Other special
methods of analysis used for bridges are briefly presented in Section
7.4. This recapitulation of the fundamentals will help in achieving
effective implementation of the Code.
This overview is necessary for another important reason. The users
of the Code and the Guidelines comprise practicing engineers
belonging to different age groups. They have received their basic
education at different times in last 45 years or so; in which period,
many new developments in the methods of analysis have taken
place. An element of continued education for engineers of senior
and middle level of experience is thus unavoidable.
Thirdly, the present period is a period of transition in which many
design offices and individual designers are switching over to
automated, computerised analytical and design tools. These tools
allow use of more realistic models representing the behaviour of
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structures and materials than the models suitable for hand analysis.
The analyses of bridge components require application of the
appropriate classical, modern or computerised analytical methods for
calculating response of the components, when subjected to different
loading conditions. The methods for doing so have been covered in
the Code. These methods are further explained in an introductory
manner in this Chapter. For the full treatment of any of these
methods refer text books, advanced literature and instruction
manuals of the computer programmes performing such analyses.
The distinction made in this Chapter between Classical methods,
Modern methods and computerised methods, is not definitive but is
used for convenience of presentation.
7.2 Classical Methods of Analysis
7.2.1 Period before development of classical methods
The methods of design followed by the Master Builders of the early
civilisations as well as those of the medieval period right up to about
the second half of 19th century were based on the accumulated
experience of successes and failures, which were passed down in
the generations of tradesmen in form of practices and thumb rules.
These were extrapolated to larger and still larger structures and to
new materials by trial and error. Existing rules were modified taking
into account the differences of behaviour between the familiar and
new materials. New methods were sometimes based on full scale
experiments, but more often arose in the process of correcting
defects and failures. Many outstanding structures built in this way are
still surviving standing as a testimony to the creativity and inventive
spirit of these generations of builders.

7.2.2 Essence of classical methods of analysis

The classical methods are developed in last 150 years. Hallmarks of
the classical methods are:
Simple and idealised representation of structural elements,
support conditions and loads,
Equilibrium of external loads and support reactions as well as
equilibrium of external load effects with internal forces developed
in the structural elements due to elastic deformation of the
material, (i.e. satisfying the requirement of equilibrium condition)
Use of linear elastic constitutive laws describing the response of
materials,(i.e. providing constitutive laws of materials describing
stress-strain characteristics).
Assumption of consistent deformations of elements constituting
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the structure, (i.e. satisfying Kinematical relations, or compatibility

of geometry in deformed shape).
Use of continuum mechanics under these conditions to formulate
general equations describing the response of the structure
subjected to loads,
Finding exact or approximate mathematical solutions of these
general equations, which in turn allow computation of reactions,
deformed shape and internal stresses and strains.
Many of the real life materials and structures do not fully comply with
the simplified assumptions made in the classical solutions. However,
till recently the limitations of the hand calculations hampered use of
more realistic structural models.
7.2.3 Use of Mathematical Analysis
The application of mathematical methods to solve engineering
problems developed in the last 180 years. Some of the basic laws,
such as the Hooks laws of linear elasticity, (AD 1660), were
established earlier. However, the beam theory of Euler-Bernoulli,
developed in AD 1750, can be considered as the beginning of the
present day mathematical analysis of structures. Methods of the
science of Strength of Materials, and Applied Mechanics,
developed based on the growing knowledge about the laws of
equilibrium of forces acting on bodies as a whole (rigid bodies) and
elastic behaviour of linear members like columns and beams
subjected to axial, bending and torsional forces, together with the
laws describing behaviour of structural materials These simple
mathematical methods, whose physical interpretation could be easily
grasped, became the normal tools of designers. These methods
were suitable for hand analysis. Many of these are still being
regularly used by bridge engineers, as exemplified by the techniques
of equilibrium of joints and method-of-section used in design of

The Beam Theory of Euler-Bernoulli expresses the behaviour of

elastic beam having small deflection. Fig.7.1 shows a rather simple
mathematical representation (model) of the real life beam by its
geometrical central axis, assuming that its deflected shape under
action of transverse load is described by a continuous curve, shape
of which is determined by the deformation of the cross section of
beam itself. It is further assumed that the cross section deforms in
such a way that the sections originally at right angle to the central
axis remain at right angle to the deflected curve at all points. The
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internal strains developed by this deformed shape produce internal

set of resisting forces, which provide equal and opposite internal
couple to resist the bending moment generated by the external load.
The internal stress-strain relationship is assumed to be linearly
elastic following Hooks law. Fig.7.1 shows this basic mathematical
approach, which uses the method of equilibrating external forces and
internal resistance forces acting on part of the beam taken as a free
body. Use of free body diagram is another classical technique still
being commonly used for local analysis (Refer Article 7.4.3). The
deformations induced in the cross section by shear forces are
disregarded in this analysis, resulting in acceptably small
underestimation of deflections. The solution of the differential
equations describing the deflected shape using mathematical
methods provide the deflected shape, strains and stresses induced in
the beam. Thus, the use of mathematical tools to solve engineering
problem came into practice. This approach is described in some
details here since it contains in essence all the elements of
mathematical methods of analysis. Euler Bernoullis beam theory is
still the most commonly used method by engineers, even when more
rigorous methods have been developed.
Advanced theories for linear members like beams / columns and for
two and three dimensional structures like plates and shells, using
principles of continuum mechanics and using simple constitutive laws
for materials were developed by Timoshenko and others.
Timoshemkos general beam theory is shown in Fig.7.2 for

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qx qx = Load / Unit length

X, u

V V+dv
M M+dv

(a) Beam Bending, for Transverse Loading (Small

Deflection Theory).

From Equilibrium Conditions: Ref. Fig.7.1(a)

dV = q.dx and dM = V .d x
dV dM
d hence =q and =V
dx dx

Z t (TOP) From Kinematical (Compatibility) Conditions, Fig.7.1 (a & b)

For small , tan ; dx ds = Rd
ds=dx NEUTRAL AXIS dw 1 d d 2 w
= ; = =
dx R dx dx 2
dz From constitutive law of linear elasticity, Fig.7.1(b)
(Assumption: Plane section before bending remains
dz Z b (BOTTOM) Plane after bending)
Length of N.A. (without strain) = Rd
Length of element at distance z for N.A. = R + z d ( )
(b) Geometory of Deformed Segment zd z
Strain z of element at z = =
Rd R
Top zt zt
z 2 .Edz EI d 2w
M = z. z dz = z.E. z dz = = = EI
R R dx 2
zb zb
d 2 dw 2
Neutral Axis The full beam is described by EI =q
dx 2 dx 2
d 4v
For Beam of Constant Section= EI >q
Bottom dx 4
(c) Linear Strain / Stress of Cross Section

Fig.7.1 : Euler Bernoullis beam Theory

These general methods also account for the effects of shear strains,
and are also applicable to short beams, in which the shear
mechanism play significant role in load transfer. The generalised
equations of the theory are valid for members exhibiting large
deflections of the mid surface (Article 7.6.1). These methods
assume homogenous material characteristics having linear
relationship linking various types of stress and strains in the three
directions which are described by different modulii of elasticity and
Poissons ratio. For details reference is made to the text books on
this subject.

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u x (x, y, z ) = z (x ); u y (x, y, z ) = 0; u z (x, y ) = w(x )

For a point, ( x, y, z ) on the centreline of beam, u x , u y , u z are the
components of the displacement vector in the three co-ordinate
directions, is the angle of rotation of the normal to the mid-surface of
the beam, and w is the displacement of mix-surface in the z-direction and
L is the length of the beam.
The governing equations are the following uncoupled differential

2 d
EI = q (x, t )
x 2 dx
w 1 d
= EI
x kAG dx dx

The Timoshenko beam theory is equivalent to the Euler-Bernoulli theory

when the last term above is negligible. This is valid when << 1
kL2 AG
Combining the two equations gives, for a homogeneous beam of constant
d 4w EI d 2 q
cross-section, EI = q (x )
dx 4 kAG dx 2

Fig. 7.2 : Timoshenko Beam Theory

7.2.4 Saint-Venants Principle

One of the most significant finding known as St. Venants principle
made it possible to apply the methods of continuum mechanics to
practical structures. The assumptions about the distribution of
internal strains and resulting stresses in the general portion of the
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three dimensional body where no local external forces act, are not
valid in the near vicinity of the load, where they are affected by the
way in which the loads are applied to the structure. However the
Saint-Venants Principle states that: (Quoted from Timoshenko and
Goodier from book Theory of Elasticity).
If the forces acting on a small surface of an elastic body are
replaced by another statically equivalent system of forces acting on
the same portion of the surface, this redistribution of loading
produces substantial changes in the stresses locally but has
negligible effect on stresses at distances which are large in
comparison with the linear dimension of the surface on which the
forces are changed.
This knowledge makes it possible to apply the overall general
solutions of structures which include portions of locally applied loads
without vitiating the overall analysis of the structure, except in the
local zones in the near vicinity of the loads or supports. In other
words, the overall evaluation of the internal stresses is substantially
reliable and can be used in practical designs. However, the
knowledge of the internal strain and stress distribution in the near
vicinity of external forces is essential for the proper design of these
local portions. This requirement is met by the methods of Local

7.2.5 Importance of Sign Convention Sign Convention Guided by Understanding of Physical effects
Following consistent sign conversion for describing physical
quantities in various stages of analysis and interpreting results using
the same signs is useful, but not vitally important as long as the
direction and sense of the physical effect could be directly
understood. The use of rigorous sign convention can even be
avoided, as illustrated by different practices of assigning signs to
bending moments. Treating bending moments as sagging or hogging
for beams under gravity loads or treating moments causing sagging
of members inwards of the closed section as positive for elements
forming closed sections or the practice of plotting the bending
moment on the tension side of the member are the methods based
on the physical understanding and variously used in the same design
without causing confusion or miss interpretation. Mathematically
rigorous sign conventions are not essential in any of the above three

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DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013 Sign Convention as a Mathematical Necessity

However, as soon as the mathematical methods of analysis are
involved, a consistent sign convention becomes unavoidable, even
for the methods suitable for hand calculation. Association of
positive/negative signs before the numbers representing opposite
physical effects, such as directions of opposite forces or
compressive/tensile strains etc becomes necessary. One of the
most commonly used sign convention, which has been used by
Timoshenko in his work on theory of elasticity is shown in Fig.7.3.

M xy zy
Fz;w yz
Myz; yz xz
Mzx; zx yx
(x) Y dz x
(y) xy 0 Y
Fy;v Mzx
Fx;u Mxy dx
X Myz, yz X
(x) dy

Note: Stresses at the Other Parallel Surfaces at

(a) Positive Direction of Forces and Distances dx, dy & dz ,together with all Stresses
increased by infinitesimal component denoted by
Stresses Displacements `' are not shown for clarity
(b) Stress Components

Fig.7.3 : 3-Dimensional Orthogonal Co-ordinate System following

Right Hand Rule Conventions used in two dimensional and three dimensional

plates and shells
The Plates and Shells are three dimensional structures. In the theory
of elasticity, some of the commonly met shapes like domes (surfaces
of revolution) have exact solutions available for some simple loading
conditions. Many other shapes, like cylindrical shells, have
approximate solutions which can be accepted and safe structures
can be designed using engineering judgement and experience. Such
shell structures are rarely used in bridge engineering. For
applications where such structures are required (e.g. fish belly type
cross section for superstructure) the Code has suggested a general
method in the Informative Annexure B1: Concrete Shell Structures.
For such applications this or other specialised text books or literature
may be referred to. Strict adherence to the sign convention is vitally
important in such analyses.
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DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013 Use of Varying Sign Conventions and Precautions

Mathematical methods require use of internally consistent sign
conventions within the analysis, but these conventions are not
necessarily the same in different methods of analysis. The designer
must be wary of what these signs represent in the analysis in relation
to the signs being followed in his design process. The best
precaution to avoid blunders is to try and understand the overall
deformations of the structure and the deflected shapes of the
members obtained in the analysis and compare the same with
ones own perceptions.
7.2.6 Further Developments in Methods of analysis
Classical methods of static and dynamic analysis have developed
over large number of years. The exact closed form solutions of the
differential equations of the theory of elasticity are available only for a
limited number of simplified structural elements and loading patterns.
Therefore, many simplified, but sufficiently accurate methods for
engineering applications have been developed. A review of these
methods is outside the limited scope of this Chapter. Numerical
techniques such as finite differences have general applicability in
such cases, but these are fairly cumbersome to use.
Many other solution techniques suitable for hand analysis having
special applications have been developed. Moment Distribution
method of Hardy Cross and its further generalisations using step-by-
step relaxation method are suitable for indeterminate frame
structures with and without sway. A number of Strain energy
methods were developed. Method of Three Moments, Conjugate
Beam Method and Column Analogy are some of the other normally
used methods. The powerful Slope Deflection method developed in
this era could be fully exploited only after advent of computers with
application of Matrix Algebra to deal with the large number of
unknowns and equations.

7.2.7 Simplifications introduced in methods of analysis

Simplification of mathematical models is of great help to designers.
Some of the simplifications commonly used in the analysis of bridges
are mentioned bellow: Dimensional representation in longitudinal and transverse
Analysis of structures idealised as if they are lying in one plane
simplifies the understanding of behaviour, the sign conventions, as
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well as the mathematics of analysis itself. However, the real life

structures have three dimensional geometry, and the effects in the
out-of-plane direction (such as buckling) should not be lost sight of
while using the two dimensional approximations. Simplified Analysis of Plates for deck-slabs, webs of deep
beams and box sections
Plates, which are tow dimensional elements but are subjected to
three dimensional loading, are very commonly used in bridge
engineering. Many simplified methods of analysis involving
acceptable loss of accuracy have been developed. Such methods
are covered in the Code in Section 7 and Section 9. Simplification of loading
Most of the real life loads are complex in nature. The Codes use
simplified loads which produce more or less equivalent effects on the
structure to that of complex loads. The use of uniformly distributed
load in combination of single point load to represent actual effects of
vehicular live loads was used earlier by the British Codes. In
comparison, the currently used hypothetical train of axle loads are
more difficult to use. The train of loads given in Appendix of IRC:6
have been developed by NATO countries for the military use. The
present live loads used by Eurocodes are developed based on the
number surveys carried out in Europe using statistical methods of
stochastic analysis. Simplification of dynamic effects
Use of Impact Factor to increase the static value of traffic load to
produce equivalent dynamic loading of vehicles travelling at high
speed is the well known example. Also use of static wind pressure
steadily applied on the structure in place of real life dynamically
applied time-varying wind pressures for bridges which are not
dynamically sensitive to wind loading is also common. For structures
of intermediate sensitivity amplification factors have been used by
the earlier French Code. For the sensitive structures, proper dynamic
analysis is required. Seismic Effects
The Indian Standards are using simplified static inertial loads to
calculate dynamic effects of Design Basis Earthquake, (DBE). Static
Equivalent Forces based on ground acceleration and natural period
of vibration of the structure are used together with static linear elastic
analysis in place dynamic non linear analysis by reducing inertial
forces by response reduction factor (called as behavioural factors in
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7.2.8 Use of Design Aids
Many design aids in form of nomograms, Interaction diagrams,
tabulated values of resistances of typical members depending on the
reinforcement percentage etc. have been published for use in the
design offices to reduce the design efforts. While using such ready-
made solutions it is necessary to ascertain that the assumptions
used in deriving the solutions are consistent with the requirements of
the code which is being followed.

7.3 Modern Methods of Analysis

7.3.1 General
It was known for a long time that the theory of elasticity does not
properly predict the behaviour of reinforced concrete structures near
their ultimate state of strength. This is due to the prominent non
linear behaviour of concrete in compression, effects of cracking and
plasticity of steel. The time dependency of the properties of concrete
changes the load-deformation characteristics of structural elements
even without change in load. The classical methods alone are not
adequate to include these effects into the design strategy of concrete
New methods have developed in the last 60 years or so, based on
the knowledge about the plastic behaviour of materials and resulting
ductility of structural elements. These methods require more complex
mathematical methods of analysis. However, their application in
practice is simplified by tools like design charts and computerised
However, not all of these methods, which depend upon mobilising
the plastic deformation of materials and associated large cracking of
concrete, are considered suitable for the design of bridges, where
large deformations and extensive cracking cannot be permitted in
service conditions. Hence, use of these methods had to be made
with caution, staying within certain restrictions. The Code specifies
such methods and the cautions. The basic principles and limitations
of the permissible methods used in bridge design are covered in the
following discussion.

7.3.2 Classification of Methods of Analyses

The different types of analyses are classified as per the constitutive
laws of materials used in the analysis and whether the equilibrium of
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the structure is evaluated based on the original geometry of the

structure (first order analysis.) or based on the deformed geometry
(second order analysis). Variously used idealised constitutive laws
for stress-strain and moment curvature relations for uniaxial
relationships are shown in Fig 7.4. This usage has led to the
following self-descriptive definitions:
(1) First order linear-elastic analysis without redistribution
Elastic structural analysis based on linear stress/strain or
moment/curvature laws and performed on the initial geometry of the
(2) First order linear-elastic analysis with redistribution
Linear elastic analysis, in which the internal moments and forces and
external reactions are modified, but which remain consistent with the
given external actions, if this is done within limits (for structural
design), more explicit calculation of the rotation capacity, required for
validity of the re-distribution, is not carried out.
(3) Second order linear-elastic analysis
Elastic structural analysis, using linear stress/strain laws, applied to
the geometry of the deformed structure.
(4) First order non-linear analysis
Structural analysis, performed on the initial geometry, that takes
account of the non-linear deformation properties of materials
This type includes different types of non-linearity such as a
continuously varying stress-strain relation, bi-linear stress-strain
relation with elastic branch followed by second linear branch with
strain hardening or having perfect plasticity (e.g. reinforcing and
prestressing steels). These are shown in Fig.7.4.
(5) Second order non-linear analysis
Structural analysis, performed on the geometry of the deformed
structure that takes account of the non-linear deformation properties
of materials as listed in type (4) above.

(6) Rigid, fully plastic analysis, first or second order

In the ultimate state of some of the materials (e.g. steel) the
contribution of elastic phase to the total deformations is small and
can be neglected for simplifying the calculated response in the
analysis as shown in Fig.7.4. This method is not applicable for
concrete structures.
7.3.3 Applicability of modern non-linear and plastic methods in
The present trend in bridge design is to use different types of
analysis for calculating different types of responses for different

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design situations (load combinations) eve for the same bridge

elements. For example, while overall analysis of an element is
elastic, the sectional design is based on elasto-plastic methods. The
use of various methods is described in Table 7.1 Design Situation
and Type of Analysis.
Table 7.1 Design Situation and Type of Analysis
No. Type of Analysis Design situation
1 First order linear-elastic Global analysis for stability of
analysis without bridge structure and its
redistribution components.
2 First order linear-elastic Calculation of load effects to be
analysis with considered in ULS and SLS
redistribution analysis of bridge as a whole for
integral bridges and for
superstructure only for continuous
bridges, with limitation of 10% on
3 Second order linear- Analysis for imposed
elastic analysis deformations (e.g. buckling) to
verify satisfaction of the limit of
10% on second order
4 First order non-linear - Design of sections under ULS
analysis using bi-linear stress-strain
relationship with sloping upper
- Design of sections under ULS
using bi-linear stress-strain
relationship with simplified
(horizontal) upper arm.
- Shear and torsion design by
truss analogy.
5 Second order non-linear Analysis for imposed
analysis deformations (e.g. buckling) for
design of slender elements.
6 Rigid, fully plastic Not used for concrete bridges
analysis, first or second

7.3.4 Applicability of theory of plasticity to concrete structures

Theory of plasticity was developed for analysis of steel structures
since steel exhibits large plastic deformations before failure both in
tension and compression. This theory can be applied to reinforced
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concrete structures provided that the plastic strains on compression

side are large enough to permit formation of plastic hinges/yield lines,
which allows redistribution of internal resisting forces while satisfying
the new static and/or kinematical equilibrium conditions. The
concrete section also needs to be not-over-reinforced to the extent
of not allowing steel to enter the plastic zone on tension side. Check for ductility

The IRC:112 code does not specify check for ductility of concrete
since it does not permit any members of superstructure to be
designed by plastic methods. This is true despite the fact that the
ULS of sectional design is based on the plasticity of concrete. The
ductility is relied upon in seismic resistant design. This is achieved by
ductile detailing of reinforcement and confinement of concrete in the
regions of hinge-formation. The code does not make distinction
between limited ductility, ductility and detailing requirements where
specified correspond to full ductility.

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(i) General
non-linear all over

(m) (m)
(ii) Initial linear elastic
portion followed by
plastic portion
() ()

(a) Linear elastic ( ) & (m - ) relationship (b) (i) General non-linear ( ),

(m - ) relationship
(ii) Simplified linear elastic - plastic
(i) With strain hardening relationship

(m) (m)

(ii) Without strain hardening

() ()

(c) Simplified bi-linear ( ) & (m - ) for (d) Parabolic - rectangular ( ), (m - )

steel relationship for concrete compression
(i) with strain hardening
(ii) without strain hardening

c (m)

f cm

0.33 f cm ()
tan = E cm

c1 cu1 c

(e) Suggested concrete (, )for non-linear (f) Rigid-plastic for structural ( ),

analysis for concrete. (refer annexure A2-9 (m - ) steel sections
of IRC:112)

Fig.7.4 : Various Constitutive Relationships Formation of hinge in linear concrete element

Experiments had shown that when the reinforced concrete beam is
continued to be loaded after cracking, the cracks concentrate more
and more at the location of maximum bending moment within a short
distance. The compressive strains in concrete also concentrate in
this region, resulting in deviation from linear moment-curvature
relationship of the elastic beam to a non linearity over a small
localised length. Fig.7.5 shows a simply supported beam loaded at

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the mid-span by a concentrated load where the cracking and


2 2
2 2

dx =

Simply supported beam with elasto-plastic Hinge Location

non- linear (m - ) relation as per 7.3 (b) (ii)
Fig.7.5 : Formation of Hinge Over Short Distance l

curvature is concentrated over a short distance l, resulting into a

sharp local change of angle, which is analogous to formation of a
hinge. After reaching a peak stress in concrete the stress-strain
curve of concrete follows a falling branch, leading to the failure.
However, till the maximum stress point is reached, the beam can
support load and absorb much more energy in rotation of the hinge
than it does in the elastic range. In statically indeterminate frame
structures this energy absorption in number of such hinges formed
earlier before formation of the last hinge, (which converts the
structure in to a mechanism leading to collapse), is the source of
damping in the increased earthquake resistance of a structure
beyond elastic stage and collapse. In earthquake resistant design of
bridges this phenomena is made use of for achieving the target of
No - collapse but permitting local repairable damage at pre-
determined locations. This upper limit of moment resisting capacity
at the hinge located in piers is controlled by the designer and used
for limiting forces transferred to the foundations. This technique is
termed as Capacity protection method.

7.3.5 Shear design by truss analogy

The shear design methods of IRC:112 is a curious mixture of the
classical beam theory, which is used to obtain the requirements of
shear resistance, and the plastic design method, which assumes that
the shear is resisted by equivalent truss (determinate or
indeterminate), set up internally by bands of concrete providing
compression members and the steel providing tension members.
This representation is justified under the Static limit theorem of
plasticity, which states that:
A system of loads acting on a structure in an allowed stress state
which does not violate the yield-condition is always a lower bound for
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the sustainable loads. By definition, this allowed stress state has to

fulfil the equilibrium and static boundary conditions.
Thus, in truss analogy, the safety under ultimate shear is achieved by
assuming a truss with allowed stress state, which is either
determinate or indeterminate. For achieving allowed stress state the
compression elements of the truss are provided by adequate
dimensioning of concrete and the tensile elements by required
amount of steel. The indeterminate truss is made determinate by
assuming known distribution of the vertical tensile members of the
truss, which is possible due to yielding of reinforcement. Similarly,
yielding of vertical stirrups and inclined bars allow strength of stirrups
and bent-up bars to be added in resisting shear. This arrangement,
of course, makes it mandatory that the steel elements are fully
anchored at the nodes of the truss.
Although, in theory, any system satisfying the limit theorem is
admissible and therefore possible to adopt, the requirement of
ductility of concrete also has to be satisfied. In order to minimise the
re-distribution of concrete strains and limit the ensuing cracks, the
resistant plastic model should closely follow the locations and
orientations of the tension fields obtained from the elastic distribution
of tensile stresses. For this reason IRC:112 has put limits on the
angle of inclination of the compression struts. One must note here
that this method of shear design has been established on the basis
of extensive experimentation, and it rather confirms the plastic limit
theorem than having been derived from it. On the other hand the
generalised Strut and Tie Models are derived from the theory of

7.3.6 Punching Shear

Design for punching shear is another method relaying on plasticity for
developing models for distribution of local action effects of
concentrated loads on slabs, foundation pads and rafts. The
generalised punching resistance can be developed with the help of
special punching shear reinforcement where the point loads occur in
a fixed location, e.g. columns supporting flat slabs. In case of bridge
decks, the moving vehicular loads make it necessary to have
sufficient thickness of concrete to resist punching action by local
compressive strut formed directly under the load acting together with
tension in the bending steel, without requiring special punching shear
reinforcement. In case of foundation design the Code prefers to
minimise dependency on plastic redistribution and ensuing cracking
in the reinforced elements which are embedded in soil and are
susceptible to corrosion. These elements are also difficult to inspect
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and repair. Hence IRC:112 does not permit use of local punching
shear reinforcement.

7.3.7 Strut and Tie Models

The code permits use of strut and tie models for local analyses.
However, in any situations of loading the possible number of
solutions being very large, it is difficult to predict the most likely
solution that will evolve in practice. It is advisable to develop model
which is a logical development of the elastic phase into plastic stage
as land increases. It should also be kept in mend that the idealised
elasto-plastic diagram [Fig.5.3(b)] is not a true representative of the
real behaviour. In reality the diagram exhibits a declining arm after
reaching peak, and this behaviour puts practical limits on exploiting
the plasticity fully, if the redistribution calls for mobilising strains
beyond this peak.
It is relevant to mention here that in case of concrete corbel highly
non-linear strain distribution exists at re-entrant corners where effect
of the declining arm may seriously reduce the capacity of plastic
solutions. Such corners should be avoided in practice, thus
minimising the stress concentrations, unless more rigorous analysis
or testing of the experimental corbels is carried out.

7.4 Other Special Methods of Analysis

7.4.1 Torsion Nature of torsional resistance of linear members
The classical theory of torsion classifies effect of torsion on
structures in two categories depending on the way in which the
structure deforms in resisting torsion; (1) Saint Venant torsion or
(Plain torsion) and (2) Warping torsion which mobilise other
mechanisms in addition to the plain torsion.
(1) Saint Venant torsion
Saint Venant torsion is the one in which a member fixed at one end
and subjected to torsional moment is such that:
(a) The member is not restrained in the longitudinal (i.e. axial)
direction, and the longitudinal fibres are free to deform,
(b) The member freely wraps causing the originally plain
sections to warp out of plane in longitudinal direction under
torsional moment,
(c) Has constant cross section, and
(d) Torsional moment is not varying much along its length.

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In such cases MT = MTP = GJ, where MT is the total torsional

resistance MTP is Plain torsional resistance, G is the shear modulus, J
is the moment of inertia and is the angle of twist for the unit length.
Note: Saint Venant torsion is sometimes called as circulatory torsion
when applied to hollow closed sections.
(2) Warping torsion
When the above conditions are not met and the member together its
longitudinal fibres are partially of fully restrained , longitudinal
stresses/ forces develop in addition to the stresses and strains
caused by Saint Venant torsion. In such cases,
MT = MTP + MTW where MTW is resistance developed due to restraint
to free warping, i.e. constraints to longitudinal free movement, which
is governed by the stiffness of the restraint and the angle of twist . Analysis for Torsion

In the elastic or non linear analysis the internal strains and resulting
stresses determine the internal forces, shears, bending moments and
torsional moments. Except in case of free cantilevers of more or less
constant section warping torsion generally exists in structures. This is
obtained from the results of the analysis. However in case of
reinforced concrete and prestressed concrete members special
considerations are required.

The response of reinforced concrete to torsional moment is different

from that of metallic members. The outermost near-surface regions
of concrete members crack on all sides under the tensile stresses at
a relatively small value of torsion. This leads to a large reduction in
the effective area of the sound section in the core. This reduces the
torsional stiffness which is substantial as compared to the similar
reduction in bending stiffness. This reduced stiffness is
experimentally found to be of the order of 20-30 percent of the
stiffness of uncracked section. As a result a reduced G value (25%)
is recommended by codes in the analysis, In case of two way grids,
the reduced torsional stiffness increases the share of the load carried
in bending.
In case of prestressed members, similar reduction is applicable at the
ultimate state. However, at service loads, the amount of pre
compression may preclude cracking and the reduction in the stiffness
is not justified. Design for torsion

Taking into account the redistribution of the share of load carried by
torsional resistance and bending resistance, and in view of the
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theorem of plasticity, the Code has rather simplified the design

process in two major ways.
The code distinguishes between equilibrium torsion and compatibility
torsion. The former is the torsional resistance essential for the
stability and satisfying equilibrium conditions of the structure. It is
mandatory to consider this torsion in the analysis and design the
members to resist the same. The other type of torsion is the one
which arises in the structure from the internal compatibility of the
members at connections, but otherwise, are of no consequence and
the structural safety is not compromised if the load carried by
compatibility torsional resistance is transferred to other mechanisms.
The Code permits to neglect such torsional effects provided they are
also neglected in the analysis. This condition is important; otherwise
the load transferred to alternative mechanisms will be under
The other simplification introduced by the Code is to treat solid
sections as equivalent hollow sections (which is a conservative
approach), and adding torsional capacities of sub-portions of T, L
and I sections irrespective of the obvious violation of compatibility of
deformations, (which is possible by the first theorem of plasticity.

Load deformation characteristics of various cross sections such as

solid section, closed hollow sections and open sections, and
combining shear and torsion are covered in text books on the
subject, which may be referred for details.

7.4.2 Methods of Seismic Analysis

Specialised methods are used for calculating the response of bridges
in seismic situation. These methods range from simplified equivalent
linear statical analysis to complex non- linear dynamic analysis which
involves dissipation of energy in plastic hysteresis cycles. For details
of the mathematical techniques, their applicability and validity
specialist literature may be referred.
7.4.3 Analyses for evaluating Global and Local Effects Global Analysis
This method is used for the overall analysis of the bridge structure. It
consists of determining, in a structure, a consistent set of either
internal forces and moments or stresses that are in equilibrium with a
particular defined set of actions on the structure. The internal set of
forces depend on geometrical, structural and material properties. Local analyses

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Results of global analysis are valid in all parts of structure, except in

local zones such as points of application of concentrated loads
including support reactions, areas of discontinuity like openings in
structural members and joints/connections of members at locations
other than geometrically smooth transitions, where sharp changes in
the flow of stresses are involved. The Saint-Venants Principle
described earlier, assures that the effect of these disturbances in the
structure are strictly local and limited in their extent. The stresses at
some distance away from these disturbances get back to the original
state without vitiating the global analysis.
This principle allows considering equilibrium of a small part of the
structure considering the equilibrium of a free body containing the
disturbance, but having its boundaries sufficiently away at locations
where the original stress distribution is as given by the global
analysis. In hand analysis this distance is taken as the depth of the
element. A generalised method of analysis for such cases is to use
the computerised analysis. Alternatively, other types of local
analyses based on non-elastic methods, or those using theorems of
plastic analysis like strut-and tie method are used where the normal
elastic methods become unusable. Combined global and local analysis

In global FEM analysis the local disturbances can be included as a
part of global geometry with refined finite element mesh surrounding
the disturbance to yield distribution of rapidly changing local stresses
as a part of global analysis.
7.5 Computerised Analysis and Computerisation of Design
7.5.1 Development of digital computers and use of numerical
solutions, Matrix Algebra and applications to Dynamics
The availability of large capacity computers, small enough to be put
on table tops in hands of designers, has revolutionised the computing
capacity in design offices.
The slope-deflection method was developed by classical theorist. It
involved setting up a number of linear equations connecting
deformations of members at its end with the set of forces acting at its
end by the members stiffness of flexibility. The full rigidity (or full
flexibility) of connections of such members enforce common
deformations on members (or the individually separate deformation
of fully flexible members). In case of partial fixity, the members can
be connected by springs with required spring constant. Solution of
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such set of linear equations, which numbered the same as the

number of unknowns, provide a unique solution to the structural
deformations and forces. This method had limited application in
practice due to the fact that the number of unknown increase very
rapidly as the number of members and connections increase, and the
solution for each loading case has to be separately obtained. This
was inspite of the availability of the mathematical tool of Matrix
However, with the advent of digital computers the situation changed
It became, not only possible but even simpler to solve the large sized
frames, once the computer programmes for use of Matrix methods
were developed. Many other types of indeterminate structures such
as members of varying dimensions, two and three dimensional
elements such as plates and shells etc. could be solved using
various numerical techniques. Most significant development of Finite
elements took place based on the ability to solve the mathematical
Even the non linearity of the material properties, and geometric non-
linearity of structural response (i.e. second order effects) could be
analysed using numerical techniques.
The otherwise un-solvable equations involved in the field of
Dynamics could be solved using step-by-step static solutions by
small time steps and integration of the same to represent dynamic
process. The meaningful earthquake analysis of structural response
became possible.
However, this development has increased the need for designers to
be more knowledgeable about the basic mathematical methods, and
to become proficient in its use, while using commercially available
softwares. It is even more important to be aware of their strengths
and limitations.

7.5.2 General observations

The large size of memories of present day computers are capable of
dealing with very large number of unknowns arising from the large
number of compatibility requirements, thus increasing the ability to
find mathematical solutions for arbitrarily defined shapes, support
conditions and loadings. However no solution can be more accurate
than the accuracy of the data and the extent to which the
assumptions made in the solution techniques are valid. It is,
therefore, important to understand the basic theory and assumptions
underlying the methods used by the computer programme.

