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Materials Transactions, Vol. 47, No. 2 (2006) pp.

409 to 417
#2006 The Japan Institute of Metals

High-Cycle Fatigue Behavior of Type 316L Stainless Steel


Jiunn-Yuan Huang* , Ji-Jung Yeh, Sheng-Long Jeng,
Charn-Ying Chen and Roang-Ching Kuo
Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER), P. O. Box 3-14, 1000 Wenhua Road,
Chiaan Village, Lungtan, Taiwan 325, R. O. China.

High-cycle fatigue tests were conducted to investigate the eects of temperature, stress ratio (R), specimen orientation, welding and
specimen size on the fatigue behavior of type 316L stainless steel. The high-cycle fatigue test results indicated that the fatigue limits signicantly
decreased when the stress ratio (R) decreased. The corresponding fatigue limits were reduced to lower values when tests were conducted at
300 C, compared to those obtained at room temperature. The fatigue behavior and fatigue limits of standard and subsize specimens were
observed to be consistent at both room temperature and 300 C. The constant life diagram was established from the SN curves acquired. The
fatigue limit strongly depended on the materials strength, which was a function of specimen orientation, test temperature, and welding processes.
The dimension of the fatigue damaged area on a fracture surface increased as the stress ratio decreased. In the case of R 1:0, the fatigue
damaged region extended over the whole fracture surface. The subgrain boundaries after high-cycle fatigue tests were clearly demonstrated by
their diraction patterns, which were related to the dynamic recovery of multiple dislocations.

(Received September 27, 2005; Accepted December 9, 2005; Published February 15, 2006)
Keywords: high-cycle fatigue, stress ratio, subsize, constant life diagram, subgrain boundary

1. Introduction type 316L stainless steel were given in Tables 1 and 2. A


solution of 10 vol% oxalic acid was used as the electrolytic
Type 316L stainless steel is one of the important structural etching solution.
materials used for the in-core components and pressure
boundaries of light water reactors (LWR). Ensuring structure 2.2 Welding procedures
integrity of these components is crucial to the operational The weld specimen design, comprising two beveled test
safety of nuclear power plants. Welds are made in reactor plates with a V groove of 75 , a root opening gap of 2.0 mm
internal systems to provide the advantages of a continuous and root face of 1.6 mm, is shown in Fig. 1. Welding was
metal joint. It has been reported that failures usually occur at performed by a manual GTAW (Gas Tungsten Arc Welding)
the degradation of a component or components to which the butt weld using ller metal ER316L with a diameter 1.6 mm
weld is axed.1) The largest number of weld failures is for the rst two passes and 3.2 mm for the subsequent ones.
attributed to either the high-cycle fatigue caused by ow- Twelve weld passes were performed in four layers. The weld
induced vibration or due to fatigue in general. In addition to current was set at 60 amperes for the rst two passes and then
stress corrosion cracking and radiation damage, fatigue is one raised up to 8090 amperes for the rest passes.
of the dominant mechanisms responsible for the degradation
of pressure boundaries and many in-core components.25) The 2.3 High-cycle fatigue test
fatigue damage is induced by cyclic variations of pressure Standard and subsize fatigue specimens of plate type were
(stress), temperature and ow induced vibration, thereby designed to the specications of ASTM E 466,12) as shown in
reducing the lifetime of structures and components.68) In Fig. 2. The dimensions of a subsize specimen, thickness of
order to understand the eects of stress ratio and environment 2.6 mm and gage length of 10.4 mm, were in the lower limit
temperature on the high-cycle fatigue behavior of type 316L of the specications. The overall length of a standard
stainless steel and its weld, the fatigue limits and the fracture specimen was 190 mm and that of the subsize 67 mm. Before
modes were investigated at room temperature and 300 C. fatigue testing, all specimens were polished as per the
The subsize specimen911) was also studied in this work. recommendations of ASTM E 466. High-cycle fatigue tests,
Comparisons were made between the data generated from at room temperature and 300 C, were performed on a 100 KN
subsize and standard specimens to examine the eect of MTS 810 close-loop servohydraulic machine under a sinus-
specimen size on the fatigue behavior. oidal load control, at stress ratios (R min =max ) of 0.8, 0.2,
Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission 0:2 and 1:0, and at a frequency of 20 Hz. For the tests at
electron microscopy (TEM) were used to study the micro- 300 C, specimens were heated to 300 C and then maintained
structural evolution of SS316L steel and to characterize their for 2 h to homogenize the temperature distribution. The
fatigue resistant behavior. standard specimens were loaded in the rolling direction, and
the subsize specimens either in a direction parallel or
2. Experimental Procedures transverse to the rolling direction. Fatigue tests were stopped
when specimens broke or the fatigue cycles reached 107
2.1 Materials cycles.
The chemical compositions and mechanical properties of
2.4 Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) examination
*Corresponding author, E-mail: jyhuang@iner.gov.tw The fracture surfaces were examined by scanning electron
410 J.-Y. Huang, J.-J. Yeh, S.-L. Jeng, C.-Y. Chen and R.-C. Kuo

