You are on page 1of 5

Negative volume in soft materials

In materials that undergo extremely large deformations, such as soft foams, an element may become so distorted

that the volume of the element is calculated as negative. This may occur without the material reaching a failure

criterion. There is an inherent limit to how much deformation a Lagrangian mesh can accommodate without some

sort of mesh smoothing or remeshing taking place. A negative volume calculation in LS-DYNA will cause the
calculation to terminate unless ERODE in *CONTROL_TIMESTEP is set to 1

and DTMIN in *CONTROL_TERMINATION is set to any nonzero value in which case the offending element

is deleted and the calculation continues (in most cases). Even with ERODE and DTMIN set as described, a
negative volume may cause an error termination.

Some approaches that can help to overcome negative volumes include the following:

Simply stiffen up the material stress-strain curve at large strains. This approach can be quite effective.

Sometimes tailoring the initial mesh to accomodate a particular deformation field will prevent formation of
negative volumes. Again, negative volumes are generally only an issue for very severe deformation

problems and typically occur only in soft materials like foam.

Reduce the timestep scale factor. The default of 0.9 may not be sufficient to prevent numerical instabilities.

Avoid fully-integrated solids (formulations 2 and 3) which tend to be less stable in situations involving large

deformation or distortion. (The fully integrated element is less robust than a 1-point element when

deformation is large because a negative Jacobian can occur at one of the integration points while the

element as a whole maintains a positive volume. The calculation with fully integrated element will therefore

terminate with a negative Jacobian much sooner than will a 1-point element.)

Use the default element formulation (1 point solid) with type 4 or 5 hourglass control (will stiffen

response).Preferred hourglass formulations for foams are

Type 6 with hourglass coef = 0.1 if low velocity impact

Type 2 or 3 with hourglass coef. = 0.1 if high velocity impact.

The hourglass type and hourglass coefficient may warrant modification based on observed hourglass modes

and on reported hourglass energy in matsum

Model the foam with tetrahedral elements using solid element formulation 10 although this approach may

give an overly stiff response.

Increase the DAMP parameter (foam model 57) to the maximum recommended value of 0.5.

Use optional card B of *CONTACT to turn shooting node logic off for contacts involving foam.

Use *CONTACT_INTERIOR. A part set defines the parts to be treated by *CONTACT_INTERIOR.


Attribute 4 (DA4 = 5th field of Card 1) of the part set defines the TYPE of *CONTACT_INTERIOR used.
The default TYPE is 1 which is recommended for uniform compression. In version 970, solid formulation 1

elements can be assigned TYPE=2 which treats combined modes of shear and compression.

If *MAT_126 is used, try ELFORM = 0.

Try EFG formulation (*SECTION_SOLID_EFG). Use only where deformations are severe as this

formulation is very expensive. Use only with hex elements.

33.2.2. Details View for Termination Control

You access the details view for Termination Control from CFX-Pre by
clicking Insert >Configurations > Termination Control or by right-clicking
on Simulation Control in the details view and selecting Insert > Termination
Control.

The following describes the details of the Termination Control tab.

Control Conditions

A list displaying the available termination control conditions. Click Add new
item to add a new termination control condition. To change its settings,
the termination control condition must be highlighted. You can highlight a
condition by selecting it from the displayed list. Click Delete to delete a
highlighted termination control condition.

Control Condition: Options

The options for termination control are either Max. Configuration


Steps or Solver Interrupt Conditions. The former setting is used to
terminate a simulations after a selected configuration has been executed the
prescribed number of times. The latter setting is used to terminate a
simulation whenever the named CFX-Solver interrupt conditions for the
selected configurations have been satisfied. Note that the latter option is only
valid if CFX-Solver interrupt conditions have been defined. For details,
seeInterrupt Control.

Control Condition: Configuration Name

Choose the configuration for which the termination control is to be applied.

Control Condition: Number of Steps

This setting is used to set to the maximum number of times the specified
configuration is to be executed in the course of the simulation.
Control Condition: Condition Name(s)

This setting is used to identify the names of the solver interrupt condition for
the specified configuration to be used to terminate the simulation.