DRAFT PREPD BY : SGJ Chapter 7 / 23 OF 32


Furthermore, Computers are also being used to make design choices

an addition to analysing the structure. However, indiscriminate use of
automated procedures both for analysis and design has a few major
flaws, including amongst others;
(1) Creation of false sense of accuracy: Since the computer can
calculate with equal accuracy solutions based on correct models as
well as those based on the unrealistic models, the accuracy of
solution depends on the use of correct model.
(2) It is not possible to improve the characteristics and behaviour of
basic element (liner or multi dimensional) to take into account more
refined properties of the same, than the constitutive relations built-in
in the programme.
(3) The mechanical use of software to obtain Black-Box solutions is
not conducive for imbibing in the designers a physical feel of the
behaviour of structures and structural materials, unless special
efforts are taken to understand the same.
(4) In the computerised analysis large amount of data is required to
be prepared as input data, and the mistakes are difficult to detect.
(5) The process of carrying analysis is totally programme-driven and
mechanical. The results are arrived at without the computer having
any intelligent understanding of what it is doing and why. Whether
the results look reliable or appear to be not- so- right in an
engineering sense is to be judged by the user.
All this is known, but in spite of the difficulties and risks,
computerised analysis is a very useful tool, if properly deployed and
properly interpreted. The most important care to be taken in the
analysis is the totally correct use of the signs in input data and the
correct interpretation of the output. Since these sign conventions are
programme - specific it is essential for the user to become fully
familiar with the same before starting its use. This is specially
required for using programmes, originally developed for primary use
in mechanical engineering applicants, for the civil engineering
applications. Usually these are very advanced programmes and
through familiarity with the methods, limitations as well as sign
conventions is a pre requisite.
7.5.3 Use of Finite Element Methods
The above discussion is especially true for using techniques of Finite
Element Methods, (FEM). The assembly of finite elements should be
examined visually, or plotted as a hard copy for all structures to
insure correct assembly of the elements. However, it should be
remembered that the apparently identical looking twin- image shown
by the assembly of Finite Elements does not correctly represent all
DRAFT PREPD BY : SGJ Chapter 7 / 24 OF 32

properties and all behaviours of the structure, of whose mathematical

model it represents. The validity and accuracy of any output is
decided by the properties of the finite element (i.e. Shape functions)
used and its suitability to represent the primary and secondary
structural behaviour. For example, a 3-D solid element using
compatibility of translational (u, v, w) deformations only at nodes
cannot represent, at the element level, the effects of angular
rotations and bending moments. For full understanding of the
capabilities and limitations of various elements used in a specific
programme reference shall be made to the specialist literature.
7.5.4 Computer Aided Designs
While using commercially available software as design aid it is
necessary to be aware of the requirements of the basic code for
which the programmes supplying design aids are written. If the same
are different from the IRC codes being used (either old versions or
the current version), these design aids cannot be used for the
purpose of verification (i.e. to demonstrate the acceptability of the
7.6 Theories of Small Deflection, Large Deflection and their
Applicability for Bridge Structures
7.6.1 Theories of small and large deflection
For many types of structures only limited deflections are acceptable
in order to meet the functional and serviceability requirements. In
other words, the complete structure and its structural elements
should be sufficiently stiff, i.e. non-flexible. It is found that for such
structural elements the equilibrium of external forces and internal
resisting forces need not be calculated on the basis of the deflected
shape after loading by 2nd order analytical methods, but can be
established with acceptable level of accuracy based on its geometry
before loading (i.e. first order analysis). On the other hand, some of
the structures may meet the requirement of stiffness of the structure
as a whole, but some of its elements /members are more flexible and
their stabilised deflected shape (i.e. their deformed shape) under
action of load has to be taken in to account for calculating the overall
equilibrium of the structure and load shared by the flexible
The theory in which sufficiently accurate equilibrium between the
load and resistance is established based on the original unloaded
geometry is termed as a theory of small deflections. This definition
appears subjective and not mathematically precise but is enough to
make a judgement about applicability and use of one or other type of
DRAFT PREPD BY : SGJ Chapter 7 / 25 OF 32


7.6.2 Applicability for Bridge Structures

The theory of small deflections provides the basis for most of the
analytical work needed in bridge engineering with notable exceptions
of second order analysis needed for analysis and design of slender
members, which may be required in normal types of bridges having
tall piers. This analysis is covered in the Code in Section 11:
Ultimate Limit State of Induced deformations.
The analysis based on the theory of large deflections is needed for
special types of bridges. The suspension and cable stayed bridges
and large span arch bridges belong to this type. Suspension cable of
the suspension bridges can only be analysed based on its deflected
shape. The stiffening girders carrying road may be designed on the
basis of the theory of small deflections, but the overall stability under
localised live loads also has to be based on the large deflections.
The cables of cable-stayed bridges and the cables of extra-dosed
bridge belong to an intermediate category depending on their
geometry and length. However, at least for the construction stage
analysis they have to be treated as highly flexible elements.
The IRC:112 on its own do not cover all design requirements of such
elements. However, the Code can be used for such designs in
combination with the help from specialised literature and/or
international codes.

7.7 Prestressed Members and Structures

IRC:112 has covered prestressing in six sections. The global effects
of prestressing on structures including its time dependent variations
are covered in Section:7 Analysis; the design properties are covered
in Section:6 Material Properties and their Design Values; the local
effects, such as spalling and bursting behind anchorages and the
technological aspects are covered in Section:13 Prestressing
Systems; Sections:15 and 16 cover detailing and Section:18 covers
Materials, Quality Controls and Workmanship.
Although various methods of considering prestressing in the analysis
and design have been used in the past, the Code requires in Clause
7.9.2 that:
(1) Prestressing is considered as an action and its effect should be
included in the forces / moments and applied to the structure.

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(2) Prestressing force is time-dependent. Its magnitude also varies

from the intended value due to technological reasons. Both the
effects should be considered in selection of design prestressing
(3) The contribution of prestressing tendons to the resistance
developed by the member shall be limited to the additional forces
mobilised by their further deformation, consistent with the ultimate
deformation of the member.
In view of the above, discussion in this Chapter is restricted to the
evaluation of Prestressing Action, as a load due to prestressing. The
appropriate methods of analysis are to be used for obtaining the
action effects.

7.7.1 Concept of Prestressing as a load

Historically, prestressing has developed in era of the Working
load/allowable stress philosophy of design. Its target was to increase
the capacity of concrete members to carry tensile loads without
cracking, allowing the optimum use of materials, in which the
stiffness from cracked concrete need not be neglected. The
prestressing of a structural member in this way may be defined as
the creation of an initial stress, of opposite sign to the stress
produced by the working load, in order to increase the working load
without increasing the actual stress in the member. The most logical
way to achieve this is to apply opposite force as a pre-load, which is
created by prestressing. For prestressing to be most advantageous,
it is therefore necessary that the working load should act mainly in
one direction, and the creation of initial stress of opposite sign is
achieved by prestressing. In theory, it is not essential that pre-
loading is achieved by stressed steel tendons anchored to the
structural member, although it turns out to be the most convenient
method, especially after steels of high strength having adequate
residual force after accounting for relaxation loss were developed.
It should be remembered, however, that achievement of enhanced
working load capacity does not automatically ensure sufficient safety
margin under ultimate limit state. For instance, in case of unbonded
tendons, which do not undergo large increase of force under factored
ultimate load, the required margin of safety cannot be provided by
prestressing tendons and it needs to be achieved by other means.
The force in the tendons is transferred to the structure at all points of
contact between the two. At all locations the force on the structure is
equal and opposite to the force acting on the tendon. At location of

DRAFT PREPD BY : SGJ Chapter 7 / 27 OF 32


anchorages force equal to locking force acts along the direction of

the tendon. A curved tendon pressing against the structure transfers
pressure equal to T/R where T is the local tensile force in tendon and
R is the radius of curvature at that location. For a circular profile it
represents a constant radial pressure along the tendon profile. For a
parabolic profile it is equivalent to uniformly distributed load, since
1/R=constant for the parabola. For moderately flat profiles It is easily
calculated by dividing the change in vertical component between two
points of the tendon by the length of the horizontal portion in

The frictional force P (x) between tendon and the duct, acting on
the structure in direction of decreasing force in the tendon is given by
the expression
P (x) = P0 1 e ( + kx ) ) Eq. 7.1
Is the sum of the angular displacements over a distance x
(irrespective of direction or sign)
Is the coefficient of friction between the tendon and its duct.
k Is a coefficient for wobble effect (representing angular
displacement per unit length of duct multiplied by ).
x Is the distance along the tendon from the point where the
prestressing force is equal to Po .
Po Force at the side of lower force in the tendon.
The value of depends on the surface characteristics of the
tendons and the duct, on configuration on the tendon profile,
and on the presence of rust, if any.
The value k for wobble ( times angular displacement per
unit length) depends on the quality of workmanship, the
distance between tendon supports, the type of duct or sheath
employed and the degree of vibration used while compacting
the concrete.

7.7.2 Time Dependent Losses

Time dependent losses in stress of prestressing tendon at any point
along the tendon partly depend on shortening strain in the structure
due shrinkage and creep of concrete. It depends on the local creep
and shrinkage of concrete for bonded tendons. For unbonded
tendons it depends on the overall (average) shortening strain
between the anchorage points due to creep and shrinkage. The loss
due to relaxation of steel which in other part of the time dependent
DRAFT PREPD BY : SGJ Chapter 7 / 28 OF 32

losses is the function of the local initial stress level in steel for the
bonded tendon after grouting, and on the overall initial stress for the
unbonded tendon. Since the effect of shrinkage is to reduce the force
in tendon, and resulting stress in concrete, and creep is proportional
to the stress level in concrete, the actual loss due to combined effect
of creep and shrinkage is less than the sum of the two loses
calculated separately and added. This is further modified by the loss
of force in steel by relaxation. For obtaining theoretically more
accurate estimate of net effect, method of numerical integration
involving small time step will be required, in which each of the effect
will follow its own time dependent function. However in practice such
elaboration is hardly justified, especially as the laws also involve
environmental factors like temperature and humidity time histories,
which cannot be predicted. In fact, even the behaviour of creep,
shrinkage and relaxation are not independently predictable exactly.
Hence the Code has prescribed that these are estimated
independently to be on safe side and added.

7.7.3 Local effects at anchorages

These are discussed in Chapter 13.
7.7.4 Punching out of curved tendons
Prestressing tendons embedded in curved thin sections (slabs or
shells) of single or double curvature follow the overall curvature of
the member, and are anchored at the ends. Thus at any point along
the length, it exerts inward, out of plane, pressure along the length,
which has tendency to punch out of the plane of the section under
effect of local punching. This local effect is easy to understand. Its
tendons also produces overall tensile stresses within the thickness of
the member acting at right angle to the surface. This action is
explained by example shown in Fig.7.6.
Fig. 7.6 shows a part of a long cylinder with inner radius R-Ti, outer
radius R+To and thickness T=(Ti+To ), having tendons spaced
uniformly along its length. The tendon form a full ring around the
cylinder and are located at radius R. A typical segment of unit length
stressed with force F is considered. For simplicity the tendon force
is considered as uniformly distributed along the full length and width.
Such tendon puts an inward pressure P along the surface at radius
R, where P= F/R. Fig. 7.6(a). It is clear that in such a cylinder the wall
thickness is under uniform compression with stress of F/T=F/(Ti+To),
i.e. effective prestress is uniformly distributed along the thickness
due to hyperstatic effects, irrespective of the location of the tendon
within the thickness. The net radial forces at right angles to the inner
DRAFT PREPD BY : SGJ Chapter 7 / 29 OF 32

and outer surfaces of cylinder are zero, since they are free surfaces,
as shown in Fig.7.6(b).

r p
max Po = .T
RT o

Radial Tension
Uniform Prestress
Part of Long Cylinder
p F .T
mx Pi = i
F = pr pr =F Radial Compression
(a) Half Section Showing (e)
Equilibrium of Prestressing
force & Equivalent Pressure
T = To + T i

To di


(b) Typical Segment of Wall


(R - d i )
(T - d i )
T i
F F(Ti - d i )
(T - d ) = P i (R+d i ) ; Pi = 1
T i i (R - d i )

(c) Part Segment below Tendon


F (R+do)
(T - d )
T o o
F F(To- d o)
(T - d ) = Po (R+d o) ; Po = 2
T o o (R + do)

(d) Part Segment above Tendon

Fig. 7.6 : A Part of a Long Cylinder

Considering equilibrium of any general slice taken bellow the tendon
surface at distance di from the tendons, Fig.7.6(c), having thickness
Ti di from the inner surface it is clear that the arch forces equal to
F(Ti-di)/T can be balanced only if the radial compressive pressure

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Pi= F(Ti-di)/T(R-di) acts on the outer ring. Similarly, for a general

slice taken above the tendon surface (Fig.7.6(d), at distance do from
the tendon surface, the arch force F(to-do)/T can be balanced only if
the radial tensile pressure Po= F(to-do)/T(R=do) acts on the outer
ring at lower surface. The variation of these radial forces within the
thickness of the cylinders wall are plotted in Fig.7.6(e), which vary
from nil to maximum compressive pressure bellow the tendon
surface and maximum tensile pressure just above the tendon surface
to nil at the outer surface. It can be seen that if the tendon surface is
at the outermost surface, the full wall thickness is having
compressive stresses varying from nil on inner surface to F/R on
outer surface. If the tendons are somehow fully glued to the inner
surface the full thickness is under tensile stresses varying from nil on
outermost surface to F/R on the inner surface.
Note that these forces are global, and additive to local punching due
to transverse spreading of the line force of tendon over the width
equal to the spacing of tendons, as shown in Fig.7.7 reproduced from
the code.
When the tendons were of small unit capacity and curvatures were
large the effect of the tensile forces within the thickness was small
and bellows the tensile strength of concrete. With increase of tendon
unit forces to about 500T UTS, and use of box section bridges having
sharp radius of curvature in plan, number of failures took place by
punching out of tendons, which resulted from the combined effect of
global and local tensile stresses as shown above, during or after
stressing. Similar local failures were also noticed in prestressed
domes containing tendons placed within the thickness. It was
realised that this effect needs to be calculated and if necessary,
provided for by tensile reinforcement placed across the thickness of
the walls in form of stirrups. This steel also binds the concrete on two
sides of the plane of tendons, thereby preventing de-lamination of the
The method of checking for the punching effect and achieving safe
design given in IRC:112 is based on the recommendations published
by Prof. Breen in Proceedings of FIB Congress in Washington in
1994. Fig.7.7 is reproduced from the code which is self-explanatory.

DRAFT PREPD BY : SGJ Chapter 7 / 31 OF 32


L (unit length)
Tj Tj
(a) Curvature in Plan Notations:
b = Thickness of web
design L = Unit length
force R = Radius of tendon
= Dia of duct
Tj = Combined initial tension
(at stressing) for group of
tendons under consideration
b Fr = TJ / R = Radial force
shear per unit length
Fu = 1.35 Fr
d min Vc
(d) Global bending & shear
of web (slab) due to
radial pressure

d eff
2 INSIDE FACE Design requirement :

d min
Fu 2Vc

Where Vc = 0.17..b.d eff f ck (in SI units)

b b

d eff = lesser of
d eff = d min +
1 d eff = b 4

2 d eff = d min + + S
4 2

(b) Clear Spacing Equal to or (c) Clear Spacing less than

Greater than one duct diameter one duct diameter
(centers of ducts may be or Touching ducts
aligned or staggered)

Fig.7.7: Radial Thrust of Tendons Causing Local Punching and

Global Bending in Shear in Webs (Slab)

7.8 Bibliography
(1) Theory of Structures by Timoshenko and Goodier
(2) Bulletin 51: Structural Concrete, Textbook on behaviour,
design, and performance (Second edition) by FIB 2009
(3) CEB-FIP Model Code 1990
(4) Eurocode Basis of Design: 1990:2002
(5) Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures: 1992-1-1:2004
(6) Prestressed Concrete, Theory and design by R.H.Evans and
(7) Proceedings of FIP Congress-1994 Article by Prof Breen.

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C8.1 Cl. 8.1

This section covers Ultimate Limit State (ULS) design of linear

elements which are subjected to the bending with or without
axial force. The rules for ULS design for shear, torsion,
punching, and membrane elements are given in section 9 & 10.
The method given here is applicable for the members like piers,
slabs, I girders, longitudinal design of box girders, etc. The
additional checks for buckling of slender columns are given in
section 11.

C8.2 Stress-Strain Distribution at ULS Cl. 8.2

Unlike working stress method (where the design checks are

based on stress limit), in ultimate limit state, in general, the
design checks are based on limits on strain. The strain limits
c1, c2 & c3 and cu1, cu2 & cu3 for various grades of concrete
are given in Table 6.5 of the code. The values c1 & cu1 are
used in generalized stress-strain distribution of concrete which
is shown in fig. A2-1 of Annexure A-2 of the code. The values
c2& cu2 are used in defining the parabola rectangle stress-
strain diagram as shown in fig 6.5. Whereas the values c3 &
cu3 are used in defining the bilinear stress-strain relationship
as shown in Fig. A2-3and rectangular stress distribution as
shown in Fig.A2-4of the code.c1, c2 & c3 are the strain limits
when the cross section is subjected to the pure compression
(without bending), whereas, cu1, cu2 & cu3 are limits when the
section is subjected to bending moment. The limiting strain
c2c & cu2c for confined concrete are given in clause A2-8 of
Annexure A-2 of the code.

The possible strain diagrams in accordance with the stress-

strain diagrams discussed above are shown in Fig. 8.2. These
diagrams are based on Bernoullis hypothesis. The strain limits
of the stress-strain diagram for concrete and steel result in five
different zones for the design of cross-section. With the
assumption of the perfect bond, the strain diagrams in the Fig.
8.2 govern not only the concrete compressive stresses but also
the stresses in reinforcement (reinforcing steel or prestressing
steel including pre-strain p(O) at any place in the cross
section). The compressive strain of reinforcing steel caused by
creep and shrinkage of concrete are normally negligible in
ultimate limit state and hence not considered.

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In zone 1, the whole section is subjected to uniform tensile

strain whereas in zone5, it is subjected to uniform compressive
strain. In both the zones, the location of neutral axis is outside
the section. The location of neutral axis changes from top fibre
to bottom fibre of section in zone 2, 3 & 4. Similarly, the
location of point C (which is characterized by the compressive
strain in concrete c = c2 also shifts from top to bottom in
zones 2 to 5 following the movement of neutral axis.



For a given cross-section, the ultimate axial load carrying

capacity can be checked for uniform strain of c2 if the applied
force is pure compressive, and for 0.9 uk, if the applied axial
force is pure tensile. The ultimate axial force carrying capacity
of the section for given bending moment shall always be
between these two limits. The position of neutral axis, k for
which the ultimate force carrying capacity of the section
matches with the factored axial force acting on the section is
obtained by solving the following equilibrium condition.

f(k) = Pus (k) + Puc (k) + N =0 Eq.C 8.1

Where N is the factored axial force applied

Pus (k) and Puc (k) are the contributions from steel and
concrete respectively in the ultimate resistance of the section
and can be express as
Pus (k) = s(k) As
and Puc (k) = dAc

The notation s cover the steel stresses in both prestressed

and non-prestressed steel.

After getting the location of neutral axis at equilibrium, the

ultimate bending moment carrying capacity of the section about
it is worked out and compared with the factored bending
moment acting on the section.
Finding out the roots of Eq.C 8.1 involve solution of non-linear
equation. The equation is solved using numerical method such
as Regula-falsi method. In this method, the initial assumptions
of two values of k, one each on either side of solution are
required. It is necessary to satisfy condition, i.e. (ki) *
(kl+l)<0at each of iterations.



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In case of direct solution, magnitude of compressive force (Cu)

and its location is obtained from concrete stress block in
compression. The ultimate failure of concrete is caused by
crushing of concrete which requires the limiting strain on
extreme compressed fiber of concrete. Following two cases
are discussed here:

1) Neutral axis within the section

2) Neutral axis outside the section.

1) Neutral axis within the section

1a) Parabola Rectangular stress block
When neutral axis is within the section, strain in extreme
compressed fiber is limited to and corresponding stress fcd.
For rectangular section of width b and depth x, the resultant
force Cu is expressed by

And its position, measured from extreme compressed edge is

defined by . The expression for , in function of
strain , are:

The numerical values of are shown in the function of

cube strength ( in Table C 8.1.

Table C 8.1. Values of

fck(N/mm ) up to 60 70 75 90 100 115
1 0.80952 0.74194 0.69496 0.63719 0.59936 0.58333
2 0.41597 0.39191 0.37723 0.36201 0.35482 0.35294

1b) Rectangular stress block

Other than parabola rectangular stress block more simplified
rectangular stress block can be used for evaluating
compressive force and its line of action. With reference of
Appendix A2.9 of IRC 112, the expression for are
simplified to,


The values are shown in Table C 8.2

Table C8.2. Values of for rectangular stress

fck(N/mm ) to 70 75 90 100 115
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1 0.8 0.76781 0.73625 0.675 0.61625 0.56

2 0.4 0.39375 0.3875 0.375 0.3625 0.35

2) Neutral axis outside the section.

2a) Parabola Rectangular stress block

The adoption of the assumptions in Clause 8.2.1 of IRC 112

leads to the range of possible strain diagrams at ultimate limit
states subjected to different forces. Condition of neutral axis
outside the section arises between two cases of strain
distribution, one with uniform over section for uniform
compression and other is for extreme compressed edge
and 0 at other edge. For this condition strain diagram is defined
by assuming that compressive strain is at level 1
/ h, with notation
(1- cu ) h


Fig. C 8.1 Rectangular section with neutral axis outside the


The strain at top and bottom, respectively is given by



Indicating nd resultant and its position for a length x

and by nd are the similar quantities for (x-h) part, the
resultant and its position compared to the most
compressed edge and relation with depth h are given by:
1 1 1

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The nd values for a different x/h ratio are given in Table

C 8.3.

Table C 8.3. Values of

Parabola Rectangle Constitutive Law

fck= 60 fck = 70 fck= 75 fck = 90 fck= 100 fck = 115
x/ N/mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2
3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4
0.80 0.41 0.74 0.39 0.69 0.37 0.63 0.362 0.599 0.35 0.58 0.35
952 597 194 191 496 723 719 01 36 482 333 294
1. 0.89 0.45 0.83 0.43 0.78 0.42 0.72 0.410 0.692 0.40 0.67 0.40
2 549 832 288 765 714 436 968 22 49 355 72 186
1. 0.93 0.47 0.88 0.45 0.84 0.44 0.78 0.434 0.753 0.42 0.73 0.42
4 409 48 197 841 129 724 831 92 81 907 986 761
1. 0.95 0.48 0.91 0.46 0.87 0.46 0.82 0.449 0.796 0.44 0.78 0.44
6 468 304 168 99 615 046 826 75 79 461 422 335
1. 0.96 0.48 0.93 0.47 0.90 0.46 0.85 0.459 0.828 0.45 0.81 0.45
8 693 779 113 702 007 895 695 54 34 499 702 389
0.97 0.49 0.94 0.48 0.91 0.47 0.87 0.466 0.852 0.46 0.84 0.46
481 077 46 178 73 478 838 44 34 237 211 14
2. 0.98 0.49 0.96 0.48 0.94 0.48 0.91 0.477 0.892 0.47 0.88 0.47
5 55 475 464 861 42 347 348 05 55 385 448 311
0.99 0.49 0.99 0.49 0.98 0.49 0.96 0.492 0.959 0.49 0.95 0.49
702 893 06 705 285 512 937 34 72 089 622 057

2b) Rectangular stress block

Though in IRC 112 there is no guide lines for obtaining

rectangular stress block for (x>h) case, it is possible to write
formula that gives the equivalent depth h* in relation to x as,

where k factor is determined by imposing that

when . It results in
Putting value of k in in first expression gives,

Values of , , are given in function of in Table C8.4.

Table C8.4. Values of ,

fck(N/mm2) k
60 0.80000 1.00000 0.75000
70.0 0.78750 0.97500 0.73016
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75.0 0.77500 0.95000 0.70968

90 0.75000 0.90000 0.66667
100.0 0.72500 0.85000 0.62069
115.0 0.70000 0.80000 0.57143

The values of nd were calculated in anology to that was

developed for case 2a) and presented in Table C8.5.

Table C 8.5. Values of for rectangular stress block

Rectangle Constitutive Law

fck= 60 fck = 70 fck= 75 fck = 90 fck= 100 fck = 115
x/ N/mm 2
N/mm 2
N/mm 2
N/mm2 N/mm 2
3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4
0.80 0.40 0.76 0.39 0.73 0.38 0.67 0.37 0.61 0.36 0.56 0.35
000 000 781 375 625 750 500 500 625 250 000 000
1. 0.88 0.44 0.85 0.43 0.82 0.43 0.75 0.42 0.69 0.40 0.63 0.39
2 889 444 601 898 344 339 938 188 695 997 636 773
1. 0.92 0.46 0.89 0.45 0.86 0.45 0.79 0.44 0.73 0.43 0.67 0.42
4 308 154 154 720 011 269 773 318 623 308 586 241
1. 0.94 0.47 0.91 0.46 0.88 0.46 0.81 0.45 0.75 0.44 0.70 0.43
6 118 059 073 704 030 332 964 536 946 674 000 750
1. 0.95 0.47 0.92 0.47 0.89 0.47 0.83 0.46 0.77 0.45 0.71 0.44
8 238 619 274 320 308 004 382 324 482 577 628 767
0.96 0.48 0.93 0.47 0.90 0.47 0.84 0.46 0.78 0.46 0.72 0.45
000 000 097 742 191 469 375 875 572 219 800 500
2. 0.97 0.48 0.94 0.48 0.91 0.48 0.85 0.47 0.80 0.47 0.74 0.46
5 143 571 341 380 534 176 909 727 282 255 667 667
0.98 0.49 0.96 0.49 0.93 0.49 0.88 0.49 0.82 0.48 0.74 0.48
824 412 191 329 554 239 269 038 975 809 677 548



Determination of Nrd and Mrd

To illustrate the principles, only one case is considered with
neutral axis within the section for rectangular section.
Consider a rectangular section with breath b, total depth h.
strain at extreme compressed fiber of concrete is . Strain
distribution at ultimate limit state across transvers section and
corresponding stresses is illustrated in figure C 8.2. As is steel
in compression and whereas As is steel in tension.

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N's Nc

As s Ns

Figure C 8.2. Rectangular section at ultimate limit state

Two requirements are satisfied throughout the flexural analysis

and design of reinforced concrete beams and columns:

1. Stress and strain compatibility- The stress at any point in a

member must correspond to the strain at that point. A strain
over the depth of the member is assumed to be linear.

2. Equilibrium- Internal forces must balance the external load

effects, as illustrated in Eq. C8.1 and rewritten as:

For equilibrium,

Nrd= Nc+ Ns + Ns
Where Nc is the resultant of compressive force in concrete, Ns
is resultant of stress applied to compressed reinforced bar As
and Ns is resultant of steel in tension.

Each term can be expressed as,

Stress in reinforcement can be expressed as,




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The nominal moment capacity, , for the assumed strain

distribution is found by summing the moments of all the internal
forces about the centroid of the column. The moments are
summed about the centroid of the section, because this is the
axis about which moments are computed in a conventional
structural analysis.

2 2 2

In case both the reinforcing bar yielded ( ,

2 2 2
and are factor given in table 1 and 2.



Parabola-rectangular stress block:

Consider a section with b, h, d (effective depth) with a design

bending moment MEd
In order to determine is section is sufficient using tensioned
steel (As) alone, the limiting bending moment Mur,limis calculated
and compared with design moment on section.
Where is resultant of compression
stresses and

In order to ensure that the structure has ductile behavior, the

strain in steel of tensioned reinforcement must be greater than
that of strain corresponding to the limit of elasticity, which is
/ . This implies that neutral axis does not
exceed depth, with as limiting strain in concrete,

a) If is smaller than , , As is alone sufficient, to find

actual neutral axis depth corresponding to , it results

This, by solving becomes,


2 2
Finally with ,

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b) If If is greater than , , As is alone is not sufficient,

some compressive reinforcement in compression is
needed. To calculate it

The tensioned reinforcement is

1 ,

Rectangular concrete stress block:

is the depth of compressed zone and is designed

compressive stress. Values of these factors are given in Table

Compressive force, ,
Liver arm

2 0

1 1

Once y is known area of steel can be calculated.

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C9.1 SCOPE: Cl. 9.1

This section deals with the design of two & three dimensional
elements subjected to out-of-plane as well as in-plane forces.

The procedure given is useful when the structure is analysed

using Finite element method using membrane, plate or shell

Membrane elements are structural elements subjected to in-plane forces.

Membrane elements model solids of a specified thickness which exhibit no
stress normal to the thickness. The constitutive relations are modified to
make the stress normal to the thickness zero. The membrane
elements, which have only translation degrees of freedom, give
stress resultants in-plane only i.e., Edx, Edy & Edxy as shown
in Fig C 9.1. Membrane elements are used to idealise the
shear walls etc. which are subjected to in plane forces and not
out-of-plane forces.

Fig.C9.1 Stress Resultants for Membrane Element

Plate bending elements are used to model plate type structures (such as
deck slab), where the thickness is very small compared to the other
dimensions and when the plate structure is subjected to loads which are
normal to its surface. As a consequence of this, flexural effects dominate.
The plate bending elements do not produce any in-plane forces
and have three degrees of freedom per node i.e. one out-of
plane translation and two rotation about two axes perpendicular
to the out of plane (normal to surface) axis. It gives bending
moments about x, y axis i.e.mEdx, mEdy & twisting moment
mEdxy, and out of plane shear forces vEdx and vEdy as shown in
Fig. C9.2.

The shell element is combination of membrane element and

plate bending element having six degrees of freedom at a node
(three translations and three rotations) and gives all the eight
force resultants i.e. Edx, Edy, Edxy, mEdx, mEdy, mEdxy, vEdx and

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This section of the code gives the guidelines for design of

these elements using Ultimate Limit State.

Fig C.9.2 Force resultants for plate bending element

C9.2 One Way and Two Way Slabs and Walls Cl. 9.2

One way, two way slabs and the retaining walls are the typical
example which are subjected to the out-of-plane forces,
generates the bending moments, out-of-plane shear forces and
not significant membrane forces. Hence Plate bending
element is appropriate element for modeling of these
structures. As stated in the code, the ultimate strength
methods based on local yielding (e.g. yield line method) are not
permitted in bridges, except for calculating resistance to
accidental impact loads.

C9.3 Sub-Elements of Box-Structures Cl. 9.3

(1) As explained in Section 8.0, for global analysis of box-

girders, a linear element i.e. beam element can be used,
which gives overall longitudinal bending moment and
shear forces for the section design.

(2) For transverse analysis, a slice of 1.0m length of the box

girder at desired location can be modeled using beam
element with pinned support at bottom-most nodes of
webs, to represent the stiffness of webs of remaining
girders. The design of these beam elements shall be
done using ULS method for linear element as discussed
in section 8.0.

(3) In case of the box girder having complex geometry such

as fish-belly-shaped or box-girders having curvature in
plan with significant torsion & distortional effects, the

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girder can be modeled using shell elements and the

design method for the same using sandwich model is
given in Annexure B-1.

Cl. 9.4 General Solutions for Two way Slabs, Walls and shell

C9.4.1 Cl. 9.4.1

In this section the code has given simplified design method for
calculating tensile reinforcement for orthogonal in plane effects.
In this method:

The sign for compressive stresses needs to be taken as

X and Y are the direction along which the reinforcement is
provided and Edx shall be greater than Edy
No reinforcement is required if both Edx & Edy are
compressive (i.e. positive) and in-plane shear stress Edxy is
small. To determine whether Edxysmall or not, code has
given the criteria as Edx . Edy>Edxy.
If Edxy is significally high or either Edx or Edy is tensile then
the reinforcement needs to be provided in that direction.
Two worked examples are given to demonstrate the
procedure of the design.

C 9.4.2 Simplified Design for Bending in Orthogonal Direction Cl. 9.4.2

The code has suggested an approximate method for design of

slab subjected to orthogonal bending by using two half plates,
representing compression & tensile zones. However, for such
elements, design method given in section 8 for one
dimensional element can be used independently in x and y
direction. In this case, the effect of mEdxy can be considered in
design by enhancing of mEdx & mEdy by value of mEdxy.

C 9.4.3 Simplified Design of Combined In-Plane Forces and out of

Plane Bending and Shear

In the approach given in this clause, the element is divided into

three layers of plate, each having 1/3rd thickness; top & bottom
resist the in plane forces & bending moments and the central
one resists the out-of-plane shear forces. The detail procedure
is given in Annexure B-1 and has been explained with worked
examples in the commentary of this annexure.


Following are the results at the center of membrane element
used for analysis of diaphragm of bridge deck having thickness
of 500 mm with M40 concrete and reinforcement Fe500

Edx = 3000 kN/m

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fEdy = 2000 kN/m

SEdxy = 1500 kN/m

As per clause (1), fcd = 0.67 x 40/1.5= 17.86 MPa

Edx = 6.0 MPa
Edy = 4.0 MPa
Edxy = 3.0MPa

Edx x Edy = 24.0 ; Edxy =9.0 < 24

Since Edx x Edy > 2Edxy and both Edx & Edy are compressive,
no reinforcement in both direction is required (provide the
minimum reinforcement is given in section). Also both Edx and
Edy are less than fcd, the section is safe.


Keeping the other details same in example C-9.1, by changing
the forces to following,
fEdx = 2600kN/m;
fEdy = 2000kN/m
Edxy = 2500kN/m;

Edx = 5.2 MPa

Edy = 4.0 MPa;
Edxy = 5.0 MPa

Now, though both Edx and Edy are compressive, Edx.Edy (i.e.
20.8) < Edxy(i.e. 25) ; Hence it is necessary to provide the

Since Edx>|tEdxy|
ftdx = 0
ftdy = Edy

= 4
= 0.81MPa

cd = Edx (1 + ( ) )

= 5.2 ( 1 +( ) )
= 10.01 MPa

Fcd = 0.6 (1+ ) x 17.867

= 9.33677MPa
< 10.01 MPa
Here it is necessary to revise the thickness. After increasing
from 500mm to 600 mm, ftdy =0.67 MPa and cd = 8.34Mpa <
10.01 MPa.