Table 1 Chemical compositions of type 316L stainless steel.

Composition (mass%)
Designation
C Si Mn P S Ni Mo Cr Fe
wt% 0.02 0.3 1.46 <0:03 <0:02 12.3 2.28 17.10 Bal.

Table 2 Tensile properties of type 316L stainless steel.

Ultimate tensile Yield strength Uniform


Temperature Total elongation
Designation strength, 0.2% oset elongation
( C) (%)
UTS (MPa) YS (MPa) (%)
As-received 25 526 245 65 50
(Rolling) 300 405 150 53 32
As-received 25 544 245 63 48
(Transverse) 300 432 145 39 33
25 538 306 30 23
Weld
300 441 288 25 15.7

Fig. 1 A sketch of weld specimen design.

Rolling direction
L1
W1 W2 Fig. 3 Optical micrographs of type 316L stainless steel.
L2
R
L3 T
Rolling Direction
specimens, TEM samples were cut from dierent locations
Reduced
Designations T W1 L1 W2 L2 L3 R W1 L1 W2 R
cross section
along the as-received and fatigued specimens with their
(mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) T W1 W1 W1
Large
area (TW1) sample surfaces normal and parallel to the loading axis,
(Standard 5 10 30 30 40 190 85 2 3 3 8.5 50 mm2 respectively. In order to prevent the nal plastic deformation
specimen)
Subsize
2.6 5.2 10.4 10.4 14 67 41.6 2 2 2 8 13.52 mm2
from complicating the fatigue structure, the sampling
specimen
2.54
19.4 mm2
position should be kept away from the necking region, but
ASTM E466 (as 2 2
specifications possible 6 3 1.5
8 645 mm2 as close to the nal fracture site as possible. TEM samples
(preferable)
as) were polished with ne emery paper to a thickness of 0.1 mm,
then chemically thinned with a double-jet polishing machine
Fig. 2 Dimensions of standard and subsize high-cycle fatigue specimens as
per ASTM E 466 specications. in 10 vol% perchloric acid (HClO4 ) and 90 vol% methanol
(CH3 OH) at 30 C. The current was approximately con-
trolled at 0.1 A and voltage at 10 V. The transmission electron
microscopy to characterize the fracture mode, crack initiation microscope used in this study is a JOEL 2000FX.
site and the evolution of the fatigue striation structure.
3. Results and Discussion
2.5 Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) exami-
nation 3.1 Metallographic features of the as-received and
To examine the fatigue eects on the evolution of the welded specimens
dislocation structure on the surface and bulk of fatigue-tested There was no clear disparity in microstructural features
High-Cycle Fatigue Behavior of Type 316L Stainless Steel 411

SN316OT.grf
600

Weld R=0.8
run-out

run-out
500

Maximum Stress, Smax /MPa


run-out
R= 0.2

run-out
R=0.8 run-out
400
Base metal run-out

R= 0.2 run-out
Standard Specimen run-out
Base metal Soild symbol at room Temperature run-out
300
Open symbol at 300C R= -0.2
run-out
run-out
R= -0.2
run-out
200 R= -1.0 run-out
Fig. 4 Optical micrograph of the type 316L stainless steel weld specimen. run-out

run-out
R= -1.0
run-out
100
1.0E+0 1.0E+1 1.0E+2 1.0E+3 1.0E+4 1.0E+5 1.0E+6 1.0E+7 1.0E+8
300.00
316HV Fatigue Life, N /Cycles
cap
Fig. 6 SN curves for standard specimens of type 316L stainless steel
root
tested under dierent stress ratios at room temperature and 300 C.
Weld root
250.00 Weld
Weld cap
Hardness (Hv, 300g)