Volume negatif dalam bahan lembut

Dalam bahan yang mengalami deformasi yang sangat besar, seperti busa yang lembut, sebuah
elemen dapat menjadi begitu terdistorsi bahwa volume elemen dihitung sebagai negatif. Hal ini
dapat terjadi tanpa bahan mencapai kriteria kegagalan. Ada batas yang melekat untuk berapa
banyak deformasi mesh Lagrangian dapat menampung tanpa semacam mesh smoothing atau
pembentukan grid ulang berlangsung. Sebuah perhitungan volume negatif dalam LS-DYNA akan
menyebabkan perhitungan untuk mengakhiri kecuali mengikis di * CONTROL_TIMESTEP diatur ke 1
dan DTMIN di * CONTROL_TERMINATION diatur untuk setiap nilai nol dalam hal elemen
menyinggung dihapus dan perhitungan terus (dalam banyak kasus ). Bahkan dengan mengikis dan
DTMIN ditetapkan sebagai dijelaskan, volume negatif dapat menyebabkan penghentian kesalahan.

Beberapa pendekatan yang dapat membantu untuk mengatasi volume negatif adalah sebagai
berikut:

Cukup kaku up kurva tegangan-regangan material pada strain besar. Pendekatan ini bisa sangat
efektif.

Kadang-kadang menyesuaikan mesh awal untuk mengakomodasi bidang deformasi tertentu akan
mencegah pembentukan volume negatif. Sekali lagi, volume negatif umumnya hanya menjadi
masalah bagi masalah deformasi yang sangat parah dan biasanya hanya terjadi pada bahan lembut
seperti busa.

Mengurangi faktor skala timestep. Default 0,9 mungkin tidak cukup untuk mencegah ketidakstabilan
numerik.

Hindari padatan terintegrasi (formulasi 2 dan 3) yang cenderung kurang stabil dalam situasi yang
melibatkan deformasi besar atau distorsi. (Unsur terintegrasi kurang kuat dari elemen 1-titik ketika
deformasi besar karena Jacobian negatif dapat terjadi pada salah satu titik integrasi sedangkan unsur
secara keseluruhan mempertahankan volume positif. Perhitungan dengan elemen terintegrasi
karena itu akan mengakhiri dengan Jacobian negatif lebih cepat dari yang akan elemen 1-point.)

Gunakan formulasi elemen default (1 titik yang solid) dengan tipe 4 atau 5 Kendali jam pasir (akan
kaku respon) .Preferred formulasi jam pasir untuk busa yang

Jenis 6 dengan jam pasir koefisien = 0,1 jika dampak kecepatan rendah

Tipe 2 atau 3 dengan jam pasir koe. = 0,1 jika dampak kecepatan tinggi.

Jenis jam pasir dan pasir koefisien dapat menjamin modifikasi berdasarkan mode jam pasir diamati
dan energi jam pasir dilaporkan di Matsum

Model busa dengan elemen tetrahedral menggunakan formulasi elemen solid 10 meskipun
pendekatan ini dapat memberikan tanggapan terlalu kaku.

Meningkatkan parameter BASAH (busa Model 57) dengan nilai maksimum yang disarankan dari 0,5.

Gunakan opsional kartu B dari * KONTAK untuk mengubah menembak logika simpul off untuk
kontak melibatkan busa.
Gunakan CONTACT_INTERIOR. Sebagian set mendefinisikan bagian yang akan dirawat oleh *
CONTACT_INTERIOR. Atribut 4 (DA4 = 5 bidang Card 1) dari bagian set mendefinisikan JENIS *
CONTACT_INTERIOR digunakan. TYPE default adalah 1 yang direkomendasikan untuk kompresi
seragam. Dalam versi 970, formulasi padat 1 elemen dapat ditugaskan TYPE = 2 yang
memperlakukan mode gabungan geser dan kompresi.

Jika * MAT_126 digunakan, coba ELFORM = 0.

Coba formulasi EFG (* SECTION_SOLID_EFG). Gunakan hanya di mana deformasi yang parah seperti
formulasi ini sangat mahal. Gunakan hanya dengan elemen hex.