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The scope is to cover the design provisions for shear in flexural

members including arriving at the shear reinforcements. The
shear can arise out of flexure, or Interface shear due to concrete
cast at different times or shear between web and flange in flanged
sections or due to punching or due to torsion. Different type of
shear arising in flexural members can be represented in the
following diagram:
The shear design has to be carried out under ultimate limit state
only. When the member has to be provided with shear
reinforcement, the reinforcement has to be calculated based on a
truss model. For members without shear reinforcement the
capacity of the section is estimated using empirical formula.


C 10.2.1 Shear Design model of members without shear reinforcement.

The sub clauses given in the code is quit elaborate and the same
can be followed by the designers without any difficulty.

C 10.2.2 Shear design model of members with shear reinforcement
C10.2.2.1 Zones of Shear design.

Members loaded beyond their shear capacity need to be provided

with shear reinforcement to resist the full shear force. Members
subjected to bending and shear force have four distinct zones.
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The zone adjacent to the support does not develop any crack.
Hence this zone is called uncracked zone (Zone A). The adjacent
zone (Zone B) develops shear cracks but does not develop any
flexural crack. In the next zone (Zone C) both flexural and shear
cracks appear. This zone is further subdivided into two zones as
zone C1 and zone C2. In the zone C1 cracks are parallel, and in
the zone C2 the cracks converge. In zone D only flexural cracks
appear. The appearance cracks in different zones in shear is
shown in Fig 10.1 (a) of the code.

The structure can be supported directly or indirectly as shown in

fig 10.1. In zone A the type of support affects the compression
fields. In case of direct supports, a fan like compression field
develops. In the area confined by the beam end and the steepest
inclination of compression field ie = 450. no shear reinforcement
is required in this zone. However the shear reinforcement required
at section d away from support shall be extended in this region.
Between 450 and 21.80 no shear reinforcement is required for
loads acting within this area, as the loads are carried to supports
directly by the compression strut. As bridges are subjected to
moving loads, this provision may not be useful. The horizontal
component of the compression strut will give raise to tension. To
cater for this tension, additional tensile steel provided over and
above the tensile steel provided for the bending effect.
In case of indirect support, a fan like compressive field does not
exist. In the common intersection zone of supporting and
supported beam, additional suspension reinforcements are
required in addition to shear reinforcement. Preferably this
reinforcement shall be provided in the supporting beam to resist
the reaction transferred by the supported beam to the supporting

Fig: 10.1 Direct and Indirect Support for Beams

C10.2.2.2 Shear Transfer Mechanism of Truss model

(1) Beam with Constant depth

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The design of shear resistance of members is based on truss

model. The Truss model can be described as shown in the sketch

Fig: 10.2 Truss Model and Notation for Members with Shear Reinforcement

The truss model consists of compression chord, tension chord and

diagonals. The web consists of compression strut diagonals in
concrete, and tension diagonal in the form of steel stirrup. is
angle of compression strut and is the inclination of steel stirrups.
Angles are measured with respect of axis of element.
The angle of compression strut shall be limited to minimum of
21.80 and maximum of 450. Similarly the angle of shear stirrups
shall be limited to minimum of 450 and maximum of 900. As the
angle of truss is varied the method is called Variable Truss angle

(2) Beams of variable depth.

The truss model shown in fig 10.3 of code or any other truss Cl.
model can be used for carrying out shear design for varying depth
beams having both chords inclined. While designing local zone of
short length of beams having inclined chords, the zone can be
designed as a beam having parallel chords, provided the
components of chord force parallel to the shear force is taken into
consideration as the components of inclined chord forces
contribute towards shear.

C10.2.3 Design Shear Force

As discussed earlier, the beams can be supported directly or Cl.10.2.3 (1)

indirectly. In case of direct support the net shear force acting at a
section d effective depth away form the support shall be used for
design of shear reinforcement for the section and the same
reinforcement shall be extended towards the support. However for
checking the capacity of strut against crushing, the net shear force
acting at the face of support shall be considered.
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In case of indirect supports the shear at the face of support shall

be used for arriving at the reinforcement as well as for checking
the capacity of strut.

In case of variable depth of beam, the compression chord, or Cl.10.2.3

tension chord or both chords may be inclined. The inclination of
these chords generate chord forces. The components of these (3)
chord forces reduce the shear force acting on the section if they
act favorably ie if the depth of section is increasing in the same
direction as the bending moment increases. However in case
where the depth is decreasing, in the direction of increasing
bending moment, the components of chord forces will add to the
shear force. Depending upon the direction of the prestressing
force it can offer relief or add to the shear force. The direction
shown in fig 10.4 of the code for the chord forces and prestressing
force reduces the externally acting shear at the section.
In addition to the above forces, in case of indeterminate
structures, the shear due to hyper static effect shall also be

The value of the prestressing force that to be used in the

calculation is as follows. The code allows the designer to use the
full capacity of cable. If the prestressing force is already
accounted for while arriving at the net shear force after accounting
for all losses in the cable, then the increase in prestressing force
due to cracking of concrete [Force at full capacity of cable if the
corresponding strain could be achieved minus the force in the
cable accounted in the computation of shear force] only to be
taken as an additional force. Component of this increase in force
in the vertical direction can be taken as additional resistance force
as if contributed by shear reinforcement.

In case if the strain in the cable not attaining the 0.87 of yield
strain, then the force in cable shall be assumed corresponding to
the strain attained and the full capacity of the cable shall not be
Conservatively one can ignore this increase in stress in the Cl.10.2.3
prestressing cable and use only the prestress force available after
accounting all losses. This method of design will lead to slightly
increase in shear steel but it will avoid all complications of
calculating the increase in prestressing force.
For unbonded cable, at the ultimate limit state stage the force in
the cable shall be assumed to be the initial prestressing force less
the losses. Increase in cable force may not be taken. This will lead
to slightly a conservative assumption.

In the development length portion the prestressing force develops

gradually in case of pretensioned girders. Hence the
corresponding force shall be assumed by taking a linear variation. (5)
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In case of beams of varying depth, the design shear force shall be

calculated by ignoring, the relief offered due to inclination of
chords for justifying the no requirement of shear reinforcement.
However the relief due to prestressing force shall be considered.


C10.3.2 Elements not Requiring Design Shear Reinforcement

(1) The shear capacity of concrete VRDC should be greater than Cl.10.3.2
VED which is the design shear force in the section considered
resulting from external loading and prestressing. No relief due
to inclined chord force shall be considered in beams having
variable depth while arriving at VED. For sections having shear
capacity VRDC more than VED. no designed shear
reinforcement need to be provided. However minimum shear
reinforcement need to be provided as per clause 16.5.2. This
minimum reinforcement can be omitted in case of slab

(2) The formula given for calculating the shear capacity of section Cl.10.3.2
in the code is empirical only. The shear strength depends
upon the tensile strength of concrete which in turn depends
upon the compressive strength of concrete to the power 1/3 ,
longitudinal reinforcement ratio and depth of section. The
longitudinal reinforcement contributes to the shear resistance
in two ways viz by dowel action and controlling the crack
width which will influence the amount of shear that can be
transferred across the cracks by aggregate interlock. Shear
strength increases with increase in reinforcement ratio but the
rate of such increase reduces, as the reinforcement ratio
increases. Sectional depth also plays significant role which is
called as size effect, on the shear strength particularly for
shallow depth members such as slabs.

(3) The clause places a restriction that the formula given (Eq. Cl.10.3.2
10.4) is applicable only to single span bridges. Reasons are (3)
not clear why this restriction has been placed. For other two
type of construction viz, prestressed continuous and integral
bridges this formula, shall not used and all sections shall be
treated as, cracked sections and shear reinforcement shall be
designed according to codal Eq. 10.7 after verifying the
concrete capacity according to Eq. 10.8.

In the prestressed sections there will not be appreciable

longitudinal reinforcement. Hence the capacity of section to resist
the shear without shear reinforcement as per codal Eq. 10.1 will
be very negligible. Hence the designer can straightway use the

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codal Eq. 10.7 and 10.8 for design of prestressed concrete section
in shear both in continuous and integral bridges.
In case of continuous bridges, sections near the intermediate
support, the bending moment will be very high and the section
would automatically crack. Hence this formula can not be used.
The other sections in these structures are the contra flexure
sections and sections where the reversal of bending moment
takes place. The code drafters might have had reservation with
regard to applicability of this formula, to these regions. Hence
without giving reasons, why this formula can not be applied to the
continuous structures the restriction has been straightway placed.
By the same argument for the single span integral bridge also this
formula is not applicable as these the sections (contra flexure and
reversal) are also present. However the formula can be used in
single span integral bridges.

The other possibility is this formula is applicable only for one way
spanning members because it does not take into account, the
traverse stresses which occurs in the two way spanning members.

In case of prestressed concrete members, at first the section need

to be checked whether cracked or uncracked. If the flexural tensile
stresses is less than under maximum bending moment, then
the section is deemed to have uncracked and the equation 10.4 of
code shall be used to estimate the capacity of the section. This is
generally applicable to zone B. In case if the section turns out to
be cracked, then equation 10.7 and 10.8 of code shall be used for
calculating the capacity of section. In case of cracked sections
and sections having inadequate capacity the designed shear
reinforcement need to be provided. In prestressed beams the
longitudinal tensile reinforcement may be absent or very minimal.
Hence the capacity of section to carry the shear without shear
reinforcement will be virtually nil. This is because VRDC in case of
beam, having no shear reinforcement is directly depended upon
the ASL the longitudinal reinforcement which will be either absent
or negligible amount.

Hence the designer for most of the cases can straightway go to

codal equation 10.7 and 10.8 without checking the capacity of
section to carry shear using equation 10.1.

Derivation of Codal Equation 10.4 for Uncracked prestressed Sections.

For sections having no shear reinforcement, the shear failure is Eq:

expected to occur when the principle tensile stress anywhere in 10.4
the section, exceeds the tensile strength of concrete fctdwhich
shall be taken as fctk.05/ m. Taking tensile stress as negative, the
minor principal stress.
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2 2

cp is the compressive stress at centroid due to axial loading or

prestressing force (after all loss, including partial safety factor)
taken as positive.

bending is the stress due to bending moment at the level

considered in MPa taking compressive stress as positive. This
includes, the bending stress due to prestress and all other design
loads. The section is subjected to normal stress and shear stress.
is the applied shear stress =

VRDC is the shear Resistance of the concrete in the web from the
shear force required to cause web cracking.
I is the second moment of area of section
is the first moment of area of the concrete above/below the
plane of consideration about the cross section centroid. This has
been taken as S in the code.


Squaring both sides

(fctd + x)2 = x2 + 2
+ (fctd)2 + x2 + 2 fctd x = x2 + 2
+ (fctd)2+ 2 fctdx = 2

f 2f

f f

Substituting for

In order to take care of the transmission length in pretensioned

construction a constant of k1 is introduced.

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b is the web width at centroidal axis after allowing for deduction

due to duct diameter as per clause (5) of the code.
At the centroidal axis bending = 0

Hence the shear capacity at centroidal axis is

At times, the maximum principle tensile stress may occur at a

section away from centroid and not at centroid. For any other
section other than centroidal axis the shear capacity shall be
calculated using the expression which includes the term bending.
The web width shall be substituted accordingly as applicable for
that section.

Additional equation for checking shear in section having precast beam

supporting the deck slab.

The uncracked shear resistance VRDC of such type of construction

has to be worked out by liming the principal tensile stress to fctd. If
the loads Vc1 acting on the precast beam alone produces the (4)
shear stress of s the additional shear force Vc2 which can
generate a shear stress of 'sthe principle tension under the
combined shear and bending stress shall not exceed fctd. Hence
the total shear capacity of section will be Vc1 + Vc2. Shear stress
distribution will be as shown below.

Fig 10.3 Distribution of Shear Stress in Composite Beams

The principal tensile stress can be checked at the composite

centroid. In a given problem the other sections also could be
critical which should also be examined.
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At the composite centroid the total longitudinal bending stress =

The shear stress due to loads applied on precast section = s
The additional shear stress that can withstand after the section
becomes composite = 's

The principal tensile stress at the composite centroid =

The principal tensile stress should not exceed = - fctd

Substituting for 1s

xi is the first moment of area of the concrete above/ below the plane of consideration
about the composite section centroid taken as S in the cede.
I is the moment of Inertia of composite section
b is the breadth of web

x is the first moment area of the concrete above/ below the plane of consideration
in theprecast section about the composite centroid.
The shear capacity of uncracked section = Vc1 + Vc2

The calculation of shear resistance as per above formula for

uncracked section is not required for cross section between the
support section and the section which contains the Cl.10.3.2
intersectionpoint on the elastic centroidal axis and a line inclined
from the inner edge of the support at anangle of 450. as shown (4)

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below. However the reinforcement arrived at this section AA shall

be continued in this region covering upto the end of the beam.

Fig: 10.4 Sections Requiring no Check for Shear Resistance

When the loads are closer to the supports, the loads will be
directly transmitted by strut action and not via normal action of
shear and bending. Therefore the clause exempts the section
closer to the support for checking the shear capacity of section.

(4) Members with loads applied on the upper surface (top) at a

distance v where v is within 0.5d to 2d from the edge of
support (or center of bearing when flexible bearings are used) Cl.10.3.2
the question comes, how much of this load will contribute
towards shear as most of the loads will be directly transmitted (5)
to the support by strut action without involving bending and
shear. Hence the code suggests to reduce the contribution of
this load towards shear by multiplying the load by a factor
v/2d. For a section where v is less than 0.5d, a distance of
0.5d shall be assumed. This reduction in shear force is only
applicable for checking the capacity of section without shear
reinforcement as per equation 10.1provided longitudinal
reinforcement is anchored at the support. This reduction is
permitted only for beams cracked in flexure and it shall not be
used while checking with equation 10.4.(While checking the
uncracked section of prestressed concrete) However for
checking the adequacy of shear capacity of section as per
codal equation 10.5 this reduction factor shall not also be
used and it shall be assumed that the entire load to be
contributing towards the shear.

(5) For design of longitudinal reinforcement in the region cracked

in flexure the MED line shall be shifted over a distance of d in Cl.10.3.2
the unfavorable direction or the tensile reinforcement can be (6)
increased due to additional chord force as explained later.

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Fig: 10.5 Load Transfer Direct to the support when loads are Placed near the support

Worked Example 10.3-1:

Elements not requiring shear reinforcement.
Estimate the shear capacity of RCC slab in which no shear reinforcement is provided.
The particulars of slab are as follows:
Thickness of slab 750mm, cover 50mm concrete grade M30.
Reinforcement 25dia 125mm.
Area of reinforcement = 39.27 cm2/m
Effective depth = 750 50 = 687.5mm.

Effective width = 1000mm

Asl = 39.27 cm2
l = .0057 .02

k =1 1.53

Axial Load = 0 cp = 0.
VRDC = 0.12 x 1.53 80 x .0057 x 30 1000 x 687.5 x10
= 302 kN/m

VRDCmin =. 031 x 1.53 x 30 x 1000 x 687.5 x 10 221.0kN/m
The slab can with stand a shear of 302 kN/m without providing any shear reinforcement.

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C 10.3.3: Member requiring Design Shear Reinforcement

C10.3.3.3 Members with Vertical and Inclined Shear Reinforcements

When the shear resistance of the members work out to be less Cl.
than the shear to be resisted, then the members have to be and
provided with designed shear reinforcement. The required shear
reinforcement shall be worked out using the truss model.

Fig: 10.6 Truss Model for Shear Resistance

Fig: 10.7 Truss Model One Panel Length for Shear Resistance

One panel length of Truss L = Z (cot + cot )

Spacing of inclined stirrup at an angle = S

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Total number of stirrups =

Total force to be resisted in the vertical direction.

VRDS = sin cot cot sin (Codal

Asw f yd
For vertical stirrups = 900 , cot = 0, sin = 1 so VRDS = Z cot (Codal

Capacity of concrete strut

Fig: 10.8 Compression Strut of Fig. 10.7 Distributed over Panel Length L
It c is the allowable compressive stress
Total compressive force perpendicular to plane x x = cbw L sin
= cbw Z (cot + cot ) sin
Total compressive force in vertical direction = cbw Z (cot + cot ) sin x sin
= cbw Z (cot + cot ) sin2
1 1 1
1 cot 1

Total compressive force in vertical direction =

c = cwv1fcd

VRD max = ( Codal Eq:10.8 )

When stirrups are provided in vertical direction = 900 cot = 0

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VRD max

VRD max = ( Codal Eq:10.8)

The maximum effective cross sectional area of shear reinforcement for vertical stirrups can be
found out by substituting = 450 as the capacity due to reinforcement can not be exceed the
capacity of concrete.
For Vertical Stirrups
= (Codal Eq:10.10 )

As can not be assumed more than 450,the shear steel area can not exceed the above shown
value in a section. In case if it exceeds, it means, the section has failed in compression and
hence need to redesigned
For = 450 cot = 1
For Inclined stirrups
VRDS = cot 1 sin



( Eq: 10.13 of code)

A sw f yd
At any situation if the provided shear reinforcement bw s works out to be grater

than it can be safely concluded the web has failed in shear and requires redesign.

In case full stress of 0.87 fy is used in the shear reinforcement the 0.6 1 . If the

stress in shear reinforcement is reduced to 0.8fyk then 0.6 for fck less then 80 MPa and
f ck
250 for fck grater then 80 MPa.

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C10.3.3.3 Members with inclined shear reinforcement (Alternative Proof)

The applied shear force will be resisted both by concrete strut and
steel stirrups. As the Plane A-A is parallel to concrete strut there
will not be any vertical component of strut force on Plane A-A.

Fig: Partial Smeared Truss Model for the use of Inclined Shear Reinforcement
Only vertical component will be available from stirrup legs crossing the plane A-A to resist the
shear force.
(1) Length of plane A-A =

(2) Spacing for Stirrup on the Inclined Plane A-A = X

Fig: Showing the Spacing of Inclined Stirrup along Plane A-A

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Considering the triangle OAB

x is the spacing along plane AA


No of legs crossing the plane AA =

No of stirrups =

Total force Resisted by stirrups =

Resolving this force vertically

V = vRDS= sin

= cos cot sin

Multiplying the expression by

= cos cot sin

V = vRDS= cos cot sin (CodalEq: 10.11)

This is the equation 10.11 given in the code for the Resistance Capacity with Inclined Stirrups
Substituting = 900for vertical stirrups cot = 00and sin = 1
vRDS= cot This is the same codal equation 10.7

Next to derive the concrete capacity.

Length of the Plane B-B =

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S is the spacing of stirrup in horizontal plane and X is the distance along plane BB
Force from the stirrups

sin 90 sin


No stirrups =

Total force =

Resolving the force vertically

Vertical component of this force

= sin

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Length of plane B-B =

Concrete strut force =

Resolving this force vertically = sin tan

Total Resistance = tan

V= tan

= cos tan sin tan

= sin cos tan tan

From previous expression 10.11

cot cot
Substituting for sin in the above equation.
V= cot tan tan

cot cot cot tan

cot cot
cot tan
1 cot
1 cot cot

cot cot

vRD max = (Codal equation

When vertical stirrups are provided = 900 cot = 00

vRDS max =

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= =

This is same as equation 10.8 of the code

At = 450 when maximum concrete compressive strut force can be obtained: substituting in
equation 10.11 and 10.12and equating the same.

If the reinforcement exceeds the above limitation it means the section has failed in
compression requiring redesign.
In case full stress of 0.87 fy is used in the shear reinforcement the 1 . If

the stress in shear reinforcement is reduced to 0.8fyk then 0.6 for fck less then 80 MPa and
f ck
250 for fck grater then 80 MPa.

C (6): Additional Tensile Force

Additional force in tension and compression chord due to shear VED may be worked out as
shown below.

Fig: Truss Model for Arriving at the Additional Tensile Force in Chords

Force in the strut =

Horizontal component of this force = cos

Similarly force in diagonal steel element =

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Horizontal component of this force = cos

Unbalanced tensile force Ft = cot cot

This force has been shown in the sketch. Distributing this force between tension and
compression chord equally the additional force = cot cot . This tensile

force shall be added to the tensile force generated due to flexure and the reinforcement to be
provided accordingly. The total tensile force at a section where MEDmax is

the maximum moment along the girder.

The angle of compression strut shall be limited to minimum of1 21.80 and maximum of 450.
similarly the angle of shear stirrups shall be limited to minimum of 450 and maximum of 900.
Alternatively shift rule can be applied as per clause 10.3.2 (6)

Design Methodology of Arriving at the Shear Stirrups

In a design problem is to be assumed between 450 and 21.80. The assumed strut angle will
have to satisfy the the shear capacity as per codal equation 10.8. (ie) The strut capacity should
be equal to or more than the applied shear. If the concrete strut capacity is satisfied then, the
assumed angle will be substituted in equation 10.7 and the stirrup requirement will be
evaluated. If the maximum angle ( = 450) is not able to resist the applied shear, then the
section need to be revised. At lower value, the capacity of strut will be low and the stirrup
requirement will also be low. At the higher end of , the strut capacity will be high and, the
shear stirrup requirement also will be high. For a given problem the strut angle can be
worked as follows:
Take cw = 1.concrete less than 80 MPa.
0.67 0.67
0.6, 0.45
. .
At = 450 Maximum permissible shear stress =

0.135 - (1)
. .
At = 21.80 Maximum permissible shear stress = 0.093 - (2)
. .

Shear stress due to applied shear force vED = - (3)

Applied shear stress should be less than maximum allowable shear stress
. . .
vED = - (4)

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Cot + tan = - (5)

(cot + tan ) = 0.5 sin2

0.5 sin 2 - (6)

Substituting Equation 6 in Equation 4

vED= 0.27 fck x 0.5 sin2 = 0.135 fck sin2

Sin 2 = [ v ED
0.135 f ck ]
If vED = 0.135 fck then = 450

v ED
= 0.5 sin 0.135 f = 0.5 sin
1 Applied shear stress
0.135 f ck ]
is the angle of strut for the given problem
The design procedure can be presented in the form of a flowchart for carrying out the shear
design which is given bellow.

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Estimate the maximum allowable shear stress for concrete grade less than 80 Mpa and
strut corresponding to = 450 which is 0.135

Note 0.6 1 0.87

0.6 0.9 / 250 0.8

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In case of increase in prestressing force is taken into account then the shear reinforcement can
be reduced accordingly.

C (7) and (8)

When the loads are placed closer to the support the portion of the load will be carried through
to the support directly by the strut and not via the normal actions of shear and bending. Closer
the load to the support, the greater the portion of the load which will be transmitted to the Cl.
support directly. Hence a reduction factor is suggested for the reduction of this load towards
the contribution to the shear while designing the shear reinforcement. In case of bridge
superstructures, as the loads are moving loads, this provision may not be much useful.
However this reduction is not be applicable for the verifying the concrete capacity.
While verifying the reinforcement requirement for resisting shear only the shear reinforcement
within central 0.75 av shall be considered. This limitation is made because tests carried out
indicated that the links adjacent to both load and support do not fully yield. The procedure of
considering only the links between the load and the support works only for single loads. Where
the structure is subjected to series of loads beyond 2d and contribute to the shear then the shear
design for these loads should be carried out as outlined in earlier clauses for loads beyond 2d.
The link requirement from both the analysis should be added and provided. Similarly shear
should be added from both the systems for checking the crushing. As pointed out earlier this
reduction factor is not applicable while checking the capacity of strut (concrete crushing). For
avless than 0.5d, then av shall be taken as 0.5d as minimum.

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Worked Example 10.3-2

Elements Requiring shear reinforcement:
Determine the shear reinforcement in RCC Beam at Various sections. The particulars of the
beams are as follows:
RCC girder M35 Grade concrete Span = 21.0M: Girder cross section as

Fig Cross section of girder

Summary of Ultimate Shear Force (Value in kN)
Section 1M 2M 5M 6.71M 10.0M

Shear 1234 1072 856 759 544

Force in

Width of 650 250 250 250 250

Web in
Now Proceed to Flow Chart
stress in

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N/mm2 = 1.34 3.03 2.42 2.15 1.54


Max Allowable shear stress 0.135 x 35 = 4.72 N/m2

As the shear stress at the various section are less than 4.72 N/mm2 no redesign is required
Allowable shear stress corresponding = 21.80 = .093 fck = .093 x 35 = 3.25N/mm2
As the shear stress at various sections are less than 3.25 N/mm2
to be taken as 21.8 and Cot = 2.50
Working out of shear reinforcement:
1M 2M 5M 6.71M 10M

fywd = 0.8 fyk

Using fyk 415 1.04m 0.9mm2 0.73mm2 0.65mm 0.46m

m2/m /m /m 3
/m m3/m

0.8 415 2.5

12 @ 12 12 @ 10 @ 10 @
Providing 200 @220 250 220 300
reinforcement 1.13m 1.13mm 0.90mm2 0.71mm 0.52m
Reinforcement m2/m 2
/m /m 2
/m m2/m

The minimum reinforcement ratio as per codal equation 16.9

. 072

. 072
1.026 10

For bw 650mm 1.026 10 250 0.250 /

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For bw 250mm 1.026 10 250 0.250 /

Design reinforcement is much higher.

Suppose at section 2M the shear force is made one and half times of the shear force worked out
there shear stress works out to 4.54 N/mm2> 3.25 N/m2 but less than 4.72 N/mm2
Hence no redesign of section is required:
As the shear stress is more then 3.25 N/mm2 the value has to be worked out.
. 0.5 37.06

Cross checking from codal equation 10.8

. . . .
4.54 = 4.54
. . .

Hence the formula shown for estimating the angle can be used.
2.646 /
. .

The addition longitudinal tensile steel required at various sections for the original calculation.
Using the codal expression
0.5 cot cot 21.8 90
0.5 2.5 0 1.25 3.46 10
Section 1M 2M 5M 6.71M 10M
Addition 4.269 3.709 2.961 2.626 1.882
steel mm2

Additional longitudinal steel over and above that required to resist the moment has to be
provided. It is to be noted that becomes shallower, the longitudinal steel will increase. But the
shear steel will reduce.
If increases the additional longitudinal steel will reduce and shear steel will increase.
Alternatively following shift rule the additional longitudinal steel requirement can be provided.

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Worked Example 10.3-3

Example of Prestressed Box Design for Shear:
Span of box 31.00M, Grade of Concrete M40, Loading class 70R or Two lane of class A.
Prestressing 10 cable of 19 T 13 and 2 cable of 12 T 13 cross section of box shown below.

Box Section

Cross Section of the Box Girder

f ctk.05 2.1
f ctd = = = 1.4MPa
The following are the Design Parameters 1.5 1.5

f ctd.052.1
Allowable tensile stress f ctd = 1.5 = 1.5 = 1.4MPa

11 2.2 3.3 4.4 5.5 6.6

Section Sup 9D L/8 L/4 3L/8 L/2
Distance in mm 0 1.8 3.88 7.75 11.63 15.5
from support
Cross sectional 6.90 6.90 6.90 5.38 5.14 5.14
area of box m2
CG of Section 1.09 1.09 1.09 1.2 1.22 1.22
form bottom in
Cable force 2078 2104 2140 21838 2213 2219
after all losses 4 0 0 6 2
in kN
Vertical 1825 1472 898 365 0 0

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of prestressing
force in kN
Cable 0.32 0.5 0.62 0.83 0.9 0.91
from CG of
section in m
Average 3012 3049 3101 4059 4307 4318
stress P/A in
Zt m3 4.16 4.16 4.16 3.99 3.96 3.96
Zb m3 3.5 3.5 3.5 2.68 2.52 2.52
P Pe 1.41 0.52 -0.09 -0.48 -0.72 -
A Zt
Top fiber stress
due to prestress
in MPa

. 4.91 6.05 6.89 10.82 12.21 12.3

Bottom fiber
stress due to
prestress in

I = Moment of 3.80 3.80 3.80 3.21 3.08 3.08

Inertia in m4
Ultimate shear 5640 5000 4100 3150 1750 620
force in kN

vertical 1825 1472 898 365 0 0

component of
prestress force
in kN
Net shear force 3815 3528 3202 2785 1750 620
in kN
Ultimate 0 9400 1860 31720 3870 4114
moment in kN 6 0 7

Stress at bottom 0 2685 5316 11836 1535 1632

due to moment 7 8

Resultant at 4.91 3.35 1.59 -0.98 -3.09 -

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Stress due to 3.97

and applied
moment in MPa
Comparing with uncr Uncr Uncr Uncracke Crac Crac
allowable acke acke acked d ked ked
tensile stress of d d
S= = 2.41 2.415 2.415 1.95 1.88 1.88
moment of the 5
area above CG
about CG in m3
Breadth of web 2(60 1110 1110 2(338-0.5 600 600
bwin mm 0-0.5 x 90) 586
x 90)
I bw 2 1.74 1.746 1.746 0.964 0.983 0.98
S 6 3

. 2485 2495 2590 2764

inkN/m2 .
Note: cpaxial
stress due to
prestress at CG
Shear capacity 4338 4356 4382 2664

in kN Formula not
section is

Shear Not Not Not Required

reinforcement requi requi requir
red red ed
Min Min Min
to be to be to be
Prov Provi Provi
ided ded ded

In case of section not cracked but shear capacity is less than the applied shear adequate shear
reinforcement to be provided. Which is to be based on codal equation 10.28.
If the section is cracked also shear reinforcement need to be provided as the capacity of section
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to resist the shear without shear reinforcement will be virtually negligible due to absence of
sizable amount of tensile reinforcement.
To calculate the shear reinforcement the most important parameter required is lever arm Z
which is obtained form bending analysis.
Analyzing Section 4 4
Assuming the stress in the cable corresponding to the yield strain (Assumption steel yields)
Force in 10 cables of 19T13 = 0.87 x 3492 x 10 = 30380 kN
02 cables of 12T13 = 0.87 x 2205 x 2 = 3837 kN
Total Tensile force = 34217 kN
To balance this tensile force, the NA axis will occur at 0.18M for top
Lever arm = 0.91 + 0.78 - .09 = 1.6M. Note: all cables are provided in one row.
Moment this force can resist = 34217 x 1.6 54747 kNm> 31720M.
For the actual moment the Lever arm will be slightly low. But ignoring this take Z = 1.6 M.
Mean compressive stress at section 4 4 4059 kN/m2. Max allowable compression
17866 / 1 1.227 1.23 At = 45

Capacity at = 450= 1.23 x 0.135 x 40000 x 2 x 0.293 x 1.6 = 6227 kN

= 21.8 = 4290 kN. Actual shear force at section 4-4 is 2785 kN
Shear stress = 2970 / : Taking cot = 21.8 min
. .

As w 2.97 x 293
= = 1.048 mm 2 /mm 10 @ 150 will give = 1.048mm2/mm
s 0.8 x 415 x 2.5
For section 5.5 mean compressive stress = 4307 kN/m2
Allowable compressive stress = fcd= 17866 kN/m2 40000

, 1 0.24 1.25
Max allowable shear force = 1.25 x 0.135 x 40000 x 2 x 0.30 x 1.6 = 6480 kN if = 450
It = 21.8 = 1.25 x 0.093 x 40000 x 2 x 0.3 x 1.6 = 4464 kN
Shear force at the section = 1750 kN
1750 2
Shear stress = 2 x 0.3 x 1.6 = 1823 kN / m

As w 1.823 x 300 2
Area of shear reinforcement = = = .0 .66 mm /mm
s 0.87 x 415 x 2.5
Adopting 2L10 @ 200 mm 2L reinforcement provided is =
0.7854 x 2 x 100 2
= 0.785mm / mm

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Hence adopt 10 @ 200: in each web and provide same reinforcement in the next section 6 6
other sections provide minimum reinforcement
. .
Minimum reinforcement = 0.329 /

By examining the capacity at a point 350mm below deck slab. 350 form top (below cantilever)
Prestress effect and Moment effect are shown below.

Section 11 2.2 3.3 4.4 5.5 6.6

Effect of 2.02 1.4 1.1 1.79 1.5 1.51

prestress in 8 3 4
N/mm2 at the
above point
Moment effect 0 +1. +2. +4.4 5.4 5.75
at the above 38 74 4 0
Total effect at 2.02 2.8 2.8 5.93 6.9 7.86
the above point 6 7 4

1st Moment of 1.91 1.9 1.9 1.73 1.7 1.70

are a of Deck 1 1 0
and Hench
about CG
I bw 2.20 2.2 2.2 1.08 1.0 1.08
s 0 0 6 87 7

1400 1400 2020 24 271 3203 341 3274

= 2188 42 6 7

4813 kN 53 597 3478 Not applicable

72 5

The section has more shear resisting capacity than at CG of section. Hence the designer has to
check at other location on the cross section if required in case if there is a doubt that capacity
may work out less than the capacity at the CG of section.

C Diagonal Stress Fields for Members having unboned Tendon

In case of precast segmental construction where there is no bonded prestressing cable in the
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tension chord, the joints will open up after the decompression moment is reached at that
section. The depth of opening will depend upon the depth of flexural compression block. The
prestressing force should be assumed constant after the joint opening.

Fig: 10.11 Diagonal Stress Fields across the joint in the Web of Segmental Construction
Shear has to be balanced by the reduced depth. In order to avoid crushing of concrete it shall be
ensured that, the compressive stress should be within allowable limit.
Taking equation 10.8 and substituting z = h reduced and cw = 1.0

VNS VRD max =

h reduced = cot tan

(Eq: 10.18)
h reduced arrived form bending analysis shall be substituted and shall be evaluated. If
works out grater than 450, then h reduced shall be increased by applying additional prestress. In
case if works out to be lesser than 450, then the shear reinforcement can be worked out by
substituting the angle.
To avoid local failure adjacent to the joint, the reinforcement should be provided within the
reduced length of h red cot adjacent to the joint.
Taking equation 10.7
VNS = VRDS = cot

This reinforcement shall be provided with a distance h reduced cot but not greater than
segment length. It shall be provided from both the edges of the joint. The opening up of joint
shall be limited to 50% of the depth under the ultimate limit state check for flexure and shear.