fatigue limits were mainly a function of stress ratio and test


temperature. The fatigue limits were observed to increase
200.00
with increasing the stress ratio. When the stress ratio was set
at 1:0, the fatigue limit decreased to a minimum value. On
the other hand, the corresponding fatigue limits at 300 C
150.00
were lower than those tested at room temperature. An
important nding was that the fatigue limits for the subsize
Weld
specimens were consistent with those for the standard
specimens at both room temperature and 300 C.
100.00
Figure 6 shows the SN curves for standard specimens
-12.00 -8.00 -4.00 0.00 4.00 8.00 12.00
Distance along the center of weld, d/ mm tested under dierent stress ratios at room temperature and
300 C. In this gure, there were 4 sets of SN curves
Fig. 5 Micro-hardness measurement along the weld root and weld cap. generated for each test temperature. The corresponding stress
ratios were at 0.8, 0.2, 0:2, and 1:0, respectively. Each S
N curve is comprised of a slanting line and a horizontal line,
observed along the rolling, transverse and short transverse which depicts the relationship between the fatigue life,
direction, as demonstrated in the optical micrographs of log(N), and maximum stress, Smax , as also given in Fig. 6.
Fig. 3. Flow lines induced by hot rolling were observed to be The horizontal line is the level of the fatigue limit. From the
along the rolling direction. Given in Fig. 4 is an example of gure, it can be seen the fatigue limit for R 0:8 was the
the optical micrograph of a weld specimen. Dendritic largest, and the one for R 1:0 was the smallest
structures were observed and prevalent in the weld. In irrespective of the test temperature. The results indicated
general, dendrites grew in the direction parallel to the heat the cyclic actions of tension and compression inicted the
transfer direction. So dendrites were observed to lie in a severest fatigue damage. On the other hand, the cyclic actions
direction vertical to the interface between the weld and base of tension and tension exerted a smaller stress amplitude, so
metal, as shown in Fig. 4. The heat-aected zone is not the fatigue damage was moderate. At 300 C, the fatigue life
distinguishable. Based on the Vickers micro-hardness meas- was relatively shorter and the fatigue limit lower. From the
urements, the melted zone is harder than the base metal, as gure, it can be seen that the fatigue limit at a specic
illustrated in Fig. 5. And further the hardness values of the temperature was completely determined by the R value, but
weld root are relatively higher than those for the weld cap. that the fatigue life was determined by both R and Smax . The
high test temperature (300 C) was detrimental to the high-
3.2 High-cycle fatigue test cycle fatigue properties of type 316L stainless steel.
The fatigue limits for type 316L stainless steel subjected to Comparing the SN results for the subsize specimens with
high-cycle fatigue tests were summarized in Table 3. The those for the standard specimens indicates that both speci-

Table 3 The fatigue limits for type 316L stainless steel subjected to high-cycle fatigue tests.

Subsize
Designation Standard (rolling) Subsize (rolling)
(transverse)
Stress ratio 0.8 0.2 0:2 1:0 0.8 0.2 0:2 1:0 0:2
Room
519.8 392.7 269.7 183.9 519.8 404.5 269.7 183.9 318.7
temperature
300 C 408.3 318.8 220.7 122.6 404.6 N/A 220.7 N/A 245.2
7
The unit for fatigue limit (the maximum stress for N = 10 cycles): MPa
412 J.-Y. Huang, J.-J. Yeh, S.-L. Jeng, C.-Y. Chen and R.-C. Kuo

SN316STr
(a) 600
SN316SS.grf
600
Subsize Specimen at R = -0.2
R=0.8 log(N)=110.644177-0.199111 (Smax)
run-out Transverse Direction at Room Temperature
500