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In case if the section opens up by more than 50% of the depth, the prestressing force shall be

C 10.3.4 Interface Shear

when concrete elements are cast at different times, shear stresses exist across the construction
joint which is called as interface shear.
This shear stress has to be checked in order to ensure that act fully together. Cl.10.3.4

M + M

Cross Section

Fig: 10.12 Inter Face Shear between Web and Deck Slab N. A axisin Flange

The additional force F has to be resisted by shear stress between the section across the

construction joint:

= Rate of Change of Bending Moment which is equal to shear force VED

Shear stress v ED= Z b

This is true in case of NA axis lies within the flange assuming the construction joint is at the
top of web. In case if the NA axis lies in the web the force diagram will be as follows.

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Fig: 10.13 Interface Shear: Neutral axis in the Web

If the force in the flange is F1 and force in the web in F2 the reduction factor X = (ie) the

proportionate shear carried by the flange (matching with the construction joint) with respect
total shear. The corresponding shear stress X VED/ Z bi If F2 = 0 then X = 1. Generally the force
contribution by the web in case of T beams or box girder is small and can be neglected. With
the result X can be taken as 1.0. The shear force taken for checking the interface shear is the
net shear at the section multiplied by ratio of longitudinal flexural force above construction
joint to the total compressive or tensile longitudinal flexural force.
The leaver arm to be considered is to be arrived from the actual stress block for the loading
considered. However the lever arm used to compute the sectional resistance may be used to
simplify the computation.
The first term of the codal equation 10.21 represents the frictional force across the inter face
under the action of normal compressive force which is generally 0 except in case of vertically
prestressed sections and the second term corresponds to the mechanical resistance of
reinforcement crossing the interface . The shear reinforcement provided in the section and
continued across the interface having the adequate anchorage shall be considered for working
out the reinforcement ratio . In case if the additional reinforcement is required over and above
the shear reinforcement, same shall be provided. The minimum reinforcement required to be
provided across the horizontal interface shear will be 0.15% of interface area.
C 10.3.5Shear in the Flange Portion of Flanged Beam and Box Section
Reference shall be made to fig 10.9 of the code. The longitudinal inplane force generated in the
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flange induces shear stress between at the flange and web junction.

x is the length under consideration and Fd unbalanced inplane shear force between the
The maximum value of X shall be assumed as the half the distance between the zero bending
moment point and maximum bending moment section. When the structure to subjected to
concentrated loads, the length shall not exceed the distance between concentrated loads.
Alternatively shear stress can be calculated using the formula from the previous section
replacing bi by hf. The shear will be carried by web and also by flanges or either side of web.
As we are interested in the shear transmitted by flange alone the following formula can be used
V ED beff of flange on one side
for calculating the shear stress: v ED= Z h x b totaleffectivewidth flange including web

Fig: 10.14 Shear Check at Interface showing the Section

hf is the thickness of deck slab. In case if the deck slab is subjected to transverse bending as it
happens in case of beam bridges and box girder bridge then the deck slab thickness shall be
reduced by the depth of concrete in bending zone compression. Though the effects are
occurring in two mutually perpendicular planes, in order to make the analysis simpler, the
above simplification has been suggested.
The maximum compressive stress in the strut shall be checked in order to avoid the crushing of
the compression struts.
vED vfcdsin fcosf
for compression flanges 1.0 cotf 2.0 or 450 f 26.50
for tension flanges 1.0 cotf 1.25 or 450 f 38.600
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The above formula can be derived as follows:

Diagonal Compressive Strut

Horizontal Representing Reinforcement

Fig: 10.15 Plan of Flange

Longitudinal shear force at the interface = F
x = L cot F = vED x hf
F = vED L cot hf where vED is the shear stress:

Force along the diagonal 1

Fig: 10.16 Force in the Compression Strut of Flange

The diagonal compressive strut represents the compressive force in one panel as shown.
Length of the plane Y Y over which the compressive force acting = x cos (90 )
Force the plane can support
= v fcd x cos (90 - ) hf
Substituting for x
= v1fcd L cot cos (90-) hf = v fcdL coshf - (2)
Equating (1) and (2)

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vED = v fcdcos sin
Assuming the reinforcement is spaced at a spacing of Sf Resolving the longitudinal shear along
the reinforcement.
The force along the reinforcement is Ftan

Force per unit length = vED x hf x 1 x tan =

The force has to be resisted by reinforcement

This equation is given the code as 10.23

Incase of combined shear between the flange and the web and transverse bending the area of
steel should be greater of the following.


(2) Half the above steel plus the steel required for transverse bending.
The flow chart for the design check is presented below.

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Calculate, the Longitudinal shear stress vED=Fd/hfxor xRatioeffectivewidthofflanges

Estimate the maximum capacity of strut VRdmax=0.135 1

0.6 0.67 0.67 0.135

Is No
Redesign the section


The length of flange No Min strut capacity f = 38.6
under consideration is in VRDmin = 0.130 fck (1 fck/ 310)
compression 0.6 x 0.67 x 0.67 x 0.782 x 0.624= 0.130

Yes Yes
Is VRDmin> VED
Min strut capacity
f = 26.50
VRDmin = 0.107 fck (1 fck/ 310)
0.6 x 0.67 x 0.67 x 0.895 x 0.446= 0.107 No

Is VRDmin> VED Determine f from

No f = 0.5 sin-1vED/0.135 fck
(1 fck/ 310) Yes take
f = 38.6
or cot
Yes Take f = 26.50 or Cot f = 2 Take f f = 1.25
As f hf
Calculate Transverse Reinforcement s = v ED x f
f yd cot f

Fig 10.17 Flow Diagram for the design of flange of T beam and Box

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C 10.4 Design for Punching Shear:

C 10.4.1 General

When a slab is subjected to localized concentrated force which acts over a small area the
punchingshear failure can occur. Common examples are, wheel load acting on deck slab, pile Cl.10.4.1
caps over piles open foundations supporting pier and well cap supporting the pier. Punching
shear is resisted by the shear resistance of concrete through the depth of element over a
perimeter. The section covers action of concentrated force over a small area on two
dimensioned elements.

C 10.4.2Loaded Area and Basic Control Perimeter:

(1) Punching shear stress should be evaluated at following perimeters:

a) At the face of the loaded area.
b) At basic control perimeter.
c) At any other perimeter.
(2) The basic control perimeter U1 to be chosen at a distance of 2d form the face of the
loaded area provided that the applied concentrated load is not opposed by any other
upward pressure offering relief within this distance. d is the average of effective depth
in both thedirection (ie)

(3) When the loaded area is situated near an edge, or on the edge or at Corner, the control
perimeter shall be calculated based on the Fig 10.11 of code.
(4) The control perimeter should be chosen at a distance less than 2d when the
concentrated force on the loaded area is opposed by high pressure from soil (such as
foundation) or by the effects of a load or reaction with in distance of 2d. The code
suggests that the relief offered by the opposing force should be minimized.

C Punching shear Design Rules:

Punching shear stress is to be calculated at two locations as stated above

a) At the face of the loaded area b) Along the control perimeter.
The Reason for calculating at the face of the load area is to ensure that concrete strut does not
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get crushed. Incase if the section is unable to salsify the shear capacity then one of the
following actions is to be taken.
i. Increase the depth of slab.
ii. Increase the perimeter of the loaded area.
iii. Increase the grade of concrete
The reason for checking at the control perimeter is to check whether the section can
carry the load without of punching shear reinforcement.

C Checking of punching shear stress at the control perimeter

(1) General
The punching shear stress generated on any control perimeter can be calculated using the
following expression

vED =
VED = Applied shear force
ui = Control Perimeter
d = depth of element
= Factor for Accounting Bending Moment
= 1 For axial load with no bending moment

=1+k for axial load and bending moment

MEd is the moment and VED is the ultimate shear force on the perimeter.
W1 is the property which corresponds to a distribution of shear as shown in Fig 10.12 of
code andis a function of basic control perimeter u1and axis about which the moment
acts. If the control perimeter change, or the axis about whichthe moment is acting
changes, then the value of W1 will be different.
W1 is defended as W1 = | e | dl

dl is the length increment of the perimeter

e is the distance of dl from the axis about which the moment MED acts.
k is the constant depending the value of C1 and C2. C1 is the dimension of the cross section
perpendicular to the axis of bending and C2 is the dimension parallel to the axis of bending.
is a factor to take care of additional shear generated by moment. The magnitude of the

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Shear force is dependent on the moment transferred and the distance of the perimeter from
loaded area and the shape of the loaded area: The enhancement of shear due to moment
the perimeter can be expressed as :

v is the additional shear due to moment

1 1

Referring to shear distribution around the perimeter

2 2
4 2 2
2 4 2 2 2 2
= 4 16 2

Substituting in 1

Correcting the shear force aspect ratio of column

It is to be kept in mind that MED is the unbalanced moment applied on column.

(2) Derivation of W1 for Internal Rectangular Column.
The shear will be distributed along the periphery due to moment.
The control perimeter is 2d away from columns face.

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Fig 10.18 Showing Control Perimeter

Taking moment about xx axis as the moment is acting about x x axis.

The moment contribution due to shear distributed on the length 1
C 1 C 1 C 12
= 4x x = for length C1
2 4 2
The moment concentrate due to shear distributed on the length 2 for C2

= 2 x C2 2 4 4

The moment contribution due to shear distributed on four quadrants on length 3



= / / 2d
= CG from axis =

Length =

=4 4

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= 2 16

W1= (1) + (2) + (3) = 4 2 16

Incase if the shear is checked at the column face then W1 =

For rectangular columns subjected to Biaxial moment

1 1.8

ey and ez are the eccentricities MED/VED along y and z axis respectively

by and bzis the dimension of control parameter fig 10.10 of code.
It is to be understood that ey results moment about Z axis and ez moment about y axis

Fig: 10.19 Biaxial Eccentricity

(3) For internal circular column: the value of can be dived as follows

As C1 = C2 C1/C2 = 1.0 Hence k = 0.6 V = e

1 0.6

Derivation W1 for Circular column

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D 2d D

2d 2d

Control Perimeter
Fig 10.20 Control Perimeter for Circular Column

2 | |

= Splitting into two halves.

2 /2 sin

2 /2 cos 2 /2 1 1

2 2 /2

4 2 2
2 2 4 2
2 2

2 4 2 /2 2 2 /2 4

1 0.6 1 0.6
4 4

(4) For edge columns, when there is no eccentricity the basic control perimeter as shown
shall be used.

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Fig: 10.21 Showing Basic Control Perimeter

(a) When there is no moment the punching shear stress

were u1 = 2C C 2 .
(b) When the edge column is subjected to a moment with respect to an axis parallel the slab
edge (eccentricity perpendicular to slab edge)and is towards the interior and there is no
eccentricity parallel to the edge.
The punching shear stress can be estimate using v ED= u d where

3 2 2

Fig 10.22 Showing Reduced Control Perimeter u2

(c) When the edge column is subjected to moment about both axis and the eccentricity
perpendicular to the slab edge towards interior. shall be determined

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u2 is the reduced basic control perimeter

k may be determined from table with C1/C2 replaced by C1/2C2
W1 is the calculated for the basic control perimeter u1
epar= eccentricity parallel to slab edge causing moment about on axis per perpendicular
to the slab edge. For rectangular columns
W1 can be calculated as follows.
Derivation of W1 for Edge Column
The shear will be distributed along the periphery due to moment and control perimeter
is 2d away from column face.

Fig 10.23 Control Perimeter for Edge Column

Taking moment about xx axis as the moment is acting about xx axis.

The moment contributed due to shear distributed on the length 1
C 2 C 2 C 22
= 2x x =
2 4 4
The moment contributed due to shear distributed on the length 2

=2 2 4

The moment concentrated due to shear distributed on the quadrants of length 3

50% of central column value =

W1 = (1) + (2) + (3) = 4 8

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(d) If the eccentricity is towards exterior then the expression for Eq. 10.25 of code is
valid. However the value of W1 has to be worked out using the eccentricity e measured
from the centroid of the control perimeter.
(5) For rectangular corner column, when there is no eccentricity
v ED=
u1 d
For rectangular corner column, where the eccentricity is toward of the interior of the Cl.10.4.3
slab, it is assumed that the punching shear stress is uniformly distributed along the (5)
reduced control perimeter.
v ED=
u 2 d Where u2 = Min of (0.5 C1 + 0.5 C2 + d) or (3d + d)
In the above case if the eccentricity is towards exterior, than the expression for Eq. 10.25
of code is valid
However the value of W1 will have to be worked out. The eccentricity should be measured
from the centroid of the control perimeter.

C 10.4.4 Punching Shear Resistance of Slabs without Reinforcement

Slabs without punching shear reinforcement, have to resist the punching shear stress purely by
the tensile strength of concrete which is given by the following expression
80 0.1 0.1

VRDC is in MPa.
fck is in MPa.

1 2.0

/ /
.02 .031
ly, lz relate to the bonded tension steel in y and z directions. Taking a slab width of 3d beyond
the column face on each side the mean value of ly and lzshall be calculated.

cy and cz are the axial concrete stress taking compression as positive.
. .

NEdy, NEdy are the longitudinal forces. The force may be either due to prestressing or axial
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Acy, Acz are the corresponding cross section area resisting the axial forces.

C 10.4.5 Punching Shear for Foundation Slab at Pile Caps:

The punching resistance of column bases for open foundation and pile caps shall be verified at
control perimeters with in 2d from the peipharphy of columns.
This is because the angle of punching cone will be steeper due to the favorable reaction from
the soil. Checking the punching shear on the basic control perimeter ignoring the favorable
reaction from the soil will lead to conservative assumption. when the foundation is subjected
vertical loads only, the net shear force causing punching is calculated by subtracting the net
relief offered by soil.
. .
VED is the applied shear force
VEd is the net upward force with in the control perimeter considered (ie) upward pressure
from soil which shall be reduced by self weight of foundation.
The allowable shear stress in concrete vRD without any punching shear reinforcement

2 2
0.12 80

1 2.0 .

1vmin are as defined before.

a is the distance from the periphery of column to the control perimeter considered.
The shear stress at the control perimeter
V Edred
v ED=
For eccentric loading or subjected to moment

Where k is defined in Eq. 10.25 or 10.30 of code as appropriate and W is similar to W1 for the
control perimeter u.
C 10.4.6 Design of Section for Punching Shear
(1) As it is difficult to provide punching shear reinforcement it is better to avoid this
reinforcement. Hence the capacity of the slab in punching shear should be greater the
applied shear. This can be achieved by ensuring.

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Shear stress connected with punching shear are defined as below: (1)
vED: Punching shear stress along the control perimeter.
vRdc: Shear resistance of slab against punching without punching shear reinforcement.
vRdmax : maximum punching shear resistance of slab.

(2) Checking of punching shear stress around loaded area / column perimeters.
Punching shear stress vED= (2)

The perimeter uo as follows

For central column =2
For edge column = 3 2
For corner column =3
d = depth of slab
C1 and C2 are dimensions of the loaded area as shown in Fig 10.12 and 10.13 of code.
is the correction factor for application of moment.
= 1 for purely axial load case without bending moment. For column with bending
moment the value to to be calculated as given earlier.
Punching shear stress should be less than the allowable shear stress VRdMax.
The allowable shear stress = vRdmax = 0.5 vfcd.

v = 0.6 1
vRdmax = 0.5 x 0.6 1

=0.132 1

It should be ensured that vED is always less than vRDmax.

This provision makes sure that the concrete strut does not crush in punching.

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Determine the value of

Determine the value of vED.max punching shear stress at column face =

Where uothe perimeter at column face and d effective depth

Determine the value of vRD.max

vRD.max 0.135fck 1

No Redesign the section

Is vRD.max> vED.max


For control perimeter varying between d and 2d

Allowable shear stress

2 2
0.12 80

No Redesign the section

Is vED<vRD * Increasing the thickness of slab
* Increase grade of concrete
* Increase reinforcement

No shear reinforcement requirement

Fig: 10.24 Flowchart for checking Punching Shear

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Worked example 10.4-1

Punching shear worked Examples:
Following are the details
1. Open Foundation : Size 4m x 4m
2. Column : Size 1m x 1m
3. Load on Column : 2000 kN
4. Moment on Column : 1000 kNm
5. Material Properties : fck = 35 MPa fyk = 500 MPa
6. Footing thickness : 0.7 M
2000 6 x 1000
Base pressure on foundation 4 x 4 4

2 2
= 125 93.75= 219 kN /m 31 kN/ m
To Resist the bending moment reinforcement provided is : 25 MM @ 200 c/c in both direction.
Reinforcement provided is 24.5cm2/m in each direction:
Effective depth dy = 700 50 25/2 = 637.5 mm
Effective depth for other direct dz = 637.5 25 = 612.5 mm
The effective depth for punching shear calculation
. .
d= 625

Basic Control Perimeter u at 2d

= 2 (C1 +C2) + 4 x x 2

= 2 (C1 +C2) + 4 d
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= 2 (1.0 + 1.0) + 4 x x 0.625

= 11.85m
Area within perimeter = 4 0.625 4 0.625 2 1.00 1.00 1.0 10.908
Relieving Pressure from this area:
on the conservative side

Base Pressure

. .
Average pressure 115.2 /

Total upward force = 10.90 x 115.2 = 1255 kN

Net shear force = = VED VED 2000 1255 = .745kN
% Steel in longitudinal direction = 637.5 x 1000 = 0.00384

% Steel in Transverse direction = 612.5 x 1000 = 0.004

0.00384 0.004 0.00392

1 1.562
0.18 /
1.565 80 0.00392 35 0.417
V min= 0.031 x 1.5653 /2 x 351/ 2= 0.359 MPa

Governing VRdc = 0.417 MPa

For an Internal columns subject to moment

4 16 2
= 1 4 1 0.625 16 0.625 2 0.625 1.0

=0.5 1 2.5 6.25 3.92 13.17

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745 10 1 0.6 1000 10 11.85 1000

11.85 1000 625 745 10 13.17
= 0.100 1 0.724 0.172
As per clause 10.4.2 (4) and 10.4.5 (1) the punching shear should also be verified at a distance
less than 2d. Checking at a section a d distance away from the column face.
Perimeter length u = 2 x 0.625 + 2 (1.0 +1.0) = 7.925m
Area with in this perimeter ( x 0.6252 + 4 x 0.625 x 1.0 + 1.02) = 4.7m2
Relieving Average Pressure: 125 kN/m2
Total upward face = 125 x 4.7 = 587 kN
Net shear force= 2000 587 = 1413 kN
Shear resistance of concrete = 0.417 x a = 0.417 x 2= 0.834 MPa

The value of Wwhat was estimated earlier can not hold good.
as the plane has come closer: the W applicable for this plane is
1. 0 0.625 0.625 0.625
1 1 4 1.0 16 2 1.0
2 2 2 2
= 0.5 1 1.25 3.125 1.963 6.838
= 1

. .
= 1
. .

0.285 [1+0.492] = 0.425 MPa< 0.834 MPa

Checking the punching shear stress at face of column as per clause 10.4.6.(2)
Wo = 4 x 1.0 = 4.0m
Wo = 1.0 1.0 1.5

2000 10 0.6 1000 10 4000

1 1
. 4000 625 2000 10 1.5 10
= 0.8[1+0.8] = 1.44 MPa
Allowable shear stress0.3 1 4.16

Hence the section is safe.

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C 10.5 Torsion
C 10.5.1 General
When a concrete element is subjected to Torsion the longitudinal fibers are free to undergo
deformation. Torsion can be of classified into Equilibrium Torsion and Compatibility Torsion.
Equilibrium Torsion is that torsional resistance which is required to keep the structure in
equilibrium and is essential for the basic stability of the element or structure. A few example
are canopy cantilevering off an edge beam, Beams/ Box girders curved in plan Element Cl.10.5.1
subjected to Equilibrium Torsion has to be designed for full torsional resistance in the ultimate
limit state.
Compatibility torsion arises out of compatibility of displacement/ rotations to be maintained in
the connected element. Generally it occurs in monolithic construction. Compatibility torsion
can be released without causing collapse. It is not necessary to consider this torsion at ultimate
limit state. At serviceability cracks may occur in the absence of sufficient reinforcement. The
cracked torsional stiffness of elements subjected to torsion is only about 25% of the uncracked
value. Low torsional stiffness significantly reduce torque resisting ability of the beams. Hence
if one ignores the torsional rigidity in the analysis it would not make much difference. To limit
the crack width under limit state of serviceability, check under clause 12.3.5 of code shall be
carried out and suitable reinforcement as per clause 16.5.3 shall be provided.
When the longitudinal fibers are restrained deformation by an external element warping torsion
The torsional resistance of a closed section may be calculated on the basis of a thin walled
closed section. The equilibrium is satisfied by closed shear flow. Solid sections can be modeled
by equivalent thin walled sections.
In case of complex shapes such as T section the section shall be divided into series of
subsections. The acting torsional moments over subsections can be distributed in proportion to
the uncrackedtorsional stiffness. Each of the subsections can be modeled as thin walled section
and the torsional resistance can be computed.
When hollow sections are modeled as thin walled section, the thickness of section shall be
taken as A/U which will be neither less than twice the axis distance of longitudinal bars from
the outer surface nor greater than the actual thickness. For conversion of solid section to
equivalent hollow section fig. 10.25 shall be referred to.
In the analysis the torsional stiffness may be based on uncracked sectional stiffness for

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equilibrium torsion and 25% the uncracked sectional stiffness for compatibility torsion to allow
for torsional cracking.
C 10.5.2 Design Procedures:
The shear stress in a wall of section subjected to pure torsional moment can be divide as

Fig 10.25 Torsional shear flow

Shear Flow = q
Total Torsion Moment that can be resisted is q x b x h + q x h x b = 2qhb
If applied torsion at moment is TED
Then TED = 2qhb
Shear flow q = 2 hb

Ak= hb q = 2 Area of core

q T ED
Shear stress = t = 2 A t
efi k efi

Shear force in a wall = 2 Area of core x Lengthof wall

Shear force in a wall =

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Fig 10.26 Notations and definitions used

Ak is the area enclosed by the centre-lines of the connection walls, including inner hollow
t,i is the torsional shear stress in wall i
tef,i is the effective wall thickness. It may be taken as A/u, but should not be taken as less
than twice the distance between edge and centre of the longitudinal reinforcement. For
hollow sections the real thickness is an upper limit.
A is the total area of the cross-section within the outer circumference, including inner
hollow areas
u is then outer circumference of the cross-section
zi is the side length of wall I defined by the distance between the intersection points with
the adjacent walls

The shear force generated due to torsion shall be calculated using the following formula
angle shall be same as what has been assumed in shear analysis. Cl.10.5.2
T ED (4)
V Torsion= z cot (codal equation 10.7 to get the
2 Ak i Which can be equated to
transverse reinforcement)
whereAst is area of transverse reinforcement in thickness tefi with a spacing

of st.
The transverse reinforcement required shall be arrived based on clause when vertical
strips are provided. It shall be kept in mind that each wall has to be designed separately. The
concrete capacity shall also be checked using the follows equation.

TED and VED Design Torsion and Shear forces

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VRDMax is the maximum Capacity of member in shear as given in equation 10.8.

TRDMax = 2 vcwfcdAktefisincos.
v is the strength reduction factor cw is the coefficient. Both the factors are as defined in earlier
shall be taken the same value as assumed in shear design.

In the addition Longitudinal steel also need to be provided for resisting torsion. The
reinforcement can be calculated using the expression.


uk is the perimeter of area Ak. (5)

Asl is the area of Longitudinal reinforcement

fydis the yield strength of longitudinal reinforcement
TED = Torsion applied on the section
= is the angle of compression strut.
The Longitudinal reinforcement generally has to be distributed uniformly along each wall.
However in case of small sections the reinforcement can be concentrated at corners. Designers
can calculate the requirement of this longitudinal reinforcement in a wall and the above
equation can be modified as follows.
Where Asl is the total area of longitudinal reinforcement requirement in a wall within the
spacing S of the reinforcement.
The above reinforcement shall be in addition to flexural and shear reinforcement in tensile
zones. In the case of compression zones this longitudinal reinforcement can be reduced in
proportion to the compressive force available in the compression zone. The compression zone
shall be taken as twice cover to the torsional links.
In case of precast segmental construction where there is no continuity of longitudinal
reinforcement, and Tension due torsion and bending exceeds the compression due to prestress
and bending additional tendons to counter the tension need to be provided. The additional
tendons shall be distributed around the precompressed tensile zone inside the closed stirrups.
At lest one tendon shall be placed at each corner .

Warping Torsion

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For closed thin walled sections and solid section warping torsion may be ignored since warping Cl.10.5.
torsion is not necessary for equilibrium. Hence in these sections the torsion is equated to 2.2
St.Venant torsion or circularity torsion. For opens sections having very slender cross section
the warping torsional effects can be evaluated using the reference Roarks Formula for stresses
and strain by W.C Young.

Worked Example 10.5-1

The box girder shown inexample 10.3.3 is subjected to a torsion of 5000 kNm at support.
Design the shear and longitudinal reinforcement.
Ak = (2 0.25) x (5.5 0.6) = 8.57 m2
Codal Equation 10.46
ti =

VEdi=ti x tefi x Zi
Substituting for ti in the above equation
Vedi= 2 A t x t efi x Z i= 2 A Z i
k efi k

VEdi is the design shear force due to torsion

But cot

should be same as what has been assumed in shear analysis.

= 21.80 fyk = 0.8 x 415 = 332 N/mm2
As t 5000 x 10
= = 0.35mm /m
st 2 x 8.57 x 106 x 332 x 2.5
78.5 x 2
Adopting 2L 10 MM @400 c/c will give a reinforcement of = 0.39mm 2 / m .

Longitudinal Reinforcement

5000 10
2.5 2.19 /
2 8.57 10 332
2 2
on each face 2 = 1.1 mm /mm 12 @ 100 mm c/c will give 1.13 mm /mm

checking for TRDmax for web capacity

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2 sin cos
40 40 8.575 10 600 0.371 0.928
2 0.6 1 1.0 0.67 33077
310 1.5 10
5000 .


15% of allowable torsion the section is carrying. Hence V will workout to 0.85. Hence,

the section can be subjected 85% allowable shear.

Similar exercise has to be done for other sections.

Worked Example 10.5-2

I beam is subjected To Torsion of 50 kNm. Design the section for torsion. Concrete is M40
grade. The Reinforcement fykis 415 N/mm2
I idealized section is show below.

Cross Section
As a first step torsional inertia of each rectangular is to be evaluated. The torsional constant can
be obtain from any standard reference books.
Torsional Inertia of Deck Slab.
b = 1500mm t = 200mm t = 7.5 k (torsional construct) = 0.305
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I x y = 2 x 0.305 x 1500 x 2003 = 18.3 x 108 mm4

As the deck slab is acting in two directions the torsional inertia has been halved.
Torsional Inertia of Top flange:
b = 400mm t = 250mm t = 1.6 k = 0.203

I x y = 0.203 x 400 x 2503 = 12.68 x 108 mm4

Torsional Inertia of web
b = 900mm t = 300mm t = 3.0 k = 0.263

I x y = 0.263 x 900 x 3003 = 63.9 x 108mm4

Torsional Inertia of Bottom flange
b = 600mm t = 350mm t = 1.714 k = 0.207

I x y = 0.207 x 600 x 3503 = 53.25 x 108mm4

Total Torsional Inertia of Section = 18.3 x 108 + 12.68 x 108 + 63.9 x 108 +53.25 x 108 =
148.13 x108
The torsion will be shared in preparation to the torsional stiffness.
Deck slab TED 148.13 x 50 = 6.2 kNm

Top flange TED 148.13 x 50 = 4.28 kNm

Web TED 148.13 x 50 = 21.57 kNm

Bottom Flange TED 148.13 x 50 = 17.97 kNm

Design of Reinforcements for Torsion:

Deck slab torsion should be combined with Deck slab design.
Effective thickness of the members can be found as follows.
For top flange
76.9 .

But this thickness should not be taken less than 2 twice the distance of longitudinal bar from
the surface [effective cover].
Taking cover as 40mm dia for longitudinal and transverse bars of 10mm.
Effective cover 40 + 10 + 5 = 55m.Twice the 110mm.

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As 110 > 76.9mm consider 110mm.

Ak = (400 110) (250 110) = 40600mm2
The value of will be same as what has been worked out in shear analysis. However for
simplicity assume = 450
4.28 10
0.1587 /
2 cot 2 40600 332 1
Adopt 8M @ 300 two legged stirrup = Reinforcement provided
= 50/300 = 0.166mm2/mm
Longitudinal reinforcement = cot . Since = 450 reinforcement will be same.

Hence provide same reinforcement.

The can be provided at corner of links instead of distributing it throughout the section.

Checking the crushing resistance = 2 sin cos .

40 40 1 1 1
2 0.6 1 1.0 0.67 40600 110 41.67
310 1.5 2 2 10

0.102 (ie) 10% has been stressed against crushing strength against torsion.

Design of Web:
Thickness 112.5

Twice the distance of longitudinal bar = 110mm

300 112.5 900 112.5 147656
21.57 10
0.22 / 45
cot 2 147656 352 1
The reinforcement in each vertical leg is to be combined with shear reinforcement and
provided. The same amount of longitudinal steel to be provided as has been taken as 450
Torsion Resisting Capacity
2 sin cos
. .
= 2 0.6 1 155

=155 21.57
Similarly bottom flange can be analyzed.

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(1). This Section deals with structural members and structures whose load deformation
behaviour and ultimate capacity is significantly affected by second order effects.
Second order effects are additional action effects caused by the interaction of axial
forces and deflections under load (Refer Fig. 11-0). First order deflections cause
additional moments which in turns lead to further deflections. Some times these effects
are also called P- effects as they are the products of axial forces and deflections of
the elements or system. Normally second order effects are calculated by second order

Fig. 11.0 :Interaction Chart showing Second Order effect

Second order analysis is not commonly used by engineers due to complexities involved
in the analysis. A significant disadvantage of second order analysis is:
a) The principle of superposition is not valid in second order analysis and all actions
must be applied to the bridge together with all their respective load and combination
b) The flexural rigidity (EI) of the reinforced concrete structure is not constant. EI
reduces with increasing moment due to cracking

The code has given relaxation in cases where second order effects are less than 10%
of the first order effects. In such cases, second order analysis can be done away with,

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to the extent possible by following the alternative methods and provisions as given
below under para (4) & (5) and clause 11.2.1 (in case of isolated members of uniform
cross section).

Second order effects are more pronounced in slender compressive elements. The well
known elastic buckling theory by Euler determines the extent of slenderness and
quantum of second order effects. The elastic buckling itself has little relevance in the
design, however the same gives good indication about the susceptibility to second order
effects and can be used as a parameter in determining second order effects from the
results of first order analysis as explained in section 11.3.2

Majority of commercially available structural softwares has the capability to carry out
second order analysis. In the second order analysis, in addition to the invalidity of the
principle of superposition the flexural rigidity of reinforced concrete structures, EI is not
constant. As the moment increases for the same load, EI reduces due to cracking of
concrete and inherent non-linearity in the concrete stress-strain response also
increases. Thus it involves both geometry and material non-linearity for RC elements
and has to be taken in to account while choosing the method for 2nd order analysis.

The slender piers of the bridges are commonly affected by 2nd order analysis while the
provisions related to same are also applicable to other slender members with significant
axial loads like pylons and decks of cable supported bridges.

(3) Where there are significant second order effects, these must be taken in to account
in the analysis by linear elastic method in conjunction with further maginification of
moments and reduced stiffness properties accounting for cracking and creep.

However, as per the clause 7.3 and 7.2 at the ultimate limit states, section properties
are used similar to that of serviceability limit states. It is interesting to observe that
second order analysis based on nominal stiffness which are considered in Euro and
other codes are not considered in this standard as they are not conservative since they
include cracked section properties for the load cases where there are applied
deformations from temperature, settlement and shrinkage. (Explanation in this para
not clear Needs further elaboration)

Since a fully un-cracked elastic analysis is generally conservative (as it does not lead to
redistribution of moment away from the most highly stressed, and therefore cracked,
areas), an uncracked elastic global analysis is adequate to comply with the serviceability
limit state as per this standard. This also avoids the need to consider tension stiffening.

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11.2.1 Slenderness Criteria for Isolated Members (Columns) of Uniform Cross-Section

While determining the second order effects by simplified methods instead of non-
linear second order computer analysis, the effective length concept can be used to
determine slenderness. On determination of slenderness, the requirement of second
order analysis itself may be deduced. According to clause 11.2.1 (1), the
slenderness ratio is defined as = le/i where le is effective length and i is the
radius of gyration of the uncracked concrete section.

The clause 11.2.1 (2) provides a simplified criteria when second order analysis is
not required by limitation of slenderness value as follows:

lim = 20. A.B.C / n

n= N Ed / ( Ac f cd ) is the relative normal force. As the axial force n becomes greater,
the section becomes more susceptible to development of second order effects and,
consequently limiting slenderness value become lower. Higher limiting slenderness
can be achieved where:

there is low creep ( because the stiffness of the concrete part of the member
in compression is then higher)
there is a high percentage of reinforcement( because total member stiffness
is then less affected by the cracking of the concrete)
the location of the peak first order is not the same as the location of peak
second order moment.

11.2.2 Effective Length (height) and Slenderness Ratio of Columns and Piers with

This clause gives methods for calculating effective lengths for isolated members. On the
basis of end conditions multiplication factors for calculating effective lengths are given
in Table 11.1 of the code. The cases from (2) to (7) assume that the foundations
providing the rotational stiffness at the bottom are infinitely stiff. In reality, the same is
not the case as such the effective lengths for the rigid restraints will always be
somewhat greater. Thus the clause 11.2.2 (1) gives methods of accounting for rotational
flexibility by equation 11.2 and 11.3 in the code which are reproduced here below.
For compression members in regular frames, the effective length le is determined
in the following way:

Braced Members:

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k1 k2
le = 0.5lo 1 + * 1 +
0.45 + k1 0.45 + k 2

Unbraced members:

k .k k k
le = lo * max of 1 + 10. 1 2 ; 1 + 1 * 1 + 2
k1 + k 2 1 + k1 1 + k 2


k1, k2 are the relative flexibilities of rotational restraints at ends 1 and 2 respectively.
( ) . EI
M lo
/ M = is the rotation of restraining members at a joint for unit bending moment M
EI = is the bending stiffness of compression member
Io = is the clear height of compression member between end restraints.
For the unbraced members with rotational restraint at both ends, the second equation
above can be used. Quick inspection of this equation shows that the theoretical case of
a member with ends built in rigidity for moment (k1 = k2 = 0), but free to sway in the
absence of positional restraint at one end, gives the effective length l0 = l

It is the relative rigidity of restraint to flexural stiffness of the compression member i.e.
important in determining effective length. Consequently, using the uncracked value of
stiffness for the pier will be conservative as the restraint will have to be relatively stiffer
to reduce the buckling length to a given value. This also is in line with the definition of
radius of gyration, i, given in the clause 11.2.1 (1) which is based on the uncracked
section. However the note 1 under the clause 11.1.1 (1) requires that the cracking
needs to be considered in determining the stiffness of a restraint, such as reinforced
concrete pier base, if it significantly affects the overall stiffness of restraint offered to the
pier. It is seen that quite often the overall stiffness is governed by the soil stiffness
rather than Reinforced Cement Concrete element.

The second note under the same clause recommends that minimum value of the k
should be taken as 0.1, even if the joint is fully restrained, since fully rigid restraint is
rare in practice. Example of such application is integral bridges, where the top of the pier
is connected to deck. The value of the end stiffness to use for piers in integral
construction can be determined from a plane frame model by deflecting the pier to give
the deflection relevant to the mode of buckling and determining the moment and rotation
produced in the deck at the connection to the pier. The clause 11.2.2 (2) also provides
for the elastic buckling method described below which could be used to determine the
effective length more directly.

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The cases shown in the illustration above do not permit any rigidity of positional restraint
in sway cases. If significant lateral restraint is available, as might be the case in an
integral bridge where one pier is very much stiffer than the other ignoring this restraint
will be very conservative as the most flexible piers may actually be braced by the stiffer
one. In such cases elastic critical buckling analysis carried out by computers give
reduced value of effective length.

Effective lengths can also be arrived at for piers in integral bridges having varying
stiffness. In such cases the buckling load as well as effective length of any of the piers
depends upon the load and the geometry of the other piers too. All piers may sway in
symphony and may act as unbraced or single pier or abutment may prevent the sway
and give braced behavior for other piers (refer Fig 11-1.). The analytical method could
also be carried out for such situations to deduce accurate effective lengths by applying
coexisting loads to all columns and increasing all loads proportionately until a buckling
mode involving the pier of interest is found, then the buckling load is the axial load in the
member of interest at buckling.


11.3.1 General

(1). For the reasons explained in the clause 11.1 (1) above, it is essential that 2nd
order analysis with axial load for RCC sections realistically models material non-
linearity as well as geometric. This clause provides a general method based on non-
linear analysis, which allows for both these sources of non-linearity.

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The effects of linearity on the resistance of the system can be illustrated by an

example of cantilevering pier depicted by Fig 11-2. The moment-curvature
relationship for a section under a specific axial load, P, can be determined and used
to produce a moment-deflection curve for the member by relating curvature directly
to displacement. For a cantilevering pier, an approximate relationship can be
obtained by assuming the maximum moment at the base of the pier acting over the
full member height. This leads to a deflection = kL2 /2 where k is the curvature at
the base of the pier. From equilibrium, the total applied moment = M0 + P where M0
is the first order moment including moment from imperfections. This can be plotted
on pier resistance moment deflection curve as shown in Fig 11-3 and used to find
the equilibrium and compatibility. Equilibrium is achieved at the stable equilibrium
position, as shown in the figure. Structural analysis packages perform a similar
process to the above within the lengths of the members, so approximate
relationships between moments and deflections as above are not required.

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(2). For the isolated members, the code recognises the method based on nominal
curvature which is explained in detail in the clause 11.3.2. However, the elastic
theory based analysis i.e. nominal stiffness method which has elaborated in other
international standards is done away with in this code.

(3). While the earlier clauses illustrate the structural behaviour in general, it does not
give guidance regarding the material properties to be used in the analysis. This
clause states that only stress-strain curves for concrete and steel should be suitable
for overall analysis and should take creep in to account. The resistance of local
sections are governed by design values of the material strengths while, arguably,
the overall behavior will be most similar to that produced with mean material
strengths. It is normally required that realistic stiff nesses are to be used in the
analysis, as described in clause 11.3, and this leads to the lengthy verification
format described therein, which can be used for second-order analysis. An
alternative allowed by clause 11.3.1 (3) is to use design values of material properties
(as given in Annexure A 2.7) throughout the analysis so that, if equilibrium and
compatibility are attained in the analysis, no further local design checks are required.
This is conservative where all applied actions are external forces as the resulting
deflections (and hence P - effects) will be greater because of the uniformly
reduced stiff nesses implicit in the method. In this case, it will also be conservative to
neglect the effects of tension stiffening. However, the clause is silent on the effects
of tension stiffening.

(4). If design properties are used, the stress-strain relationships given in
for concrete and 6.2.2 for reinforcing steel can be used. Creep may be accounted
for by multiplying all strain values in the above concrete stress-strain diagram by a
factor (1 + ef), where ef is the effective creep ratio. The analysis would be
performed using the design combination of actions relevant to the ultimate limit
state. When this procedure is followed, no further checks of local sections are
required, as strength and stability are verified directly by the analysis. Care is
needed, however, where there are indirect actions (imposed displacements) as a
stiffer overall system may attract more load to the critical design section, despite the
reduction in P - effects. A sensitivity analysis could be tried in such cases.

11.3.2 Method Based on Nominal Curvature General
The method of clause 11.3.2 is based on similar theory to the slender column method in
BS 5400 Part 4 in that an estimate of the maximum possible curvature is used to

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calculate the second-order moment. notes that the method is primarily intended
for use with members that can be isolated from the rest of the bridge, whose boundary
conditions can be represented by an effective length applied to the member. The first-
order moment, including that from initial imperfections, is added to the moment from the
additional maximum deflection according to the expression in (1). (This differs
from the method in BS 5400 where initial imperfections are not considered.) Design Bending Moments

The Design moment MEd = M0Ed + M2

M0Ed is the first-order moment, including the effect of imperfections
M2 is the estimated (nominal) second-order moment
The additional second-order moment is given as follows:
The additional second-order moment is given as follows:
M2 = NEde2
M2 is determined by calculating e2 from the estimated curvature at failure, 1/r, according
to the formula, e2 = (1/r)l20 / c. c depends on the distribution of curvature in the column.
The definition of c differs from c0 used in nominal stiffness method (which is not covered
in this code) as it depends on the shape of the total curvature, not just the curvature
from first-order moment. For sinusoidal curvature, c = 2 and for constant curvature, c =

The latter value of c is best illustrated by considering a free-standing pier of length L

with rigid foundations and hence l0 = 2L. For constant curvature, 1/r, the deflection is
obtained by integration of the curvature as follows:

= L0 x0 (1/r) dx dx = (1/r) L2 / 2

From the above formula for e2, with c = 8 and lo = 2L, the deflection is:

e2 = (1/r) l02 / c = (1/r) 4L2 / 8 = (1/r) L2 / 2

which is the same result as that in the earlier equation, = L0 x0 (1/r) dx dx = (1/r) L2 / 2

The value of c = 2 is recommended in (4) but care should again be taken when
reinforcement is curtailed continuously to match the moment capacity envelope. In that
situation, it will be more appropriate to use c = 8

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DRAFT COMMENTARY OF IRC:112 February 2013 Curvature

The value of curvature 1 / r depends on creep and the magnitude of the applied axial
load. For members with constant symmetrical cross-section (including reinforcement) it
can be determined according to (1)
1/r = KrK 1/r0
1/r0 is the basic value of curvature, discussed below
Kr is a correction factor depending on axial load, discussed below
K is a factor for taking account of creep, discussed below

The equation 11.17 (above expression) is only applicable to constant symmetric

sections with symmetric reinforcement. The latter implies that the reinforcement in
compression is considered in the stiffness calculation. No criteria are given for the
detailing of reinforcement in compression to enable its contribution to stiffness to be
considered. Criteria for the detailing of compression bars to enable their use in the
cross-section resistance calculation are, however, given in the following clauses:
Beams (Refer clause (2) )
Columns (Refer clause 16.2.3 (8) )
Walls (Refer clause 16.3.2 (1) )

These requirements are discussed under the relevant clauses. The rules for columns,
in particular, require compression bars in an outer layer to be held by links if they are to
be included in the resistance check. It is, however, not considered necessary here to
provide such links in order to consider the contribution of reinforcement in compression
to the stiffness calculation. This apparent incompatibility is justified by the conservative
nature of the methods of clause 11.3.2 compared to a general non-linear analysis and
the similar approach taken in other codes for composite columns. If there is specific
concern over the adequacy of the restraint to compression bars, the suggested
curvature 1/r0 = (yd + c) / h discussed later below could be used as a more
conservative value.

The curvature 1/r0 is based on a rectangular beam with symmetrical reinforcement and
strains of yield in reinforcement at each fibre separated by a lever arm z = 0.9d, where d
is the effective depth (the compression and tension reinforcement thus being considered
to reach yield). Hence the curvature is given by:
1/r0 = yd

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This differs from the method in BS 5400 Part 4, where curvature was based on steel
yield strain in tension and concrete crushing strain at the other fibre. Despite the
apparent reliance on compression reinforcement to reduce the final concrete strain, the
results produced will still be similar to those from BS 5400 Part 4 because:
(1) The moment from imperfections has to be added in this code.
(2) The strain difference across the section is less in BS 5400 Part 4, but it occurs
over a smaller depth (not the whole cross-section depth) thus producing
proportionally more curvature.

For situations where the reinforcement is not just in opposite faces of the section, d is
taken as h/2 + is in accordance with (2) where is is the radius of gyration of the
total reinforcement area. This expression is again only applicable to uniform symmetric
sections with symmetric reinforcement.

No rule is given where the reinforcement is not symmetrical. One possibility would be to
determine the curvature from similar assumptions to those used in BS 5400 part 4.
These are that the tension steel yields at yd and the extreme fibre in compression
reaches its failure strain c, so the curvature 1/r0 would be given approximately by:
1/r0 = (yd + c) /h
Where h is the depth of the section in the direction of bending (used as an
approximation to the depth to the outer reinforcement layer). The concrete strain can
conservatively be taken as c= cu2. If the above expression is used, the factor Kr below
should be taken as 1.0.

Kr is a factor which accounts for the reduction in curvature with increasing axial load and
is given as (nu n) / (nu nbal) < is the ultimate capacity of the section under
axial load only, Nu, divided by Acfcd. Nu implicitly includes all the reinforcement area, As,
in calculating the compression resistance such that Nu = Acfcd + Asfyd so that

Nu = (Acfcd + Asfyd) = 1 + Asfyd

Acfcd Acfcd
As given in clause (3) nbal is the value of design axial load, divided by Acfcd,
which would maximize the moment resistance of the section see Fig 11-4

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The clause allows a value of 0.4 to be used for nbal for all symmetric sections. In other
cases, the value can be obtained from a section analysis. Kr may always be
conservatively taken as 1.0 (even though for n < nbal it is calculated to be greater than
1.0), and this approximation will usually not result in any great loss of economy for
bridge piers unless the compressive load is unusually high.

K is a factor which allows for creep and is given by (4) as follows:
K = 1 + ef > 1.0
ef is the effective creep ratio.
= 0.35 + fck / 200 / 150 and is the slenderness ratio.

For braced members (held in position at both ends) which do not have transverse
loading, an equivalent first-order moment for the linearly varying part of the moment may
be used according to (2). The final first-order moment M0Ed should comprise the
reduced equivalent moment from M0e=0.6 M02 +0.4M01 0.4 M02 (Eq 11.15 in the code)
added to the full first-order moment from imperfections.

11.3.4 Biaxial bending

The effects of slenderness for columns bent biaxially are most accurately determined
using non-linear analysis, as discussed in section 11.3 of this explanatory note. The
provisions of this clause apply when simplified methods have been used.

The approximate methods described in clauses 11.3.2 can also be used for the case of
biaxial bending. The second-order moment is first determined separately in each

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direction following either of the above methods, including imperfections. It is only

necessary to consider imperfections in one direction, but the direction should be chosen
to determine the most unfavourable overall effect.

For details of the use of simplified methods for biaxial moment taking second order
deformation into account, reference is made to clause 8.3.2. This allows the interaction
between the moments to be neglected (i.e. consider bending in each direction
separately) if the slenderness ratios in the two principle directions do not differ by more
than a factor of 2 and the relative eccentricities satisfy one of the criteria in 8.3.2 (3)
(Eq 8.1 in the code, not reproduced here). Where this is not satisfied, the moments in
the two directions (including second-order effects) must be combined, but imperfections
only need to be considered in one direction such as to produce the most unfavourable
conditions overall. Section design under the biaxial moments and axial force may be
done either by a rigorous cross-section analysis using the strain compatibility method by
simple interaction provided in 8.3.2 (4) (Eq 8.3 in the code not reproduced here).

Where the method of nominal curvature is used (Clause 11.3.2) is used, it is not
explicitly stated whether a nominal second-order moment, M2, should be considered in
both orthogonal directions simultaneously, given that the section can only fail in one
plane of bending. M2, however, can be significant in both directions.

From above, a case could be made for considering M2 only in the direction that gives
the most unfavourable verification. For circular columns, it is possible to take the vector
resultant of moments in two orthogonal directions, thus transforming the problem into a
uniaxial bending problem with M2 considered only in the direction of the resultant
moment. In general, however, it is recommended here that M2 conservatively be
calculated for both directions, as was practice in BS 5400 Part 4. Bending should then
be checked in each direction independently, and then biaxial bending should be
considered (with M2 applied in both directions together unless second-order effects can
be neglected in one or both directions in accordance with 11.1 (5) or 11.2, if 8.3.2 (3)
(Eq 8.1 of the code) is not fulfilled. Imperfections should only be considered in one
direction. In many cases, M2 will not be very significant for bending about the major
axis, as the curvature from equation 1/r0 = yd / 0.45d and hence nominal second-order
moment, is smaller for a wider section.

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11.4.1 General
The clause 11.4.1 (1) requires the designer to consider lateral instability of slender
concrete beams. The instability referred to involves both lateral and torsional
displacement of the beam when subjected to bending about the major axis. Such
instability needs to be considered for both erection and finished conditions, but is only
likely to be a potential problem for concrete bridge beams during transportation or
erection before they are sufficiently braced (by deck slab and diaphragms, for example)
within the final structure.

The clause 11.4.1 (3) defines geometric conditions to be satisfied so that second-order
effects from the above mode of buckling can be ignored. These limits are not applicable
where there is axial force (such as due to external prestressing), as the axial force leads
to additional second-order effects as discussed in section 11.1 (1). It is recommended
that sections are generally designed to be within these limits to avoid the complexity of
verifying the beam through second-order analysis. The limits should be met for most
practical beam geometries used in bridge design with the possible exception of edge
beams with continuous integral concrete parapets. Where such up stands are outside
the geometric limits but have been ignored in the ultimate limit state checks of the edge
beam, engineering judgement may often be used to conclude that the up stand is
adequate. (Some care would still be required in the verification of cracking in the up

If the simple requirements of clause 11.4.1 (3) are not met, then second-order analysis
needs to be carried out to determine the additional transverse bending and torsional
moments developed. Geometric imperfections must be taken into account and clause
11.4.1 (2) requires a lateral deflection of l/300 to be assumed as a geometric
imperfection, where l is the total length of the beam. It is not necessary to include an
additional torsional imperfection as well. Any bracing, whether continuous from a deck
slab or discrete from diaphragms, should be included in the model. Such analysis is
complex as it must allow for both the non-linear behavior of the materials and the
geometric non-linearity of the instability type, for which finite element modeling (with
shell elements) would be required.

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Regardless of the method used, the supporting structures and restraints must be
designed for the resulting torsion as per clause 11.4.1 (4)

11.4.2 Slenderness Limits for Beams

(a) To ensure lateral stability, a simply supported or continuous beam should be so

proportioned that the clear distance between lateral restraints does not exceed 60 be or
250 , whichever is the lesser,
d is the effective depth to tension reinforcement.
be is the breadth of the compression face of the beam midway between

(b) For cantilevers with lateral restraint provided only at the support, the clear distance
from the free end of the cantilever to face of the support should not exceed 25bc
or , whichever is the lesser.

The above two simple criteria are chosen from IRC :21 and IS: 456. These two criteria
alone do not necessarily ensure the lateral stability of slender beams, especially for
Prestressed Concrete Slender beams. The lateral stability aspects of PSC slender
beams has been discussed in detail in the IRC paper no.524 Design and Construction
of Pre tensioned Sutlej Bridge in Punjab. The paper gives guidelines for calculating
Factor of Safeties for lateral stability of slender beams as such the reference may be
made to the paper for ensuring the lateral stability of the slender beams.

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Worked out Examples :

1. Effective length of cantilever pier :

A bridge pier with free-sliding bearing at the top is 27.03m tall and has cross-section
dimensions, as shown in Fig :11-5. The pier base has a foundation flexibility (representing the
rotational flexibility of the pile group and pile cap) of 6.976 x 10-9 rad / kNm. The short term E
for the concrete is Ecm = 35 x 103 MPa. Calculate the effective length about the minor axis.

The inertia of the cross-section about the minor axis = 3.1774 m4 so:

EI = 35 x 106 x 3.1774 = 4.114 x 106 kNm / rad

I 27.03

At the base of the pier, k1 = ( / ) . ( / l) = 6.976 x 10-9 x 4.114 x 106 = 28.7 x 10-3. This is
less than lowest recommended value of 0.1 given in 11.2.2 However, as the stiffness above
was derived using lower-bound soil properties and pile cap stiffness, the stiffer calculated value
of k will be used.

At the top of the pier, there is no restraint so k2 = .

From 11.2.2/q 11.13 the effective length is then:

l0 = l x max 1 + 10 x 0.0287 x ; 1 + 0.0287 x 1+

0.0287 + 1 + 0.0287 1+

= I x max (1.13;2.06)
= 2.06I

The effective length is therefore close to the value of 2l for a completely rigid support.

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2. Check for the limiting slenderness:

The bridge pier in Worked example 1 has concrete with cylinder strength 40 MPa and carries
an axial load of 31 867 kN. Calculate the slenderness about the minor axis and determine
whether second-order effects may be ignored. Take the effective length as 2.1 times the

The inertia of the cross-section about the minor axis = 3.1774 m4. The area of the cross-
section = 4.47 m2. The limiting slenderness is determined from 11.2.1 (2)/Eq. 11.1 as follows:

< lim = 20A . B . C / n

Since the split of axial load into short-term and long-term is not given, the recommended value
of A = 0.7 will be conservatively used as discussed in the main text. The reinforcement ratio is
also not known at this stage, so the recommended value of B = 1.1. Since the pier is free to
sway, this is an unbraced member and benefit cannot be taken from the moment ratio at each
end of the pier. Hence C = 0.7 (which also corresponds to equal moments at each end of a pier
that is held in position at both ends).

The relative normal force is given by:

n = NEd / (Accd) = 31 867 x 103 = 0.314

4.47 x 106 x 22.67

where cd = ccck / yc = 0.85 x 40 / 1.5 = 22.67 MPa.

Hence from 11.2.1 (2)/Eq. 11.1, lim = 20 x 0.7 x 1.1 x 0.7 / 0.31 = 19.4. The radius of gyration
of the pier cross-section i = 0.84m and the effective length l0 = 2.1 x 27.03 = 56.763m so the
slenderness = 56 763 / 843 = 67.3 >> 19.4.
Second-order effects cannot therefore be ignored for this pier.

3. Cantilever pier check as per the clause 11.3.2 :

The pier of Worked example 1 & 2 is subjected to a 31 867 kN axial load and a 1366 kN lateral
load about the minor axis at the ultimate limit state. The main vertical reinforcement is 136 no.
32mm diameter bars with yield strength 460 MPa (less than the standard 500 MPa). The
effective creep ratio ef for this particular load case is 1.0 and Ecm = 35 x 103 MPa. Calculate
the final moment at the base of pier.

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Since the section is symmetrical (with respect to cross-section and reinforcement), the method
of 11.3.2 can be used without modification. The radius of gyration, is, of the reinforcement was
found to be 845 mm so the effective depth, d, is found from (2)/Eq 11.18:

d = h/2 + is = 2500 / 2 + 845 = 2095 mm

(Compression reinforcement is included in the above see the discussion on compression

reinforcement in section 11.3.2 above.)
The curvature 1/r0 is then calculated from (1)/Eq 11.17:

1/r0 = yd = 400 / 200 X 103 = 2.12 X 10-6 mm-1

0.45d 0.45 X 2095

Since the relative axial force n = 0.314 (from Worked example 2), which is less than nbal which
may be taken as 0.4, Kr will be greater than 1.0 according to the formula (3)/Eq
11.19and should therefore be taken equal to 1.0.
In order to calculate K , the parameter must first be calculated taking the slenderness

= 67.3 from Worked example 2:

= 0.35 + fck - = 0.35 + 40 - 67.3 = 0.101

200 150 200 150

K = 1 + . ef = 1 + 0.101 x 1.0 = 1.101 from (4)/Eq 11.20

The nominal curvature according to (1)/Eq 11.17 is then:

1 / r = Kr . K . 1 / r0 = 1.0 x 1.101 x 2.12 x 10-6 = 2.33 x 10-6 mm-1

The effective length for buckling l0 = 2.1 x 27.03 = 56.763m and c = 2 for a sinusoidal
distribution of curvature. From (3)/Eq 11.16
e2 = (1/r)l2o/c = 2.33 x 10-6 x 56 7632 / 2 = 761 mm

M2 = NEd . e2 = 31 867 x 0.761 = 24 251 kNm

The initial imperfection displacement at the pier top is obtained from as l . i = l . 0 . h, where

h = 2 / l = 2 / 27.03 = 0.38 and 0 is a nationally determined parameter whose

recommended value is 1/200. In this example, the lower limit of h > 2 / 3 was applied to allow
greater tolerance on site, Therefore:

l . I = 27030 . 1 . 2 = 90mm
200 3
The first-order moment at the base M0Ed = 136 X 27.030 + 31 867 X 0.09 = 39 791 kNm.

The final moment including second-order effects is given by (1)/Eq 11.4
Med = M0Ed + M2 = 39 791 + 24 251 = 64 042 kNm

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The pier should also be checked about the major axis for the moments arising from initial
imperfections and the nominal second-order moment. The check of biaxial bending should be
carried out as discussed in section 11.3.4, but imperfections should only be considered in one

(1) C R Hendy and D A Smith, Designers Guide to EN 1992-2, Thomas telford, 2006
(2) CEB-FIP Model code 1990 : Design Code (For concrete structures)
(3) Eurocode 2 : Design of Concrete structures : 1992-1-1:2004
(4) V N Heggade, R K Mehta & R Prakash, Design & Construction of Pre tensioned Sutlej
bridge Punjab, Paper no.524, volume 67-2, July-September 2006, Journal of the Indian
Roads Congress.
(5) British Standards Institution (1990), steel, concrete and composite Bridges Part 4 : code
of practice for the Design of Concrete Bridges, London, BSI 5400.

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C12.1 General Cl. 12.1

(1)The verification of SLS is performed under service load

conditions. The probability of failure under this condition is

The excessive cracking or stresses under SLS may effect the

durability of structure, its appearance, its tightness etc but may
lead to limited retrofittable damages. Excessive deflections may
cause damage to non structural elements and walls resulting in
ugly appearance and inefficient use. Vibrations can cause
discomfort, alarm or loss of functionality, however the same is
not covered under this section.

(2) This clause permits an un-cracked concrete cross-section to

be assumed for stress and deflection calculation provided that
the flexural tensile stress under the relevant combination of
actions considered does not exceed ct,eff. ct,eff may be taken
as either ctm or ctm,fl but should be consistent with the value
used in the calculation of minimum tension reinforcement.

For the purpose of calculating crack widths and tension

stiffening effects, ctm should be used. Where the maximum
tensile stress in the concrete calculated on the basis of
uncracked section exceeds fctm or fctm. fl, the crack state should
be assumed. Where the section is assumed to be uncracked,
whole concrete section is considered to be active and both
concrete and steel are assumed to be elastic, both in tension
and compression.
Cl. 12.2

C12.2.1 Allowable Compressive Stress in Concrete Cl. 12.2.1

(1)The limitation of compressive stress in concrete aims at

avoiding excessive compression, producing irreversible strains
and longitudinal cracks (parallel to the compressive strains).
This clause addresses longitudinal cracking by requiring the
stress level under the rare combination of actions to not exceed
a limiting value of 0.48 fck..

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(2)This clause addresses the non-linear creep. Under the

quasipermanent combination, if the compressive stress in
concrete exceeds 0.36 fck non-linear model should be used for
the assessment of creep which is given in Annexure A2 of the
standard. Creep effects in cracked cross section may be taken
in to account by assuming modular ratio as 15 for situations
where more than 50% of stress arises out of quasi-permanent
actions. Otherwise they may be ignored.

C12.2.2 Allowable Tensile Stress in Steel Cl. 12.2.2

This requirement will be met provided that, under the rare

combination of loads, the tensile stress in the reinforcement
does not exceed 0.8 fyk. Where the stress is only due to
imposed deformations, a stress of 1.0 fyk shall be acceptable.

The stress in prestressing steel shall not exceed the limits

prescribed in clause 7.9.2 after allowance for losses. Stress
verification should be carried out for partially prestressed
members as there could be fatigue issues.
Limit state
of cracking

C12.3.1 General Cl. 12.3.1

It should be ensured that with adequate probability, cracks will

not impair the serviceability and durability of the structure.

In a reinforced concrete structures cracks may be inevitable

due to tension, bending, shear and torsion which is a result of
either direct loading or restraint of imposed deformations. This
may not necessarily impair serviceability or durability.

Cracks may also due to other causes like plastic shrinkage or

chemical reactions accompanied by expansion of hardened
concrete. The avoidance and control of width of such cracks
are covered in section 14.
Design crack widths can be specified to satisfy requirements of
functionality, durability and appearance.

C12.3.2 Limiting Crack Width Cl. 12.3.2

(1) This clause requires that the design crack width to be

chosen such that cracking does not impair the functioning of
the structure. Cracking normally impairs the function of the
structure by either helping to initiate reinforcement corrosion or

DRAFT PREPD BY : VNH Chapter 12 / 2 OF 17


by spoiling its appearance. The size of the cracks also has an

influence on the time to initiation of reinforcement corrosion.
Noticeable cracking in structures causes concern to the public
and it is therefore prudent to limit crack widths to a size that is
not readily noticeable. The above considerations have led to
the crack width limitations specified in Table 12.1.

For reinforced concrete, the crack width check is

recommended to be performed under the quasi-permanent
load combination. This effectively excludes traffic for highway
bridges when the recommended value of 2 = 0 is used. The
quasi-permanent combination does, however, include
temperature. In checking crack widths in reinforced concrete
members, only the secondary effects of temperature difference
need to be considered as discussed in section 12.2 above. For
bonded prestressed members, however, the self-equilibriating
stresses should also be included in decompression checks.

As a rule the limit state of decompression is required, if

cracking or re opening of cracks have to be avoided for a given
combination.The margin between zero stress and tensile
strength may also be reserved for self equilibrating stresses not
quantified in the analysis. In flexure of a beam the state of
decompression is reached when the section under
consideration is compressed and extreme fibre concrete stress
is equal to zero.

The decompression limit deck requires that no tensile

stresses occur in any concrete within a certain distance,
recommended to be 100mm, of the tendon or its duct. This
ensures that there is no direct crack path to the tendon for
contaminants. The 100 mm requirement is not a cover
requirement. It simply means that if the cover is less than 100
mm, it must all be in compression. Tensile stresses are
permitted in the cover as long as the concrete within 100 mm of
the tendons or ducts is in compression. If, in checking
decompression, the extreme fibre is found to be cracked, the
check of decompression at the specified distance from the
tendons becomes iterative.

(2) In the combinations where temperature distributions are

involved, gross properties have to be taken in to consideration
for calculating crack width and self equilibrating stress. For
cracked sections, the analysis to determine self-equilibriating
stresses is complicated and highly iterative. However, since
cracking results in a reduction in stiffness of section, cracking

DRAFT PREPD BY : VNH Chapter 12 / 3 OF 17


of a section will lead to a substantial relaxation of the stresses

induced by temperature. It is therefore generally satisfactory to
ignore temperature-induced self-equilibriating stresses in
cracked sections and to consider only the secondary effects.

(3) The PSC members with unbounded tendon alone are

treated like RCC member as in the clause above for crack
width calculations. However, for prestressed members where
decompression is being checked (and therefore sections are
expected to be substantially un cracked), like in bonded
tendons, both primary and secondary effects should, however,
be included in the calculation of stresses

(4) The crack width calculations may be carried out as specified

in the clause 12.3.4 below. If the bar spacings and sizes are
adopted in accordance with the clause 12.3.5 below, it is not
necessary to calculate the crack widths as crack control criteria
is deemed to be satisfied by adopting this clause.

C12.3.3 Minimum Reinforcement for Crack Control Cl. 12.3.3

(1) A minimum amount of untensioned reinforcement is

required to control cracking in areas where tension due to
external loadings is expected. The amount of such
reinforcement may be estimated from equilibrium between the
tensile force in concrete just before cracking and tensile force
in steel at yielding.

Fundamental principle of crack width calculations and spacings

are that the reinforcement remains elastic.If the steel yields
excessive deformation will occur at the location of the crack as
such formulae used in the calculation would get rendered

For a section subjected to uniform tension, the force necessary

for the member to crack is Ncr = Acctm, where Ncr is the
cracking load, Ac, is the area of concrete in tension and ctm is
the mean tensile strength of the concrete. The strength of the
reinforcement is Asyk. To ensure that distributed cracking
develops, the steel must not yield when the first crack forms
Asyk > Acctm
(2) The above equation needs to be modified for the stresses
other than uniform tension. When the section is subjected
flexure for example, the stresses vary across the depth
reducing tension consequently the requirement of
reinforcement. Thus a value of Kc is introduced in the above

DRAFT PREPD BY : VNH Chapter 12 / 4 OF 17


equation to account for the same. Also Value K is introduced to

account for self equilibrating stresses arising out of variation in
strain along the depth of the member. The shrinkage and
temperature difference are the common cause of non-linear
strain variation. For instance surface shrinkage occurs faster
than interior and similarly the surface which gets heated up
faster also cools faster than interiors. As the self equilibrating
stresses causes tension at extreme fibres requiring lower
cracking load. Thus reduces the reinforcement requirement for
lower cracking load and enables distribution of cracks. The
factor k therefore reduces the reinforcement necessary where
self-equilibriating stresses can occur. These stresses are more
pronounced for deeper members and thus k is smaller for
deeper members.

(3) The bonded tendons normally contribute towards the

minimum reinforcement requirement. However, the clause
recommends to neglect the same in crack control. The other
international codes particularly euro codes allow any bonded
tendons located within the effective tension area to contribute
to the area of minimum reinforcement required to control
cracking, provided they are within 150 mm of the surface to be
(4) This clause allows minimum reinforcement to be omitted
where, in prestressed concrete members, the stress at the
most tensile fibre is limited to compression, recommended to
be ct,eff, under the characteristic combination of actions and
the characteristic value of prestress. This does not remove the
need to consider the provision of reinforcement to control early
thermal and shrinkage cracking prior to application of the

C12.3.4 Calculation of Crack Width Cl. 12.3.4

(1) The crack width calculations are based on the basic case of
a prismatic reinforced concrete bar, subjected to axial tension.
With regard to the behaviour under increasing tensile strain
four stages are distinguished (as shown in the Fig 12-1) :
the uncracked stage,
the crack formation stage,
the stabilized cracking stage,
the steel yielding stage.

DRAFT PREPD BY : VNH Chapter 12 / 5 OF 17


Fig: 12-1 Crack formation stages

Figure 12-1 shows a simplified representation of the load-

deformation behaviour of a centrally reinforced member
subjected to tension or imposed deformation. According to the
simplification, in the crack formation stage (2) the axial tensile
force does not increase. When enough cracks have been
formed to ensure that no undisturbed areas are left, the tensile
strength of the concrete cannot be reached anymore between
the cracks, so that no new cracks can appear. This is the start
of the stabilized cracking stage (3). In this stage no new cracks
are formed but existing cracks widen. Finally the steel will start
yielding at stage (5)

(3) This clause elaborates the crack spacing S r .max for various
situations as enumerated below are self explanatory in the
code as such is not reproduced here :

Spacing of bonded reinforcement within the tension zone is

reasonably close.
Case of deformed bars associated with pure bending.
Spacing of the bonded reinforcement is more or where there
is no bonded reinforcement within the tension zone.

(4) If the cracks in a member reinforced in two orthogonal

directions are expected to form at an angle which differs
substantially (> 15) from the direction of the reinforcement, the
approximation by equation 12.13 may be used to calculate
Sr,max and Wk.