Maximum Stress, Smax /MPa


Rolling Direction at Room Temperature
500 run-out
Maximum Stress, Smax /MPa

run-out Transverse Direction at 300 C


log(N)=9.25577876-0.008557 (Smax)
Rolling Direction at 300 C
run-out 400
400 At room temperature R=0.2
Solid symbol : standard specimen run-out
Open symbol : subsize specimen
run-out
run-out 300
300 run-out
log(N)=8.641271-0.010003 (Smax)
R=-0.2
run-out
run-out run-out
run-out
200 run-out
200 R=-1
run-out
log(N)=14.092104-0.041524 (Smax)
run-out
run-out 100
100
1.0E+1 1.0E+2 1.0E+3 1.0E+4 1.0E+5 1.0E+6 1.0E+7 1.0E+8
1.0E+1 1.0E+2 1.0E+3 1.0E+4 1.0E+5 1.0E+6 1.0E+7 1.0E+8 Fatigue Life, N /Cycles
Fatigue Life, N/Cycles
(b)
SN316OST
500 Fig. 9 SN curves for SS316L subsize specimens with dierent orienta-
tions at room temperature and 300 C.
R= 0.8
Maximum Stress, Smax /MPa

400 run-out
log(N)=800.916667-1.944444 (Smax)

R= 0.2 run-out

At 300C
Soild symbol: standard specimen log(N)=13.084738-0.020667 (Smax)
run-out
(a)
SN316w1
300 Open symbol: subsize specimen 600

R= -0.2
Weld at R = 0.2
log(N)=8.678040-0.012747 (Smax) R=0.2
500 Weld at R = -0.2
run-out

Maximum Stress, Smax /MPa


200 Base Metal at R = 0.2
log(N)=8.096182-0.05717 (Smax)
Base Metal at R = -0.2
R= -1.0 run-out
400 run-out
log(N)=14.055435-0.060210 (Smax) run-out
run-out
R= 0.2
100 log(N)=15.231225-0.029238 (Smax)

1.0E+0 1.0E+1 1.0E+2 1.0E+3 1.0E+4 1.0E+5 1.0E+6 1.0E+7 1.0E+8 run-out
300
Fatigue Life, N/Cycles
run-out
run-out

Fig. 7 SN curves for standard and subsize SS316L specimens with 200
dierent stress ratios at (a) room temperature and (b) 300 C.
100
1.0E+1 1.0E+2 1.0E+3 1.0E+4 1.0E+5 1.0E+6 1.0E+7 1.0E+8
Fatigue Life, N/Cycles
(b)
SN316wt1
600

Weld at R = 0.2
Weld at R = -0.2
(a) 500 Base Meatl at R = 0.2
Maximum Stress, Smax /MPa

600 Base Metal at R= -0.2


R=-0.2 R=0 R=+0.2 R=+0.8
550 (424.4,530.6) 0
55 Welded R=0.2
(421.7,527.1)
(415.8,519.8) 400
500 (99.5,497.3)
log(N)=13.868428-0.022320 (Smax)
5 cyc
les s 50
0
cle Base Metal R=0.2
10 5 cy run-out
N=
Maximum Stress, Smax /MPa

450 10 it)
5x Lim 0
N= ue 45 run-out
(83.1,415.7) g
ati
400 (F Welded R= 0.2
7 cyc
les 300 log(N)=13.084738-0.020667 (Smax)
R t) 0
40
(78.5,392.7)
=- 10 es
1
(C
(-72.8,364.0) N= T Base Metal R= 0.2 log(N)=10.818176-0.018989 (Smax)
e
350 35 om sil run-out
0 en 0
ple (T 35
te 1
300 30 R
ev (-58.8,294.1) =+
R 0 a
0 er run-out
sa 30 MP 200
l) (-53.9,269.7) ,
250 25 Yield Point
0
Sm log(N)=8.678040-0.012747 (Smax)
0 (-219.0,219.0) 25
200 Sa 20 (-202.1,202.1)
0 316L stainless steel,
,M 0 (-183.9,183.9)
20
Pa ASTM E-466 standard,
150 15 axial load tests, 100
0 0 test performed in air
15
at room temperature, 1.0E+1 1.0E+2 1.0E+3 1.0E+4 1.0E+5 1.0E+6 1.0E+7 1.0E+8
100 10 SU =526MPa, SY =245MPa,
0
10
0
frequency = 20 Hz Fatigue Life, N/Cycles
(with fan cooling in the case
50 50 45
50 of R = -1.0, N=105 cycles)

0
-400 -350 -300 -250 -200 -150 -100 -50 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 Fig. 10 SN curves for weldment and base metal specimens of SS316L
Minimum Stress, Smin /MPa stainless steel at (a) room temperature, and (b) 300 C.