DRAFT PREPD BY : VNH Chapter 12 / 6 OF 17


C12.3.5 Control of Shear Cracks within Webs Cl. 12.3.5

In the prestressed concrete as well as in RCC members

where shear cracking has to be checked, the code specfies the
criteria for deciding reinforcement requirement for crack control.
The concrete tensile strength f ctb in th webs is
determined by :

f ctb = 1 0.8 3 f ctk ;0.05
f ck

f ctb is the concrete tensile strength prior to cracking
in a biaxial state of stress in webs.
3 is the larger compressive principal stress,
taken as positive.
3 < 0.6 f ck
This tensile strenth f ctb depends upon the
If the maximum principle tensile stress 1 is less than
the above tensile strength f ctb calculated, then the minimum
reinforcement as caculated under the clause 12.3.3 should be
provided in the longiuinal direction.
However, if 1 f ctb , the crack width should be
controlled in accordance with 12.3.6 or alternatively calculated
and verified in accordance with 12.3.4 taking into account the
angle of deviation between the principal stress and
reinforcement directions

C12.3.6 Control of Cracking without Direct Calculation Cl. 12.3.6

On the basis of direct calculation under clause 12.3.4 above,

with the reduction in steel stresses and spacings of the
specified bar diameters can be tabulated for simplification as
shown in the Tables 12.2 and 12.3 below.

The above tabulation is based on the reinforcement stress

determined from a cracked section analysis under the relevant
combination of actions. The relevant effective concrete
modulus for long-term and short-term loading should are used.
It is assumed that minimum reinforcement clauses in the code
are satisfied. An advantage of this simplified approach is that
many of the difficulties of interpretation of parameter definition

DRAFT PREPD BY : VNH Chapter 12 / 7 OF 17


involved in direct calculations to 12.3.4 for non-rectangular

cross-sections (such as for circular sections) can be avoided.

For cracks caused mainly by direct actions (i.e. imposed forces

and moments), cracks may be controlled by limiting
reinforcement stresses to the values in either Table 12.2 or
Table 12.3. It is not necessary to satisfy both. The first table
sets limits on reinforcement stress based on bar diameter and
the second table based on bar spacing. For cracks caused
mainly by restraint (for example, due to shrinkage or
temperature), only Table 12.2 can be used; cracks have to be
controlled by limiting the bar size to match the calculated
reinforcement stress immediately after cracking.

Tables 12.2 and 12.3 are produced from parametric studies

carried out using the crack width calculation formulae in clause
12.3.4. They are based on reinforced concrete rectangular
sections (hcr = 0.5h) in pure bending ( kc = 0.4, k2 = 0.5, kt =
0.5) with high bond bars (k1 = 0.8) and (ct,eff = 2.8 MPa). The
cover to the centroid of the main reinforcement was assumed
to be 0.1h (h d = 0.1h).

The clauses 12.3.6 (5) and (6) address the treatment for
combination of prestressing steel and un-tensioned
reinforcement. The prestress can conservatively be treated as
an external force applied to the cross-section (ignoring the
stress increase in the tendons after cracking) and the stress is
determined in the reinforcement, ignoring concrete in tension
as usual. The reinforcement stress derived can then be
compared against the tabulated limits. For pre-tensioned
beams with relatively little untensioned reinforcement, where
crack control is to be provided mainly by the bonded tendons
themselves, the clause permits Tables 12.2 and 12.3 to be
used with the steel stress taken as the total stress in the
tendons after cracking, minus the initial prestress after losses.
This is approximately equal to the stress increase in the
tendons after decompression at the level of the tendons.

The clause 12.3.6 (7) cautions about large cracks occurring in

sections where there are sudden changes of stress such as at
changes of section, near concentrated loads, where bars are
curtailed or at areas of high bond stresses such as at the end
of laps. The sudden changes of sections should generally be
avoided (by tapers). However, when the same can not be
avoided, the codal compliance with reinforcement detailing
clauses and crack control measures is deemed to give
satisfactory performance.

DRAFT PREPD BY : VNH Chapter 12 / 8 OF 17


Table 12.2 Maximum bar diameters s for Crack Control

Steel Maximum bar size [mm]

stress wk = 0.3 mm wk = 0.2 mm
160 32 25
200 25 16
240 16 12
280 12 -
320 10 -

Table 12.3 Maximum bar spacing for Crack Control

Steel stress Maximum bar spacing

[MPa] [mm]
wk = 0.3 mm wk = 0.2 mm
160 300 200
200 250 150
240 200 100
280 150 50
320 100 -

Cl. 12.4
Limit state of

C12.4.1 General Cl. 12.4.1

The deformations must be accommodated by other connected

elements such as partitions, glazing, claddings, services or
finishes. In some cases a limitation may be required to ensure
the proper functioning of machinery or apparatus supported by
the structure, or to avoid ponding on flat roofs.

Excessive sagging deflections under permanent actions can

generally be overcome by precambering and dynamic
considerations are to be given for live load and wind-induced
oscillations respectively. Resonance of bridges can become
an ultimate limit state if sufficient fatigue damage occurs or if
divergent-amplitude wind-induced motion, such as galloping
and flutter, occur. However, these effects are more
pronounced in cable supported bridges and the are not in
purview of this code.

DRAFT PREPD BY : VNH Chapter 12 / 9 OF 17


Where applicable, acceptable limit values for deflections should

be established in agreement with the client or his
representative. In the absence of other criteria, the following
deflection limits under Live Load may be considered for
concrete bridges
- Vehicular : Span/800,
- Vehicular and pedestrian or pedestrian alone :
Vehicular on cantilever :Cantilever Span/300,
- Vehicular & pedestrian and pedestrian only
on cantilever arms : Cantilever Span/375

C12.4.2 Calculation of Deflection due to Sustained Loads Cl. 12.4.2

In order to ensure a satisfactory behaviour in the serviceability

limit state, deformations should be calculated as follows:

the long-term deformations are calculated for the quasi-

permanent load combinations,
the instantaneous deformations should be calculated for the
rare load combinations.

For the calculation of camber, only the quasi-permanent load

combinations are considered. In order to calculate camber, the
mean values of the material properties may be used.
The actual deformations may differ considerably from the
calculated values; in particular if the values of the applied
moments are close to the cracking moment. The difference will
depend on the dispersion of the material properties, the
ambient conditions, the loading conditions, the previous loading
conditions, the restraints at the supports, etc.
Attention must be paid to cases where the basic assumptions
of plane sections and uniformly distributed stresses across the
section may not be adequate, such as in the case of shear lag
effects in large prestressed structure
For prestressed concrete members it may be necessary to
control deflections assuming unfavourable deviations of the
prestressing force and the dead load.

In case of cracked sections appropriate moment of inertia

should be used. If the accurate determination of MI is not
possible, 70 % of uncracked MI should be used. For
Prestressed Concrete members, always uncracked MI should
be used as the section is always under compression.

DRAFT PREPD BY : VNH Chapter 12 / 10 OF 17


In a cracked section under constant bending moment, changes

in the stresses, strains and position of the neutral axis occur
due to creep and shrinkage as shown in Fig 12-2.

For uncracked members, it can be assumed that the creep

deflections are proportional to the instantaneous deflections
due to permanent loads, unless a large amount of
reinforcement exists. For loads with a long duration causing
creep, the total deformation including creep may be calculated
by using an effective modulus of elasticity for concrete Ec,eff as

Fig 12-2 Creep effect stresses & strains with time variation

E cm
Ec , eff =
1 + (, t0 )

(,t0) is the creep coefficient relevant for the load and time
interval (as per Clause

The time dependent deflections are influenced by

environmental and curing conditions, the age at time of loading,
amount of compression reinforcement, magnitude of the
stresses due to sustained loading and prestressing as well as
strength gain of concrete after release of prestress. In
particular, camber is especially sensitive to the concrete
properties at the age of release of prestress, level of stresses,
storage method, time of erection, placement of superimposed
loads and environmental conditions. The clause 12.4.2 (3)
gives guidane on shrinkage coefficient to be used in a form of
curvature as below:
1 S
= cs e
rcs I

DRAFT PREPD BY : VNH Chapter 12 / 11 OF 17


1/rcs is the curvature due to shrinkage

cs is the free shrinkage strain (as per Clause
S is the first moment of area of the reinforcement
about the centroid of the section
I is the second moment of area of the section
e is the effective modular ratio = Es / Ec,eff

Worked out Examples:

1. Stress checks in concrete and steel :

RCC deck slab, 350mm thick and with M50 grade concrete, is
subjected to a transverse hogging moment of 144 kNm/m
under the characteristic combination of actions at SLS. This
moment comprises 22.5% from self-weight and super-imposed
dead load and 77.5% Live Load from traffic. The ultimate
design(ULS) requires a reinforcement area of 2513 mm2/m
(20mm diameter bars at 125mm c/c) at an effective depth of
290mm. Carry out the serviceability limit state checks.

Check for cracking:

Depth to neutral axis h / 2 = 350/2 = 175mm
Second moment of area, I = bh3 / 12 = 1000 x 3503 / 12 =
3.573x 109 mm4 / m.
If the section is un-cracked, should give following compressive
and tensile stress at the top and bottom of the section
top = bot = My / I = 144 X 106x 175 / 3.573x 109 = 7.05 MPa
From Table 6.5 for M50 grade of concrete, ctm = 3.5MPa< bot;
Therefore the section is cracked. Stresses therefore will be
calculated ignoring concrete in tension. The relevant modular
ratio, eff, depends on the proportion of long-term and short-
term loading.
(a) Check for stresses assuming short term creep and
elastic modulus:
Es = 200 GPa, and from Table 6.5, Ecm= 35 GPa
Ec,eff = Ecm= 35 GPa
The depth of concrete in compression from the following
equation is:
AsEs + ( AsEs ) 2 + 2bAsEsEc, effd
dc =
bE c, eff

DRAFT PREPD BY : VNH Chapter 12 / 12 OF 17


2513 200 10 9 + ( 2513 200 10 9 ) 2 + 2 1000 2513 200 10 9 35 10 9 290

1000 35 10 9

= 78.02mm
The cracked second moment of area in steel units from
following equation is:
1 Ec, eff 3
= As ( d dc ) 2 + bd c
3 Es
1 35
= 2513 ( 290 78.02) 2 + 1000 78.02 3 = 140.63 10 6 mm 4
3 200

The concrete stress at the top of the section from following

equation is:
MEd Ec, eff 144 10 6 35
c = = = 13.98MPa
zc Es 140.63 10 / 78.02 200

From 12.2/clause 12.2 (2), the compression limit = 0.36ck =

0.36 x 50 = 18 MPa
>13.98 MPa, hence OK.
The reinforcement stress from following equation is:

s =
= 144 10 6 ( 290 78.02) /(140.63 10 6 ) = 217.06MPa
From clause 12.2.2, the tensile limit = k3yk = 0.8 x 500 = 400
>217.06 MPa, hence OK.

(b) Stress checks after, all creep effect has taken place :
The creep factor is determined for the long-term loading using
Table 6.9 and is found to be = 2.2. This is used to calculate
an effective modulus of elasticity for the concrete under the
specific proportion of long-term and short-term actions defined
using equation
( Mqp + Mst ) E cm (0.225 + 0.775) 35
Ec, eff = = = 23.41GPa
Mst + (1 + ) Mqp 0.775 + (1 + 2.2) 0.225
Repeating the calculation process in (a) above, the depth of
concrete in compression is 92.17 mm and the cracked second
moment of area in steel units is 128.9 x 106 mm4.
This concrete stress at the top of the section from following
equation is:

MEd Ec, eff 144 10 6 23 .41

c= = = 12.05MPa
zc Es 128 .9 10 / 92.17 200

< 30 MPa , hence OK.

The reinforcement stress from following equation is:
DRAFT PREPD BY : VNH Chapter 12 / 13 OF 17

s = = 144 10 6 (290 92.17) /(128.9 10 6 ) = 221.0MPa
< 400 MPa, hence OK
The effect of creep here is to reduce the concrete stress and
slightly increase the reinforcement stress.

2. Crack checks by simplified with out direct

calculation method & minimum reinforcement in
RCC deck:

In this problem, 350 mm thick RCC deck slab analysed in

Worked example above is again considered, assuming the
same reinforcement (20mm diameter bars at 125mm centres
with 50mm cover) and concrete grade M50. The exposure
class is moderate. The method of Cl. 12.3.6 (without direct
calculation) is used to check crack control and minimum
reinforcement is checked in accordance with clause 12.3.3.

Table 12.1 requires crack widths to be limited to 0.3mm under

the quasi-permanent load combination for an exposure class of
moderate. If LL is considered, the action is quasi permanent
combination as as such 2 = 0 and so is not considered in
crack checks. Thermal actions have 2 = 0.5 and so should be
considered. Only the secondary effects of temperature
difference, however, need to be considered; the primary self-
equilibriating stresses may be ignored.

For convenience here, the same moments as in Worked

example 1of 144 kNm/m, comprising 22.5% (DL+SDL) and
77.55% LL actions will be taken. The make-up would,
however, be very different as discussed above; it is unlikely
that temperature difference would produce effects anywhere
near as severe as those from characteristic traffic actions.

From the above example, the serviceability stress in the

reinforcement has already been calculated as 220.35 MPa. To
comply with clause 12.3.6, either:
(1) The maximum bar size must be limited to 12mm (from
Table 12.2);
(2)The maximum bar spacing must be limited to 225mm
(interpolating within Table 12.3).
The provision of 20mm diameter bars at 125mm centres
complies with the limit on bar spacing in (2) above (which
permits a reinforcement stress of 300 MPa for bars at 125mm
centres) and the design is therefore acceptable. It does not
matter that it does not comply with the limit in (1) as well.

DRAFT PREPD BY : VNH Chapter 12 / 14 OF 17


Additionally, it is necessary to check that the reinforcement

complies with the minimum reinforcement area required in
accordance with clause 12.3.3. This will rarely govern at peak
moment positions, but may do so near points of contra flexure
if reinforcement is curtailed:

From clause 12.3.3: As,mins = kckct,effAct

Act is the area of concrete within the tensile zone just before the
first crack forms. The section behaves elastically until the
tensile fibre stress reaches ctm, therefore, for a rectangular
section, the area in tension is half the slab depth, thus:
Act = 350 / 2 X 1000 = 175 X 103 mm2
ct,eff = ctm but not less than 2.8 MPa clause 12.3.3. From
Table 6.5 for M50 concrete, ctm = 3.5 MPa so ct,eff= 3.5 MPa.
For rectangular sections of less than 300mm depth, k should
be taken as 1.0 and can in general be taken as 1.0
conservatively. For sections with no axial load, i.e. c = 0 MPa,
reduces to kc = 0.4 x (1 0) = 0.4.
s may in general be based on the maximum allowable value
from either Table 12.2 (222MPa for 20mm diameter bars) or
Table 12.3 (300 MPa for 125mm bar centres). However, for
minimum reinforcement calculation, it is possible that cracking
may arise mainly from restraint, rather than load and, therefore,
the value from Table 12.2 is used here in accordance with the
Note to clause 12.3.2. Therefore s = 220 MPa assuming
20mm bars and so:
As,min = 0.4 x 1.0 x 3.5x 175 x 103 / 220 = 1280.7 mm2 / m
The 20mm bars at 125mm centres provide As = 2513 mm2 / m,
which exceeds this minimum value, so the design is adequate.
From minimum reinforcement considerations alone, the bar
centres could be increased or the bar diameter reduced in
zones of low moment, but further crack control and ultimate
limit state checks would then be required at these curtailment

3. Crack width calculation using direct method:

The above worked out example is repeated using direct

calculation of the crack width:

By clause 12.3.4(1)/Eq. (12.5): wk = sr,max (sm cm)

By Cl 12.3.4(3)/Eq. (12.11): sr,max = k3c + k1k2k4 / p,eff = 3.4c
+ 0.425k1k2 / p,eff
c = 50mm and = 20mm; therefore d = 250 50 20 / 2 =
290mm and the depth to the neutral axis, x = 92.17mm (from
worked example above). By clause 12.3.4(3), this equation is

DRAFT PREPD BY : VNH Chapter 12 / 15 OF 17


valid provided the actual bar spacing is less than 5(c +/2) = 5
x (50 + 20/2) = 300mm, which is OK.
As + 12 Ap
By Cl 12.3.4 (2)/Eq (12.7): p, eff =
Ac, eff
where As = area of reinforcement = x 102 / 0.125 = 2513mm2
/ m. Ap = 0 since no prestress.
Ac,eff = effective tension area = bhc,ef with hc,ef taken as the
lesser of:
2.5(h d) = 2.5 x (350 290) = 150mm
(h x) / 3 = (350 92.17) / 3 = 85.9mm
h / 2 = 350 / 2 = 175mm

Thus hc,ef = 85.9mm and Ac,eff = 1000 x 85.9 = 85.9 x 103 mm2 /
Therefore p,eff = = 0.029
85.9 103
k1 = 0.8 for high bond bars and k2 = 0.5 for bending, therefore:
sr,max = 3.4 x 50 + 0.425 x 0.8 x 0.5 x 20 / 0.029 = 287.2mm
(It should be noted that the concrete cover term, 3.4c,
contributes 170mm of the total 287mm crack spacing here, so
is very significant.)
By Cl 12.3.4 (2)/Eq. (12.6):
fct, eff
s kt (1 + ep, eff )
p, eff s
sm cm= 0.6
Es Es
From Worked example above, the reinforcement stress
assuming a fully cracked section is 221.0 MPa, so the minimum
value of 0.6 is 0.6 x 221.0 / (200 x 103) = 0.663 x 10-3
kt = 0.6 for short-term loading or 0.4 for long-term loading, thus,
interpolating for 77.5% transient loading, kt = 0.56. From Table
6.5 for M50 concrete, ct,eff = ctm = 3.5 MPa. e = 200 / 35 =

221.0 0.56 (1 + 5.714 0.029)
0.029 221.0 78.78
= = 0.711103
200 10 3
200 103

which is greater than the minimum value of 0.663 x 10-3.

Therefore, maximum crack width, wk = 287.2 x 0.711 x 10-3 =
0.20mm < 0.3mm limit, hence OK.

DRAFT PREPD BY : VNH Chapter 12 / 16 OF 17


Repeating the above calculation, the reinforcement stress

could be increased to 288MPa until a crack width of 0.3mm is
reached, assuming the same ratio of short-term and long-term
moments as used in this example. This compares with an
allowable stress of 300 MPa from Table 12.3 for bars at
125mm centres as used in Worked 2nd example above. The
method without direct calculation therefore gives a more
economic answer here.

DRAFT PREPD BY : VNH Chapter 12 / 17 OF 17



Codal Clauses

C13.1 General 13.1

This section applies to anchoring devices & coupling devices

for application in post tensioned construction & provision of
bursting reinforcement for pre-tensioning system.

Cl. 13.2 Anchorages for Post Tensioning Systems

C13.2.1 Type of Anchorages 13.2.1

Both, external and embedded types of anchorage systems are

covered in this sub-clause. Partially or fully embedded
anchorages transfer the prestressing force to the members by
combination of bearing, friction and wedge action while the
externally mounted anchorages transfer prestressing force of
the tendons to concrete through an externally mounted bearing
Fig. 13.2.1 & Fig.13.2.2 shows the typical detail of two types of


ThreadedPTBar SphericalBearingNut

Figure C13.2.2
Figure C13.2.1 Showing Externally
Showing Partially or Mounted Anchorages
Fully Embedded

C13.2.2 Requirements of Anchorage Capacity 13.2.2



The requirements spelt out in this clause are meant to ensure

that the anchorage and coupler assemblies have sufficient
strength, elongation and fatigue characteristics to meet the
design and durability requirements.

C13.2.3 Load Transfer to Concrete Element through End Block 13.2.3

The end zone (or end block) of a post-tensioned member is a

region which is subjected to high stress from the bearing plate
next to the anchorage block.

Minimum concrete strength required at the time when

tensioning takes place depends mainly on the design of
anchorage, the provided anchorage zone reinforcement, the
edge distance of the anchorage and the spacing between
adjacent anchorages. Strictly a check of crack width is required
as per this clause. To avoid such a check, Eurocode EC2
suggests that the reinforcement stress shall be limited to
250Mpa, which may be followed.

C13.2.4 Acceptance Tests for Anchorage-Tendon-Assembly 13.2.4

The connection between the tendon and the anchorage is

called the Anchorage-Tendon-Assembly. The three tests
recommended in the FIP document define the performance,
testing procedures, & quality assurance requirements
necessary to make the post tensioning system safe and

The aim of static load test is to assess the performance of the

tendon-anchorage assembly and to determine any decrease of
the breaking load of the prestressing steel due to influence of
the anchorages.

The aim of dynamic load test is to determine the capacity of the

tendon-anchorage assembly under load fluctuation as an
indication of the reliability and durability of the assembly.

The load transfer test is carried out to ascertain that the

transfer of the prestressing forces from the mechanical
anchorage and its components to the concrete do not pose any

Cl. 13.3 Mechanical Couplers

Couplers are used when a continuous structure is built in

several phases by extending tendons which have been already


installed, stressed and grouted in a previous section. Typical

details of Fixed & Moveable coupler is shown below in Fig.
C13.3.1A & Fig. C13.3.1B respectively.

Fig. C13.3.1A : Fixed Couplers

Fig. C13.3.1B : Moveable Couplers

Cl. 13.4 Sheathing Ducts & Joints

C13.5 End Block Design & Detailing 13.5

In design, attention needs to be given to highly stressed

concrete compression in the immediate vicinity of the
anchorages; bursting stresses generated in the localized area
of the anchorage and transverse tensile force arising from any
further spread of load outside the localized area.

The design of Anchorage zones is an area of dual

responsibility between the supplier of post tensioning system &
the design consultant. The local anchorage zone
reinforcement, which may be split between spiral and
orthogonal reinforcement, shall be specified by the prestressing


system supplier on the basis of load transfer tests. The

recommendations of the prestressing supplier shall be taken as
the minimum values. This may be modified for a specific project
design by the design consultant, if required, in accordance with
the design criteria specified in this section.

C13.5.1 Bursting Reinforcement for Post-Tensioned Sections 13.5.1

The local zone behind the bearing plate is subjected to high

bearing stress and internal stresses. The stress is
compressive for a distance 0.2Y0 from the end. Beyond that it
is tensile upto 0.2Y0. The resultant of the tensile stress in a
transverse direction is known as the bursting force (Fbst).

The design bursting reinforcement for an individual externally

mounted anchorage with individual square end block or
rectangular end block is given in clause It can be
observed that with the increase in size of the bearing plate the
bursting force (Fbst) reduces.

For internal (embedded) anchorages clause allows

use manufacturers recommendation instead of complex
detailed design.

For group of anchorages, Clause suggests each of the

anchorages in a group be divided as defined therein and dealt
as for individual anchorage in and

C13.5.2 Spalling reinforcement for post-tensioned tendons: 13.5.2

Dead zones require reinforcement to control compatibility

induced cracking. This sub-clause of the code provides
specification for check of the section as a whole containing the
anchorages. Proportioning of spalling reinforcement in the
dead zones may be done with strut-and-tie models
Alternatively, the spalling zone reinforcement may be designed
for a force equal to 0.02 * PK.

A sample worked example for design of End Block is given at

the end of this chapter.




This example is provided to understand the design process by which reinforcement of an end block is

Tendon 3

Tendon 2

Tendon 1


Calculation of bursting reinforcement: The bursting reinforcement is to be provided around each
anchorage. The magnitude of these reinforcement depends on the size of the anchorage and the

Cable PrismDimensions(2Yo) Ypo/Yo Fbst / Pk
Vertically Laterally Vertically Laterally Vertically Laterally
1 400 600 0.60 0.40 0.14 0.20
2 500 600 0.48 0.40 0.176 0.20
3 500 600 0.48 0.40 0.176 0.20

Consider Fy=500MPa reinforcement and clear cover of 50mm, the allowable stress in reinforcement =




Calculation of Equilibrium reinforcement: As well as providing primary reinforcement in the immediate
vicinity of the anchorages, it is necessary to consider the overall equilibrium of the anchor block and to
determine any outofbalance forces and moments that may be set up by the anchorages acting

Case Stressed tendons
1 1
2 2
3 3


C/sareaofEndblock=1.26sqm p2
p1=3437/1.26+3437*(1.0140.2)/0.3855=9985KN/sqm V
=1222KN.m p1

Case Dimension MomentinKN.m
fromBottom DuetoDistribution DuetoAnchor Net
1 700 1222 3437*(0.70.2)=1719 497
1200 3077 3437*(1.20.2)=3437 360
1400 3908 3437*(1.40.2)=4124 216
1600 4737 3437*(1.60.2)=4812 75
2 700 718 0 718
1200 1911 1719 192
1400 2493 2406 87
1600 3114 3094 20
3 700 213 0 213
1200 745 0 745
1400 1078 687 391
1600 1491 1375 116




Dimensionfrom Sheardueto
Case toAnchor NetShear(KN)
Bottom(mm) Distribution(KN)
200 1112 0 1112
1112 3437 2325
700 3142 3437 295
3142 3437 295
1200 4097 3437 660
4097 3437 660
200 630 0 630
630 0 630
700 1916 0 1916
1916 3437 1521
1200 2787 3437 650
2787 3437 650
200 148 0 148
148 0 148
700 690 0 690
690 0 690
1200 1477 0 1477
1477 3437 1960

The ultimate shear resistance shall be calculated based on equation 10.8 of code. The developed shear

Dimension patdesired Loadon
Case fromBottom section Flange,Pf
(mm) (KN/Sqm) (KN)
1600 1466
1 655
1800 2898
1600 1110
2 250
1800 558
1600 3686
3 1155
1800 4013







Reinforcement Detailing in End Block




C14.1 General Cl. 14.1

In addition to having required load-carrying capacity to

withstand various design combinations of ultimate loads and
combinations of serviceability design actions, concrete
structures are required to have adequate durability so as to
provide satisfactory service life.

Durability of concrete is its resistance to various deteriorating

agencies that may reside inside the concrete itself, or be
present in the service environment to which the concrete
structure is exposed. In so far as deteriorating agencies
residing inside the concrete are concerned, these originate
from the ingredients of concrete e.g. water, aggregate, and
cement, mineral and chemical admixtures. Section 18 of this
Code requires that all the ingredients used should conform to
the requirements of the respective IS specifications;
requirements of quality of water are given in cl. 18.4.5.

The various actions that can affect the durability of concrete

can be mechanical, physical or chemical. Impact, abrasion,
erosion and cavitations are examples of the mechanical
causes. Physical causes of deterioration include high
temperature effects; effects of thermal gradients inside
concrete, especially in mass concrete; alternate freezing and
thawing; and incompatibility between coefficients of thermal
expansion of the aggregate and the matrix. However, it is the
attack by chemical agencies like chloride, sulphate, CO2, and
chemical causes of alkali-silica and alkali-carbonate reactions,
that are more prominent. Deteriorating agencies present in the
service environment include gases like oxygen, carbon dioxide
and liquids like water, or chloride and/or sulphate ions in
solutions and other potentially deleterious substances.

Most of the reactions are expansion-producing and presence of

water or moisture is required. For example;

Atmospheric CO2 is converted to carbonic acid (H2CO3) in

the presence of moisture, which attacks hydrated cement
paste; this is called carbonation. Carbonation lowers the pH
value of concrete and reduces the protection to steel by the
alkalinity of the surrounding medium.



Corrosion of steel is controlled by the rate of penetration of

chloride ions. It requires the presence of oxygen and water
and is aided by carbonation.
Sulphate attack depends on the penetration of sulphate ions
into the concrete. The reaction takes place in the presence
of moisture.
For frost attack, concrete has to be above a critical range of
water saturation for the damage due to freezing and thawing
to take place.
For alkali silica reaction (ASR) water is required to produce
the expansive gel and therefore, depend upon the rate of
water penetration into the concrete.

It is quite apparent that transport of fluids both liquid and

gases into concrete is important consideration. The various
processes can be summarised as follows;

Flow of water due to application of a hydrostatic head,

characterised by water permeability coefficient.
Water absorption and uptake of water resulting from capillary
forces, characterised by a sorptivity coefficient.
Ion diffusion: movement of ions as a result of concentration
gradient, characterised by ion diffusion coefficient.
Other variants are possible; like gas diffusion, water vapour
diffusion, pressure induced gas flow etc.

In view of so many possible modes, one should really be

concerned with a notion of collective penetrability of fluids ;
nevertheless, the commonly accepted term is permeability,
which is mostly adopted to describe transport of fluids through
concrete (Neville, 2000).

Fluid transport depends mainly upon the structure of hydrated

cement paste. The microstructure that forms upon hydration of
cement consist of solids having pores of various sizes in
addition to the spaces originally occupied by the water. The
porosity depends upon the age, the degree of hydration, the
water/ cement ratio and the type of binders. The primary
influence is of water /cement ratio, as depicted in Figure C14.1.

According to Figure C14.1, the permeability at water/cement

ratio of about 0.4 or below is quite less; on the other hand,
permeability increases asymptotically above water/cement ratio
of 0.6 or more. For a given water/cement ratio, the permeability
is lower when blended cements or mineral admixtures are used



than in case of OPC alone. This is due to blocking of pores due

to formation of secondary hydration products, e.g. pozzolanic
reactions of fly ash or silica fume with calcium hydroxide
formed due to hydration of cement, or hydration of granulated
slag activated and promoted by the calcium hydroxide.

Figure C14.1.
Dependence of permeability on the water cement ratio

What is stated above is the intrinsic permeability of the

concrete mix. Ingress of harmful agencies is also facilitated by
the cracking that may be caused by load effects or internal
deformations like shrinkage or temperature effects. Table 12.1
under cl. 12.3.2 limits the crack width permissible for different
exposure conditions.

Various other factors influencing durability are mentioned in

this clause. Workmanship to obtain full compaction and
efficient curing are important parameters. A suitably low
permeability is achieved by ensuring thorough compaction of
concrete, and by adequate curing. The shape or design details
of exposed structures should be such as to promote good
drainage of water. Member profiles and their intersection with
other members should facilitate easy flow of concrete and
proper compaction. Chamfering the corners or using circular
cross sections reduces the ingress of fluids. Regular
maintenance provides the opportunity to intervene if
deterioration is taking place at a rate greater than expected.



C14.2 Common Mechanisms leading to Deterioration of Concrete

Structures Cl. 14.2

Salient description of the mechanisms is given in Annexure B-

4. The basic mechanism of corrosion of steel, as an electro-
chemical phenomenon, can be summarised in terms of an
anode process and a cathode process;

Anode: Fe 2 e- + Fe2+
(Metallic iron)
Cathode: O2 + H2O + 2 e- 2(OH)-

In addition, the corrosion undergone by steel is due to

combination of iron and (OH-) ions;
Fe + O2 + H2O Fe2+ + 2(OH) iron hydroxide

The process is schematically depicted in the Figure C14.2.1. It

shows that ingress of chloride ions is facilitated by presence of

For transformation of metallic iron to rust, the requirements are;

1. Iron must be available in a metallic (Fe) state at the surface

of the reinforcing steel;
2. Oxygen and moisture must be available for the cathode
process; and
3. The electrical resistivity of concrete must be low to facilitate
the electron flow in the metal from anodic to cathodic areas.

Figure C14.2.1.
Mechanism of corrosion of steel in concrete schematic



From engineering stand point; two types of situations are

necessary to be considered. The steel reinforcement, being
well protected in the alkaline medium in concrete, can
withstand a certain amount of chloride ion to be present before
corrosion can take place. On the other hand, if the passivity is
destroyed because of one reason or the other, and the pH of
concrete is below a certain threshold value, only oxygen and
water are needed for corrosion to take place. Presence of
chlorides is not necessary.

Concrete constructions, in order to be durable, have to ensure

that the limiting amount of chloride ions is not exceeded in
concrete and neither the pH value of concrete is lowered below
the threshold value. Practical limits of tolerable chloride ion
concentration and limiting pH value are best arrived at by in-
service record of concrete. The interaction shown in Figure
C14.2.2 is based on data of a large number of concrete
structures in India, which have undergone distress due to
corrosion of steel (Mullick, 2000).

Figure C.14.2.2 Interaction of chloride content and pH value of

corrosion-damaged concrete structures in India

C14.3 Designs for Durability Cl. 14.3

The provisions for durability in this Section are essentially

against corrosion of steel. Provisions for other mechanisms are
either in terms of choice of the binder system (cements and
mineral admixtures) or others measures described in Clause



C14.3.1 Classification of exposure conditions Cl. 14.3.1

The first step is to establish the aggressiveness of the service

environment (exposure conditions). In deciding the appropriate
class of service environment, the following factors should be
taken into account (fib, 2009);

The general environmental conditions of the area in which

the structure is situated,
The specific location and orientation of the concrete surface
being considered and its exposure to prevailing winds,
rainfall etc.,
Localised conditions such as surface ponding, exposure to
surface runoff and spray, aggressive agents, regular wetting,
condensation etc. These aspects include factors such as
cladding to structure dry, or ponding due to poor detailing

Carbonation is not significant when the pores of concrete are

saturated, because of slow rate of diffusion of CO2 in water
compared to that in air. On the other hand, if there is
insufficient water in the pores, CO2 remains in gaseous form
and does not react with the hydrated cement. The highest rate
of carbonation occurs at a relative humidity of 50 to 70 percent
(Neville, 2000).

Moderate category is for situations where the chances of

carbonation are insignificant because the pores of concrete are
either saturated or dry. No ingress of chloride from external
sources is anticipated. Inadequate workmanship can lead to
corrosion of steel. Provision is also made against attack by
other deleterious chemical agents, which are facilitated by the
presence of moisture.

Severe category is for situations, where presence of moisture

(wet, rarely dry) and some carbonation under humid conditions
can lead to corrosion of steel. Wet, rarely dry includes concrete
surfaces subject to long term water contact and many
foundations. Concrete exposed to coastal environment can
have access to chloride ions increasing the risk of chloride-
induced corrosion. Concrete components exposed to industrial
waters containing chloride will be included in this category. In
spite of presence of significant amount of chloride ions in sea
water, risk of corrosion in concrete completely submerged in
sea water below mid-tide level is comparatively less because of
paucity of oxygen.


Very severe category is for situations where exposure to air-

borne chloride ions in marine environment add significantly to
the risk of chloride-induced corrosion. Saturated concrete
subjected to cyclic freezing and thawing is prone to effects of
expansion due to formation of ice, leading to spalling.