(b)
600
R=-0.2 R=0 R=+0.2 R=+0.8
550
55
0
mens have similar SN curves and the same fatigue limits.
500 0
50
An example is given in Figs. 7(a) and (b) to compare the SN
Maximum Stress , Smax /MPa

450 0
45

400 (78.2,391.2) N=10


5
cycles
cycl
es
(327.2,409.0)
(327.5,409.3)

(326.6,408.3)
0
curves for standard and subsize specimens tested at room
5
imit) st
) 40
X10
(71.5,357.4) N=5 ue L Te
temperature and 300 C, respectively. It can be concluded that
R

atig
=-

(F e
350 35 cles sil
1

7
cy n 0
(C

0 0 35
N=1 e
om

(T
1
ple

(63.8,318.8)
300 30 =+
0 Pa
the high-cycle fatigue properties of standard and subsize
te

0 (-57.7,288.5) R
30 , M
R
ev
er

Sm
sa

250 25 0
specimens were equivalent at either test temperature. There-
l)

0 (-46.7,233.7) 25
(-44.1,220.7)

200
Sa

20 0 316L stainless steel,


,M

0 20 ASTM E-466 standard,


fore, the subsize specimen could be employed as a substitute
Pa

150
(-150.4,150.4)
15 axial load tests,
0 0 test performed in air
15

100
(-138.8,138.8)
(-122.6,122.6)
10
0
10
0
at 300C,
frequency = 20 Hz to the standard specimen. The SN curves obtained and their
50 50
50
45 corresponding fatigue life equations provide a database for
0
-400 -350 -300 -250 -200 -150 -100 -50 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 evaluating the high-cycle fatigue properties of type 316L
Minimum Stress , Smin /MPa
stainless steel components.
Fig. 8 Constant life diagrams for subsize specimens of type 316L stainless The constant life diagrams for high-cycle fatigue tests at
steel subjected to high-cycle fatigue tests at (a) room temperature, and (b) room temperature and 300 C, as shown in Figs. 8(a) and (b),
300 C. were derived from Figs. 6 and 7. There are 2 sets of
High-Cycle Fatigue Behavior of Type 316L Stainless Steel 413

Fatigue
damaged
Fatigue
region
damaged
region

Fatigue
damaged
region

Smax= 490 MPa Smax= 441 MPa Smax= 404 MPa

(a) (b) (c)

Fig. 11 SEM micrographs showing the fatigue damaged region gradually expanded when the maximum applied stress (Smax ) was
successively decreased at the R value of 0.2.

Ductile rupture region

Fatigue damage region

Crack initiation

(a) R= - 0.2 (b) R= - 1.0

Fig. 12 SEM micrographs showing the fatigue damaged region extended over the whole fracture surface with R ratio decreasing from
(a) R 0:2 to (b) R 1.

coordinates in each constant life diagram. The basic temperature and 300 C. As shown in Figs. 10(a) and (b), the
coordinates are the maximum applied stress (Smax ) and welded specimens exhibit slightly higher fatigue limits than
minimum applied stress (Smin ). The coordinates inclined at an those of base metal specimens. It can be concluded that the
angle of 45 are the stress amplitude (Sa ) and mean stress fatigue limit strongly depends on the materials strength, as
(Sm ). Mean stress eect could be obtained from the constant shown in Figs. 6, 9, 10 and Table 2. The higher the materials
life diagram. The stress amplitude drops sharply when mean strength, the higher the fatigue limit was observed.
stress is greater than 200 MPa. Any points with a combination
of Smax , Smin , Sa and Sm below a certain constant fatigue life 3.3 Fractographic features of high-cycle fatigued speci-
curve, no high-cycle fatigue failure is expected to occur mens
before the predicted life. Thus the established constant life The fatigue damaged region gradually expanded when the
diagrams can serve as a guide for safe operation and design of maximum applied stress (Smax ) was successively decreased
relevant in-core components, so as to prevent the unexpected under the R value of 0.2, as illustrated in Fig. 11. It could be
failure due to the high-cycle fatigue. that the ligament area could sustain the lower maximum
Transverse subsize specimens, with the loading axis applied stress during the fatigue crack propagation. Thus a
perpendicular to the rolling direction, were also tested. A fatigue specimen under a lower applied maximum stress led
comparison of the results, as illustrated in Fig. 9, shows the to a larger fatigue damage region and smaller nal rupture
transverse specimens exhibit slightly higher fatigue limits plastic region. The eect of stress ratio on the fracture
than those specimens loaded in a direction parallel to the features is exemplied in Fig. 12. The more negative stress
rolling direction. ratio could yield a larger fatigue damaged region. In the case
The welded specimens using the ER316L as ller were of R 1:0, the fatigue damaged region extended over the
tested under high-cycle fatigue loading conditions at room whole fracture surface. The specimen was fractured mainly
414 J.-Y. Huang, J.-J. Yeh, S.-L. Jeng, C.-Y. Chen and R.-C. Kuo