Extreme category is for conditions, where the risk of corrosion

of steel and sulphate attack are the highest in concrete
exposed to tidal, splash and spray zones in sea, because of
accumulation of salts in the pores and accompanied by
damage due to wave action. Concrete in direct contact with
aggressive sub-soil/ground water can lead to severe attack to
concrete in foundations, without being accessible to periodic
inspection and maintenance. If harmful effluents from nearby
chemical industries are discharged into the water body, where
the bridge is situated, it poses serious threat to the durability of
concrete. Cyclic wet and dry conditions allow accumulation and
build up of deleterious agencies.

C14.3.2 Durability provisions Cl. 14.3.2

In exposure to chloride-bearing environments, build-up of

chloride ions inside concrete in the early ages is due to
sorption, and due to diffusion in the longer term. Models for
prediction of service life of concrete adopt the concept of age-
dependent effective diffusion coefficient. Its value is initially
high, reflecting the sorptive component, and reduces with time.
The effective diffusion coefficient depends upon the type of
cement, use of mineral admixtures and the water binder ratio,
and the degree of hydration of cement. Using values of
effective diffusion coefficient, error function solution of Ficks
second law of diffusion has been adopted to predict rate of
chloride ingress (Buenfeld, 1997). The following solution to
Ficks second law of diffusion can express permeation of
chloride ion into concrete, in terms of cover and concrete


Y OFIRC:112 Februarry2013

Figure C

S [1 erf --------------]
2 (D.t)

Figure C.
C Applicatio on of Ficks law to chlo
oride ingresss
in concrrete.
CS = suurface chlorride level,
X = deppth from surrface,
CX = chhloride level at depth, X,
t = expo
osure time,
D = chlooride diffusion coefficie
ent, and
erf = errror function.

The natture of the e relationsh hip is showwn in Figure C.

above. From
F the Figure,
F it is clear
c that th
he value off the build-u
of chloriide ions insside concrete (CX) deccreases, as the distancce
from the e surface (X) increasses. At a particular
p d
depth X, thhe
amount of chloride ions (CX) increases with w passag ge of time, t.

The stra
ategy to gu uard againsst onset off corrosion is to ensure
that the
e amount of o chloride penetrated d (CX) after the desig gn
service life, t, yearrs is less th
han the threshold leveel of chlorid
ed, at the de epth X, which is the coover thickne



Since the ingress of chloride is controlled by both the chloride

diffusion coefficient (D) and the surface chloride level (CS), the
defense against corrosion of steel in a particular service
environment, as adopted in the Code, is integral of cover depth
and water/cement ratio, the latter governing the chloride
diffusion coefficient (D).

To emphasise the need of adequate impermeability,

Acceptance Criteria for concrete in Clause 18.6.7 prescribes
Rapid Chloride Ion Permeability test (ASTM C1202). In this
test, the total electrical charge in Coulombs (ampere-seconds)
passed during a specified time interval (6 hours) through a
concrete disc specimen placed between solutions of sodium
chloride (NaCl) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is measured,
when a potential difference of 60 V d.c. is maintained. The
charge passed is related to the penetrability of concrete to
chloride ions, being greater, the larger the amount of chloride
ion penetrated. Guidelines relating chloride permeability of
concrete to the charge passed (Coulombs) during the test is
given in ASTM C1202.

The following upper limits for RCPT values at 56 days are

suggested for different exposure conditions;
Severe 1500 Coulombs,
Very severe 1200 Coulombs, and
Extreme 800 Coulombs.

Apart from water / cement ratio and cover, Table 14.2 also lists
two other parameters minimum cement content and minimum
grade of concrete. Minimum cement content specified is to
ensure adequate workability of concrete. For a given water-
cement ratio, a given cement content corresponds to a
particular water content, which may result in high, medium or
low workability. An appropriate value has to be chosen keeping
in view the placing conditions, cover thickness, and
concentration of reinforcement. For the values of water-cement
ratio and cement content shown in the Table 14.2, the water
content in the concrete mix works out to 140 to 160 litres /m3,
which will generally result in low workability (0 50 mm slump).
For higher workability, higher cement content (and higher water
content, maintaining the water-cement ratio) will have to be
adopted or chemical admixtures used. Minimum cement
content, along with the water-cement ratio, is also required to
result in sufficient volume of cement paste to overfill the voids
in compacted aggregates. For crushed aggregate of 20 mm
size, on which the Table 14.2 is based, the voids content is


about 25 27 percent. The values of water-cement ratio and

cement content specified correspond to paste volume of about
27 28 percent, equaling the voids content of the aggregate. A
fuller description is available in IS: SP-23.

The Note(5) below Table 14.2 clarifies that minimum cement

content should include all cementitious materials inclusive of
additions mentioned in Cl. 18.4, as all these binders comprise
the paste volume with the water. Similarly, the water-cement
ratio is water-binder ratio when mineral admixtures are added,
which control the chloride diffusion coefficient.

The strength grade of concrete will be chosen from structural

design considerations. Concrete mix design should be based
on that strength grade (see Cl.18.5.3). Water-cement ratio and
cement content arrived at the mix design for that grade should
be checked with the provisions of Table 14.2. Lower water-
cement ratio and higher cement content between the two
should be adopted. Compressive strength of concrete alone
does not guarantee durability under service conditions. The
values of minimum strength grade in Table 14.2 are those
which can be generally expected with the corresponding water
cement ratio and with the cements or binders available in India.
So, the minimum strength grade specified is an indirect control
on the durability parameters.

Stainless steel reinforcement is now permitted, in line with

practice in some countries for concrete structures exposed to
very severe service conditions. Since there is no Indian
Standard (IS) specification for stainless steel as concrete
reinforcement, provisions of British Standard BS: 6744: 2001
shall apply (see Cl.

Conventional steel or timber formwork is essentially

impermeable and traps the entrapped air and water that
migrate towards the formwork during compaction. As a result,
water/cement ratio in the cover zone is higher than in the bulk,
and forms a weak link; having lower resistance to the ingress of
air, water and CO2 etc. In comparison, controlled permeability
formwork (CPF) liners acts as a filter through which air and
bleed water can pass and cement is retained. The passage of
water and entrapped air from the concrete through the
permeable formwork lining fabric results in a local reduction in
water/cement ratio at the formed concrete surface. This is
schematically explained in Figure C.




CPF liner Impermeable




Direction of

Water collection /

Blowhole formation

Depth of
Effect design w/c ratio +

Figure C.
How CPF liners help in improving cover concrete

It has been reported that chloride diffusion coefficient of cover

concrete can be reduced up to 50 percent and service life
prolonged with use of controlled permeability formwork (Mullick,

For plain cement concrete, the chances of deterioration due to

corrosion of steel are not significant, and as such the maximum
water-cement ratio can be exceeded by 0.05 for each category
and concomitantly, the strength grade lowered by 5 MPa.

C14.3.2.2 Adjustments for other aggregate sizes Cl.

If aggregate of larger size than 20 mm, is used, the

requirement of water in the mix for a particular workability is
reduced; so the cement content can also be reduced (to
maintain the water-cement ratio).
C14.3.2.3 Chloride Content Cl.

The strategy to guard against onset of corrosion is to ensure

that the amount of chloride at the level of reinforcement after
the design service life is less than the threshold level of
chloride permitted.


The threshold is best considered in terms of corrosion risk

associated with different amounts of chloride ions present in
the structures. The following risk classification has been
proposed (Browne, 1982) and commonly accepted,

Chloride Risk of corrosion

(% by wt of cement)
0.4 Negligible
0.4 to 1.0 Possible
1.0 to 2.0 Probable
> 2.0 Certain

The values in Figure C.14.2.2 incorporating data of corrosion-

damaged concrete structures in India are of similar magnitude.
Since the bridges will be designed for a service life of 100
years and at present, there are no concrete bridges which are
100 years old, a conservative value of 0.30 percent for RCC in
moderate exposure condition is specified as against 0.40
percent in many other Codes. For RCC in other exposure
conditions which are more stringent and for prestressed
concrete, still lower values are specified. It may be noted that
the amount of chloride ion specified is on acid soluble basis,
indicating the total chloride ion content in the concrete. Part of
the chloride ions get bound in the cement hydration products;
this is called chloride binding. Only the reminder is the free
chloride, which is available for causing corrosion. This is
expressed as water soluble chloride and, as a very general
guide, can be half of the total chloride content. Total acid
soluble chloride is specified for ease of measurement.

C14.3.2.4 Sulphate content Cl.

Cements contain sulphate added during manufacture. More

sulphate ions may come from soil, sub-soil water and ground
water, sea water and effluents from industrial sources.
Excessive sulphate ions will lead to sulphate attack in concrete.

C14.3.2.5 Maximum cement content Cl.

The limit of maximum cement content is essentially from

considerations of heat of hydration and thermal cracks.

C14.4 Additional Provisions for Specific Mechanisms of

Deterioration Cl. 14.4



C14.4.1 Corrosion of reinforcement Cl. 14.4.1

C14.4.2 Sulphate attack Cl. 14.4.2

The main reactions of sulphate attack on concrete are;

Formation of sulpho-aluminates (ettringite) on reaction of

sulphates with the calcium aluminate (C3A) phase of cement,
Formation of calcium sulphate with reaction of sulphates with
the calcium hydroxide released on hydration of cement.

Volumes of reaction products in both cases are greater than

the volume of the reactants, for which there is no space in
the hardened concrete. They result in expansion and

Magnesium sulphate reacts; in addition, with the main

hydration product calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) phase,
leading to its decalcification i.e. substitution of Mg+ for Ca+
and formation of magnesium silicate hydrates in place of C-
S-H, and other expansive salts identified above. Magnesium
sulphate is, thus, more dangerous than sodium or calcium

The essential solution is in having cement with lower C3A

content as in sulphate resistant Portland cement (IS: 12330).
Use of blended cements (PPC or PSC) or mineral admixtures
reduces the OPC component and thereby the amount of C3A
available. Consumption of calcium hydroxide by pozzolanic
reaction also helps.

C14.4.3 Alkali-silica reaction Cl. 14.4.3

C14.4.4. Frost attack Cl. 14.4.4

Freezing of water inside concrete due to low temperature is

accompanied by 9 percent increase in volume (ice has specific
gravity of 0.91). Repeated cycles of freezing and thawing have
a cumulative effect. In hardened concrete, there has to be
space to accommodate this increase in volume, otherwise
cracking will occur. Air entraining admixtures create a system
of small, discrete, nearly spherical air bubbles inside concrete,


typically about 50 in diameter, i.e. much smaller than

accidentally entrapped air due to inadequate compaction.
These air bubbles provide the extra space needed. Obviously,
if concrete is relatively dry, the problem of freezing of water is
minimized; therefore, concrete is required to be protected from
saturation. Lower water-cement ratio minimizes the volume of
capillary pores inside concrete and ensures strength of
concrete such that it can better resist the damaging forces
induced by freezing (Neville, 2000). In case of severe freezing,
restriction of water-cement ratio to about 0.45 and minimum
strength of 45 MPa is recommended.


1. Neville, A. M., Properties of Concrete, 4th ed., 2000, Pearson

Education Asia.
2. Mullick, A. K., Corrosion of reinforcement in concrete an
interactive durability problem, Indian Concrete Journal, Vol.
74, No. 4, April 2000, pp. 168 176.
3. fib (CEB FIP),Structural Concrete, Textbook on behaviour,
design and performance, Second Edition, Volume 3,
December 2009.
4. Buenfeld, N. R., Measuring and modeling transport
phenomena in concrete for life prediction of structures, in
Prediction of Concrete Durability, Proc., STATS 21st
Anniversary Conference, E&FN SPON, London, 1997, pp.
76 90.
5. Indian Standards Institution (Now BIS), Handbook on
Concrete Mixes, SP : 23 (S&T) 1982.
6. Mullick, A. K., Durability advantage of concrete cast against
controlled permeability formwork (CPF) liner, Civil
Engineering & Construction Review, January 2008, pp. 34
7. Browne, R. D., Design prediction of the life of reinforced
concrete in marine and other chloride environments,
Durability of Building Materials, Vol. 3, 1982, Elsevier,





Codal Clause

C15.1 General 15.1

This section gives general rules for detailing of reinforcing and

prestressing bars and coated steel. These rules are not
complete in itself and reference shall be made to section 16
and section 17 also, which covers detailing for specific
structural members and for bridges under seismic zone III, IV &
V, respectively.

C15.2 Reinforcing Steel 15.2

C15.2.1 Spacing of bars 15.2.1

The minimum limits are specified to permit concrete to flow

readily into the spaces between bars and between bars and
forms, without honeycomb and enabling adequate bond
strength to be developed along the full length of the bar.

C15.2.2 Permissible Mandrel Diameter for Bending of Bars 15.2.2

The recommended bend diameters for bars are given in Table

15.1 and 15.2 based on avoidance of bending cracks and
avoidance of crushing the concrete inside the bend.

The values of minimum diameter of the mandrel used for

bending are given in Table 15.1 & 15.2.These values are
higher for smaller values of concrete cover and higher grade of
reinforcing bars.

C15.2.3 Bond 15.2.3

C15.2.3.1 Bond Conditions

The code describes the bond condition as favourable or

unfavourable depending upon the depth of the member &
inclination of the reinforcement with respect to direction of
concreting. For unfavourable bond condition, the allowable
bond stress is taken as 70% of allowable stress under
favourable condition. The bond condition is to be always
considered as favorable for bars having an inclination of 45 to
90 to the horizontal. For bars which are horizontal or have
inclination up to 45 to the horizontal, the bond condition
depends upon depth of the member as given in the Fig 15.1.b,
Fig 15.1.c and Fig 15.1.d.


C15.2.3.2 Ultimate bond stress

The ultimate bond stress is a function of tensile strength of

concrete, bond condition and bar size. The design value is to
be taken as per Table 15.3 of the code for favourable bond
condition. The bond stress increases sharply with the increase
in concrete grade. The design value of bond stress is however
restricted beyond M60 concrete to account for the increased

C15.2.3.3 Basic anchorage length

The basic anchorage length of a bar is obtained by assuming

an average bond stress, equal to the ultimate bond stress,
which acts over the full perimeter of the bar and uniformly
along its length. The multiplication factor, k for the anchorage
length are given for various concrete grades and for various
grades of HYSD bars, up to Fe 600. (Table 15.4).The basic
anchorage length is given based on the principle that it must
avoid longitudinal cracking or spalling of the concrete.

C15.2.4 Anchorage of longitudinal reinforcement

C15.2.4.1 General

Fig. 15.2 of the code illustrates the methods of anchorage other

than by a straight length of bar. The anchorage of bar shall be
done in such a way that :

a) the bar is capable of developing the required stress and

b) the force in the bar is safely transmitted to the surrounding

concrete without causing longitudinal cracks or spalling.

Generally transverse reinforcement will be required in the

anchorage zone to resist secondary forces induced locally.
Special attention is required where mechanical devices are
used, to check their capacity to transmit the concentrated force
by test.

C15.2.4.2 Anchorage methods

The code does not permit straight anchorage or bends to

anchor plain bars of more than 8mm. The code also does not
recommend the use of bends or hooks for anchorages of bar in



C15.2.4.3 Design anchorage length

The design anchorage length is obtained by reducing the basic

anchorage length to allow for the beneficial effects of additional
cover, confinement by transverse reinforcement, transverse
clamping pressure & bar shape for bent up bars.

C15.2.5 Laps or Splices 15.2.5

As the length of reinforcement bars is restricted and at times

likely to be less than the length of the structure, lapping (or
splicing) of bars will be necessary in most structural elements.
At laps, forces are transmitted from one bar to another. This
can be achieved through the concrete surrounding the lapping
bars or by welding of the bar or by mechanical couplers.

C15.2.5.2 Splicing by welding

For HYSD bars, welding should be proposed only in special

cases, when other alternative methods of splicing are not
feasible. Bars of diameter greater than or equal to 20mm must
be butt welded.

C15.2.5.3 Splicing by mechanical devices

A mechanical splice including its connecting element shall

develop at least 125% of the characteristic strength,fy. This
has been regarded as a minimum necessary for safety to
prevent brittle failures. Reduced cover to concrete at the
location of mechanical splice is permitted subject to a minimum
cover of 30mm.

C 15.2.6 Additional rules for HYSD Bars Exceeding 32mm in Diameter 15.2.6

This clause specifies the additional rules for bar exceeding

32mm which are complementary to those given in clause
15.2.3. Such bars should only be used in elements where the
member thickness is not less than 15. They should be
anchored either as straight bars with links provided as
confining reinforcements or using mechanical devices.

Cl. 15.2.7 Bundled High Strength Deformed Bars

C15.2.7.1 General

This clause specifies the specific rules for bundled high

strength deformed bars. The code allows bundling of a


maximum of upto 4 bars in compression zone including laps

and three bars in all other cases. All bars in a bundle must be
of the same diameter and of the same type and grade.

C15.2.7.2 Anchorage of bundled bars

Bundled bar with equivalent diameter of 32mm and more shall

be staggered at the anchorage point in case the bar is in
tension. For compression bars, staggering is not required.

C15.2.7.3 Lapping of bundled bars

Bars in a bundle shall generally be lapped one by one with a
stagger, unless the number of bars in a bundle is restricted to
two with equivalent diameter of less than 32mm.

Cl. 15.3 Prestressing Units

C15.3.2.2 Pre-tensioning systems

The code draws distinction between the transmission length

(over which the prestressing force is fully transmitted to the
concrete), the dispersion length (over which the concrete stress
gradually disperse to a distribution which is compatible with
plane sections remaining plane); & the anchorage length (over
which the tendon force at the ultimate limit state is fully
transmitted to the concrete).

C15.4 Coated Steels 15.4

In case of fusion bonded epoxy coated bars, The permissible

bond stress shall be considered as 80% of the value given in
the code for uncoated bars. This reduction is not applicable for
galvanized bars or stainless steel bars.




(3rd DRAFT)

Codal Clause

C16.1 General 16.1

This section gives additional rules for specific members

including beams, slabs, columns, walls & foundation. Provision
of minimum reinforcement in this section for various elements
ensures that when the moment of resistance of the un-cracked
section is exceeded, the reinforcement provided is at least able
to provide a minimum moment of resistance which is at least as
large as that of the gross concrete, so that sudden (brittle)
failure is not initiated on cracking.

This section also deals with the minimum dimensions to be

kept for various elements of bridge from practical
considerations of constructability and workmanship.

C16.2 Columns of Solid Section 16.2

C16.2.1 Sectional dimensions 16.2.1

Section with larger cross sectional dimension b less than 4

times the smaller dimension, h is classified as Columns or
Piers. If the cross section is solid, it is termed as Solid Column
/ Piers. In case the cross section is hollow, it is termed as
Hollow Column / Pier. The columns are further classified as
Pedestal Column and Other column depending upon the l/r
ratio. Other Columns include long as well as short columns

For cross sections with b > 4h, the section is classified as

Walls. For hollow columns with b > 4h, no guideline on
classification is given in the code.

C16.2.2 Longitudinal reinforcement 16.2.2

The minimum percentage of longitudinal reinforcement, as

specified for columns is to cater for un-intended eccentricities
and to control creep deformations. Under sustained loads, the
load is transferred from concrete to the reinforcement because
the concrete creeps and shrinks. In case the area of
reinforcement in a column is lesser than minimum specified
percentage, the reinforcement may yield. The minimum
percentage reinforcement therefore depends upon gross area
of concrete and the design axial compressive force in column.
DRAFT PREPD BY : Dr AK MITTAL / AB Chapter 16 / 1 OF 9

The maximum percentage of reinforcement in columns (4%

outside lap portion and 8% at laps) is chosen partly from
practical consideration of placing and compacting the concrete
and partly to prevent cracking from excessive internal restraints
to concrete shrinkage caused by the reinforcement.

Salient detailing features of Longitudinal reinforcement in

column is as under :

Minimum Diameter, min 12mm

Minimum Area, As,min = 0.10.NEd / fyd, but 0.002 Ac
Maximum Area, As,max = 0.04 AC (= 0.08 AC at laps)
Minimum number of bars in a circular section is 6.
For regular polygons, at least one bar is to be placed at
each junction of two surfaces.

C 16.2.3 Transverse reinforcement 16.2.3

All longitudinal corner bars in compression should be enclosed

within lateral ties to hold them in place and avoid its buckling.
No longitudinal bar in a compression zone should be further
than 150mm from a restrained bar. Transverse reinforcement
is also required in columns to provide adequate shear
resistance. Combination of various forms of ties / links, loops or
spiral is allowed, as per choice of designer. Salient detailing
features of Transverse reinforcement in column is as under :

All transverse reinforcement must be adequately anchored.

Minimum Diameter, min max [8mm ; long /4]
Maximum Spacing, Scl,max = min [12.long,min; h ; 200mm]

C16.3 R.C. Walls and Wall Type Piers 16.3

In case a wall is subjected to predominantly out of plane

bending (e,g. solid abutment), the provisions for slab is
applicable for walls. In situations where a wall is also subjected
to high concentrated load (e,g. Plate Type Pier), the design and
detailing may be determined based on strut-and-tie model or
an appropriate FEM model.

C 16.3.1 Vertical Reinforcement 16.3.1

Minimum Diameter, min 12mm

Minimum Area, As,vmin = 0.0024 AC (Half at each face)
Maximum Area, As,vmax = 0.04 AC (More permitted at Laps)
Maximum Spacing, Sv,max = 200mm
DRAFT PREPD BY : Dr AK MITTAL / AB Chapter 16 / 2 OF 9

C 16.3.2 Horizontal Reinforcement 16.3.2

Horizontal Reinforcement shall be placed between the

vertical reinforcement and the face of wall.
Minimum Diameter, min max [8mm ; long /4]
Minimum Area, As,hmin = max [0.25 x As,v ; 0.001AC]
Maximum Spacing, Sh,max = 300mm

C 16.3.3 Transverse Reinforcement 16.3.3

Where vertical reinforcement exceeds 0.02 AC, stirrups are

required as for columns.

C16.4 Hollow Piers / Columns 16.4

In case of Hollow Piers / Columns, following conditions should

be satisfied :

Largest overall dimension 4 x Smallest Overall dimension

Ratio of effective length / radius of gyration 12
Wall Thickness 300 mm
Two ends of the hollow section are capped by thick solid
RCC slab having thickness 1/3rd the clear inside
dimension of hollow section in the direction of spanning of

Cl. 16.5 Beams

C16.5.1 Longitudinal Reinforcement 16.5.1

C16.5.1.1 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement Percentage

Minimum long. tensile reinforcement :

Asl,min = max. [ 0.26 (fctm / fyk) bt.d ; 0.0013 bt.d]
Maximum long. tensile reinforcement :
Asl,max = 0.025 AC other than at Laps
Maximum total long. reinforcement, Ast,max = 0.04 AC

C16.5.1.2 Tensile steel in flanged section

Code now specifies that the total amount of tensile

reinforcement Asl of a flanged cross-section (e.g. at
intermediate supports of continuous T beam) need not be
within web but may be spread over the effective flange width of
the beam section.

DRAFT PREPD BY : Dr AK MITTAL / AB Chapter 16 / 3 OF 9


C16.5.1.3 Curtailment Rules for Longitudinal Reinforcement

This clause provides altogether different shift rules for

curtailment compared to earlier practice for the length of the
longitudinal tension reinforcement and anchorage in tension.
Salient features of shift rule are as under :

Sufficient reinforcement should be provided at all sections

to resist the envelop of the acting tensile force, including the
effect of inclined cracks in webs and flanges.
For members with shear reinforcement, the additional
tensile force, Ftd, should be calculated according to clause (2).
For members without shear reinforcement Ftd, may be
estimated by shifting the moment curve a distance al = d
according to clause (3). This shift rule may also be
applied for members with shear reinforcement, where al = z
(Cot Cot ) / 2 = 0.5 z Cot for vertical shear links.
Depending upon the angle of strut considered in design, the
value of al can vary from 0.45 d (for = 45o) to 1.125 d (for
= 21.8o).
For reinforcement in the flange, placed outside the web, al
should be increased by a distance equal to the distance of
bar from web face.
The curtailed reinforcement should be provided with an
anchorage length lb,net, but not less than d, effective depth
from the point where it is no longer needed. The diagram of
the resisting tensile force should always lie outside the
envelop line of the acting tensile force, displaced as
described above.

Fig. 16.2 of the code should be referred, which clearly explains

the shift rule philosophy.

C16.5.1.4 Anchorage of Span Reinforcement at an End Support

Asb,sup bottom steel at support 0.25 x Asb,span provided in

the span. The code recommends that the bottom
reinforcement should be anchored to resist a force of VEd x
(al / d) + NEd, as defined in clause
The anchorage length is required to be measured from the
line of contact of the direct support. Minimum length should
be = 2/3rd lbnet.
For indirect support, it is measured from a distance w/3
from the face of support, beyond which a minimum length of
lbnet should be provided .

DRAFT PREPD BY : Dr AK MITTAL / AB Chapter 16 / 4 OF 9


C16.5.1.5 Anchorage of Span Reinforcement at Intermediate Supports

Asb,sup bottom steel at intermediate support 0.25 x Asb,span

provided in the span.
Anchorage length, l, 10 for straight bars.
Anchorage length, l, m for hooks and bends
Continuous reinforcement is recommended at intermediate
supports to resist accidental loads. However this does not
mean that the intermediate support must have width greater
than 20, as the bars from each side can be made
continuous or lapped.

C16.5.2 Shear Reinforcement 16.5.2

Shear reinforcement should form an angle of 45o to 90o w.r.t

member axis. It can be in the form of links or a combination
of links, bent up bars & assembly in the form of cage. At
least 50% of the bars should be in the form of links.
Minimum shear reinforcement, w,min = 0.072 (fck)/fyk
Maximum longitudinal spacing of :
o Links, Sl,max = 0.75d x (1+Cot )
o Bent-up bars, Sb,max = 0.6d x (1+Cot )
Maximum transverse spacing, St,max = 0.75d 600mm

C16.5.3 Torsional reinforcement 16.5.3

Provision of shear reinforcement in clause 16.5.2 is

generally sufficient to provide the minimum torsion links
There should be at least one longitudinal bar at each corner
of the torsion link. Others longitudinal bars need to be
distributed uniformly along the inner periphery.
Longitudinal bars spacing minimum of [350mm, u/8],
where u is the outer perimeter of the member.

C16.5.4 Surface Reinforcement 16.5.4

Skin reinforcement (or surface reinforcement) may be provided

to control cracking and to ensure adequate resistance to
spalling of the cover in situations where cover to reinforcement
provided is more than the minimum cover required as per
section 14 of the code (e,g. bottom of pile cap). This can also
happen in situations where bundled bars or bars of size greater
than 32mm have been used. In case of deep beams this
reinforcement generally comprises of smaller diameter high

DRAFT PREPD BY : Dr AK MITTAL / AB Chapter 16 / 5 OF 9


bond bars placed in the tension zone outside the links. Other
requirements are :

Maximum Spacing of the bar = 200mm

Minimum area of surface reinforcement, As,surf 0.01Act,ext,
where Act,ext is the area of cover portion outside the stirrups
/ links.
The surface reinforcement may be taken into consideration
as a part of the longitudinal bending steel or as link.

Cl. 16.6 Solid Slabs

C16.6.1 Flexural Reinforcement 16.6.1

Primary Reinforcement minimum and maximum areas as

per provisions for beam.

Curtailment as per provisions for beam, except that for the

shift rule, al = d may be used.

Secondary transverse reinforcement 20% of the main


Maximum spacing of Primary Reinforcement : minimum of

[2h, 250mm], where h is the overall depth of slab.

Maximum spacing of Secondary Reinforcement : minimum

of [3h, 400mm].

C16.6.1.2 Anchorage of bottom main steel at intermediate support

Provisions for beam is applicable for slab also. Reference to

Fig. 16.4 should be made in the code instead of Fig. 16.3

C16.6.1.3 Reinforcement in slabs near end-Support

Ass,sup bottom steel at support 0.5 x Ass,span provided in the

span. The code recommends that the bottom reinforcement
should be anchored to resist a force of VEd x (al / d) + NEd,
as defined in clause applicable for beams.

The top reinforcement shall be capable of resisting 25% of

the span moment in situations where partial fixity can occur.

C16.6.1.4 Reinforcement at the free edges

DRAFT PREPD BY : Dr AK MITTAL / AB Chapter 16 / 6 OF 9

Along a free (unsupported) edge, a slab should normally be

stiffened. The edges are to be detailed with suitable closing
reinforcement comprising of transverse U-bars enclosing the
longitudinal bars, as per Fig.16 of the code for transverse deck
edges (which usually terminate with parapet edge) as well as
longitudinal U-bars at expansion joints enclosing the transverse
bars, extending into joint nibs.

C16.6.2 Shear Reinforcement 16.6.2

Slabs requiring shear reinforcement should have a depth of at

least 200 mm in order for the links to contribute to shear
resistance. The general detailing rules for shear reinforcement
are as for beams except :

In slabs if VEd 1/3 x VRd,max, all of the shear

reinforcement may be provided either by bent-up bars or of
shear assemblies.

Maximum longitudinal spacing of bent-up bars can be

increased to Smax = d

Maximum longitudinal spacing of successive series of links

is given by : Smax = 0.75d (1+ cot )

Maximum transverse spacing of shear reinforcement can be

increased to 1.5d.

C16.7 Corbels 16.7

Two cases are covered for design of corbel using strut & tie
method :

a) ac h

In addition to the main reinforcement provided at the top of

corbel (with total area of As,main), closed horizontal or
inclined links (secondary tie bars) to be provided distributed
within the depth of the where :

As,link > 0.25 As,main.

b) ac > h

DRAFT PREPD BY : Dr AK MITTAL / AB Chapter 16 / 7 OF 9


In addition to the main tension reinforcement, vertical links /

stirrups are required where the shear force exceeds the
concrete shear.

C16.8 Articulations (Half Joint) 16.8

Articulation (or half Joint) is usually provided in Bridges at a

connection where the construction depth is limited or in case of
suspended spand resting on tip of a cantilever. The treatment
of articulation shall be similar to a corbel or a nib.

C16.9 Deep Beams 16.9

A deep beam is a member whose span is less than 3 times the

overall section depth (SHOULD HAVE BEEN DEFINED IN
CODE). In bridge design, this will most frequently apply to
diaphragms in box girder, cross girders between bridge beams

C16.10 Members with unbonded Tendons 16.10

For the purpose of detailing, members with unbonded tendons

shall be treated the same way as reinforced concrete
members. In case members are with a combination of bonded
and unbonded tendons, requirements of bonded tendons will

C16.11 Concentrated Forces

C16.11.1 General 16.11.1

The rules in this section apply to bearing zones in both

Superstructures as well as Substructures. The eqn. 16.13 is
derived from the confinement provided to the core by the
surrounding concrete & supplementary reinforcement, whose
perimeter is defined by b2 and d2 in Fig. 16.9. The
surrounding area resist transverse expansion of the core by
acting in ring tension prior to spalling. The distribution of load
should be such that adjacent areas do not overlap and the
slope should not exceed 1H:2V.

The value of FR,du should be reduced if the load is not uniformly

distributed on the area Aco or if high shear forces exist. Though
no guidance is given in the code, the bearing pressure check
could be based on the peak pressure in case it is not uniform.
Also in case shear force is less than 10% of the vertical load, it

DRAFT PREPD BY : Dr AK MITTAL / AB Chapter 16 / 8 OF 9


can be ignored. For higher shear, the code recommends

adoption of 3D FEM analysis.

C16.11.2 Zones below bearings 16.11.2

The minimum distance between the edge of the loaded

area and edge of the section should not be less than 50 mm
or less than 1/6th of the corresponding dimension of the
loaded area.

Additional sliding wedge mechanism needs to be checked

to avoid edge sliding. The reinforcement to be provided
parallel to the loaded face for a depth as indicated in Fig.
16.10 of the code. The amount of reinforcement is given by
At.fyd FRdu / 2, which must be uniformly distributed over
height h. The provided reinforcement needs to be suitably
anchored, necessitating closed links.

C16.12 Forces Associated with Change in Direction 16.12

C16.13 Indirect Supports 16.13

Suspension reinforcement needs to be provided where the load

from the primary (supported) beam is transferred to the support
indirectly through the cross (supporting) beam. Such provisions
are required in bridges in situations (e,g. where the bearings
are not provided directly under the girder). In general
suspension reinforcement will add to reinforcement for other

C16.14 Anchorage Zones for Post Tensioning forces 16.14

Anchorage zone is defined as a zone within which the

concentrated forces of post-tensioned anchorages disperse
and spread over the full section of the prestressed structural
element. Usually this zone in length is taken as equal to the
larger depth / width of the section.

DRAFT PREPD BY : Dr AK MITTAL / AB Chapter 16 / 9 OF 9



Codal Clause
C17.1 GENERAL 17.1

These provisions for ductile detailing of bridge structure for

improved seismic resistance, are based on the current national
and international practices. Seismic design and detailing is still
evolving globally, making its codification a difficult task. The
bridge designers are therefore encouraged to refer to specialist
literatures wherever required to augment thedesign and
detailing practices.

The purpose of these design requirements for bridges in

seismic zone III, IV & V are to ensure that the bridge
substructures are provided with adequate ductility to ensure
that the required overall global ductility of the structure is met
and the plastic hinge formation is forced at the substructure
rather than at foundations, which is difficult to inspect and

Cl. 17.2 Concrete Piers/ Columns

C17.2.1 Confinement 17.2.1

Requirements of this section are concerned with confining the

concrete and providing increased lateral support to the
longitudinal reinforcement in plastic hinge zone. The main
function of the transverse reinforcement for confinement is to
ensure that the axle load carried by the bridge pier after
spalling of the concrete cover will at least be equal to the load
carried before spalling & to ensure that buckling of the
longitudinal reinforcement is prevented. Thus, the spacing of
the confining reinforcement is also important.

C17.2.1.1 General Requirements

Eq.17.1 gives the minimum axial stress in piers beyond

which the confinement of the compression zone is required.
The lightly loaded bridge piers having normalized axial force
less than 0.08 times the capacity of concrete section
(calculated without reinforcement) will not require
confinement reinforcement.