Fig. 13 Multiple initiation sites observed at R 0:2.

by a fatigue rupture mode. The fatigue striations were the


prevalent features. In the case of R 0:2, part of the
fracture surface was featured by ductile rupture. The speci-
mens appeared to have a smaller plastic region when tested at
R 0:2, relative to those at R 0:2, Figs. 12(a) and 11.
This nding is in good agreement with the above-mentioned
conclusion that the lower applied maximum stress leads to a
larger fatigue damage region and smaller plastic region.
The fatigue crack initiated from the specimen surface. As
is often the case with the high-cycle fatigued specimens, a
main initiation site was observed to be responsible for fatigue
rupture. But in some cases, as demonstrated in Fig. 13, there
were more than one initiation sites observed. The multiple
initiation sites were observed with the severe fatigue
condition of R  0:2. The reason could be that the lower
applied maximum stress yield a larger fatigue damage region,
which could induce more crack initiation sites. In other
words, the higher applied maximum stress would result in
nal rupture as soon as the fatigue initiation is formed. (a)
The spacing between fatigue striations was strongly
dependent on the value of R, as demonstrated in Fig. 14.
The more negative the stress ratio, the wider the spacing
between the fatigue striations. That could be accounted for by
the observation that the larger stress range led to the higher
crack growth rate. So the striation spacing at the equivalent
crack length was observed to be larger for the more negative
stress ratios.
Most of the type 316L stainless steel specimens subjected
to high-cycle fatigue failed at the base metal, some at the
weld, illustrated in Table 4. That could be attributed to the
material strength of the weld greater than that of base metal.
But some failure occurred at the weld, which could be due to
the micro-defect in the weld. These micro-defects were
beyond the detection limit of X-ray inspection. Figure 15(a)
shows the micro-defect observed at the fatigue initiation site.
The striations were the prevalent features for the weld
fracture surface, as shown in Fig. 15(b). No dendritic
structures were observed at the weld because the dendrite
(b)
orientation was roughly perpendicular to the fracture surface.
Itow reported that interdendritic cracking morphology could Fig. 14 SEM micrographs showing the fatigue striations spacing is
be observed on the fracture surface of compact tension determined by the value of R, (a) R 0:2, (b) R 1:0.
High-Cycle Fatigue Behavior of Type 316L Stainless Steel 415

Table 4 Failure locations of weld specimens for type 316L stainless steel subjected to high-cycle fatigue tests.

Test temperature Specimen Applied max. Fatigue Failure


R ratio
( C) No. stress life location
WHF-7 416.8 >107 Run-out
WHF-8 441.4 370,480 Base metal
25 WHF-11 0.2 441.4 373,776 Base metal
WHF-15 453.6 325,952 Base metal
WHF-14 490.4 196,096 Base metal
7
WHF-17 294.2 >10 Run-out
WHF-18 0:2 318.7 818,560 Weld
25
WHF-19 343.2 131,936 Weld
WHF-20 343.2 182,656 Weld
7
TWHF-4 343.2 >10 Run-out
TWHF-3 343.2 351,872 Base metal
300 TWHF-2 0.2 367.8 456,256 Base metal
TWHF-1 392.3 125,846 Weld
TWHF-8 392.3 133,216 Weld
TWHF-6 245.2 >107 Run-out
300 TWHF-5 0:2 269.7 497,664 Base metal
TWHF-7 294.2 170,496 Base metal

specimen when the crack propagates parallel to the alloy 182


weld dendrite direction.13)