Eq.17.2 gives the required quantity of confining

reinforcement, with the intent that spalling of shell concrete
will not result in a loss of axial load strength of the column.


This is defined in the form of mechanical reinforcement


C17.2.1.2 Minimum Confining Reinforcement

For rectangular stirrups and cross-ties, the minimum design

confining reinforcement ( wd ) is greater of two values given
in Eq.17.5. The minimum reinforcement condition is to be
satisfied in both directions. For circular sections, the
minimum confining reinforcement provided by hoops/spirals
determined as higher of two values given in Eq. 17.7.

The value of wd is larger for circular section. The circular

sections do not have lateral ties. In rectangular sections,
there are numbers of lateral ties which are anchored in
central core concrete. Such ties providemuch more effective
confinement than circular hoops/spirals.

Worked Examples:

Example 17.1 Confinement reinforcement for Rectangular Piers

Width of Pier, B 2m
Depth of the Pier, D 2.5
fck 35 Mpa fcd 15.63 Mpa
ftk 500 Mpa fyd 434.78 Mpa
Long. Reinforcement ratio 0.02
Clear cover 50 mm
Designed axial load, Ned 1600 Tonne
Dia of tie, d 12 mm Asw, B 1356.48 sqmm
No. of legs along width 12 Asw, D 1808.64 sqmm
No. of legs along depth 16
Spacing of tie 150 mm
Gross area of concrete 5 sqm
section Ac
Confined concrete area, Acc 4.56 sqm
Normalized axial force, nk 0.0914 (Confinement is required)
Volumetric ratio, w (B) 0.0045
Volumetric ratio, w (D) 0.0048
wd,B 0.1258 (O.K.)
wd, D 0.1341 (O.K.)
w,req 0.0732
w,min 0.12
Designed wd 0.12

Example 17.2 Confinement reinforcement for circular Piers



Dia of Pier, D 2.2 m

fck 35 Mpa fcd 15.63 Mpa
ftk 500 mpa fyd 434.78 Mpa
Long. Reinforcement ratio 0.02
Clear cover 50 mm
Designed axial load, Ned 1200 T
dia of hoop/spiral, d 20 mm Asp 314 sqmm
spacing of hoop/spiral 90 mm

Gross area of concrete 3.7994 sqm

section Ac
Confined concrete area, Acc 3.46185 sqm

Normalized axial force, nk 0.0902 (Confinement is required)

Diameter of hoop/spiral, Dsp 2.14 m
Volumetric ratio, w 0.0065

wd 0.1814 (O.K.)

w,req 0.0539

w,min 0.18

for wd=1.18, w= 0.006472

required Asp 311.64 sqmm
required d 19.92 mm
Designed wd 0.18

C17.2.1.3 Spacing of ties / hoops / spirals

The requirement that spacing of hoops or ties shall not exceed

one-fifth of the minimum member dimension for rectangular
sections or one-fifth the diameter of concrete core for circular
section, is prescribed to obtain adequate concrete confinement.

The requirement that spacing of hoops or ties not to exceed

five times the smallest longitudinal bar diameter is intended to
prevent buckling of longitudinal reinforcement after spalling.
C17.2.1.4 Length of Potential Plastic Hinges

This section stipulates the minimum length of potential plastic

hinge zone and minimum length beyond the plastic hinge zone
over which closely-spaced transverse reinforcement is required
to be provided within the member. This is based on normalized
axial force, k.



C17.2.2 Buckling of Longitudinal Compression Reinforcement 17.2.2

Once the cover concrete in the plastic hinge zone spalls due to
several hysterics of the seismic action, the longitudinal bars are
prone to buckling. The transverse reinforcement shall be
adequate to prevent this buckling by providing transverse
reinforcement at spacing not exceeding 5 times the minimum
diameter of the longitudinal bars.

C17.2.3 Other Rules 17.2.3

Due to loss of concrete cover in the plastic hinge zone as a

result of spalling, proper anchorage and careful detailing of the
confining steel is required for its effectiveness.

Lapping of longitudinal reinforcement with dowels is also strictly

prohibited at the column base, where plastic hinge is likely to
form. This is because the splice occurs at the location where
requirement of bond is critical. Further, lapping at the base is
likely to stiffen the base and shift up the plastic hinge over the
lapping region, thereby increasing the seismic demand.

C17.2.4 Hollow Piers 17.2.4


Dimension b/h as shown above for rectangular hollow pier

shall not exceed 8 in the plastic hinge region. In case of
hollow circular piers, the ratio di/h shall not exceed 8, where
di is the inner diameter of the hollow pier.

No confinement is necessary in case the normalized axial

force, k 0.2. However the requirement of controlling
buckling as per clause 17.2.2 is required to be met.

Cl. 17.3 Foundations

C17.3.1 General 17.3.1

It is desirable that inelastic response in strong ground shaking

occurs above the foundations, as repairs to foundations can be
extremely difficult and expensive. This is generally ensured by :



a) Designing the foundation for 25% additional base shear, so

that the weakest link is at the pier base (capacity

b) Ensuring adequate ductility at the plastic hinge location by

proper detailing and confinement.

C17.3.2 Pile Foundation 17.3.2

In situations where it is not possible to ensure hinge formation

at the pier base in any direction (e,g. in case of plate type
piers), it may not be possible to avoid localized hinge formation
in the foundation due to seismic loads. In such cases, ductile
behavior of the piles shall be ensured by following measures :

Treat the following locations in pile for potential plastic

hinge :

o Top of pile
o Location of maximum bending moment
o Interface of soil layers with marked difference in shear

Provide confinement reinforcement at pile top, along a

vertical reinforcement equal to 3 times the pile diameter.

In case the pile is analysed by approximate method (e,g.

equivalent cantilever method as per IS:2911), confinement
reinforcement is also required to be provided for a length of
two times the pile diameter on either side of the point of
maximum moment in pile (other than at pile head).

In case more accurate analysis using soil-structure

interaction is adopted for pile foundation design (e,g. Using
soil springs), confinement reinforcement needs to be
provided only at the location where bending moment is
maximum (which is likely to be at the pile heads).




Codal Clause

C18.1 General 18.1

This section deals with the material properties and specification

for Reinforcement, Prestressing Steel and Concrete.

The code makes it clear that for assessment of properties of

materials in existing bridges, the standards and specifications
prevailing at the time of construction of the bridge are to be

Cl. 18.2 Untensioned Steel

C18.2.1 Specification and grades Cl. 18.2.1

The code relies upon BIS codes IS:432 (Part-1)-1982 for Mild
Steel and IS:1786-2000 for HYSD rebars for specification on
reinforcements. Though several grades of Mild Steel and
HYSD bars are specified in Table 18.1 of the code, all the
grades may not be readily available in the market. Availability
of the steel grade shall be ascertained prior to its use.

The code also permits use of reinforcement conforming to any

International Standards other than BIS code, provided the
mechanical and chemical properties & bond properties of the
material is not inferior to the reinforcement corresponding to
BIS standards.

C18.2.3 Products with improved corrosion resistance 18.2.3

There are many methods of protection against corrosion that

are used. The most well known are:

a) Using galvanized steel.

b) Using stainless steel.
c) Using cathodic protection.
d) Using epoxy-coated re-bars.

Each method has its own advantages and disadvantages. The

code covers only a), b) & d) of the above stated methods in this

Cl. 18.3 Prestressing Steel

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This clause provides the standards as applicable for various

types of prestressing steel permitted as per this code. The steel
in prestressed applications has to be of good quality. It requires
the following attributes :

1) High strength
2) Adequate ductility
3) Bendability, which is required at the harping points
and near the anchorage
4) High bond, required for pre-tensioned members
5) Low relaxation to reduce losses
6) Minimum corrosion.

C18.3.4 Coated wires/strands 18.3.4

Prestressing steel is susceptible to stress corrosion and

hydrogen embrittlement in aggressive environments. Hence, it
is requires to be adequately protected. For bonded tendons,
the alkaline environment of the grout provides adequate
protection. For unbonded tendons, corrosion protection is
provided by one or more of the following methods.

1) Epoxy coating
2) Mastic wrap (grease impregnated tape)
3) Galvanized bars
4) Encasing in tubes.

Cl. 18.4 Material Ingredients of Concrete

C18.4.2 Chemical admixtures 18.4.2

Natural or manufactured chemicals are often added to the

concrete in the form of admixture, before or during mixing. The
most used admixtures are air-entraining agents, water
reducers, water-reducing retarders and accelerators.
Admixtures shall be evaluated for compatibility with the
cementitious materials, construction practices, job
specifications and economic benefits before being used.

C18.4.3 Mineral admixtures 18.4.3

Mineral admixtures are finely divided siliceous materials which

are added to concrete in relatively large amounts, generally in
the range of 20 to 70 percent by mass of the total cementitious
material. These materials are generally byproducts from other
processes or natural materials. They are also sometimes
referred to as supplementary cementitious material. Though
there are several types of mineral admixtures which are
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available for use, the code permits use of fly ash (byproduct of
coal fired furnaces), Ground granulated blast furnace slag
(non-metallic manufactured byproduct from a blast furnace)
and silica fume (byproduct from the manufacture of silicon or
ferro silicon metal) only.

C18.4.4.1 General

The importance of using the right type and quality of

aggregates cannot be overemphasized. The fine and coarse
aggregates generally occupy 60% to 75% of the concrete
volume (70% to 85% by mass) and strongly influence the
concretes freshly mixed and hardened properties, mixture
proportions, and economy.

Proper selection of the type and particle size distribution of the

aggregates affects the workability and the hardened properties
of the concrete. There are two main reasons for increasing the
amount of aggregates in concrete. The first is that cement is
more expensive than aggregate, so using more aggregate
reduces the cost of producing concrete. The second is that
most of the durability problems, e.g. shrinkage of hardened
concrete are caused by cement. Generally, concrete shrinkage
increases with increase in cement content; aggregates, on the
other hand, reduce shrinkage and provide more volume
stability. Furthermore, cement production is a key source of
carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, and reducing its usage should
be a goal for concrete production There are several methods of
minimizing cement in concrete; amongst the most common of
those is replacing cement with cementitious and pozzolanic
materials such as fly ash.

Cl. 18.5 Mix Proportion of Concrete

C18.5.1 Grade designation 18.5.1

The basic premises governing the designation of concrete are

by its intended use and strength. It is emphasized that the
average strength of concrete produced must always exceed
the specified value of its characteristic strength, since the
characteristic strength requirement is based on probabilistic
concept with the stated requirement of only 5% results can be
lower than the specified strength.

C18.5.3 Requirement of design mixes 18.5.3

In selecting a suitable concrete mixture, there are three basic

steps :
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a) Determination of the standard deviation. In the initial

phase, standard deviation of 6 Mpa shall be considered for
normal and uniform conditions. As soon as the results of
samples are available, actual calculated standard deviation
shall be used and the mix designed accordingly. When
adequate past records for a similar grade exist and justify
to the designer a value of standard deviation different from
what is specified in the code, it shall be permissible to use
that value

b) Determination of the required average strength &

c) Selection of mixed proportions required to produce that

average strength, keeping in mind the workability, durability
and other requirements.

The design mix selected must yield an average strength

appreciably higher than the specified strength, fck. The degree
of overdesign depends upon the variability of the test results.

C18.5.4 Sampling and testing 18.5.4

Care needs to be exercised while sampling the concrete as

incorrect sampling can adversely affect the results of testing. It
is imperative that the sample of concrete is taken as per
IS:1199 for situations where the batching plant is near the
location of placement of concrete. For ready-mixed concretes,
the sampling and placement shall be conforming to IS:4926.
The representative samples are those which are taken at the
placement location.

Cl. 18.6 Acceptance Criteria

C18.6.1 General 18.6.1

The general practice in the concrete industry is to accept or

reject concrete on the basis of compressive strength. Flexural
strength can be used for design purpose, but the
corresponding compressive strength should be used to accept
the concrete. Any time trial batches are made; both flexural and
compressive tests should be made so that a correlation can be
developed for field control.

18.6.2 Compressive strength 18.6.2

Concrete is a heterogeneous material. Compressive strength of

concrete is treated mathematically as a random variable. The
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statistical nature of concrete and the provisions of code need to

be understood clearly so that the interpretation of test data on
site becomes more rational and scientific.

As per the acceptance criteria set in the code, the compressive

strength of concrete is not linked with Standard Deviation (SD).
Since the target mean strength requirement is based on SD = 6
Mpa, this means that required mean strength is not linked with
the degree of quality control at site, even though the probability
of the compressive strength value being not reached depends
upon Standard Deviation itself.

18.6.3 Flexural strength 18.6.3

Flexural test is one measure of the tensile strength of concrete.

Flexural tests are extremely sensitive to specimen preparation,
handling, and curing procedure. The results of the flexural tests
are therefore not as much reliable as the results of
compressive strength

C18.6.7 Durability of concrete 18.6.7

The penetration of the concrete by chloride ions is a slow

process. It cannot be determined directly in a time frame that
would be useful as a quality control measure. Therefore, in
order to assess the resistance of concrete against chloride
penetration, a test method that accelerates the process is
needed, to allow the determination of diffusion values in a
reasonable time. The rapid chloride permeability test (RCPT),
as it is commonly called, serves this purpose. The test is used
extensively in the concrete industry for assessing concrete
quality and is now being included in the code. Suggested upper
limits of values prescribed in the code are based on tests to be
conducted at 56th day.

Cl. 18.7 Grouting

C18.7.1 General 18.7.1

The main properties considered relevant for the performance

of grouts in post tensioned concrete structures are :

a) The flowability of grout: This is considered important to

ensure complete filling of the tendon duct.

b)Volume change of grout: This is considered important to

be maintained within a specified range around zero to
completely fill the tendon duct.
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c) Bleed of grout: It is considered important to limit free water

inside the tendon duct, and any bleed water to be
reabsorbed by the grout within a specified time.

d) Strength of grout: This is considered to provide an

indication of the grout quality with respect to its bond and
shear strength.

e) Resistance of grout to freezing: This is considered

important for applications in cold climates.

C18.8.9 Load tests of structures 18.8.9

The situations under which load testing of a bridge structure

would be resorted to are

a. Structures which are substandard due to quality of design

or construction.

b. Deterioration of structures, due to material degradation or

physical damage.

c. Non-standard design methods which may cause the

designer, authorities or other parties to require proof of the
concept used.

For members other than flexural members (e,g. Corbels, Deep

Beams etc.), where stress strain relationship is not linear,
the acceptance should preferably be based on analytical

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Codal Clause

CA1-1 General A1-1

This section gives details of the nature of the actions, basis of

their classification and the philosophy adopted for deciding the
design values of actions. Various values of action like
characteristic values, Design values and combinational values
are explained with special reference to design of concrete
bridges, where they differ from other types of bridges.

CA1-2 Classification of Actions A1-2 &

Clause 5.4.1
Actions are of two types viz direct and indirect actions. The
actions (loads) such as self weight, Superimposed dead load,
Carriageway live load, footpath live load etc. are directly
applied to the structure and hence they are termed as direct

Indirect actions are those actions which are generated in the

structure due to imposed deformation by, settlement,
temperature, or seismic accelerations. Thus indirect actions are
generated actions.

Direct and indirect actions can be further classified as

permanent and variable actions. Direct actions which are
always present in the structure are termed as permanent
action, e,g. self weight, superimposed dead load, Back fill
weight, Earth pressure, Prestress effects etc. Actions, which
vary with respect to time are treated as variable actions e,g.
Carriageway live load, footpath live load, wind, thermal action
etc. Snow load even though it varies with respect to time, has
been treated as direct permanent action. Settlement effect
which fall under the category of indirect action is termed as
permanent action as the settlement effect becomes permanent,
once the settlement takes place. Whereas thermal effects
which also fall under the category of indirect action will be
termed as variable action as it can vary with respect to time.
Thus it can be seen that some indirect actions fall under the
category of permanent action and some under the category of
variable action. Semi permanent (Quasi permanent) actions are
certain fractions of variable action which are likely be present in
the structure at all the time. eg some fraction of thermal effect .

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In addition there are two more actions viz. Accidental action

and seismic action. Accidental actions are those actions, of
which its occurrences itself and its periodicity cannot be
predicted. These are actions which the structure may or may
not be subjected to during its life time, exemplified by barge
impact and vehicle collision with the parts of the bridge.
Accidental actions of man-made explosions are special cases
which are not covered by IRC:6).

The seismic actions satisfy above condition and to that extent

can be considered as an accidental action. However, the
method of design and allowable states of the structure being
different from those of the accidental actions, the seismic
action is considered as a separate type of action. This
classification is summarized in Fig.19-A1-1.

Representative Values of Actions

Values of action to be considered in the design are identified by

the following nomenclature and definitions.

Characteristic value of actions 5.4.2

Characteristic value of an action is based on statistical

distribution of magnitudes of action. It could be mean value,
upper fractional or lower fractional value or a nominal value.
Upper and lower characteristic values commonly correspond to
95th and 5th percentiles. When statistical distribution is not
adhered to a nominal value is specified which is treated as
characteristic value. For permanent action which varies very
little about their mean value, the characteristic value
corresponds to the mean value which is a single value. In case
where the design is expected to be sensitive with respect to
variations in the density or thickness or time dependent loss in
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prestress concrete, then the values are defined as lower case

and upper case values which are referred as inferior and
superior value. The inferior and superior value of actions are
generally given as a multiplied values of characteristic value.
For variable actions, the characteristic value shall correspond
to :

an upper value with an intended probably of not being

exceeded or
a lower value with an intended probably of being
achieved during a reference period or
a nominal value

The values given in the code correspond to nominal value.

CA1-3 Design Situation & Load Combination

(1) A structure during it's construction and service life is acted

upon by various actions at different times. These actions
which can act simultaneously need to be combined in
order verify the safety of structure. There can be few
combinations, the structure has to with stand. It will be
proved latter on, the combinations given in this code will
give raise to 9 primary combinations.

(2) All variable actions such as live load, wind, temperature

etc. do not act at their peak values simultaneously at the
same time. Hence, when these actions are to be
combined, a reduction factor to be applied to scale down
their peak values. While combining several variable
actions, one variable action shall be treated as the leading
variable action and all other variable actions shall be
treated as accompanying variable actions. It will be for the
designer to choose the leading variable action. To explain,
if the carriageway live load is taken as leading variable
action in a combination, then, thermal action or wind
action shall be taken as accompanying variable action and
the combination factors shall be taken accordingly. For the
next trial, the thermal action can be taken as leading
variable action and the carriageway live load shall taken
as accompanying variable action. While combining,
various variable actions, the leading action, shall be
assumed to act at it's peak and all other actions are to be
scaled down in all combinations, except in frequent
combination where the combination factor has also to be
applied even to the leading action, in order to convert the
characteristic action to frequently occurring action. The

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reduction factors which are used to scale down the peak

values while combining are called combination factors.
The product of combination factor and characteristic value
of action is called combination value of an action (Qk , 0
Qk or 1 Qk or 2 Qk . It is made clearer that combination
factors are to be applied only on variable actions.

Partial factor for actions A1-1

The partial factor is used for enhancing the combination value

of actions (loads) for verifying the ultimate limit state. The
partial factor consists of two factors s and D. s is the partial
factor for taking into account the uncertainty in modeling the
effect of action which is 1.15 for permanent action and 1.1 for
variable action. D is the partial factor for taking in to account
the possibility of unfavorable deviation of action which is 1.17
for permanent action (load) and 1.36 for variable action (load).
Hence the partial factor for permanent action (load) will work
out to 1.15 x 1.17 = 1.35 and for variable action. 1.1 x 1.36 =

A word of caution is given here that enhancing the permanent

loads to be done only when it causes unfavorable effect
(adding to the effects of variable action). In case if it causes
favorable effects (opposing the effects of variable action) then
the permanent actions shall not be enhanced by partial factor.
This situation will happen in continuous structure.

For the verification of serviceability limit state and accidental

combination, the partial factor on actions shall be taken as 1.0
only. (i,e.) the action shall not be enhanced. For prestressing
action, the partial factor will vary under different condition, for
which clause no. 7.9.5 of the code shall be referred to. Above
factors have been taken from other International code as there
are no data available for these factors.

Combinations of Actions and Combination factors

As explained earlier, the variable actions and permanent

actions acting simultaneously are to be combined in to order to
carry out the verification of limit states. When all actions are to
be combined the combination value of variable actions are to
be used in order to reduce the severity of the effects as all the
variable actions do not act as their peak values at the same
time. Combination factors are to be used with variable actions
in order to arrive at the characteristic value or infrequent value
or frequent value or semi permanent value of variable action

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from the nominal value which is to be used in combination of


Partial Factor for Actions given in IRC 6: A1-1

The partial factor for actions given in Annex B of IRC 6: 2010

includes both the combination factor and partial factor for
variable actions. This means that partial factor given in the
code for variable action = Partial factor for variable actions x
Combination factor for variable actions i,e , x (0 or 1 or 2).
Hence, the partial factor as given in the code only needs to be
applied. The philosophy of combination factor is given herein
only for the understanding of the engineers. As the combination
factor is not applicable for permanent actions the partial factor
for permanent action does not include the combination factor.
The use of these partial factors given in the code is explained
in the worked out few examples where they are shown in the

Combination of Action

The combination of actions stated in para 4 can be expressed

in the form of mathematical equations where are given below
for clarity.

CA1-4 Limit States to be Considered

There are two types of limit states which are to be satisfied. i,e
Limit state of Strength (ULS) and Limit State of Serviceability

Under ULS, strength and stability are to be ensured under

three limit state combinations (i,e. Basic Combination,
Accidental Combination & Seismic Combination).

For checking the equilibrium and structural strength, different

load factors are given for different set of load combinations, for
which table 3.1 and 3.2 of Annex B of IRC: 6 shall be used.

Under SLS, stress, deformation and crack width are to be

controlled. For checking the serviceability limit state 3
combinations will be made use of.

(1) Rare Combination

This combination is used to check the maximum stress levels

in structure and is expected to occur infrequently.
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(2) Frequent Combination

This combination is expected to occur frequently and is used to

check crack width in prestressed concrete structure and
deflection of both R.C.C and Prestressed Concrete Structure.

(3) Quasi Permanent Combination

This combination is used to evaluate the settlement, creep

effects, permanent stress in the structure and to check crack
width in reinforced concrete structure. This combination
provides an estimate of sustained loads on the structure.

Verification of Limit States :

The variable actions are to be combined with permanent A1
actions keeping in mind that all variable actions do not attain
their peak values simultaneously at the same time and are to
be combined to verify.

(1) The static equilibrium (overturning, sliding, uplift). For

Basic, Accidental and Seismic combinations.
(2) The structural strength under ultimate state. For Basic,
Accidental and Seismic combinations
(3) The serviceability limit states. For Rare combination,
frequent combination and Quasi permanent combination

In all 9 primary combinations of actions have to be made to

complete the design. There can be several sub combinations.
The necessary checks required to be carried out under ultimate
limit state and serviceability limit states have been detailed
under relevant chapters.

Worked Examples

Partial factors are taken from IRC 6: 2010. The examples will illustrate the
methods to carry out the stability check and to work out the Bending
moment for the various combinations.

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8.1 Stability Check: To Check the Stability of the Structure.

Example 1:
Overhang Beam Stability Check.
Self weight of member g = 15kN/m
Concentrated Dead Load G = 6Kn
Live Load Q1 = 9kN/m

The Structure can overturn with respect to B

2 2
3 3
Overturning Moment = (1.05) x 15 x 2 + (1.05) x 6 x 3 + (1.50) x 9 x 2

= 70.87 + 18.9 + 60.75 = 150.52 kNm

Restoring Moment = (0.95) x 2 = 144.28 kNm

144.28 kNm < 150.52 kNm

Structure overturns and hence unstable. To make it stable either reduce the cantilever
length or, reduce the concentrated load or provide anchoring at A.
Example 2:
Retaining wall

Fig: 2 Details of Retaining Wall

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1) Overturning Check
Overturning moment (for unit length)
Earth pressure moment = (1.50) x 2 x 17 x (4.3)3 x 0.33 x 0.42 = 140.50 kNm
Moment of due to surcharge = (1.2) x 10 x 0.33 x 2 = 36.61 kNm
Total overturning moment = 140.50 + 36.61 = 177.11kNm

Restoring moment (for unit length)

Raft = 25 x 0.6 x 3.8 x 3.8/2 = 108.3 kNm
Wall = 25 x 3.7 x 0.4 (0.8 + 0.2) = 37 kNm
Fill = 17 x 3.7 x 2.6 = 408.9 kNm
Total Restoring moment = 108.3 + 37 + 408.9 = 554.2 kNm
Reduced moment = (0.95) x 554.2 = 526.49 kNm
526.49 kNm > 177.11kNm
Hence the structure does not overturn.

(2) Sliding Check

Sliding check (for unit length)
Horizontal force due to Earth pressure = (1.50) x 2 x 0.33 x 17 x 4.32 = 78.00 kN

Horizontal force due to Surcharge = (1.2) x 10 x 0.33 x 4.3 = 17.00 kN

Total Horizontal force = 78.00 + 17.00= 95.00 kN
Vertical Force:
Self weight = 2.5 x 3.8 x 0.6 + 25 x 3.7 x 0.4 = 94 kN
Soil Load = 17 x 3.7 x 2.6 = 163.4 kN
Total Vertical Load Per Unit Length = 94 + 163.4 = 257.4 kN
Taking friction coefficient as 0.5
Resisting forces = (0.95) x 257.5 x 0.5 = 122.3 kN
As 122.3 kN > 95 kN
Hence the structure will not slide.

8.2 Calculation of Design Bending Moments:

Example 1:

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(1) Moments under ultimate limit state

Taking the same example of over hanging beam
(a) Moment due to concentrated Load

4.5m 3.0m

-9 kNm
-18 kNm
Fig: 3 Bending moment due to Concentrated Dead Load

(b) Moment due to self weight


A +4.21kNm B-67.50kNm

Fig: 4 Moment due to Self Weight

(c) Moment due to Variable Load (Live Load)



Fig: 5 Moment due to Live Load


+22.78kNm C

Fig: 6 Moment due to Live Load

(d) Design of Moments

i. Max (-) moment at B = -{1.35 (18 + 67.5) + 1.5 x 40.5 }= - 176.2 kNm
ii. Max (+) moment at Mid Point of AB = 1.0 (-9 + 4.21) + 1.5 x 22.78 = 29.38 kNm
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It is to be noted as the dead load effects oppose the live load effect, the partial
safely factor 1.0 has been used for dead load moment
iii. Maximum (-) moment of Mid Point of AB = {1.35 (-9 + 4.21) 1.5 x 20.25} = -
36.84 kNm
As the dead load effects add to effect of live load effect the partial safely factor of
1.35 has been used for dead load moments.
(2) Moments under Serviceability Limit State
(a) Rare Combination
Maximum (-) moment at B = -{1.0 (18 + 67.5) + 1.0 x 40.5} = - 126 kNm
+ Moment at Mid Point span of AB = 1.0 (-9 + 4.2) + 1.0 x 22.78 = 17.98 kNm
Maximum (-) moment at Mid Point of span AB = -{1.0 (-9 + 4.21) 1.0 x 20.25}
= -25.04 kNm
(b) Frequent Combination
Maximum moment at B = -{1.0 (18 + 67.5) + 0.75 x 40.5} = - 115.87 kNm
Max (+) moment at Mid Point of AB = 1.0 (-9 + 4.2) + 0.75 x 22.78 = 12.25 kNm
Max (-) moment at Mid Point of AB = 1.0 (-9 +4.2) 0.75 x 20.25 = -19.98 kNm
(c) Quasi Permanent Combination
Maximum moment at B = -{1.0 (18 + 67.5)} = - 85.5 kNm
Moment of Mid Point of Span AB = 1.0(-9 +4.2) = -4.8 kNm
Thus it can be Seen that at first the bending moment has to be calculated with the
actions and then the partial factors to be chosen to arrive at the moment for the
different combinations.

8.3 Calculation of Design Bending Moments in a Continuous Beam:

Example 1:

5m 5m 5m

Fig: 7 Continuity Beam

Dead Load = 30 kN/m Live Load = 18 kN/m

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For Basic Loads

1) Dead Load moment in Mid span AB = .08 x 52 x 30 = 60 kNm
2) Dead Load moment at support B = -{.01 x 5 x 30} = - 75 kNm
3) Dead Load moment at Mid span BC = .025 x 52 x 30 = 18.75 kNm
4) Live Load + moment in Mid span AB = .100 x 52 x 18 = + 45 kNm
5) Live Load moment at Mid span AB = - .025 x 52 x 18 = - 11.25 kNm
6) Live Load moment at support B = - .117 x 52 x 18 = - 52.65 kNm
7) Live Load + moment at support B = .015 x 5 x 18 = + 6.75 kNm
8) Live Load + moment Mid span BC = .075 x 5 x 18 = 33.75 kNm
9) Live Load moment at Mid span BC = - .052 x 52 x 18 = - 23.4 kNm
The moment have been calculated using coefficients to simplify the calculation.

(1) Calculation of Ultimate Moments

a) For Mid Span of AB
+ Moment = (1.35) x 60 + (1.5) x 45 = 148.5 kNm Design Moment
- Moment = (1.0) x 60 (1.5) x 11.25 = + 43.125 kNm
Note as Dead load moment is opposing live load moment the partial factor on DL is
1.0 only.

b) For support moment at B

(-) Moment = -(1.35) x 75 (1.5) x 52.65 = - 180.2 kNm Design Moment
+ Moment = -(1.0) x 75 + (1.5) x 6.75 = - 64.875 kNm

c) For Mid Span moment of Span BC

+ Moment = (1.35) x 18.75 + (1.5) x 33.75 = 76 kNm
(-) Moment = (1.0) x 18.75 (1.5) x 23.4 = - 16.35 kNm
Note the section is undergoing Reversal.

(2) Calculation of Serviceability Limit state moments:

(a) Rare Combination:
i. Moment in Mid span AB
+ Moment = (1.0) x 60 + (1.0) x 45 = + 105 kNm Design Moment

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(-) Moment = (1.0) x 60 (1.0) x 11.25 = 48.75 kNm

ii. Moment at Support B

(-) Moment = -(1) x 75 1 x 52.65= - 127.65 kNm Design Moment
+ Moment = - (1) x 75 + 1 x 6.75 = - 68.25 kNm

iii. Moment at Mid Span BC

+ Moment = (1.0) x 18.75 + (1.0) x 33.75= + 52.5 kNm
(-) Moment = (1.0) x 18.75 1.0 x 23.4 = - 4.65 kNm

(b) Frequent Combination:

i. Moment at Mid Span AB
+ Moment = 1.0 x 60 + 0.75 x 45 = 94 kNm
Design Moment
(-) Moment = 1.0 x 60 0.75 x 11.25 = + 51.56 kNm

ii. Moment at Support B

(-) Moment at support = - 1.0 x 75 0.75 x 52.65 = - 114.48 kNm

iii. Moment at Mid Span BC

+ Moment = 1.0 x 18.75 + 0.75 x 33.75 = 44.06 kNm
(-) Moment = 1 x 18.75 0.75 x 23.4 = + 1.2 kNm

(c) Quasi permanent combination:

Only Dead Load will act
Moment at Mid span of AB (1.0) x 60 = + 60 kNm
Moment at Support B 1.0 x -75 = (-) 75 kNm
Moment at Mid span BC 1.0 x 18.75 = (+) 18.75 kNm

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Ultimate Moment Digram

180.21 180.21

43.12 43.12
64.87 64.87


Fig: 8 Bending Moment Digram

All Moment shown are in kNm

8.4 Design Moments for Superstructure and Loads and Moments for Substructure
Example 1:
Another Example of Designs of Bridge Superstructure and substructure will be given
here so that the designers can easily understand the concept of partial factors.

(1) Following are the moments to be resisted by superstructure

a) BM due to Dead Load of Super Structure 3483.0 kNm
b) BM due to SIDL except surfacing 687.0 kNm
c) BM due to surfacing 190.0 kNm
d) BM due to FPLL and LL 913.0 kNm

(2) Design Moments

(a) Design moments for ultimate strength check
i. Design moment for strength check = 1.35 (3483.0 + 687) + 1.75 x 190 + 1.5 x 913
= 7331.5 kNm
(b) Design moments for serviceability combinations
i. Moment for Rare Combination check = 3483.0 + 687 + 190 +913
= 5273.0 kNm
Moment for Rare combination check, including temperature gradient effect =
5273.0 + 0.6 time the moment due to temperature gradient effect.

ii. Moment for Frequent Combination check = 3483.0 + 687.0 + 190+ 913 x 0.75
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= 5044.7 kNm
Moment for frequent combination check, including temperature gradient effect =
5044.7 + 0.5 time the moment due to temperature gradient effect.

iii. Moment for Quasi permanent combination check = 3483 + 687 + 190
= 4360 kNm
Moment for Quasi permanent combination check, including temperature gradient
effect = 4360 + 0.5 time the moment due to temperature gradient effect

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C-B-1 Introduction

The annexure gives detailed method of design of shell element.

As explained in Section 9, the shell element is subjected to
eight number of force resultants, This method is generally
applicable when the analysis is performed using finite element
method. The internal actions in a shell element at ULS are
sketched in Fig. C-B-1.1.

Fig. C-B-1.1 Shell Element

The method is similar to Wood-Armers method popularly used

method in the past.

In this method, it is firstly verified whether the element is

cracked using Eqn. B-1-1. If the element is uncracked, the only
verification required is to check that minimum principal stress
(i.e. maximum compressive stress) does not exceed the design
compressive strength fcd. If the element is cracked, the
annexure gives procedure to find out the required reinforced

A sandwich model is used to convert out-of-plane moments

and twisting moments into stress resultants acting planes of the
top and bottom layers. The core/middle layer is designed to
carry the out of plane shear force.

After determining the in-plane forces in the outer layers as per

the Section-9. Verification at ULS is to be performed adopting
the sandwich model for shell elements. The procedure is
demonstrated with the help of worked example.