3.4 Dislocation structure of high-cycle fatigued speci-


mens
A number of researchers1420) have observed a strong
dependence of dislocation structures on fatigue behavior.
Figure 16 shows the typical TEM images of surface and cross
sectional layers from the as-received and fatigued specimens.
As a consequence of work-hardening by plate rolling, the
Micro-defect dislocation density of the surface is much higher than that of
the bulk, as shown in Figs. 16(a) and (b). In the cross
sectional layer, planar defects [see Fig. 16(b)] exhibiting
fringe contrast are generally described as stacking faults or
microtwins due to their similar contrast. Microtwins, which
are closely structurally related to stacking faults, has been
Initiation site
(a) fully discussed by Chen and Stobbs.21) Such thin twins were
observed to be distorted and associated with dislocations
after fatigue tests, as shown in Figs. 16(d) (f). It was also
noted that in the surface layers of the fatigue-tested speci-
mens at room temperature, dislocations were observed to
arrange themselves on {111} slip planes, as illustrated in
Fig. 16(c). At 300 C the dynamic recovery occurred, as
illustrated in Fig. 16(e). The dislocations migrated from their
slip planes into subgrain boundaries (or cell walls). That
would lower the average strain energy associated with the
dislocations22) and thus tends to lower the work-hardening
produced by the fatigue test. These subgrain boundaries were
clearly demonstrated by their diraction patterns, as the
insets in Fig. 17 showing low-angle boundaries. The sub-
grain for each grain is near to [011] zone under the same
imaging condition. The dynamic recovery in type 316L
(b) stainless steel is believed to be related to the test temperature
and dislocation density. So the failure mechanism for the type
Fig. 15 SEM micrographs showing (a) micro-defects were observed at the
fatigue initiation site, (b) striations were prevalent features for the fracture 316L stainless steel at 300 C might be inuenced by the
surface of weld specimens subjected to applied max. stress of 343.2 MPa dynamic recovery.
and R ratio of 0:2 at room temperature.
416 J.-Y. Huang, J.-J. Yeh, S.-L. Jeng, C.-Y. Chen and R.-C. Kuo

Surface layers Cross section

R= -1

Fig. 16 TEM images of Type 316L showing signicant changes of microstructures between surface layers (a, c, e) and cross sectional
layers (b, d, f). (a, b) as-received specimens, (c, d) fatigued specimens tested with t 392 MPa at room temperature, and (e, f) fatigued
specimens tested with t 319 MPa at T 300 C. Micrographs were taken with the beam direction near to [011]. Scale bar in
(c) applied to all images as well.

4. Conclusions

(1) The fatigue limit of type 316L stainless steel strongly


depended on the materials strength, which was a
function of specimen orientation, test temperature,
and welding processes.
(2) The high-cycle fatigue properties of subsize specimens
as dened in this report were the same as those for
standard specimens at both room temperature and
300 C. Therefore, it could be employed as a substitute
to the standard specimen.
(3) The dimension of the fatigue damaged region of a
fracture surface increased as the stress ratio decreased.
In the case of R 1:0, the fatigue damaged region
extended over the whole fracture surface. The fatigue
striations were the prevalent features. Fig. 17 TEM image in Fig. 16(e) showing subgrain boundaries as
(4) The subgrain boundaries in the fatigue specimens were illustrated by the inset diraction pattern for each subgrain which is near
clearly demonstrated by their diraction patterns, to [011] zone under the same imaging condition.
High-Cycle Fatigue Behavior of Type 316L Stainless Steel 417

which were related to the dynamic recovery of multiple study, (ORNL NUREG/CR-6048, 1993), pp. 3132.
8) K. Iida: Nucl. Eng. Des. 138 (1992) 297312.
dislocations caused.
9) S. Jeelani, R. Natarajan and G. R. Reddy: Int. J. Fatigue 3 (1986) 159
164.
Acknowledgments 10) K. C. Liu and M. L. Grossbeck: Use of subsize fatigue specimens for
reactor irradiation testing, (ASTM STP 888, 1986), pp. 276289.
The authors would like to acknowledge the technical 11) J. J. Yeh, J. Y. Huang and R. C. Kuo: High-cycle fatigue behavior of
support provided by Mr. Jiunn-Shyoung Huang and Ken- type 316L Stainless Steel, International symposium on experimental
mechanics (ISEM), Taipei Grand Hotel, Taiwan, Dec. 2830, 2002.
Feng Chien. 12) Standard Practice for Conducting Force Controlled Constant Ampli-
tude Axial Fatigue Tests of Metallic Materials, (ASTM E 466-96,
1997), pp. 466470.
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